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Sample records for south american sector

  1. NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas VTEC predictions for low latitude and South American sector

    Ezquer, R. G.; Scidá, L. A.; Migoya Orué, Y.; Nava, B.; Cabrera, M. A.; Brunini, C.

    2018-04-01

    Using vertical total electron content (VTEC) measurements obtained from GPS satellite signals the capability of the NeQuick 2 and IRI Plas models to predict VTEC over the low latitude and South American sector is analyzed. In the present work both models were used to calculate VTEC up to the height of GPS satellites. Also, comparisons between the performance of IRI Plas and IRI 2007 have been done. The data correspond to June solstice and September equinox 1999 (high solar activity) and they were obtained at nine stations. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4°N to -64.7°N and the longitude ranges from 281.3°E to 295.9°E in the South American sector. The greatest discrepancies among model predictions and the measured VTEC are obtained at low latitudes stations placed in the equatorial anomaly region. Underestimations as strong as 40 TECU [1 TECU = 1016 m-2] can be observed at BOGT station for September equinox, when NeQuick2 model is used. The obtained results also show that: (a) for June solstice, in general the performance of IRI Plas for low latitude stations is better than that of NeQuick2 and, vice versa, for highest latitudes the performance of NeQuick2 is better than that of IRI Plas. For the stations TUCU and SANT both models have good performance; (b) for September equinox the performances of the models do not follow a clearly defined pattern as in the other season. However, it can be seen that for the region placed between the Northern peak and the valley of the equatorial anomaly, in general, the performance of IRI Plas is better than that of NeQuick2 for hours of maximum ionization. From TUCU to the South, the best TEC predictions are given by NeQuick2. The source of the observed deviations of the models has been explored in terms of CCIR foF2 determination in the available ionosonde stations in the region. Discrepancies can be also related to an unrealistic shape of the vertical electron density profile and or an erroneous prediction of

  2. Observations of the F-region ionospheric irregularities in the South American sector during the October 2003 "Halloween Storms"

    Y. Sahai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The response of the ionospheric F-region in the South American sector during the super geomagnetic storms on 29 and 30 October 2003 is studied in the present investigation. In this paper, we present ionospheric sounding observations during the period 29–31 October 2003 obtained at Palmas (a near equatorial location and Sao Jose dos Campos (a location under the southern crest of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly, Brazil, along with observations during the period 27–31 October 2003 from a chain of GPS stations covering the South American sector from Imperatriz, Brazil, to Rio Grande, Argentina. Also, complementary observations that include sequences of all-sky images of the OI 777.4 and 630.0 nm emissions observed at El Leoncito, Argentina, on the nights of 28–29 (geomagnetically quiet night and 29–30 (geomagnetically disturbed night October 2003, and ion densities observed in the South American sector by the DMSP F13, F14 and F15 satellites orbiting at about 800 km on 29 and 30 October 2003 are presented. In addition, global TEC maps derived from GPS observations collected from the global GPS network of International GPS Service (IGS are presented, showing widespread and drastic TEC changes during the different phases of the geomagnetic disturbances. The observations indicate that the equatorial ionospheric irregularities or plasma bubbles extend to the Argentinean station Rawson (geom. Lat. 33.1° S and map at the magnetic equator at an altitude of about 2500 km.

  3. Weather regimes in the South American sector and neighbouring oceans during winter

    Solman, S.A.; Menendez, C.G. [Centro de Investigaciones del Mar y la Atmosfera (CIMA-CONICET/UBA), Ciudad Universitaria, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2003-07-01

    We classified 34 years of winter daily 500 hPa geopotential height patterns over the eastern South Pacific-South America-South Atlantic region using the K-means clustering method. We found a significant classification into five weather regimes (WRs) defined as the most frequent large-scale circulation anomalies: WR1 (trough centred downstream of the Drake Passage), WR2 (trough over the SW Pacific and ridge downstream), WR3 (ridge over the SE Pacific and NW-SE trough downstream), WR4 (trough over the SE Pacific and NW-SE ridge downstream) and WR5 (weak ridge to the west of southern South America). We also analysed their persistence and temporal evolution, including transitions between them and development around onsets and breaks of each regime. The preferred transitions, WR1{yields}WR3{yields}WR2{yields}WR4{yields}WR1 and also WR1{yields}WR3{yields}WR2{yields}WR1, suggest the progression of a Rossby wave-like pattern in which each of the regimes resemble the Pacific-South America modes. Significant influence of the WRs on local climate over Argentina was found. The preferred transitions WR1{yields}WR3 and WR3{yields}WR2 induce sustained cold conditions over Patagonia and over northern Argentina, respectively. The most significant change in precipitation frequency is found for WR3, with wetter conditions over all the analysed regions. Finally, the interannual to interdecadal significant variations in the occurrence of these regimes were discussed. WR1 and WR3 are more frequent and WR2 is less frequent during El Nino, and WR2 and WR5 are more frequent and WR1 is less frequent during La Nina. A significant decrease in WR2 and increase of WR4 and WR5 during the 1970s and early 1980s were found. (orig.)

  4. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    Williams, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform

  5. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  6. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  7. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  8. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  9. Competitive intelligence practice in the South African property sector

    Tshilidzi E. Nenzhelele

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The South African property sector contributes highly to creating jobs, skills development, poverty reduction and economic growth. Although South Africa dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive sector, firms around the world practice competitive intelligence(CI. Although the use of CI has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on CI practice has been conducted in the property sector. Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the extent to which the property sector of South Africa practices CI. Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a web-based questionnaire was used to collect data from estate agencies in the South African property sector. Results: The results indicate that the South African property sector is very competitive and estate agencies practice CI to gain competitive advantage and make quality decisions.Moreover, the results reveal that the property sector practice CI legally and ethically. The results indicate that the majority of estate agencies are very small employing at most five employees and make at most 5 million Rands annual turnover. Conclusion: The South African property sector ethically and legally practices CI to gain competitive advantage and to aid in making quality decisions.

  10. Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South ...

    Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South Africa: A threat to public health. Lourens Johannes Rothmann, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Jan Hendrik Philippus Serfontein, Jan Jakobus Gerber, Madeeha Malik ...

  11. Competitive intelligence awareness in the South African property sector

    Tshilidzi Eric Nenzhelele

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African property sector contributes highly to job creation, alleviation of poverty and economic growth. Although South Africa has dropped in the global competitiveness ranking, the property sector of South Africa remains very competitive. To survive in a competitive business environment firms seek for tools that offer competitive advantage. It is widely reported the competitive intelligence provide firms with competitive advantage over rivals. Although the awareness of competitive intelligence has been examined in other sectors in South Africa, no study on the awareness of competitive intelligence has yet been conducted in the property sector. This study aims at establishing the extent to which property practitioners are aware of competitive intelligence

  12. The state of innovation in the South African waste sector

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the first South African Waste Sector Survey shows that landfilling remains the main technology option for the management of waste in South African, with 90% of all waste generated, disposed of to landfill. However, the results show a...

  13. Climate change governance in the South African mining sector

    Mzenda, Venantio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available value-added in its exports: all these expose the South African mining sector to climate change-related business risks. This study explores corporate governance as a vehicle through which South Africa’s mining companies could improve their response...

  14. Factors influencing editorial work within the sectors of the South ...

    South African editors currently work in a highly diversified industry that comprises a number of different sectors. As a result of this, the role of the editor remains contentious, with varied definitions and demarcations of editorial tasks and skills. This article sets out the argument that editorial work in South Africa is characterised ...

  15. Tracking SMME research in South Africa’s priority sectors

    Christian Rogerson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The National Industrial Policy Framework and the Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa emphasize the importance of promoting select ‘priority sectors’. This paper provides a review of existing research concerning SMME development in the three priority sectors of tourism, business process outsourcing and offshoring (BPO & O and, creative industries. The paper argues for the importance of undertaking sector-differentiated research on SMME development in South Africa in order to complement other research which is focussed on sector development as a whole.

  16. IMF sector behavior estimated from geomagnetic data at South Pole

    Matsushita, S.; Xu, W.h.

    1981-01-01

    IMF sector behavior which has previously been estimated from the geomagnetic data at Godhavn is confirmed by study of the data at South Pole for 1959--1970 with the same estimation technique, taking the difference between northern and southern hemispheres into consideration. A method to improve (about 18%) the agreement between assigned and actual sector structures by study of the data at the two stations is suggested. Geomagnetic disturbance effects on sector estimation are discussed, and reversed sector effects in winter are given special emphasis

  17. The palaeobiogeography of South American gomphotheres

    Spencer G. Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomphotheriid proboscideans reached South America as Late Cenozoic immigrants from North America. However, disagreements over alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships have produced three competing hypotheses about this immigration: (1 a single gomphothere immigration took place soon after the ~3 Ma closure of the Panamanian isthmus; (2 two separate gomphothere immigrations took place after closure of the isthmus; or (3 an earlier, Late Miocene (before 9 Ma immigration brought gomphotheres into South America. A critical re-evaluation of the alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical gomphotheres identifies two valid genera of South American gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Notiomastodon (= “Haplomastodon”, = “Stegomastodon” from South America and recognizes “Amahuacatherium” as an invalid genus likely based on a specimen of Notiomastodon. The oldest well-dated South American gomphothere fossil is Marplatan, ~2.5 Ma, from Argentina. The case for an age of “Amahuacatherium” older than 9 Ma is refuted by mammalian biostratigraphy and a re-evaluation of the relevant magnetostratigraphy. North American Rhynchotherium descended from Gomphotherium during the Late Hemphillian (~5–6 Ma and gave rise to Cuvieronius in North America by the end of the Blancan (~2 Ma time. Notiomastodon evolved from Cuvieronius in South America during the Pleistocene. The case for a close relationship between the Neotropical gomphotheres and Sinomastodon from China is rejected. Central America was not a center of endemic gomphothere evolution and merely acted as a pathway for the immigration of gomphotheres from north to south: Gomphotherium into Central America during the Miocene, Cuvieronius to Central America by Early Pleistocene time and on to South America. After closure of the Panamanian isthmus, Cuvieronius immigrated to South America, where it gave rise to Notiomastodon by Middle Pleistocene time. The

  18. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  19. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  20. Review of South American mines

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given

  1. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  2. Financial Globalisation and Sectoral Reallocation of Capital in South Africa

    Ziv Chinzara; Radhika Lahiri; En Te chen

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of financial globalisation on intra-sector and inter-sector firm level reallocation of capital in South Africa using panel data for the period 1991-2008. The measure of efficient reallocation of capital is based on the variation of firm's marginal returns to capital around the optimal level, while the measure of financial globalisation is constructed by tracing the financial reforms/restrictions that took place in South Africa since the 1970s. We find that financ...

  3. Insight into American tourists’ experiences with weather in South Africa

    Giddy Julia K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are often important factors determining the success of a tourism destination and resultant satisfaction among tourists. This is particularly true for South Africa due the predominance of outdoor tourist attractions. Increasing numbers of international tourists have visited South Africa since the fall of apartheid, particularly those from the United States (U.S., which is an important market for South African tourism. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine a sample of American tourists’ experience with day-to-day weather and climatic conditions in South Africa. The results show that although respondents did not feel that climatic conditions were an important factor in motivations to visit the country, the day-to-day weather did often impact the enjoyment of their visit. Most notably, weather controlled their ability to participate in outdoor activities. In correlating accounts of unpleasant weather conditions with the meteorological records, a close association emerged, particularly for excessively high temperatures. This indicates that the experiences of American tourists are an accurate indication of climatic unsuitability for tourism, which poses threats to the South African outdoor tourism sector.

  4. South Africa's electricity consumption: A sectoral decomposition analysis

    Inglesi-Lotz, Roula; Blignaut, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We conduct a decomposition exercise of the South African electricity consumption. → The increase in electricity consumption was due to output and structural changes. → The increasing at a low rate electricity intensity was a decreasing factor to consumption. → Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. → Only 5 sectors' consumption were negatively affected by efficiency improvements. -- Abstract: South Africa's electricity consumption has shown a sharp increase since the early 1990s. Here we conduct a sectoral decomposition analysis of the electricity consumption for the period 1993-2006 to determine the main drivers responsible for this increase. The results show that the increase was mainly due to output or production related factors, with structural changes playing a secondary role. While there is some evidence of efficiency improvements, indicated here as a slowdown in the rate of increase of electricity intensity, it was not nearly sufficient to offset the combined production and structural effects that propelled electricity consumption forward. This general economy-wide statement, however, can be misleading since the results, in essence, are very sector specific and the inter-sectoral differences are substantial. Increases in production were proven to be part of the rising trend for all sectors. However, only five out of fourteen sectors were affected by efficiency improvements, while the structural changes affected the sectors' electricity consumption in different ways. These differences concerning the production, structural and efficiency effects on the sectors indicate the need for a sectoral approach in the energy policy-making of the country rather than a blanket or unilateral economy-wide approach.

  5. Organic food certification in South Africa: A private sector ...

    Organic production targets the development of a sustainable cultivation system and a variety of high-quality products with an emphasis on environmental protection and high standards of animal protection. In South Africa the organic sector pioneered private practices and systems in small informal groups to guide the public ...

  6. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    Products 120 - 130 ... This article aims to provide information on the worth and impact of the livestock sector; information and statistics providing a baseline to guiding sustainability towards 2050. Seventy percent of agricultural land in South Africa can be utilized only by livestock and game and species are found in all provinces ...

  7. A knowledge sharing framework in the South African public sector

    Peter L. Mkhize

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy, organisations are shifting their investment focus to intellectual capital in order to sustain a competitive advantage in the global marketplace. Organisational survival is increasingly dependent on the organisation’s ability to create and distribute knowledge that contributes to the improvement of performance. The purpose of this article is to evaluate individual knowledge-acquisition and sharing practices in the South African public sector. I applied the techniques of grounded theory analysis to extract themes from data that could provide insight into the knowledge sharing that takes place in the South African public sector. Findings revealed that the informal sharing of knowledge takes place in discussion forums within communities of practice through web-based, socially orientated platforms. These communities of practice are widespread throughout the public sector and are established with the purpose of soliciting expert knowledge from those who have been using open-source software successfully.

  8. MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

    Donaldson Walter James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.

  9. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  10. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  11. The public healthcare sector and governance in South Africa

    Melody Brauns

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews literature on governance in order to facilitate an analysis of the governance of the South African public healthcare sector. Some of the key theoretical perspectives have been presented on how best to organise the state and its bureaucracy. Theorists have long interrogated in what way public institutions foster or impede economic growth. Evans and Rauch point out for example, that the role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a soc...

  12. Health sector reform in South Asia: new challenges and constraints.

    Islam, Anwar; Tahir, M Zaffar

    2002-05-01

    In early 1990s, Jamison, Mosley and others concluded that a profound demographic and consequent epidemiological transition is taking place in developing countries. According to this classical model, by the year 2015, infectious diseases will account for only about 20% of deaths in developing countries as chronic diseases become more pronounced. These impending demographic and epidemiological transitions were to dominate the health sector reform agenda in developing countries. Following an analysis of fertility, mortality and other demographic and epidemiological data from South Asian and other developing countries, the paper argues that the classical model is in need of re-evaluation. A number of new 'challenges' have complicated the classical interplay of demographic and epidemiological factors. These new challenges include continuing population growth in some countries, rapid unplanned urbanization, the HIV/AIDS pandemic in Sub-Saharan Africa (and its impending threat in South Asia), and globalization and increasing marginalisation of developing countries. While the traditional lack of investment in human development makes the developing countries more vulnerable to the vicissitudes of globalization, increasing economic weakness of their governments forces them to retreat further from the social sector. Pockets of poverty and deprivation, therefore, persist giving rise to three simultaneous burdens for South Asia and much of the rest of the developing world: continuing communicable diseases, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and increasing demand for both primary and tertiary levels of health care services. While these complex factors, on the one hand, underscore the need for health sector reform, on the other, they make the task much more difficult and challenging. The paper emphasizes the need to revisit the classical model of demographic and epidemiological transition. It is argued that the health sector in developing countries must be aware of and

  13. An introduction to South American camelids

    Urquieta, B.; Rojas, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The South American camelids - the domesticated alpaca and llama, and the wild vicuna and guanaco - which belong to the Camelidae family of the Artiodactyla order are of considerable sociological, economic and ecological importance to the native populations living in the high plateau (altiplano) of the central Andes. Owing to their biological characteristics they are able to provide meat, wool, hides and transportation without disrupting the fragile ecosystem. Increasing interest is being taken in these animals, both in their native lands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru and in other parts of the world. (author). 55 refs, 5 figs

  14. The American South in the Atlantic World

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  15. The current situation in the bioenergy sector in South Ostrobothnia

    Lauhanen, R.; Humalamaeki, H.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a research project was launched about bioenergy production and use that serves the South Ostrobothnia Target 2 area. The project is funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the South Ostrobothnia Employment and Economic Centre and Sein j oki University of Applied Sciences. A meeting of experts was held in Aehtaeri during April 2006 to establish the views on the problems, bottlenecks and research needs of the bioenergy sector. The bioenergy trade was seen as regional opportunity and strength. Its domestic content, effect on employment and the regional economy plus the plentiful raw material sources of forests, fields and bogs were identified. Like-wise, the competing position between bioenergy and other forms of energy became evident. Forest owners emphasised the weakness of low energy wood prices and the risks of forest soil nutrient losses. The forest industry was concerned about a foreseen shortage of machine operators. Forest owners, municipalities, researchers and Forest Centre raised the short-sightedness of state subsidy policy. The Forest Centre also brought up the issue of operators who only seek fast profits in a fast growing trade. The issue of emissions trade benefits ending up outside the forest sector was also considered a problem. The core research needs identified were collating fragmented research in-formation for the use of operators in the Target area, mapping the bioenergy potential of the region, logistical calculations and energy wood measurement

  16. Factors influencing pricing in the accommodation sector in South Africa

    Engelina du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Price is a significant factor of competitiveness. Price is a complex issue and is determined by a variety of demand and supply factors. These factors also differ from industry to industry. The purpose of this article is to determine the factors that influence pricing in the South African accommodation sector. In order to generate proper data, a survey was conducted at various South African accommodation establishments that were obtained from the databases of the three major associations in the accommodation sector. Two-hundred and forty seven questionnaires completed by managers from accommodation establishments were used in this research. Principal component factor analyses with Varimax rotation in STATISTICA were carried out. These resulted in ten factors, namely environmental qualities, amenities, image, management factor, positioning, quality service factor, infrastructure service factor, location, marketing and product quality factor. The results revealed that the major factors in pricing are service quality, image and product quality. Consequently this article can be used to assist managers in pricing and in obtaining a better competitive position in the industry by revising management structures and marketing campaigns. Keywords and phrases: Tourism industry, price competitiveness, service quality, image, product quality, entrepreneur and factor analysis

  17. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    Ezquer, R G; Brunini, C; Conicet; Meza, A; Mosert, M; Radicella, S M

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly.

  18. VTEC behavior in the American sector during high solar activity

    Ezquer, R.G.; Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Azpilicueta, F.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) obtained from GPS signals received during the high solar activity year 1999 at stations placed in the American sector, is reported. The considered latitude range extends from 18.4 to -64.7 and the longitude ranges from 281.3 to 297.7. Median, lower and upper quartiles are used to specify variability, because they have the advantage of being less affected by large deviations that can occur during magnetic storms. The results show that the VTEC values corresponding to equinox are greater than those of solstice and that, the highest VTEC values are observed at low latitude stations. In general, the variability during daylight hours is about 30% of median or less, and that observed for nighttime hours is greater than the mentioned percentage, particularly at last hours of the night near the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly. (author)

  19. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service!

  20. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  1. [Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control].

    Schmäschke, R

    2015-01-01

    In a literature review, common endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids are described, presenting morphological details and clinical signs important for diagnosis. Based on the life cycle of the parasites, possibilities for prophylaxis and therapy are indicated. The review should aid the veterinarian to diagnose and control common parasitic infections in South American camelids.

  2. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  3. The public healthcare sector and governance in South Africa

    Melody Brauns

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews literature on governance in order to facilitate an analysis of the governance of the South African public healthcare sector. Some of the key theoretical perspectives have been presented on how best to organise the state and its bureaucracy. Theorists have long interrogated in what way public institutions foster or impede economic growth. Evans and Rauch point out for example, that the role of bureaucratic authority structures in facilitating economic growth has been a sociological concern since Max Weber’s classic contributions almost 100 years ago. These debates and others are explored in this article with specific reference to the provision of equitable public healthcare. Weber’s theory on rational bureaucracy as well as New Public Management will be reviewed as these theories offer two distinct approaches to governance

  4. Measuring the systemic risk in the South African banking sector

    Gregory M. Foggitt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the sub-prime crisis, systemic risk has become a greater priority for regulators, with the National Treasury (2011 stating that regulators should proactively monitor changes in systemic risk. Aim: The aim is to quantify systemic risk as the capital shortfall an institution is likely to experience, conditional to the entire financial sector being undercapitalised. Setting: We measure the systemic risk index (SRISK of the South African (SA banking sector between 2001 and 2013. Methods: Systemic risk is measured with the SRISK. Results: Although the results indicated only moderate systemic risk in the SA financial sector over this period, there were significant spikes in the levels of systemic risk during periods of financial turmoil in other countries. Especially the stock market crash in 2002 and the subprime crisis in 2008. Based on our results, the largest contributor to systemic risk during quiet periods was Investec, the bank in our sample which had the lowest market capitalisation. However, during periods of financial turmoil, the contributions of other larger banks increased markedly. Conclusion: The implication of these spikes is that systemic risk levels may also be highly dependent on external economic factors, in addition to internal banking characteristics. The results indicate that the economic fundamentals of SA itself seem to have little effect on the amount of systemic risk present in the financial sector. A more significant relationship seems to exist with the stability of the financial sectors in foreign countries. The implication therefore is that complying with individual banking regulations, such as Basel, and corporate governance regulations promoting ethical behaviour, such as King III, may not be adequate. It is therefore proposed that banks should always have sufficient capital reserves in order to mitigate the effects of a financial crisis in a foreign country. The use of worst

  5. South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: Delayed onset of the South American monsoon

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) over South America is simulated using a regional climate model with 60-km resolution, providing a simulation that is superior to those available from global models that do not resolve the topography and regional-scale features of the South American climate realistically. LGM conditions on SST, insolation, vegetation, and reduced atmospheric CO2 on the South American climate are imposed together and individually. Remote influences are not included. Annual rainfall is 25-35% lower in the LGM than in the present day simulation throughout the Amazon basin. A primary cause is a 2-3 month delay in the onset of the rainy season, so that the dry season is about twice as long as in the present day. The delayed onset occurs because the low-level inflow from the tropical Atlantic onto the South American continent is drier than in the present day simulation due to reduced evaporation from cooler surface waters, and this slows the springtime buildup of moist static energy that is needed to initiate convection. Once the monsoon begins in the Southern Hemisphere, LGM rainfall rates are similar to those in the present day. In the Northern Hemisphere, however, rainfall is lower throughout the (shortened) rainy season. Regional-scale structure includes slight precipitation increases in the Nordeste region of Brazil and along the eastern foothills of the Andes, and a region in the center of the Amazon basin that does not experience annual drying. In the Andes Mountains, the signal is complicated, with regions of significant rainfall increases adjacent to regions with reduced precipitation.

  6. Transnationals, Globalisation and Education and Training: Evidence from the South African Automotive Sector

    McGrath, Simon

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between globalisation and education and training through an examination of certain transnational corporations operating in the automotive sector in South Africa. The automotive industry is an important source of improvements in both the quality and quantity of skills in South Africa. This sector was the…

  7. Exploring opportunities and challenges for establishing a South American Space Agency

    Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne P.; Aguilar, Andrés D.; Sarli, Bruno V.; Pardo Spiess, Monika Johanna; Sorice, Andreia F.; Genaro, Gino; Ojeda, Oscar I.

    2018-06-01

    The idea of establishing a South American Space Agency (SASA) is not new. There have been many discussions about this topic for a couple of decades, including an agreement by the Union of South American Nations to create such a space agency. Roughly 10 years ago, Argentina was the first to propose this collaboration with a military orientation. As the ideas progressed, Brazil was proposed to host its headquarters. However, not much support from the South American region has been given, either financially or logistically. To this day, a South American Space Agency or a similar concept has not yet been established in the region. The Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) hosted the first South American Space Generation Workshop in Argentina in 2015, where one of the working groups was tasked to further investigate the feasibility, advantages and challenges of implementing SASA. This paper presents an extension of the main findings from this working group where South American students and young professionals study and present a rationale in favor of SASA, outlining possible solutions and a structure that could be taken into account for its implementation. This paper pays particular attention to the question: Is it possible for countries in South America to establish the kind of cooperation necessary to stimulate the development and application of capabilities in the space sector, which would then enable undertaking missions far beyond the scope of what any single country in South America could do on its own? The existence of SASA would allow access to a common representative agency, which would lower costs, be accessible to all participating countries, and allow engagement with other emerging and established space agencies around the world.

  8. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  9. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas in South American camelids in Switzerland

    Kaufmann, C; Meli, Marina L; Robert, N; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Wengi, Nicole; Lutz, Hans; Zanolari, P

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell parasite 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae', formerly Eperythrozoon, is known to be widespread in South American camelids in the USA, causing anaemia in affected animals. Up to now, haemotrophic mycoplasmas were not observed in South American camelids in Europe; however, they were known in a herd of alpacas in Switzerland and to identify them as 'Candidatus M. haemolamae'. Possible ways of transmission are discussed.

  10. Afrikaans, American and British Models for South African English ...

    tions in a national and international context, by comparing the traditions and the roles of the lan- ... The changing linguistic, social, and educational situations in South Africa ... abroad, by the British and American leXicographical traditions. ... interactional styles in the South African social psychology and cross-cultural.

  11. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  12. Scenarios for the South African Water Sector in 2025; Presentation

    Funke, Nicola S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water Sector by 2025: Results Water Sector by 2025: Stories Methodical approach Harmonisation of legislation Shared vision Institutional maturity Strong citizens’ voice Happy & prosperous people Noble intentions Out of touch with reality Can...

  13. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  14. Blind Spots: Domestic Entrepreneurship and Private-sector Development in South-Sudan

    R. Twijnstra (Rens); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPolicy discourse on private sector development in fragile states has started attributing great importance to domestic entrepreneurship. This chapter follows Dutch initiatives to support entrepreneurs in South Sudan between 2009 and 2015. Despite the rhetoric, support for entrepreneurs

  15. Geared for change? CO2 emissions from South Africa’s road transport sector

    Padayachi, YR

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Road transport is considered to be a growing source of atmospheric emissions in African countries. In South Africa, competition in the business sector, reduction in rail usage, deregulation of freight transportation and a growing middle income class...

  16. The formal South African Waste Sector: Its contribution to the economy, employment and innovation

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African waste sector survey for 2012 was undertaken by the CSIR on behalf of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), and provides a good understanding of the ‘core’ of the formal waste sector (waste companies), and insight...

  17. Supplier relationship management – anathema for the South African public procurement sector

    Micheline J. Naude; Intaher M. Ambe; René Kling

    2013-01-01

    The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM) is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a ...

  18. Articulation of Industrial R&D with Higher Education in the Telecommunications Sector in South Africa

    Paterson, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how and why particular higher education?industry research and development networks articulate with the South African telecommunications sector. The range of competing and complementary data telecommunications technologies available in the South African market provide varying opportunities for enterprises to engage in R&D. Two…

  19. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  20. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Craton Heterogeneity in the South American Lithosphere

    Lloyd, S.; Van der Lee, S.; Assumpcao, M.; Feng, M.; Franca, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate structure of the lithosphere beneath South America using receiver functions, surface wave dispersion analysis, and seismic tomography. The data used include recordings from 20 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed across eastern Brazil (BLSP02) and from the Chile Ridge Subduction Project seismic array in southern Chile (CRSP). By jointly inverting Moho point constraints, Rayleigh wave group velocities, and regional S and Rayleigh wave forms we obtain a continuous map of Moho depth. The new tomographic Moho map suggests that Moho depth and Moho relief vary slightly with age within the Precambrian crust. Whether or not a correlation between crustal thickness and geologic age can be derived from the pre-interpolation point constraints depends strongly on the selected subset of receiver functions. This implies that using only pre-interpolation point constraints (receiver functions) inadequately samples the spatial variation in geologic age. We also invert for S velocity structure and estimate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Precambrian South America. The new model reveals a relatively thin lithosphere throughout most of Precambrian South America (< 140 km). Comparing LAB depth with lithospheric age shows they are overall positively correlated, whereby the thickest lithosphere occurs in the relatively small Saõ Francisco craton (200 km). However, within the larger Amazonian craton the younger lithosphere is thicker, indicating that locally even larger cratons are not protected from erosion or reworking of the lithosphere.

  2. Climate change adaptation in South Korea. Environmental politics in the agricultural sector

    Schaefer, Susann [Jena Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economic Geography

    2015-07-01

    Climate change will impact ecosystems and production processes. Thus, adaptation to climate change has become a prevalent concept in environmental politics worldwide. In South Korea, climate change is expected to be above the global average. As response, the South Korean government has initiated climate change adaptation in diverse sectors. In this book, the entire process, from formulation and development, implementation and reaction of involved people is examined in a particular sector, agriculture. Theoretically framed as an Actor-Network, this study highlights current developments of South Korean politics, the tensions of urban-periphery development, and the status of agriculture.

  3. Climate change adaptation in South Korea. Environmental politics in the agricultural sector

    Schaefer, Susann

    2015-01-01

    Climate change will impact ecosystems and production processes. Thus, adaptation to climate change has become a prevalent concept in environmental politics worldwide. In South Korea, climate change is expected to be above the global average. As response, the South Korean government has initiated climate change adaptation in diverse sectors. In this book, the entire process, from formulation and development, implementation and reaction of involved people is examined in a particular sector, agriculture. Theoretically framed as an Actor-Network, this study highlights current developments of South Korean politics, the tensions of urban-periphery development, and the status of agriculture.

  4. Energy and exergy analyses of energy consumptions in the industrial sector in South Africa

    Oladiran, M.T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The energy-utilization over a 10-year period (1994-2003) has been analysed for the South African industrial sector, which consumes more primary energy than any other sector of the economy. Four principal sub-sectors, namely iron and steel, chemical and petrochemical, mining and quarrying, and non-ferrous metals/non-metallic minerals were considered in this study. Primary-energy utilization data were used to calculate the weighted mean energy and exergy efficiencies for the sub-sectors and then overall values for the industrial sector were obtained. The results indicate that exergy efficiency is considerably lower than energy efficiency in all the sub-sectors, particularly in mining and quarrying processes, for which the values were approximately 83% and 16%, respectively. The performance of exergy utilization in the industrial sector can be improved by introducing various conservation strategies. Results from this study were compared with those for other countries

  5. Emission Sectoral Contributions of Foreign Emissions to Particulate Matter Concentrations over South Korea

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.; Cho, J. H.; Woo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the contributions of major emission source categories located upwind of South Korea to Particulate Matter (PM) in South Korea. In general, air quality in South Korea is affected by anthropogenic air pollutants emitted from foreign countries including China. Some studies reported that foreign emissions contributed 50 % of annual surface PM total mass concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea in 2014. Previous studies examined PM contributions of foreign emissions from all sectors considering meteorological variations. However, little studies conducted to assess contributions of specific foreign source categories. Therefore, we attempted to estimate sectoral contributions of foreign emissions from China to South Korea PM using our air quality forecasting system. We used Model Inter-Comparison Study in Asia 2010 for foreign emissions and Clean Air Policy Support System 2010 emission inventories for domestic emissions. To quantify contributions of major emission sectors to South Korea PM, we applied the Community Multi-scale Air Quality system with brute force method by perturbing emissions from industrial, residential, fossil-fuel power plants, transportation, and agriculture sectors in China. We noted that industrial sector was pre-dominant over the region except during cold season for primary PMs when residential emissions drastically increase due to heating demand. This study will benefit ensemble air quality forecasting and refined control strategy design by providing quantitative assessment on seasonal contributions of foreign emissions from major source categories.

  6. Low volatility sector-based portfolios: a South African case

    Black pointed out that when investors are restricted from using leverage or bor- ..... takes into account the correlation between the sectors in a portfolio. ..... 3The information ratio of a portfolio is the active premium (portfolio annualised return ...

  7. South American Youth : Regional Democracy-Building Dialogue ...

    This project will undertake a comparative analysis of South American youth in the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. Researchers will examine the meaning that young people, adults and mediators of youth demands attribute to ...

  8. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorina...... Atlantic and Amazonian Forests and (2) the Northern uplift of the Andes....

  9. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  10. Acute appendicitis in the public and private sectors in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Yang, Estin; Cook, Colin; Kahn, Delawir

    2015-07-01

    South Africa has a low incidence of acute appendicitis, but poor outcomes. However, South African studies on appendicitis focus solely on public hospitals, neglecting those who utilize private facilities. This study aims to compare appendicitis characteristics and outcomes in public and private hospitals in South Africa. A prospective cohort study was conducted among two public and three private hospitals in the Cape Town metropole, from September 2013 to March 2014. Hospital records, operative notes, and histology results were reviewed for patients undergoing appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients were interviewed during their hospitalization and followed up at monthly intervals until normal function was attained. A total of 134 patients were enrolled, with 73 in the public and 61 in the private sector. Education and employment were higher among private sector patients. Public sector patients had a higher rupture rate (30.6 vs 13.2 %, p = 0.023). Times to presentation were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Public sector patients had longer hospital stays (5.3 vs 2.9 days, p = 0.036) and longer return to work times (23.0 vs 12.1 days, p public hospitals were more severe. Public sector patients in South Africa with appendicitis have higher rupture rates, worse complications, longer hospital stays, and longer recoveries than private sector patients. Patients with perforation had longer delays in presentation than patients without perforation.

  11. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  12. AN ANALYSIS OF THE INEQUALITIES BETWEEN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA.

    Dell, A J; Kahn, D; Klopper, J

    2017-06-01

    The full extent of the global burden of surgical disease is largely unknown; however, the scope of the problem is thought to be large. Despite the substantial burden of surgical disease, surgical services are inaccessible to many of those who need them most. There are disparities between public and private sectors in South Africa, which compounds inequitable access to surgical care. This study involved a descriptive analysis of surgical resources and included the total number of hospitals, hospital beds, surgical beds, general surgeons (specialist and nonspecialist), and the number of functional operating theatres in South Africa. A comparison was performed between the public sector resources per uninsured population and private sector resources per insured population. Hospitals were contacted during the period 01 October 2014 to 31 December 2014. Surgical resources were concentrated in metropolitan areas of urban provinces. There were striking differences between sectors when a comparison was made between patients with and without health insurance. Private resources were comparable to those available in high income countries (HICs) and were accessible to only 16% of South Africans. Improving access to surgical services in lower middle income countries (LMICs) requires addressing gaps between the public and private sector regarding infrastructure, personnel, as well as equipment. South Africa is unique in that although it is classified as an upper middle income country (UMIC), it comprises of two sectors; a public sector which has resources similar to other LMICs, and a private sector which has resources similar to HICs. These data identified disparities between geographic regions which may be contributing to ongoing inequity in South Africa, and by doing so allows for evidence-based planning towards improving surgical infrastructure and workforce.

  13. The skills gap in nursing management in South Africa: a sectoral analysis: a research paper.

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-03-01

    To identify competencies important for effective nursing management and to assess managers' proficiency therein. A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to health delivery in South Africa. Despite nursing managers being central to overcoming the challenges facing health care, there has been a paucity of research that empirically evaluates their skill levels. A survey was conducted among 171 senior nursing managers in South Africa using a self-administered questionnaire. Public sector managers assessed themselves as being relatively less competent than private sector managers. The largest skill gaps for public sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'task-related' and 'controlling' skills whereas those for private sector managers were for 'ethico-legal', 'health-related ' and 'task-related' skills. This research confirmed the lack of management capacity within the health sector and identified areas in which the skills deficit was most significant for both the public and private sectors. These findings reflect the needs of nursing managers and will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  14. Supplier relationship management – anathema for the South African public procurement sector

    Micheline J. Naude

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a challenge. The purpose of this article is to provide insight into supplier-relationship challenges and to suggest a framework for implementing SRM in the South African public sector. The research presented is based on a survey using both descriptive and exploratory research. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 15 participants at eight institutions in KwaZulu-Natal. Purposive sampling techniques were used. The findings reveal that the main supplier-related challenges that handicap procurement practices in the province are a lack of experience, a lack of affirmable suppliers, threats and bribes, a lack of integrity, an inability to meet delivery deadlines and quality issues. The findings further reveal that supplier relationships in the public sector are of a transactional nature. A five-stage framework is therefore recommended for implementing SRM in the South African public sector and in order to assist government procurement officials to reap the benefits of SRM whilst supporting the requirements of public-sector procurement.

  15. Scenarios for the South African Water Sector in 2025

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... anced solutions to the ever-growing challenges of a developing nation. In this ... precedence, with a view to 'improving the quality of life'; and when decisions are made ... delivery, work is going to the private sector (often via costly .... and adaptive management, particularly in balancing social and economic ...

  16. Sustainability of the South African Livestock Sector towards 2050 ...

    Challenges facing the livestock sector towards 2050 and the changes and ... In dairy plants the water usage to process the same product may vary by more than 100%, ... Efficiency of production should be on par with competitors if the livestock ...

  17. South American Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education. The Implementation Journal for the South American Field Experience.

    Martin, William J.

    A description is provided of Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) South American Field Experience program, a travel/study program for faculty and staff designed to provide a variety of learning experiences through a three week trip to Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. Chapter I presents an overview of the development of the project,…

  18. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  19. Ionospheric irregularities at low latitudes in the American sector

    Nakamura, Y.

    1981-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the atomic oxigem airglow emission at the wavelength of 6300 A observed at Cachoeira Paulista (22 0 41'S, 45 0 00'W) shows that intensity perturbations frequently occur and propagate from north to south and from west to east. Such irregularities originated in the ionospheric F region and occur essencially during the premidnight period. These perturbations have a high frequency of occurrence during spring and summer and are rare during winter and fall. The disturbances are correlated with range type spread F detected over Cachoeira Paulista, and have characteristics similar to equatorial ionospheric plasma bubbles (i.e., similar seazonal variation, time of occurrence, ionogram signatures, direction and speed of propagation, etc.). A numerical simulation is carried out for the generation and evolution of ionospheric bubbles based on the theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the equatorial and Cachoeira Paulista regions. Also a study was made of the, evolution of the bubble as a function of the electron density profile and as a function of the amplitude of the initial density perturbation. Assuming the electron density profile perturbed by the bubble, the [OI] 6300 A intensity was calculated for various latitudes arbitrarily taken within the photometer scanning range. The bubble was assumed to be aligned with the Earth's magnetic field and extending from higher altitudes at the equatorial region down to be arbitrary height of 150 Km at which a negligible conductivity is assumed. It was also assumed that the bubble was moving upwards with the velocity of 120 m/s, which in turn was estimated from initial numerical simulation results. The airglow calculation results show that as the bubble goes up, the disturbances in the airglow intensity propagate from north to south, in accord with observed experimental results. (Author) [pt

  20. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America.

  1. STD care in the South African private health sector | Schneider ...

    Objectives. To establish the accessibility and quality of sexually transmitted disease (SID) care provided by private general practitioners (GPs) and workplace health services in South Africa. Design. Structured telephone interviews were conducted with a random national sample of 120 GPs and 244 occupational health ...

  2. Public sector employment for community development in South Africa

    2015-11-26

    Nov 26, 2015 ... South Africa's Community Work Programme (CWP) provides an employment safety net ... IDRC-supported experts at the Centre for the Study of Violence and ... Read the policy brief (in English, PDF, 5MB). ... Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics · Transparency · Website usage.

  3. Reforming Security Sector Governance South Asia | CRDI - Centre ...

    In South Asia, security discourse has traditionally been confined to government circles, with no room for voices from civil society. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...

  4. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  5. The extent of benchmarking in the South African financial sector

    W Vermeulen

    2014-01-01

    Benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding and adapting outstanding practices from within the organisation or from other businesses, to help improve performance. The importance of benchmarking as an enabler of business excellence has necessitated an in-depth investigation into the current state of benchmarking in South Africa. This research project highlights the fact that respondents realise the importance of benchmarking, but that various problems hinder the effective impleme...

  6. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  7. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, So-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  8. The South African wildlife ranching sector: A Social Accounting Matrix Leontief multiplier analysis

    Philippus C. Cloete

    2014-10-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted in disagreements amongst various role players about the impact thereof on the national economy. The controversy can most probably be explained by different beliefs, coupled with the lack of a proper understanding and quantification of the wildlife ranching sector’s contribution toward the economy. Research methodology: The study employed a Social Accounting Matrix-based Leontief multiplier analysis for South Africa. Main findings: Results from the multiplier analysis revealed that developments within the wildlife ranching sector are likely to make a relatively more superior contribution towards the economy, especially when compared to similar land-use options such as extensive livestock production. Practical/managerial implications: It has been acknowledged by both academia and private sector that a major need exists for more research on the South African wildlife ranching industry, specifically looking at issues such as the industries, economic and social contributions, potentials and constraints. The research, therefore, contributes toward the depth of economic information and research regarding the South African wildlife sector. Contribution/value added: The research provides valuable information in dealing with the ‘popular belief’, especially amongst some of South Africa’s decision makers, namely, that growth in the wildlife ranching sector is not or does not have the ability to contribute significantly toward economic and socioeconomic factors.

  9. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis

    Pecon Slattery, J.; Johnson, W. E.; Goldman, D.; O'Brien, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using...

  10. End of an era? Managerial losses of African American and Latinos in the public sector.

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we examine whether "new governance" reforms in public sector work over the last two decades have generated managerial wage losses for African Americans and Latinos. Findings from Integrated Public Use Micro-Series data across three time points indicate that the new "business logic" encompassing, most notably, increased employer discretion has progressively disadvantaged African American and Latino men and women relative to their White and gender counterparts. Indeed, for both African Americans and Latinos in the managerial ranks, relative parity in wages that were witnessed in the public sector progressively eroded between 2000 and 2010. Qualifications to these findings indicate that levels of inequality become pronounced for African Americans, and more so among men than women. We discuss the historical niche status of public sector work for racial and ethnic minorities in the U.S. and the importance of conducting further analyses of the public sector because of its fluid nature as a locus of racial stratification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  12. South American natural gas trade: the road ahead

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.; Peacey, D.

    1997-01-01

    The current state and future prospects for the natural gas sector in South America were examined, including the ability of the natural gas resource base to meet potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay). The physical, legal, fiscal, regulatory and political developments in the hydrocarbon-producing countries in the Southern Cone region were reviewed. For example, in Colombia, the domestic gas market potential and resource base argue in favor of a closed domestic gas sector development policy. In contrast, Venezuela, a country that already has a well developed domestic gas sector, is pursuing offshore market development through both petrochemical and liquefied natural gas initiatives. Following a comprehensive description of individual gas resources, markets and market potential, and legal, institutional and political environments, the study reports on a number of alternative scenarios concerning natural gas integration in the Southern Cone region, developed by using the South America Natural Gas (SANG) model. The following scenarios were reviewed: (1) closure and confinement, (2) integration and expansion, and (3) gains from technology. It was estimated that potential gas demand in the Southern Cone region is projected to grow from 900 billion cubic feet per year in 1994 to over 5.3 trillion cubic feet in 2021. The majority of growth is expected in Brazil. The overall conclusion of the study was that regardless of the scenario, Southern Core gas sector integration has strong economic and commercial merit, and that the natural gas resource base in the Southern Cone, as represented by the gas reserves database, is more than adequate to service potential demand. 100 refs., 50 tabs., 54 figs

  13. The extent of benchmarking in the South African financial sector

    W Vermeulen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Benchmarking is the process of identifying, understanding and adapting outstanding practices from within the organisation or from other businesses, to help improve performance. The importance of benchmarking as an enabler of business excellence has necessitated an in-depth investigation into the current state of benchmarking in South Africa. This research project highlights the fact that respondents realise the importance of benchmarking, but that various problems hinder the effective implementation of benchmarking. Based on the research findings, recommendations for achieving success are suggested.

  14. Employing Strategic Thinking in South American 4icrofinance Institutions

    CONCARI, GUSTAVO

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the use of strategic thinking in microfinance in South America. Microfinance is an important business in South America today, its importance lies in its ability to transform poor people and informal enterprises into citizens and formal companies making human beings grow as individuals at the same time. The sector is very strong in the region despite its youth and maybe it's time to use the ideas of business strategy developed for traditional businesses. The goal of this paper is then to use the ideas of business strategy in microfinance. A classic strategy scheme called the Ansoff matrix is used for this. It proposes two axes (product and market as possible ways for developing a business. The work includes the theoretical development of this scheme and evaluations from experts interviewed to give their opinion on it, evaluations that make the idea richer while pointing the possible weaknesses of the model

  15. Understanding the South African waste sector: The economic and employment opportunities it provides

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -1 The 20th WasteCon Conference and Exhibition 6-10 October 2014 The Lord Charles Hotel, Somerset West, Cape Town Understanding the South African waste sector: The economic and employment opportunities it provides L. Godfrey, CSIR Natural Resources...

  16. Life-cycle assessments in the South African water sector: A review ...

    Therefore, in South Africa it is important to promote the use of LCAs for the water sector in order to improve efficiency of processes and systems, but also to promote life-cycle based water footprinting and to include differentiated water consumption data into life-cycle inventories to make more efficient use of water as a ...

  17. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic.... SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden tilefish in...

  18. Staff/population ratios in South African public sector mental health ...

    To document existing staff/population ratios per 100 000 population in South African public sector mental health services. Design. Cross-sectional survey. ... The staff/population ratios per 100 000 population for selected personnel categories (with the interprovincial ranges in brackets) were as follows: total nursing staff 15.6 ...

  19. Public-Private health sector mix- way forward | Buso | South African ...

    The debate on Public-Private mix has been around in South Africa (SA) for the past ten years. The debate arose out of a realisation of the weaknesses in the public health parallel with the ever-increasing private sector worldwide. The concept has been referred to in different terminologies, public-private mix, public private ...

  20. Staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in South African public sector mental ...

    Objectives. To document staff/bed and staff/patient ratios in public. sector mental health services in South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Method. Aquestionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health co-ordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all ...

  1. Linking energy efficiency legislation and the agricultural sector in South Africa

    Joseph N. Lekunze

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are different ways of measuring energy efficiency. Although there is no generally agreed definition of the concept, it should, however, always be approached according to particular circumstances and contexts. As such, technological, operational, performance and equipment efficiencies should be taken into consideration. Generally, energy utilisation in most sectors of the South African economy is inefficient. This requires more energy needs to be generated in order to cater for losses. An increase in generation causes environmental problems at global, regional and local levels. A review of literature on energy efficiency was undertaken and a gap identified between legislation and efficiency in the agricultural sector. This article seeks to suggest ways of implementing an energy legislation in this sector in South Africa. Such implementation will address concerns in terms of harnessing, generating and utilising energy in different sectors in South Africa. Legislation is vital in reducing energy consumption in the agricultural sector. It also ensures efficient use of energy and the maintenance of current levels of production.

  2. Sector switching among histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Ruggunan, Shaun D; Singh, Suveera

    2013-05-30

    The mobility of health care professionals from the public to private sector is prevalent in South Africa. However, literature on sector switching of clinical doctors remains limited. It is against this background that this study aims to make the labour market visible for histopathologists and identify the reasons for sector switching. This study is exploratory and descriptive. It uses qualitative methods, such as in-depth interviews, with 70% (n = 16/23) of the population of histopathologists in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Lee's (1966) push-pull theory is adapted to explain the pull sector switching behaviours of histopathologists. Interviews were recorded and independently transcribed. The narratives of the participants were coded to reflect the main themes that contributed to their sector switching behaviours. Five key themes emerged as reasons for the mobility of histopathologists from the public to private sector in KwaZulu-Natal. The findings indicate that remuneration, working conditions, work flexibility, career pathing and autonomy of labour processes are the key drivers of this mobility. Histopathologists provide a core function in the health care chain. However, their invisibility in academic discourse in both public health and human resources for health indicates the paucity of research undertaken on the importance of these specialists in the health care chain. This is especially significant in developing countries like South Africa, where there is a dearth of these specialists. This study, while exploratory, aims to open a dialogue to better understand their reasons for sector switching and, hopefully, inform policies on training, recruitment and retention of these specialists.

  3. Women's experiences seeking informal sector abortion services in Cape Town, South Africa: a descriptive study.

    Gerdts, Caitlin; Raifman, Sarah; Daskilewicz, Kristen; Momberg, Mariette; Roberts, Sarah; Harries, Jane

    2017-10-02

    In settings where abortion is legally restricted, or permitted but not widely accessible, women face significant barriers to abortion access, sometimes leading them to seek services outside legal facilities. The advent of medication abortion has further increased the prevalence of informal sector abortion. This study investigates the reasons for attempting self-induction, methods used, complications, and sources of information about informal sector abortion, and tests a specific recruitment method which could lead to improved estimates of informal sector abortion prevalence among an at-risk population. We recruited women who have sought informal sector abortion services in Cape Town, South Africa using respondent driven sampling (RDS). An initial seed recruiter was responsible for initiating recruitment using a structured coupon system. Participants completed face-to-face questionnaires, which included information about demographics, informal sector abortion seeking, and safe abortion access needs. We enrolled 42 women, nearly one-third of whom reported they were sex workers. Thirty-four women (81%) reported having had one informal sector abortion within the past 5 years, 14% reported having had two, and 5% reported having had three. These women consumed home remedies, herbal mixtures from traditional healers, or tablets from an unregistered provider. Twelve sought additional care for potential warning signs of complications. Privacy and fear of mistreatment at public sector facilities were among the main reported reasons for attempting informal sector abortion. Most women (67%) cited other community members as their source of information about informal sector abortion; posted signs and fliers in public spaces also served as an important source of information. Women are attempting informal sector abortion because they seek privacy and fear mistreatment and stigma in health facilities. Some were unaware how or where to seek formal sector services, or believed the

  4. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  5. ENERGY SOURCES AND CARBON EMISSIONS IN THE IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY SECTOR IN SOUTH ASIA

    Tapan Sarker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines CO2 emissions from electricity and fuel consumption of different energy sources consumed in the Iron and Steel Industry sector (non-ferrous included, also known as basic metal in five South Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The study finds that about 30% of the total energy in the manufacturing industry is used in this sector, which is about 11% of total industrial input, contributing approximately 13% to the Manufacturing Value Added (MVA. Electricity, on the other hand, shares almost 60% of total energy consumption in the five countries in South Asia, followed by natural gas, coal, kerosene and diesel. The study also finds that CO2 emissions vary across sectors in countries in which the study was conducted. For instance, while in Bangladesh CO2 emissions are primarily caused by electricity generation, in India the majority of CO2 emissions are originated from coal. On the contrary, CO2 emissions in Nepal are mostly generated through other fuels such as Charcoal, Diesel and Kerosene. This study provides some policy recommendations, which could help reduce CO2 emissions in the Iron and Steel Industry sector in the South Asian region.

  6. The skills gap in nursing management in the South African public health sector.

    Pillay, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Nurse managers are central to health delivery in South Africa. However, there is a paucity of research that analyzes their competence to successfully discharge their managerial role. To identify the competencies perceived to be important for effective nursing management in the South African public sector and the managers' self-assessed proficiency in these. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. 215 senior nursing managers at South African public sector hospitals. Respondents rated the level of importance that 51 proposed competencies had in their job and indicated their proficiency in each. Public sector managers ranked controlling as the most important competency, followed by leading, organizing, and self-management. Health/clinical skills, planning, and legal/ethical competencies were ranked as being relatively less important. They assessed themselves as being most competent in self-management, followed by planning, controlling, leading, and specific health skills. The competency gap was the largest for legal/ethical issues, organizing, and controlling. The competency gap for planning and self-management was relatively smaller. This research confirms that there is a lack of management capacity within the public health sector and also identifies the areas in which the lack of knowledge or skills is most significant. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. First South American Agathis (Araucariaceae), Eocene of Patagonia.

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H; Cúneo, N Rubén; Kooyman, Robert M; Johnson, Kirk R; Iglesias, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Agathis is an iconic genus of large, ecologically important, and economically valuable conifers that range over lowland to upper montane rainforests from New Zealand to Sumatra. Exploitation of its timber and copal has greatly reduced the genus's numbers. The early fossil record of Agathis comes entirely from Australia, often presumed to be its area of origin. Agathis has no previous record from South America. We describe abundant macrofossils of Agathis vegetative and reproductive organs, from early and middle Eocene rainforest paleofloras of Patagonia, Argentina. The leaves were formerly assigned to the New World cycad genus Zamia. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. is the first South American occurrence and the most complete representation of Agathis in the fossil record. Its morphological features are fully consistent with the living genus. The most similar living species is A. lenticula, endemic to lower montane rainforests of northern Borneo. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. demonstrates the presence of modern-aspect Agathis by 52.2 mya and vastly increases the early range and possible areas of origin of the genus. The revision from Zamia breaks another link between the Eocene and living floras of South America. Agathis was a dominant, keystone element of the Patagonian Eocene floras, alongside numerous other plant taxa that still associate with it in Australasia and Southeast Asia. Agathis extinction in South America was an integral part of the transformation of Patagonian biomes over millions of years, but the living species are disappearing from their ranges at a far greater rate.

  8. Intestinal helminths in lowland South American Indians: some evolutionary interpretations.

    Confalonieri, U; Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A

    1991-12-01

    Data on intestinal parasite infections for South American Indians in prehistoric times as revealed by coprolite analysis are being used to support transoceanic migration routes from the Old World to the New World. These same findings on modern semi-isolated aborigines, considered persisting prehistoric patterns, are also of great importance as indicators of pre-Columbian peopling of South America. This is the case for the Lengua Indians from Paraguay, studied in the 1920s, and the Yanomami and the Salumã from Brazil, studied in the 1980s. The intestinal parasitic profile of these groups can be empirically associated with culture change, but no clear correlations with the population biology of their hosts can be made at present because of scarcity of data.

  9. The Outlier Sectors: Areas of Non-Free Trade in the North American Free Trade Agreement

    Eric T. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Since its entry into force, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been enormously influential as a model for trade liberalization. While trade in goods among Canada, the United States and Mexico has been liberalized to a significant degree, this most famous of agreements nonetheless contains areas of recalcitrant protectionism. The first part of this paper identifies these "outlier sectors" and classifies them by primary source advocating protectionism, i.e., producer interests ...

  10. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    A. S. Taschetto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Community Climate Model (CCM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed.

    A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM and spring (SON precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF and winter (JJA rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent.

    An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and

  11. Market concentration trends in South Africa’s private healthcare sector

    Marine Erasmus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Competition Commission (CC commenced with an enquiry into South Africa’s private healthcare sector at the beginning of 2014, the outcome of which could have far-reaching consequences for the medical industry in South Africa. The panel appointed to consider competition in the private healthcare sector has indicated that they are interested in understanding increased consolidation in the private hospital market and the effect this may have on competitive dynamics. This article considers historical concentration trends in the private hospital market from 2000 to 2012. In addition it also deals with changes in market structure in the medical scheme and administrator markets. These trends provide a complete picture of market structure changes and the implications for relative bargaining power of the various parties. It finds that whereas the market concentration of private hospitals has remained relatively stable since 2004, the market concentration of medical schemes and administrators has increased over this period.

  12. Private Sector Investment in Black Education and Training: Rescuing South African Capitalism from Apartheid's Crisis.

    Kraak, Andre

    1989-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the factors contributing to increased involvement by South African business and industry in Black education and training; (2) the Urban Foundation's commitment to non-formal education in Black communities; (3) intervention by American corporations; and (4) the dramatic failure of capitalist initiatives. Contains 55 references. (SV)

  13. Evaluation capacity assessment of the transport sector in South Africa: An innovative approach

    Basia D. Bless

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: In this regard, the framework is recommended as an innovative tool to assist evaluation practitioners and scholars to better understand evaluation capacity constraints within a broader context that involves logistical, technical, contextual, social and political dimensions. It also offers an important insight on how these components interfaced to shape the organisational value system that impacts the use of evidence in the transport sector in South Africa.

  14. Improving the public health sector in South Africa: eliciting public preferences using a discrete choice experiment.

    Honda, Ayako; Ryan, Mandy; van Niekerk, Robert; McIntyre, Diane

    2015-06-01

    The introduction of national health insurance (NHI), aimed at achieving universal coverage, is the most important issue currently on the South African health policy agenda. Improvement in public sector health-care provision is crucial for the successful implementation of NHI as, regardless of whether health-care services become more affordable and available, if the quality of the services provided is not acceptable, people will not use the services. Although there has been criticism of the quality of public sector health services, limited research is available to identify what communities regard as the greatest problems with the services. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was undertaken to elicit public preferences on key dimensions of quality of care when selecting public health facilities in South Africa. Qualitative methods were applied to establish attributes and levels for the DCE. To elicit preferences, interviews with community members were held in two South African provinces: 491 in Western Cape and 499 in Eastern Cape. The availability of necessary medicine at health facilities has the greatest impact on the probability of attending public health facilities. Other clinical quality attributes (i.e. provision of expert advice and provision of a thorough examination) are more valued than non-clinical quality of care attributes (i.e. staff attitude, treatment by doctors or nurses, and waiting time). Treatment by a doctor was less valued than all other attributes. Communities are prepared to tolerate public sector health service characteristics such as a long waiting time, poor staff attitudes and lack of direct access to doctors if they receive the medicine they need, a thorough examination and a clear explanation of the diagnosis and prescribed treatment from health professionals. These findings prioritize issues that the South African government must address in order to meet their commitment to improve public sector health-care service provision. Published

  15. An introduction to the Research Innovation and Knowledge Management Roadmap for the South African Maritime Sector

    Funke, Nicola S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES & ACTIONS We have a maritime culture and recognise and learn from our maritime history 1 Foster national maritime pride 3 Develop and communicate a co-authored discourse on South Africa’s maritime history 2 Support maritime historical... and training facilities 6 Build and retain skills in the maritime sector 2 Support and develop maritime-focused technology and innovation 7 OBJECTIVES & ACTIONS Conduct humanities and social science research on pertinent issues 3 Create knowledge...

  16. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Market survey South Africa. The energy sector, the state of development and best opportunities for both countries

    Van der Velde, F.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this report is to shine a light on the latest developments in the South African energy sector and to show that the energy sector is a favourable sector in South Africa for Dutch commercial involvement. Above all, an answer is given to the question why there is almost no Dutch export or investment in South Africa's energy sector and how we can boost more Dutch commercial involvement. The country has abundant coal reserves and this is one of the reasons why it can supply the cheapest electricity in the world. This also makes it very difficult for other primary energy products to compete with coal. But things are starting to change due to important external and internal facts. The current electricity crisis contributes the most to the changing energy landscape in South Africa and will therefore be discussed in detail. The first chapter will give an overview of the fossil and sustainable energy sector in South Africa. It will describe how the different energy sources contribute to the energy mix of the country. In the second chapter, the most important developments in the energy field will be introduced and discussed. There will be a focus on internal and external factors which influence developments in South Africa. A SWOT analyses will be presented to give an overview of what is important to keep in mind when one looks at the South African energy sector. Chapter three will give an answer to the question where the best opportunities are for Dutch companies to invest in, export to or cooperate within the South African energy sector. This report should be read in cooperation with the two market surveys that were conducted for the Netherlands Foreign Trade Agency (EVD) and the Dutch Embassy in Pretoria. Both for fossil as for the sustainable energy opportunities are abundant, this does not mean that market entry is very easy. Furthermore, some recommendations are given on how more Dutch involvement in the South African energy sector could be achieved

  18. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  19. The pharmaceutical sector, patents and access to medicines in the South

    Xabier Barrutia Etxebarría

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the lack of access to drug treatments experienced by the poor in the economic South. First, it studies the extraordinarily profitable pharmaceutical industry, whose research forgets about the illnesses typical of the South, given its greatbusiness and market concentration in the countries of the North, where marketing is decisive. Then, it deals with the relationship between the high prices of medicines and a patent system which is greatly strengthened by the rules of the WTO and which clasheswith people’s right to health, as revealed by the case of HIV-AIDS treatment in the countries of the South. The paper concludes by underscoring the need for an active intervention by the public sector, both at a national and international level, which wouldlimit the patents on drugs and promote research on the forgotten diseases.

  20. Quest to be real, relevant and impactful: Analysing the science-policy divide in the South African water sector

    Nienaber, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African water sector faces challenges that need to be addressed through effective policy development and implementation. Sound evidence, based on researched consideration of issues and solutions, is an important input to policy development...

  1. Evaluating environmental policy integration and policy coherence across service sectors: The case of South Africa’s inland water biodiversity

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available the inclusion of the systematic conservation of inland water ecosystems in the strategic planning processes of several sectors impacting on South Africa’s inland water biodiversity. The authors use environmental policy integration (EPI) research approach...

  2. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  3. The effect of technological changes on unemployment in the beverage sector of the South African economy / A.K. Danso

    Danso, Alex Kwame

    2007-01-01

    The ability of the South African economy to absorb labour has been declining since the 1960's, with the manufacturing sector employment declining since 1990. The decline in manufacturing jobs flies in the face of increased output of the sector. This trend is attributed to the application of technology and sophisticated equipments in the manufacturing process leading to a loss of jobs, particularly for unskilled labour. Unemployment in South Africa has become one of the biggest ...

  4. Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries

    Matji, MP

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 AMPEAK Asset Management Conference 2015 Funding and financing mechanisms for infrastructure delivery: multi-sector analysis of benchmarking of South Africa against developed countries Matji, MP and Ruiters, C Abstract: For developing..., the researcher identifies financing opportunities for infrastructure delivery in South Africa and how such opportunities can be explored, taking into account political dynamics and legislative sector-based frameworks. Keywords: Asset Management, Financing...

  5. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  6. AIRSAR South American deployment: Operation plan, version 3.0

    Kobrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Brazilian Commission for Space Activities (COBAE) are undertaking a joint experiment involving NASA's DC-8 research aircraft and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) system during late May and June 1993. The research areas motivating these activities are: (1) fundamental research in the role of soils, vegetation, and hydrology in the global carbon cycle; and (2) in cooperation with South American scientists, airborne remote sensing research for the upcoming NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR)-C/X-SAR flights on the Space Shuttle. A flight schedule and plans for the deployment that were developed are included. Maps of the site locations and schematic indications of flight routes and dates, plots showing swath locations derived from the flight requests and generated by flight planning software, and, most importantly, a calendar showing which sites will be imaged each day are included.

  7. Prosopis pod production - comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e. P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest.

  8. Hot continent: South America is open for fast growth in the natural gas sector

    Reinsch, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Opportunities for participation in the rapid expansion of the natural gas sector in South America following privatization and deregulation initiatives, were examined on a country-by-country basis. In Colombia and Venezuela opportunities exist primarily in domestic development of the gas sector, whereas in the countries of the southern cone - Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay - the situation is said to be ripe for energy sector integration. Currently, a second regional pipeline link, with a capacity of 129 Bcf/year, is nearing completion, which will carry gas from west Argentina to Santiago, Chile, to supplement the 77 Bcf/year pipeline carrying gas from Bolivia to the Argentine border, where it connects with a trunk line to supply the Buenos Aires market. A Canadian Energy Research Institute study, to be published in the summer of 1997, focuses on the various pipeline links being put forward to integrate the gas resources in the southern cone with existing and potential gas markets. The integration scenarios examined are predicted to reveal both economic and commercial merit for the pipeline corridors. Canadian energy and pipeline companies are said to be well positioned to take advantage of the opportunities resulting from these initiatives, and to help making the vision of an integrated gas pipeline network in the southern cone of South America a reality

  9. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It... securities of South American Minerals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since it filed a...

  10. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  11. The Impact of China on South American Political and Economic Development

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2018-01-01

    The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development.......The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development....

  12. 'Going private': a qualitative comparison of medical specialists' job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa.

    Ashmore, John

    2013-01-03

    There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist 'dual practice', that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel 'needed' and 'relevant'. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision-making, inter alia. These interventions may be more cost

  13. Prospects for renewable energy in South Africa. Mobilizing the private sector

    Pegels, Anna

    2009-07-01

    The challenge of transforming entire economies is enormous, especially if a country is as fossil- fuel-based and emission-intensive as South Africa. However, as it is already facing climate change impacts in an increasingly carbon-constrained world, South Africa must drastically reduce its greenhouse gas emission intensity soon. The South African electricity sector is a vital part of the economy and at the same time contributes most to the emission problem. Transforming this sector is therefore urgently needed, but will be difficult. First steps have been taken to enhance energy efficiency and promote renewable energy, but they have failed to have any large-scale effects. The two major barriers to investments in renewable energy technologies are based in the South African energy innovation system and its inherent power structures and in the economics of renewable energy technologies. The innovation system is dominated by the state-owned Eskom (electricity) and Sasol (fuel) enterprises. Both companies have their core competencies in fossil fuel technologies. Capacity in renewable energy is lacking at every stage of the technology cycle, from research and development to installation and maintenance. The obstacles inherent in the economics of renewable energy technologies are cost and risk, two of the main factors in investment planning. As most technologies are in early stages of development, they have not yet realized their full cost degression potential and continue to entail a higher risk than established technologies. To overcome these barriers, the South African government has introduced several renewable energy support measures, such as a renewable energy feed-in tariff (REFIT). While a promising scheme in theory, the South African REFIT has a crucial flaw: Eskom is the monopsonistic buyer of electricity produced from renewable energy and is responsible for distributing it to consumers. However, Eskom is not obliged to buy that electricity. This runs counter to

  14. Fission-track dating of South American natural glasses: an overview

    Bigazzi, G. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, C.N.R., Via G. Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: g.bigazzi@igg.cnr.it; Hadler Neto, J.C. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas SP (Brazil); Iunes, P.J. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-970 Campinas SP (Brazil); Osorio Araya, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica, Quimica e Biologia, Universidade do Estado de Sao Paulo, UNESP, 19060-900 Presidente Prudente SP (Brazil)

    2005-12-01

    Although many glass-bearing horizons can be found in South American volcanic complexes or sedimentary series, only a relatively few tephra and obsidian-bearing volcanic fields have been studied using the fission-track (FT) dating method. Among them, the volcanics located in the Sierra de Guamani (east of Quito, Ecuador) were studied by several authors. Based upon their ages, obsidians group into three clusters: (1) very young obsidians, {approx}0.2Ma old (2) intermediate-age obsidians, {approx}0.4-{approx}0.8Ma old, and (3) older obsidians, {approx}1.4-{approx}1.6Ma old. The FT method is also an efficient alternative technique for identification of the sources of prehistoric obsidian artefacts. Provenance studies carried out in South America have shown that the Sierra de Guamani obsidian occurrences were important sources of raw material for tool making during pre-Columbian times. Glasses originated from these sources were identified in sites distributed over relatively wide areas of Ecuador and Colombia. Only a few systematic studies on obsidians in other sectors were carried out. Nevertheless, very singular glasses have been recognised in South America, such as Macusanite (Peru) and obsidian Quiron (Argentina), which are being proposed as additional reference materials for FT dating. Analyses of tephra beds interstratified with sedimentary deposits revealed the performance of FT dating in tephrochronological studies. A remarkable example is the famous deposit outcropping at Farola Monte Hermoso, near Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires Province), described for the first time by the middle of the 19th century by Charles Darwin. Considering the large number of volcanic glasses that were recognised in volcanic complexes and in sedimentary series, South America is a very promising region for the application of FT dating. The examples given above show that this technique may yield important results in different disciplinary fields.

  15. Fission-track dating of South American natural glasses: an overview

    Bigazzi, G.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Osorio Araya, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although many glass-bearing horizons can be found in South American volcanic complexes or sedimentary series, only a relatively few tephra and obsidian-bearing volcanic fields have been studied using the fission-track (FT) dating method. Among them, the volcanics located in the Sierra de Guamani (east of Quito, Ecuador) were studied by several authors. Based upon their ages, obsidians group into three clusters: (1) very young obsidians, ∼0.2Ma old (2) intermediate-age obsidians, ∼0.4-∼0.8Ma old, and (3) older obsidians, ∼1.4-∼1.6Ma old. The FT method is also an efficient alternative technique for identification of the sources of prehistoric obsidian artefacts. Provenance studies carried out in South America have shown that the Sierra de Guamani obsidian occurrences were important sources of raw material for tool making during pre-Columbian times. Glasses originated from these sources were identified in sites distributed over relatively wide areas of Ecuador and Colombia. Only a few systematic studies on obsidians in other sectors were carried out. Nevertheless, very singular glasses have been recognised in South America, such as Macusanite (Peru) and obsidian Quiron (Argentina), which are being proposed as additional reference materials for FT dating. Analyses of tephra beds interstratified with sedimentary deposits revealed the performance of FT dating in tephrochronological studies. A remarkable example is the famous deposit outcropping at Farola Monte Hermoso, near Bahia Blanca (Buenos Aires Province), described for the first time by the middle of the 19th century by Charles Darwin. Considering the large number of volcanic glasses that were recognised in volcanic complexes and in sedimentary series, South America is a very promising region for the application of FT dating. The examples given above show that this technique may yield important results in different disciplinary fields

  16. Estimating the price elasticity for demand for electricity by sector in South Africa

    Roula Inglesi-Lotz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses electricity consumption patterns in South Africa in an attempt to understand and identify the roots of the current electricity crisis. This is done by investigating various economic sectors’ responses to price changes using panel data for the period 1993–2004. Positive and statistically significant price elasticities over this period were found for the transport (rail and commercial sectors while there are positive, but small and statistically insignificant responses to price changes in the agriculture and mining sectors. Only the industrial sector responded to changes in electricity prices according to theory, namely illustrating negative demand elasticities. This sector, however, dominates electricity consumption resulting in aggregate demand elasticities that are negative. These results explain, in part, the current electricity crisis. Given the historic low level of electricity prices in conjunction with, on the whole, a real price decline, i.e. price increases lower than the inflation rate; there was no major incentive to reduce electricity consumption and/or to be efficient. This result supports the notion that prices do have an important signalling effect in the economy. Hence, the electricity prices should be considered not only from an economic growth or social vantage point, but also from a supply and technocratic perspective, which includes environmental factors such as CO2-emissions. Prices should not be determined without considering the system-wide implications thereof.

  17. Managerial competencies of hospital managers in South Africa: a survey of managers in the public and private sectors

    Pillay Rubin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa has large public and private sectors and there is a common perception that public sector hospitals are inefficient and ineffective while the privately owned and managed hospitals provide superior care and are more sustainable. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between the two sectors. This study aims to ascertain the skills and competency levels of hospital managers in South Africa and to determine whether there are any significant differences in competency levels between managers in the different sectors. Methods A survey using a self administered questionnaire was conducted among hospital managers in South Africa. Respondents were asked to rate their proficiency with seven key functions that they perform. These included delivery of health care, planning, organizing, leading, controlling, legal and ethical, and self-management. Ratings were based on a five point Likert scale ranging from very low skill level to very high skill level. Results The results show that managers in the private sector perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public sector colleagues in most of the management facets. Public sector managers were also more likely than their private sector colleagues to report that they required further development and training. Conclusion The findings confirm our supposition that there is a lack of management capacity within the public sector in South Africa and that there is a significant gap between private and public sectors. It provides evidence that there is a great need for further development of managers, especially those in the public sector. The onus is therefore on administrators and those responsible for management education and training to identify managers in need of development and to make available training that is contextually relevant in terms of design and delivery.

  18. South-East Region in Bulgaria: Economic Performance and Key Sectors Analysis

    Antoaneta GOLEMANOVA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempts to provide insight into the economicperformance of the South-east region (SER of Bulgaria by presenting quantitativerelationships between sectors in the regional economy. Methodologically it is basedon the construction of the regional Input–Output model. It was carried out troughapplying the non-servey GRIT technique, based on Flegg & Webber locationquotient (2000. The dirived Rasmussen & Hirschman backward linkages andMattas & Shrestha input-output elasticities from the model enable to identify thekey economic sectors within the region. This could be considered as a starting pointfor the future impact assesment of different EU policies, as well as designing ofbetter regional development strategies, assuring better economic performance.

  19. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...

  20. South Asian American Perspectives on Overweight, Obesity, and the Relationship Between Weight and Health

    Tang, Joyce W.; Mason, Maryann; Kushner, Robert F.; Tirodkar, Manasi A.; Khurana, Neerja; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Compared with other racial groups, South Asian adults develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a lower body mass index (BMI). Perceptions of weight and the effect of weight on health can influence weight-loss attempts but are not well described in this population. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions of weight appropriateness and the effect of weight on health among South Asian Americans. Methods We recruited 75 South Asian American adults from a si...

  1. Is family-friendly policy (FFP) working in the private sector of South Korea?

    Kang, Young-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS), I investigated the impact of family-friendly policies (FFPs) on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in the private sector of South Korea. Paid leave, childcare leave, and support for housing are positively related to both job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Sick leave is positively related to organizational commitment. However, subsidized family event cost is a marginally significant predictor of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, the relationships between subsidized childcare cost and employee attitudes were not supported. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  2. Boot-camps, facilitators for innovation in the American nuclear sector

    Martinez Sancho, L.; Avrin, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    One of the first Nuclear Innovation Boot-camps was organized by the Berkeley University in august 2016, its aim was to develop innovation in nuclear technology through a collective approach in which people from different sectors share information and knowledge. The rules to follow come from the EFICA method: first, no censorship during the 'construction' phase, any idea is welcome; secondly, the more ideas, the more likely to get a relevant one; thirdly, unrealistic ideas can be turned into realistic ideas more often than expected so participants have to be imaginative; and fourthly, favor discussions in which ideas from different participants combine and generate new ideas. The Breakthrough Institute has made 5 propositions to favour innovation in the American nuclear sector: 1) to reform the certification process so that small companies can take part into it; 2) to make public laboratory equipment available to private enterprises; 3) to increase the public financing of research; 4) to let the private sector select the most appropriate technology even if there are public funds in the process. (A.C.)

  3. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes. Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  4. Prospects for the development of the South American methanol industry

    Motilal, R.

    1995-01-01

    The industry entered 1994 with positive market conditions and became increasingly robust as consumers mobilized for the anticipated needs of the second phase of the Clean Air Act. These conditions were reinforced by structural changes taking place in the industry the prime result being the emergence of a single marketer as the dominant force in world trade. In 1995 however, the drawdown of stockpiles of MTBE and methanol accumulated earlier, created conditions of excess as the industry continued to run at nearly full capacity and as opt outs from the reformulated gasoline program dampened the rate of MTBE consumption. The historical forces that attend market cycles on its way up by exerting stickiness upward also contrived to accelerate prices on their way down. Market pricing in the methanol industry, as in other commodities is set largely by the incremental molecules entering the market place. Accordingly, the terms and conditions of the transactions covering traded volumes represent a major influence on market pricing. The major portion of traded volumes are sourced from offshore locations where the domestic market is small in comparison to the production capacities. The South American region is one such strategic offshore location on which increasing emphasis must be placed, if any realistic prognosis of the future direction of the industry is to be made. It is in this context, that this paper attempts to review the underlying factors which led to the rapid growth of the major methanol producing countries in South America and to emphasize the potential for continued development of this region and its strategic importance to the global methanol industry both as a major source of production and as a significant force in the world methanol trade

  5. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Resveratrol, phenolic antioxidants, and saccharides in South American red wines

    Osorio-Macías DE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Osorio-Macías,1,2 Pamela Vásquez,3 Cristhian Carrasco,3 Bjorn Bergenstahl,1 J Mauricio Peñarrieta2 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Natural Sciences, 3Institute of Research and Development of Chemical Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA, La Paz, Bolivia Abstract: Wine is an important beverage with a long tradition, and its moderate consumption may be considered beneficial for human health. Although there are many studies regarding phenolic compounds in wines, there is a lack of information about antioxidants and phenolic content in South American wines. In this study, 35 South American red wines from four different countries, vintages 2004–2013, purchased at retail stores in La Paz, Bolivia, were studied. Resveratrol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods, total phenolic content (TPH, total flavonoids (TF, and main saccharides were assessed using the well-established spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The results ranged from 4 to 24 mmol/L for TAC determined by ABTS method and 14 to 43 mmol/L for TAC determined by FRAP method, 1600 to 3500 mg gallic acid equivalents/L for TPH, and 2 to 6 mmol catechin equivalents /L for TF. The resveratrol content ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg/L. Saccharides, glucose, and fructose content ranged from 0.4 to 10 g/L, 1.4 to 8.6 g/L, and 0.2 to 12 g/L, respectively. There was a high correlation among the different methods. The results showed that some wines growing at high altitude (>1500 meters above the sea level have higher amounts of TAC and phenolic content, including resveratrol, while non-varietal wines showed the lowest values. It was also observed that the saccharose

  7. The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa

    Laura M. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West and then spread to Asia and Latin America, this is unlikely to continue. With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance.

  8. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005-2010.

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6-2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape Province (rural). In that financial year

  9. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    Cline Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation.

  10. On the use of the South-American neutron monitors

    Cordaro, E. G. [Santiago de Chile Univ., Santiago de Chile (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Dept. de Fisica, Lewis Research Center; Storini, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Rome (Italy); Rome Univ. Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica, Raggi Cosmici

    2001-10-01

    Cosmic ray scientific community deserves special attention to the Chacaltaya site for its over 5 km altitude. In this site, a neutron monitor of the IGY type operated from 1960 to 1969, and the one of the NM-64 type since 1966 (16.31{sup 0}S, 291.85{sup 0}E, height: about 5200 m a.s.l.). It was discussed the relevance of such kind of detector when it is integrated with the other South-American neutron monitors: a) LARC (62.20{sup 0}S, 301.04{sup 0}E, height: 40 m a.s.l., King George Island, Antarctica; operating since 1991); b) Los Cerrillos (33.45{sup 0}S, 289.40{sup 0}E, height: 570 m a. s. l., Santiago, Chile; to be installed in the near future); c) Huancayo (12.03{sup 0}S, 284.67{sup 0}E, height: 3400 m a.s.l., Huancayo, Peru; hoping to recover its acquired data).

  11. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  12. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  13. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Schneider, Alexsandra; Henegar, Corneliu; Day, Kenneth; Absher, Devin; Napolitano, Constanza; Silveira, Leandro; David, Victor A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Barsh, Gregory S; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species), achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  14. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  16. Integrated Financial Management Information Systems: Guidelines for effective implementation by the public sector of South Africa

    Christoffel J. Hendriks

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated Financial Management Information Systems (IFMIS can improve public sector management by providing real-time financial information to managers in order to enhance their decision-making capabilities. The South African Public Service is currently busy with the implementation of an IFMIS. However, the implementation of such a project has proved to be a very demanding undertaking and has not been met with resounding success.Objectives: The research was conducted in order to identify the challenges and risks that are involved in the implementation of the IFMIS in South Africa. After identification of the challenges and risks, solutions or guidelines were developed that may make the implementation more successful.Method: The methodology that was used is that of a literature study where theories were explored and used to solve a research problem. Based on the theoretical research, solutions and guidelines were developed to solve challenges and risks experienced.Results: The results indicated that there are a number of challenges involved with the implementation of an IFMIS. A set of best practice guidelines was developed that may make the implementation more successful.Conclusion: The sheer size and complexity of an IFMIS poses significant challenges and a number of risks to the implementation process. There are, however, critical success factors or best practices that can be used for the project to succeed. It is recommended that these best practices be used by the South African Public Service.

  17. Prosopis pod production: comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiin, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e., P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Trees in the driest irrigation treatment had the greatest pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest. 32 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  18. 3. South American symposium on isotope geology. Extended abstracts

    2001-10-01

    This publication include papers in the fields on Methodology, thermochronology, and geochronology; Evolution of cratonic South America; Magmatic processes; Environmental geology, hydrogeology, isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology; Economic Geology and Evolution of the Andean margin of South America

  19. Interhemispheric ionospheric coupling at the American sector during low solar activity. 2

    Foerster, M.; Jakowski, N.

    1986-01-01

    A physical-numerical model of the coupled system ionosphere - plasmasphere - magnetically conjugated ionosphere is presented and applied to a co-rotating tube of plasma at L = 1.5 in the American sector (Cuba). Numerical simulations are carried out for low solar activity and quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observational data of Faraday content and ionosonde measurements of both solstices of 1976 (Jakowski et al., paper I) are compared with calculations using different patterns of neutral horizontal winds. Reasonable meridional wind patterns provide an annual effect of plasmapheric tube content. During December solstice the higher tube content and the convenient behaviour of meridional neutral wind in both hemispheres causes more intense nighttime fluxes into the winter ionosphere. (author)

  20. South Africa's national REDD+ initiative: assessing the potential of the forestry sector on climate change mitigation

    Rahlao, Sebataolo; Mantlana, Brian; Winkler, Harald; Knowles, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) is regarded by its proponents as one of the more efficient and cost effective ways to mitigate climate change. There was further progress toward the implementation of this mechanism at the 16th Conference of Parties (COP) in Cancun in December 2010. Many countries in southern African, including South Africa, have not been integrated (do not participate) into the UN-REDD+ programme, probably due to their low forest cover and national rates of deforestation. This paper discusses the potential contribution of REDD+ activities to the South African Government's pledge of reducing national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 34% below business as usual by 2020. A number of issues such as complex land tenure system, limited forest cover and other conflicting environmental issues present challenges for REDD+ in South Africa. Despite these genuine concerns, REDD+ remains a practical strategy to contribute to climate change mitigation for South Africa. The paper raises the need for development of a variety of emission reduction programmes – not only in the energy sector. The paper also assesses several national options and opportunities towards a working REDD+ mechanism. It concludes by identifying key mechanisms for moving forward to prepare for REDD+ actions in South Africa and raises the urgent need for national dialogue between stakeholders and institutions to evaluate the feasibility of making use of the mechanism in South Africa and the Southern African Development Cooperation (SADC) region. The paper further addresses possible synergies and conflicts between the national climate change and forestry policies towards REDD+ development. It suggests that REDD+ should be part of the national dialogue on policy to respond to climate change and should be integrated into the national flagship programmes that the national climate change white paper seeks to implement. A multiple

  1. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    R M�ller

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the development of cultural identity and Protestant Christianity by� focusing on these issues in the histories of the Afrikaner and the white American Southerner in comparative perspective.�

  2. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  3. Abnormal evening vertical plasma drift and effects on ESF and EIA over Brazil-South Atlantic sector during the 30 October 2003 superstorm

    Abdu, M. A.; de Paula, E. R.; Batista, I. S.; Reinisch, B. W.; Matsuoka, M. T.; Camargo, P. O.; Veliz, O.; Denardini, C. M.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Kherani, E. A.; de Siqueira, P. M.

    2008-07-01

    Equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts, spread F and anomaly responses, in the south American longitude sector during the superstorm of 30 October 2003, are analyzed using data from an array of instruments consisting of Digisondes, a VHF radar, GPS TEC and scintillation receivers in Brazil, and a Digisonde and a magnetometer in Jicamarca, Peru. Prompt penetrating eastward electric field of abnormally large intensity drove the F layer plasma up at a velocity ˜1200 ms-1 during post dusk hours in the eastern sector over Brazil. The equatorial anomaly was intensified and expanded poleward while the development of spread F/plasma bubble irregularities and GPS signal scintillations were weaker than their quiet time intensity. Significantly weaker F region response over Jicamarca presented a striking difference in the intensity of prompt penetration electric field between Peru and eastern longitudes of Brazil. The enhanced post dusk sector vertical drift over Brazil is attributed to electro-dynamics effects arising energetic particle precipitation in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). These extraordinary results and their longitudinal differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  4. Towards the development of a GHG emissions baseline for the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sector, South Africa

    Luanne B. Stevens

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC and as such is required to report on Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from the Energy, Transport, Waste and the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU sectors every two years in national inventories. The AFOLU sector is unique in that it comprises both sources and sinks for GHGs. Emissions from the AFOLU sector are estimated to contribute a quarter of the total global greenhouse gas emissions. GHG emissions sources from agriculture include enteric fermentation; manure management; manure deposits on pastures, and soil fertilization. Emissions sources from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU include anthropogenic land use activities such as: management of croplands, forests and grasslands and changes in land use cover (the conversion of one land use to another. South Africa has improved the quantification of AFOLU emissions and the understanding of the dynamic relationship between sinks and sources over the past decade through projects such as the 2010 GHG Inventory, the Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA, and the National Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Assessment (NTCSA. These projects highlight key mitigation opportunities in South Africa and discuss their potentials. The problem remains that South Africa does not have an emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector against which the mitigation potentials can be measured. The AFOLU sector as a result is often excluded from future emission projections, giving an incomplete picture of South Africa’s mitigation potential. The purpose of this project was to develop a robust GHG emissions baseline for the AFOLU sector which will enable South Africa to project emissions into the future and demonstrate its contribution towards the global goal of reducing emissions.

  5. Review of carbon dioxide capture and storage with relevance to the South African power sector

    Khalid Osman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and their association with climate change are currently a major discussion point in government and amongst the public at large in South Africa, especially because of the country's heavy reliance on fossil fuels for electricity production. Here we review the current situation regarding CO2 emissions in the South African power generation sector, and potential process engineering solutions to reduce these emissions. Estimates of CO2 emissions are presented, with the main sources of emissions identified and benchmarked to other countries. A promising mid-term solution for mitigation of high CO2 emissions, known as CO2 capture and storage, is reviewed. The various aspects of CO2 capture and storage technology and techniques for CO2 capture from pulverised coal power plants are discussed; these techniques include processes such as gas absorption, hydrate formation, cryogenic separation, membrane usage, sorbent usage, enzyme-based systems and metal organic frameworks. The latest power plant designs which optimise CO2 capture are also discussed and include integrated gasification combined cycle, oxy-fuel combustion, integrated gasification steam cycle and chemical looping combustion. Each CO2 capture technique and plant modification is presented in terms of the conceptual idea, the advantages and disadvantages, and the extent of development and applicability in a South African context. Lastly, CO2 transportation, storage, and potential uses are also presented. The main conclusions of this review are that gas absorption using solvents is currently most applicable for CO2 capture and that enhanced coal bed methane recovery could provide the best disposal route for CO2 emissions mitigation in South Africa.

  6. The Impacts of Atmospheric Moisture Transportation on Warm Sector Torrential Rains over South China

    Shuixin Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Warm Sector Torrential Rains (WSTRs occurring during the outbreak of the monsoon in May of 2015 in South China were studied using surface automatic weather observational data, sounding, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis interim Data (ERA-interim, satellite and radar data, and a four-level nested grid simulation with the finest grid spacing of 1 km using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF. The results show that the extreme precipitation event, which had maximum rainfall amounts of 406.3 mm in 10 h and 542.2 mm in 24 h on 20 May 2015, and was characterized by its rapid development and its highly concentrated and long duration of heavy rainfall, occurred over the trumpet-shaped topography of Haifeng. The simulation results indicated that the South China Sea (SCS atmospheric moisture transportation (AMT was crucial in triggering the precipitation of the WSTR over South China. The simulation of the WSTR was conducted by using the total energy-mass flux scheme (TEMF, which provided a reasonable simulation of the circulation and the vertical profile in the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL as well as the estimation of the precipitation. The AMT, which extends from the Beibu Gulf and the South China Sea to the coastal areas and provides Shanwei with a considerable amount of moisture in the boundary layer, and the effects within the PBL, which include orographic effects, an extra low-level jet, and a high-energy tongue characterized by a high-potential pseudo-equivalent temperature tongue with a warm and moist southwesterly wind, were the important large-scale factors causing the WSTR.

  7. Energy Insecurity in South America: Network Development and Sectoral Integration in Chile and Peru - CERI Studies No. 214

    Artigas, Alvaro

    2015-10-01

    The South American continent has experienced a robust economic growth presently overshadowed by an uneven energy integration that fails to meet both an ever-growing industrial and metropolitan demand. Several integration mechanisms co-exist, but a poor integration layout threatens the energy security of the region and individual countries. Several factors contribute to this. Firstly, the very template of regional integration has failed to deliver a valid set of supranational coordination mechanisms aimed at coordinating and sorting out disputes among individual countries. Secondly, national States tie security to self-sufficiency in the face of mutual distrust, thus rendering potential advantages of market and networks integration a less desirable choice. The example of Chile and Peru integration drive reveals many of these dynamics while showing at the same time the windfalls of a transversal sectoral coordination over diplomatic exchange by individual states. What is the potential for an alternative template where the State will play a less intrusive role while consigning territorial disagreements backstage? (author)

  8. Fieldwork Methodology in South American Maritime Archaeology: A Critical Review

    Argüeso, Amaru; Ciarlo, Nicolás C.

    2017-12-01

    In archaeology, data obtained from the analysis of material evidence (i.e., the archaeological record) from extensive excavations have been a significant means for the ultimate development of interpretations about human life in the past. Therefore, the methodological procedures and tools employed during fieldwork are of crucial importance due to their effect on the information likely to be recovered. In the case of maritime archaeology, the development of rigorous methods and techniques allowed for reaching outcomes as solid as those from the work performed on land. These improvements constituted one of the principal supports—if not, the most important pillar—for its acceptance as a scientific field of study. Over time, the growing diversity of sites under study (e.g., shipwrecks, ports, dockyards, and prehistoric settlements) and the underwater environments encountered made it clear that there was a need for the application of specific methodological criteria, in accordance with the particularities of the sites and of each study (e.g., the research aims and the available resources). This article presents some ideas concerning the methodologies used in South American investigations that have exhibited a strong emphasis on the analysis of historical shipwrecks (the sixteenth to twentieth centuries). Based on a state-of-the-knowledge review of these research projects, in particular where excavations were conducted, the article focuses on the details of the main strategies adopted and results achieved. The ideas proposed in this article can be useful as a starting point for future activities of surveying, recording, and excavating shipwrecks.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes

    José L. O. Birindelli

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae, as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was considered sister to Doradoidea plus Mochokidae. Within the Auchenipteridae, the results support the monophyly of the Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. The latter is composed of Tocantinsia, and four monophyletic units, two small with Asterophysusand Liosomadoras, and Pseudotatiaand Pseudauchenipterus, respectively, and two large ones with the remaining genera. Within the Doradidae, parsimony analysis recovered Wertheimeriaas sister to Kalyptodoras, composing a clade sister to all remaining doradids, which include Franciscodorasand two monophyletic groups: Astrodoradinae (plus Acanthodorasand Agamyxis and Doradinae (new arrangement. Wertheimerinae, new subfamily, is described for Kalyptodoras and Wertheimeria. Doradinae is corroborated as monophyletic and composed of four groups, one including Centrochirand Platydoras, the other with the large-size species of doradids (except Oxydoras, another with Orinocodoras, Rhinodoras, and Rhynchodoras, and another with Oxydorasplus all the fimbriate-barbel doradids. Based on the results, the species of Opsodoras are included in Hemidoras; and Tenellus, new genus, is described to include Nemadoras trimaculatus, N. leporhinusand Nemadoras ternetzi. Due to conflicting hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, and Franciscodoras, these are considered as incertae sedisin Doradidae. All suprageneric taxa of the Doradoidea are diagnosed based on synapomorphic morphological characteristics.

  10. Excerpt from The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico

    James H. Cox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from James H. Cox, The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from University of Minnesota Press.

  11. Strategic alignment of the South African retail sector with the national development plan

    Roger B Mason

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of the strategy alignment of the South African retail sector with the National Development Plan (NDP governance values and objectives. The paper considers the commercial realities which form the framework for retail decision-makers when they address the challenges in aligning their business growth strategies with the regulatory framework of a capable, developmental state. Within that context, the outcomes of a retail stakeholder alignment study of the NDP strategy themes are analysed. The method involved a policy survey of a purposive sample of retail business and governance stakeholders. The survey findings reflect retailer alignment with many NDP regulatory and ‘active citizenry’ strategies, but with strong beliefs that others are not the retail business sector’s governance responsibility.

  12. Changing approaches to financing and financial management in the South African local government sector

    D Sing

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Sections 152 and 153 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996 have given local government a developmental mandate. Local government has a constitutional obligation to participate in national and provincial development programmes. Local government should become a powerful development catalyst in collaboration with other spheres of government, the non-governmental sector and the local citizenry. It has to address social, economic and infrastructural backlogs and inequalities in a stable and sustainable manner to ensure developmental outcomes are reached. Different financing and financial management policies, strategies, structures, processes and procedures have to be instituted with a view to transformation and innovation. Constant and consistent monitoring, analysis and evaluation of these policies, strategies structures, processes and procedures should ensure these constitutional imperatives.

  13. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging ?Urban? South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  14. Heath Sector Network Governance and State-building in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Bwimana, Aembe

    2017-12-01

    Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However, the role of these interactions in creating a governance network in the health sector has been underexplored. Using data from 18 months of qualitative field research, this study aimed to explore governance networks in DRC's health sector, examining how multiple stakeholders work to manage the health system and how the resulting governance network has been relevant for the state-building process. The findings demonstrate that the health sector in South Kivu is emerging as an arena of networked governance based on active partnerships between state institutions and non-state actors. Interactions between state and non-state actors account for the persistence of the health sector in a setting characterized by state weakness. However, networked governance does not function optimally, because, although non-state interventions fill the void where the state falls short, the DRC state has faced the challenge of interacting with partners with fragmented and horizontally competing agendas. Although weak, the shadow of state authority is present in the arena of stakeholders' interactions, as the state plays a determining role by providing a regulatory framework. Overall, the findings show that the interactive engagement of non-state actors contributes to improving institutional capacity through these actors' engagement with state institutions for health system management and institutional development. However, although networked health sector governance does contribute to state capacity, it is difficult to assess the real influence of these interactions on the state-building process in a context of critical fragility, where coordination and alignment have been problematic. © The

  15. A comparison of private and public sector intensive care unit infrastructure in South Africa.

    Mahomed, S; Sturm, A W; Moodley, P

    2017-11-27

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to govern the building and registration of private hospitals, and until recently equivalent regulations were not available for public hospitals. To assess and compare the compliance of ICUs in the private and public sectors with the R158 regulations. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the infrastructure of 25 private sector and 6 public sector ICUs in eThekwini Health District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We used the R158 checklist, which was developed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health Private Licensing Unit and Infection Prevention and Control Unit. The aspects covered in the R158 checklist were categorised into the design, general safety and patient services of the ICUs. Most of the ICUs in both sectors met the general safety requirements. There were varying levels of compliance with the design criteria. Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had clinical hand-wash basins in the nurse stations and dirty utility rooms. The majority of the ICUs had the required number of oxygen and electric outlets at the bedside. None of the public ICUs met the light intensity requirement over the bed area. Adequate spacing in ICUs is an issue in many cases. Interventions need to be put in place to ensure that ICUs meet the relevant design standards. There is an urgent need to revise the R158 regulations to reflect current best practices, particularly

  16. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255

  17. Gender, family, and community correlates of mental health in South Asian Americans.

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T

    2009-07-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities.

  18. Ecogeographical Variation in Skull Shape of South-American Canids: Abiotic or Biotic Processes?

    de Moura Bubadué, Jamile; Cáceres, Nilton; Dos Santos Carvalho, Renan; Meloro, Carlo

    Species morphological changes can be mutually influenced by environmental or biotic factors, such as competition. South American canids represent a quite recent radiation of taxa that evolved forms very disparate in phenotype, ecology and behaviour. Today, in the central part of South America there is one dominant large species (the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus ) that directly influence sympatric smaller taxa via interspecific killing. Further south, three species of similar sized foxes ( Lycalopex spp.) share the same habitats. Such unique combination of taxa and geographic distribution makes South American dogs an ideal group to test for the simultaneous impact of climate and competition on phenotypic variation. Using geometric morphometrics, we quantified skull size and shape of 431 specimens belonging to the eight extant South American canid species: Atelocynus microtis , Cerdocyon thous , Ch. brachyurus , Lycalopex culpaeus , L. griseus , L. gymnocercus , L. vetulus and Speothos venaticus . South American canids are significantly different in both skull size and shape. The hypercarnivorous bush dog is mostly distinct in shape from all the other taxa while a degree of overlap in shape-but not size-occurs between species of the genus Lycalopex . Both climate and competition impacts interspecific morphological variation. We identified climatic adaptations as the main driving force of diversification for the South American canids. Competition has a lower degree of impact on their skull morphology although it might have played a role in the past, when canid community was richer in morphotypes.

  19. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  20. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Sa' ad, Suleiman, E-mail: suleimansaad@gmail.co [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences.

  1. Underlying energy demand trends in South Korean and Indonesian aggregate whole economy and residential sectors

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2011-01-01

    This paper used annual time series data over the period 1973-2008 to estimate energy demand functions for South Korea and Indonesian aggregated whole economy and Residential sectors. Furthermore, the underlying energy demand trend (UEDT), which may be non-linear and reflects not only technical progress, which usually produces greater energy efficiency, but also other factors such as changes in consumer tastes and the economic structure that may be working in the opposite direction, is also examined in the paper. In estimating the price and income elasticities, the study applies Harvey's structural time series approach where a stochastic trend is used as a proxy for UEDT. Empirical evidence from this study reveals that the estimated long-run income and price elasticities range from 0.58 to 1.15 and from -0.09 to -066, respectively. Furthermore the stochastic form for the UEDT is preferred for both countries and sectors, suggesting a wide variation in the exogenous effects of energy saving technical progress in addition to other pertinent exogenous factors such as economic structure, consumer preferences, and socio-economic influences. (author)

  2. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    Pillay Rubin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context

  3. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors.

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-02-20

    Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations and values systems of nurses is more

  4. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  5. Selected Processes in SMEs, Targeting to South Bohemia Region and Trade Sector

    Monika Březinová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Process management plays an important role in making up the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises. This issue is researched in the long term at the Economic University of South Bohemia. The paper presents a comparison of trends in the average level of functioning of core processes (selling, human resources, marketing and finance in the South Bohemian Region MSP for 3 years in the sector of trade. The first data was obtained under the grant GAJU 068/2010/S in 2010, and the second group of data was obtained from the grant GAJU 039/2013/S and GAJU 079/2013/S in 2013. From all the chosen processes within the research sample, significant changes can be shown only in the processes of human resources management and production where improvement of functioning of the processes was achieved. In the research project were used secondary data (financial statements of SMEs, who took part in the research and primary data which were obtained primarily through quantitative methods questionnaire supplemented by qualitative method of in-depth interviews.

  6. Critical success factors for business intelligence in the South African financial services sector

    Lionel Dawson

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to determine which CSFs are the most important in the financial services sector of South Africa. Method: The authors used a Delphi-technique approach with key project stakeholders in three BI projects in different business units of a leading South African financial services group. Results: Authors regarded CSF categories of ‘committed management support and champion’,‘business vision’, ‘user involvement’ and ‘data quality’ as the most critical for BI success. Conclusions: Researchers in the BI field should note that the ranking of CSFs in this study only correlate partially with those a European study uncovered. However, the five factors the authors postulated in their theoretical framework ranked in the seven highest CSFs. Therefore, they provide a very strong validation of the framework. Research in other industries and other emerging economies may discover similar differences and partial similarities. Of special interest would be the degree of correlation between this study and future, and similar emerging market studies. Practitioners, especially BI project managers, would do well to check that they address the CSFs the authors uncovered before undertaking BI projects.

  7. Community/hospital indicators in South African public sector mental health services.

    Lund, Crick; Flisher, Alan J

    2003-12-01

    The need to balance resources between community and hospital-based mental health services in the post-deinstitutionalisation era has been well-documented. However, few indicators have been developed to monitor the relationship between community and hospital services, in either developed or developing countries. There is a particular need for such indicators in the South African context, with its history of inequitable services based in custodial institutions under apartheid, and a new policy that proposes the development of more equitable community-based care. Indicators are needed to measure the distribution of resources and the relative utilisation of community and hospital-based services during the reform process. These indicators are potentially useful for assessing the implementation of policy objectives over time. To develop and document community/hospital indicators in public sector mental health services in South Africa. A questionnaire was distributed to provincial mental health coordinators requesting numbers of full-time equivalent (FTE) staff who provide mental health care at all service levels, annual patient admissions to hospitals and annual patient attendances at ambulatory care facilities. The information was supplemented by consultations with mental health coordinators in each of the 9 provinces. Population data were obtained from preliminary findings of the 1996 census. The community/hospital indicator measuring staff distribution was defined as the ratio of staff employed in community settings to all staff, expressed as a percentage. The community/hospital indicator measuring patient service utilisation was defined as the ratio of the annual ambulatory care attendance rate per 100,000 population to the sum of this rate and the annual hospital admission rate per 100,000 population, expressed as a percentage. Of psychiatric public sector staff, 25% are located in community settings in South Africa (provincial range: 11-70%). If hospital outpatient

  8. Use of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in eight Latin American Countries between 1999 and 2009

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Mol, Peter G. M.; Verdijk, Jonneke; Stichele, Robert H. Vander; Taxis, Katja

    OBJECTIVE: To assesses the safety and rationale of antibacterial fixed-dose combinations in the private sector in Latin America and determine the extent of their use. METHODS: Analysis of FDCs was based on retail sales data for eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia,

  9. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    This article examines the treatment of racial labels in monolingual English dictionaries of South Africa. Considering past controversies regarding racist language in Afrikaans dictionaries and considering the changing role of English in democratic South Africa, we can expect that English dictionaries will be more carefully ...

  10. Network companies: a new phenomenon in South American farming

    Clasadonte, L.; Vries, de E.; Trienekens, J.H.; Arbeletche, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – South America is an important agricultural producer. Farming is characterized by the availability of vast areas of land, a reasonable climate and low cost. These conditions have led South America to be an important supplier of agricultural goods on the world market. Traditionally farmers

  11. Can organisations learn without political leadership? The case of public sector reform among South African Home Affairs officials

    Segatti, A.; Hoag, C.; Vigneswaran, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the transformation of "institutional culture" in bureaucratic agencies. This is explored in the context of post-Apartheid South African public sector reform, and more particularly that of migration management within the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The paper assesses the

  12. Applying a private sector capitation model to the management of type 2 diabetes in the South African public sector: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Volmink, Heinrich C; Bertram, Melanie Y; Jina, Ruxana; Wade, Alisha N; Hofman, Karen J

    2014-09-30

    Diabetes mellitus contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease burden in South Africa. The proposed National Health Insurance system provides an opportunity to consider the development of a cost-effective capitation model of care for patients with type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was to determine the potential cost-effectiveness of adapting a private sector diabetes management programme (DMP) to the South African public sector. Cost-effectiveness analysis was undertaken with a public sector model of the DMP as the intervention and a usual practice model as the comparator. Probabilistic modelling was utilized for incremental cost-effectiveness ratio analysis with life years gained selected as the outcome. Secondary data were used to design the model while cost information was obtained from various sources, taking into account public sector billing. Modelling found an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per life year gained (LYG) for the DMP against the usual practice model. This fell substantially below the Willingness-to-Pay threshold with bootstrapping analysis. Furthermore, a national implementation of the intervention could potentially result in an estimated cumulative gain of 96 997 years of life (95% CI 71 073 years - 113 994 years). Probabilistic modelling found the capitation intervention to be cost-effective, with an ICER of ZAR 8 356 (USD 1018) per LYG. Piloting the service within the public sector is recommended as an initial step, as this would provide data for more accurate economic evaluation, and would also allow for qualitative analysis of the programme.

  13. Does the regulation of the insurance industry have a pernicious effect on innovation by the sector in South Africa?

    Elton Zingwevu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial regulation could be a double edged sword in that despite its major thrust being that to secure the financial sector and bring about financial stability; it might have the unintended consequence of stifling innovation by the sector. We investigate the nexus between financial regulation and innovation by specifically focusing on the insurance industry in South Africa. We demonstrate that there are plethora pieces of legislation that govern the insurance industry in South Africa. As such this has driven the cost of compliance to unsustainable levels thereby curtailing the spending by companies on innovation. We thus would like to caution the policy makers’ that this “heavy-touch” regulatory mode is having a pernicious effect on research and development by the insurance sector. As such we encourage them to embrace the “light-touch” regulatory mode whereby self-regulation and moral suasion are other avenues to be considered.

  14. The water economy of South American desert rodents: from integrative to molecular physiological ecology.

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Gallardo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Rodents from arid and semi-arid habitats live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of free water is limited, or scarce, thus forcing these rodents to deal with the problem of water conservation. The response of rodents to unproductive desert environments and water deficits has been intensively investigated in many deserts of the world. However, current understanding of the cellular, systemic and organismal physiology of water economy relies heavily on short-term, laboratory-oriented experiments, which usually focus on responses at isolated levels of biological organization. In addition, studies in small South American mammals are scarce. Indeed xeric habitats have existed in South America for a long time and it is intriguing why present day South American desert rodents do not show the wide array of adaptive traits to desert life observed for rodents on other continents. Several authors have pointed out that South American desert rodents lack physiological and energetic specialization for energy and water conservation, hypothesizing that their success is based more on behavioral and ecological strategies. We review phenotypic flexibility and physiological diversity in water flux rate, urine osmolality, and expression of water channels in South American desert-dwelling rodents. As far as we know, this is the first review of integrative studies at cellular, systemic and organismal levels. Our main conclusion is that South American desert rodents possess structural as well as physiological systems for water conservation, which are as remarkable as those found in "classical" rodents inhabiting other desert areas of the world.

  15. African American Medical Culture in the Antebellum South: As Remembered in the WPA Narratives

    Barber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...

  16. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  17. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    Hong, Young P

    2008-01-01

    .... To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society...

  18. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    Hennie

    Studies on violence in the workplace and on bullying in. South Africa are .... famatory, constituting bullying, harassment or discrimination ..... bullying effectively, and do not guide educators on ... Prevention and Management of Sexual Violence.

  19. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  20. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.

  1. Estimation of Economic Value of Use of Wastewater at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran Province

    Mohammad Reza Sasouli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate use of non-conventional water resources including surface runoff and sewage is produced an issue that has emerged as a necessity particularly in Iran. This thread has been created specifically in Tehran. The current study was aimed to investigate the economic value of sewage at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran with produced approach in the contaminated and clean area. From the results, the average yield of wheat production among the farmers from polluted water was 376 kg ha-1 more than farmers who used clean water. Moreover, the economic value of water was 110 Rials more than farmers who used clean water. According to the results, the total value of wastewater in Tehran in 1405 would be equivalent to 335,480 million Rials. The priorities for interests of irrigation using wastewater from an agricultural perspective suggests that availability and reliability of wastewater than other water sources and low cost of its use is the most important benefit. The next priority result of irrigation with wastewater is increasing crop yield and improving soil fertility. This explains why farmers despite the legal prohibition of the use of untreated sewage continue to utilize this source of irrigation water.

  2. The analysis of labor force participation in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatera, Indonesia

    M. Yusuf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact is that natural rubber has a strategic role as it is one of the commodities industry tropical crops. In addition, it also has important and strategic role in sup-porting the national economy, primarily as a source of livelihood of millions of rub-ber farmers in rural areas. This study analyzed the potential of using family labor in rubber smallholding sector in Banyuasin Regency, South Sumatra Province, Indo-nesia. The total sample used for the study was 280 respondents of households. Data was analyzed using multiple regression analyses. The multiple regression analysis used to identify the determinants of labor force participation decision regarding work in the rubber smallholding in the study area such as rubber production (kg per year per hectare, number of family workers, age of family head, location of dwelling, education of family head, and average years of schooling of family workers. Based on the analysis, only two factors affected significantly family labor force participation outside their smallholdings, namely number of family labor and education of family head.

  3. AN ASSESSMENT OFEMERGING HYBRID PUBLIC-PRIVATEPARTNERSHIPS IN THE ENERGY SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Danielle Nel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The power sectorisone of the greatest beneficiaries of private investment throughpublic-private partnerships (PPPsand project financing structuresglobally.SouthAfrica has adopted a unique approach to renewable energy(REproject finance andpartnership development.This unique approach is referred to as the RenewableEnergy Independent Power ProducerProcurementProgramme(REIPPPP. Theprogramme is implementedthrough IndependentPower Producer(IPP projects.The aimof this article is toassessIPPs as a variant model of PPPs.To this end, thefirst objective is todetermine what type of partnership IPPs constitute. The secondobjective isto gain an understanding of how a variant PPP model can be structured.This research is based on a qualitative research design.Datafrom past researchstudies,comprising66 interviews and 168 interviewsrespectively,weretriangulatedwith current research, including 13 interviews and a conceptual anddocumentary analysis.The findings of the research suggestthatIPPscontribute todiversifying the country’s energy mix;developingREtechnology;infrastructure,local economic,andgreen skills development;and stimulating socio-economicdevelopment. This research is unique as the concept of hybridity or hybrid PPPs isan unexplored area in public sector management.Hybrid PPPs represent a uniqueapproach topublic-privateprocurementfor energy partnerships.The hybrid PPPmodel servespublic interest and is crucial to the country’s energy transition

  4. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  5. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this. PMID:25903057

  6. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  7. Energy sector integration for low carbon development in Greater Mekong sub-region: Towards a model of South-South cooperation

    Zhai, Yongping

    2010-09-15

    The Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) in Southeast Asia has embarked on a roadmap of power interconnection and expanded energy sector cooperation. An Asian development bank committed study using Model of Energy Supply Systems Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE) assessed the impacts of various scenarios, the results indicate that GMS integration will help these countries to achieve low carbon and sustainable development. The article suggests that the experience of GMS cooperation be made a model for South-South cooperation in the global effort to fight climate change.

  8. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    Hennie

    stressed (Burton & Mutongwizo, 2009); the educational institution should ... especially in South Africa, where this has claimed the lives of both learners and ... Studies on violence in the workplace and on bullying in ... tives, and to balance the rights of the various parties in a school environment. ...... School social workers'.

  9. Radioactive mineral potential of carbonatites in western parts of the South American shields

    Premoli, C.; Kroonenberg, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    During the last eight years at least six carbonatites or clusters of carbonatites have been discovered in the western parts of the South American cratons. In contrast to the carbonatites of the eastern part of the South American shields, which have been well studied and placed in a tectonic context together with the West African carbonatite provinces, those of the western part of the South American cratons have received litte attention. This paper is a compilation of published and original data on these occurrences, their geology, geochemistry, structural setting and radioactive mineral potential. An exploration strategy is devised based on experiences in this rainforest-clad area and the peculiar genetic aspect of carbonatites. Some details of a possibly new uranium mineral encountered in Cerro Cora carbonatite are given. (author)

  10. The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae)

    Bond, Mariano; Tonni, Eduardo Pedro; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2005-01-01

    The present study includes a review of the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae) in South America. In addition, the authors discuss biogeographic hypotheses regarding the origin of South American tremarctines. The Tremarctinae subfamily is distributed exclusively in America, from Alaska to southern Patagonia. Its biochron comprises the temporal lapse between Late Miocene and recent times; the first record of Tremarctinae in North America corres...

  11. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  12. High-energy physics, the South American way

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics (CLASHEP) was held in Brazil from 23 March to 5 April. With its record-breaking attendance and strong international spirit, CLASHEP is yet another sign of the continent's growing particle physics community.   Participants in the 6th CERN–Latin American School of High-Energy Physics outside the Hotel Porto do Mar, Natal (Brazil), where the School was held. CLASHEP was established in 2001 as a way of engaging young Latin American scientists in the field of particle physics - particularly in the experimental aspects of research. It has played an important role in encouraging Latin American institutes to collaborate with CERN and showing how non-Member-State physicists can work as equals with Member-State nationals. “CLASHEP reflects some of CERN’s guiding policies: enlarging its membership and involving new nations in its programmes,” says Nick Ellis, director of the CERN Schools of High-Ene...

  13. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  14. The World Health Organization's mechanisms for increasing the health sector budget: The South African context.

    Venter, Fouche Hendrik Johannes; Wolfaardt, Jaqueline Elizabeth

    2016-07-04

    South Africa (SA) has limited scope for raising income taxes, and the proposed National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme will necessitate growth in the health sector budget. The NHI White Paper suggests five funding scenarios to meet the expected shortfall. These scenarios are a mixture of a surcharge on taxable income, an increase in value-added tax and a payroll tax. Five alternative options, suggested by the World Health Organization, are interrogated as ways to decrease the general taxation proposed in the White Paper. The five mechanisms (corporate tax, financial transaction levy, and taxes on tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy foods) were chosen based on their fund-raising potential and their mandatory element. A literature review provides the information for a discussion of the potential costs of each mechanism. Within specific assumptions, potential budgetary contribution is compared with the requirement. First, raising corporate tax rates could raise enough funds, but the losses due to capital flight might be too much for the local economy to bear. Second, a levy on currency transactions is unlikely to raise the required resources, even without a probable decrease in the number of transactions. Third, the increase in the tax on tobacco and alcohol would need to be very large, even assuming that consumption patterns would remain unchanged. Lastly, a tax on unhealthy food products is a new idea and could be explored as an option - especially as the SA Treasury has announced its future implementation. Implementing only one of the mechanisms is unlikely to increase available funding sufficiently, but if they are implemented together the welfare-maximising tax rate for each mechanism may be high enough to fulfil the NHI scheme's budgetary requirement, moderating the increases in the tax burden of the SA population.

  15. Application of a multi-criteria analysis approach for decision-making in the energy sector: the case of concentrating solar power in South Africa

    Broughton, EK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current decision-making processes that are involved in Environmental Impact Assessments in the energy sector of South Africa suffer from, amongst others, the lack of coherence and the integration of the opinions of decision...

  16. The evolutionary history of Lygodactylus lizards in the South American open diagonal.

    Lanna, Flávia M; Werneck, Fernanda P; Gehara, Marcelo; Fonseca, Emanuel M; Colli, Guarino R; Sites, Jack W; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Garda, Adrian A

    2018-06-12

    The Pleistocenic Arc Hypothesis (PAH) posits that South American Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTF) were interconnected during Pleistocene glacial periods, enabling the expansion of species ranges that were subsequently fragmented in interglacial periods, promoting speciation. The lizard genus Lygodactylus occurs in Africa, Madagascar, and South America. Compared to the high diversity of African Lygodactylus, only two species are known to occur in South America, L. klugei and L. wetzeli, distributed in SDTFs and the Chaco, respectively. We use a phylogenetic approach based on mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (RAG-1) markers covering the known range of South American Lygodactylus to investigate (i) if they are monophyletic relative to their African congeners, (ii) if their divergence is congruent with the fragmentation of the PAH, and (iii) if cryptic diversity exists within currently recognized species. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses recovered a well-supported monophyletic South American Lygodactylus, presumably resulting from a single trans-Atlantic dispersal event 29 Mya. Species delimitation analyses supported the existence of five putative species, three of them undescribed. Divergence times among L. klugei and the three putative undescribed species, all endemic to the SDTFs, are not congruent with the fragmentation of the PAH. However, fragmentation of the once broader and continuous SDTFs likely influenced the divergence of L. wetzeli in the Chaco and Lygodactylus sp. 3 (in a SDTF enclave in the Cerrado). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  18. Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Spirits of the Air: Birds and American Indians in the South. Shepard Krech III. 2009. University of Georgia Press, Athens. Pp. 245, copiously illustrated. $44.95 (hardbound. ISBN-13 978-0-8203-2815-7.

  19. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  20. The South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1976-01-01

    Two species of South American Mailed Catfishes of the genus Pseudoloricaria Bleeker, 1862 are redescribed and figured from type-specimens and additional material: Pseudoloricaria laeviuscula (Valenciennes, 1840), and Pseudoloricaria punctata (Regan, 1904). Since the provenance of the holotype of P.

  1. Three new South American mailed catfishes of the genera Rineloricaria and Loricariichthys (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariide)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1979-01-01

    Three new species belonging to two different genera of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related species are added. Rineloricaria formosa n. sp. is described from the Río Inírida/Río Orinoco drainage in

  2. Ectoparasites from the South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens from Peruvian coast

    Luis A. Gomez-Puerta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two species of ectoparasites were collected from a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens found stranded on the beaches of Chorrillos in Lima, Peru. The ectoparasites were identified as Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera and Orthohalarachne attenuata (Acari. Some morphological characteristics are described in this report. The finding of these ectoparasites is the first records in Peru.

  3. Ichthyophonus sp. (Ichthyophonae, Ichthyophonida) infection in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus.

    Borteiro, Claudio; Verdes, José Manuel; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Sabalsagaray, María Jesús; Kolenc, Francisco; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Ubilla, Martín

    2015-04-01

    We report infection by Ichthyophonus sp. in a South American amphibian, the hylid frog Hypsiboas pulchellus in Uruguay. This frog had a large subcutaneous mass over the urostyle and dorsal musculature comprised of parasitic cysts with mild granulomatous inflammation but otherwise appeared healthy.

  4. South American energy integration: new perspectives; Novas perspectivas para a integracao energetica sul-americana

    Silva, Jose Malhaes da [Malhaes da Silva Consultoria Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salomao, Luiz Alfredo [Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Politicas Publicas e Governo

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the South American energy integration, the advantages related to this process as well as the existing obstacles . What is the scope in terms of projects and initiatives, and the role of political and institutional barriers to be overcome. (author)

  5. Perspectives of the mercosur parliament performance according to south american political organization

    Clarissa Franzoi Dri

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The signature of the MERCOSUR Parliament Constitutive Protocol, in 2005, has opened new parliamentary perspectives to the integration process which takes place in the South Cone. The nomination “parliament”, the universal suffrage prevision and new legislative and control functions evidence possibilities for an outstanding actuation. But is it possible to consider that this new organ was created in the middle of political conditions favorable to an effective functionality? Looking for traces to an answer, the paper examines political and electoral characteristics common to the South American States. First, we study the daily relations between the Executive and Legislative Powers in South American presidential regimes. Then, we verify to what extent the proportional open-list electoral system, largely used in the election of the lower houses members in the continent, influences such relations. At the end, we discuss the new assembly perspectives of effectiveness based on the regional characteristics studied.

  6. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  7. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  8. Response of South American Ecosystems to Precipitation Variability

    Knox, R. G.; Kim, Y.; Longo, M.; Medvigy, D.; Wang, J.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Bras, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Ecosystem Demography Model 2 is a dynamic ecosystem model and land surface energy balance model. ED2 discretizes landscapes of particular terrain and meteorology into fractional areas of unique disturbance history. Each fraction, defined by a shared vertical soil column and canopy air space, contains a stratum of plant groups unique in functional type, size and number density. The result is a vertically distributed representation of energy transfer and plant dynamics (mortality, productivity, recruitment, disturbance, resource competition, etc) that successfully approximates the behaviour of individual-based vegetation models. In previous exercises simulating Amazonian land surface dynamics with ED 2, it was observed that when using grid averaged precipitation as an external forcing the resulting water balance typically over-estimated leaf interception and leaf evaporation while under estimating through-fall and transpiration. To investigate this result, two scenario were conducted in which land surface biophysics and ecosystem demography over the Northern portion of South America are simulated over ~200 years: (1) ED2 is forced with grid averaged values taken from the ERA40 reanalysis meteorological dataset; (2) ED2 is forced with ERA40 reanalysis, but with its precipitation re-sampled to reflect statistical qualities of point precipitation found at rain gauge stations in the region. The findings in this study suggest that the equilibrium moisture states and vegetation demography are co-dependent and show sensitivity to temporal variability in precipitation. These sensitivities will need to be accounted for in future projections of coupled climate-ecosystem changes in South America.

  9. Conceptualizing the impacts of dual practice on the retention of public sector specialists - evidence from South Africa.

    Ashmore, John; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-01-19

    'Dual practice', or multiple job holding, generally involves public sector-based health workers taking additional work in the private sector. This form of the practice is purported to help retain public health care workers in low and middle-income countries' public sectors through additional wage incentives. There has been little conceptual or empirical development of the relationship between dual practice and retention. This article helps begin to fill this gap, drawing on empirical evidence from a qualitative study focusing on South African specialists. Fifty-one repeat, in-depth interviews were carried out with 28 doctors (predominantly specialists) with more than one job, in one public and one private urban hospital. Findings suggest dual practice can impact both positively and negatively on specialists' intention to stay in the public sector. This is through multiple conceptual channels including those previously identified in the literature such as dual practice acting as a 'stepping stone' to private practice by reducing migration costs. Dual practice can also lead specialists to re-evaluate how they compare public and private jobs, and to overworking which can expedite decisions on whether to stay in the public sector or leave. Numerous respondents undertook dual practice without official permission. The idea that dual practice helps retain public specialists in South Africa may be overstated. Yet banning the practice may be ineffective, given many undertake it without permission in any case. Regulation should be better enforced to ensure dual practice is not abused. The conceptual framework developed in this article could form a basis for further qualitative and quantitative inquiry.

  10. Exploring interhospital transfers and partnerships in the hospital sector in New South Wales, Australia.

    Assareh, Hassan; Achat, Helen M; Levesque, Jean-Frederic; Leeder, Stephen R

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to explore characteristics of interhospital transfers (IHT) and sharing of care among hospitals in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods Data were extracted from patient-level linked hospital administrative datasets for separations from all NSW acute care hospitals from 1 July 2013 to 30 June 2015. Patient discharge and arrival information was used to identify IHTs. Characteristics of patients and related hospitals were then analysed. Results Transfer-in patients accounted for 3.9% of all NSW admitted patients and, overall, 7.3% of NSW admissions were associated with transfers (IHT rate). Patients with injuries and circulatory system diseases had the highest IHT rate, accounting for one-third of all IHTs. Patients were more often transferred to larger than smaller hospitals (61% vs 29%). Compared with private hospitals, public hospitals had a higher IHT rate (8.4% vs 5.1%) and a greater proportion of transfer-out IHTs (52% vs 28%). Larger public hospitals had lower IHT rates (3-8%) compared with smaller public hospitals (13-26%). Larger public hospitals received and retransferred higher proportions of IHT patients (52-58% and 11% respectively) than their smaller counterparts (26-30% and 2-3% respectively). Less than one-quarter of IHTs were between the public and private sectors or between government health regions. The number of interacting hospitals and their interactions varied across hospital peer groups. Conclusion NSW IHTs were often to hospitals with greater speciality services. The patterns of interhospital interactions could be affected by organisational and regional preferences. What is known about the topic? IHTs aim to provide efficient and effective care. Nonetheless, information on transfers and the sharing of care among hospitals in an Australian setting is lacking. Studies of transfers and hospital partnership patterns will inform efforts to improve patient-centred transfers and hospital accountability

  11. Exogenous CO2 in South American sparkling wine

    Leonardelli Susiane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine production and consumption have increased significantly in the last years. With the increased demand appear the necessity to check the sparkling wine authenticity, because the practice of adding CO2 in sparkling wine is not allow. A way to control the carbonation process is through the determination of CO2 δ13C, because the sugar added during the second fermentation define the CO2 isotopic value, according to elaboration process. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between values of δ13C from still wines and sparkling wines, in order to set up limit values to exogenous carbonation control. Thirty-eight still wines elaborated by microvinification and 59 samples of commercial sparkling wines were analyzed, using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS. The most negative value of natural δ13C from still wine found was − 24.7‰, it can be to estimate that lowest values are an indicative of industrial CO2 addition. Among the commercial sparkling wine from South America evaluated in this study, 10% from the samples showed signs of carbonation. Through this research was possible to establish limits of isotopic values to determine the presence of exogenous CO2.

  12. North American Forest Futures 2018-2090: Scenarios for Building a More Resilient Forest Sector

    David N. Bengston; Jonathan Peck; Robert Olson; Melissa Barros; Richard A. Birdsey; Daniel R. Williams; Juan Carlos Leyva Reyes; Francisco José Zamudio

    2018-01-01

    North American forests and forest management institutions are experiencing a wide range of significant ecological disturbances and socioeconomic changes, which point to the need for enhanced resilience. A critical capacity for resilience in institutions is strategic foresight. This article reports on a project of the North American Forest Commission to use Futures...

  13. Harnessing the private health sector by using prices as a policy instrument: Lessons learned from South Africa.

    Barber, Sarah L; Kumar, Ankit; Roubal, Tomas; Colombo, Francesca; Lorenzoni, Luca

    2018-05-01

    Governments frequently draw upon the private health care sector to promote sustainability, optimal use of resources, and increased choice. In doing so, policy-makers face the challenge of harnessing resources while grappling with the market failures and equity concerns associated with private financing of health care. The growth of the private health sector in South Africa has fundamentally changed the structure of health care delivery. A mutually reinforcing ecosystem of private health insurers, private hospitals and specialists has grown to account for almost half of the country's spending on health care, despite only serving 16% of the population with the capacity to pay. Following years of consolidation among private hospital groups and insurance schemes, and after successive failures at establishing credible price benchmarks, South Africa's private hospitals charge prices comparable with countries that are considerably richer. This compromises the affordability of a broad-based expansion in health care for the population. The South African example demonstrates that prices can be part of a structure that perpetuates inequalities in access to health care resources. The lesson for other countries is the importance of norms and institutions that uphold price schedules in high-income countries. Efforts to compromise or liberalize price setting should be undertaken with a healthy degree of caution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. South American collaboration in scientific publications on leishmaniasis: bibliometric analysis in SCOPUS (2000-2011).

    Huamaní, Charles; Romaní, Franco; González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Mejia, Miluska O; Ramos, José Manuel; Espinoza, Manuel; Cabezas, César

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7%) and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ) had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  15. SOUTH AMERICAN COLLABORATION IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON LEISHMANIASIS: BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN SCOPUS (2000-2011

    Charles Huamaní

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Evaluate the production and the research collaborative network on Leishmaniasis in South America. Methods: A bibliometric research was carried out using SCOPUS database. The analysis unit was original research articles published from 2000 to 2011, that dealt with leishmaniasis and that included at least one South American author. The following items were obtained for each article: journal name, language, year of publication, number of authors, institutions, countries, and others variables. Results: 3,174 articles were published, 2,272 of them were original articles. 1,160 different institutional signatures, 58 different countries and 398 scientific journals were identified. Brazil was the country with more articles (60.7% and Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ had 18% of Brazilian production, which is the South American nucleus of the major scientific network in Leishmaniasis. Conclusions: South American scientific production on Leishmaniasis published in journals indexed in SCOPUS is focused on Brazilian research activity. It is necessary to strengthen the collaboration networks. The first step is to identify the institutions with higher production, in order to perform collaborative research according to the priorities of each country.

  16. Muzzle of South American Pleistocene ground sloths (Xenarthra, Tardigrada).

    Bargo, M Susana; Toledo, Néstor; Vizcaíno, Sergio F

    2006-02-01

    Sloths are among the most characteristic elements of the Cainozoic of South America and are represented, during the Pleistocene, by approximately nine genera of gigantic ground sloths (Megatheriidae and Mylodontidae). A few contributions have described their masticatory apparatus, but almost no attention has been paid to the reconstruction of the muzzle, an important feature to consider in relation to food intake, and particularly relevant in sloths because of the edentulous nature of the muzzle and its varied morphology. The relationship between dietary habits and shape and width of the muzzle is well documented in living herbivores and has been considered an important feature for the inference of alimentary styles in fossils, providing an interesting methodological tool that deserves to be considered for xenarthrans. The goal of this study was to examine models of food intake by reconstructing the appearance and shape of the muzzle in five species of Pleistocene ground sloths (Megatherium americanum, Glossotherium robustum, Lestodon armatus, Mylodon darwini, and Scelidotherium leptocephalum) using reconstructions of the nasal cartilages and facial muscles involved in food intake. The preservation of the nasal septum, and the scars for muscular attachment in the rostral part of the skulls, allow making a conservative reconstruction of muzzle anatomy in fossil sloths. Wide-muzzled ground sloths (Glossotherium and Lestodon) had a square, nonprehensile upper lip and were mostly bulk-feeders. The lips, coupled with the tongue, were used to pull out grass and herbaceous plants. Narrow-muzzled sloths (Mylodon, Scelidotherium, and Megatherium) had a cone-shaped and prehensile lip and were mixed or selective feeders. The prehensile lip was used to select particular plants or plant parts. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Ocean-atmosphere forcing of South American tropical paleoclimate, LGM to present

    Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S. C.; Dwyer, G. S.; Rigsby, C. A.; Silva, C. G.; Burns, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Because of many recent terrestrial paleoclimatic and marine paleoceanographic records, late Quaternary South American tropical paleoclimate is as well understood as that anywhere in the world. While lessons learned from the recent instrumental record of climate are informative, this record is too short to capture much of the lower frequency variability encountered in the paleoclimate records and much of the observed paleoclimate is without modern analogue. This paleoclimate is known to be regionally variable with significant differences both north and south of the equator and between the western high Andes and eastern lowlands of the Amazon and Nordeste Brazil. Various extrinsic forcing mechanisms affected climate throughout the period, including global concentrations of GHGs, Northern Hemisphere ice sheet forcing, seasonal insolation forcing of the South American summer monsoon (SASM), millennial-scale Atlantic forcing, and Pacific forcing of the large-scale Walker circulation. The magnitude of the climate response to these forcings varied temporally, largely because of the varying amplitude of the forcing itself. For example, during the last glacial, large-amplitude north Atlantic forcing during Heinrich 1 and the LGM itself, led to wet (dry) conditions south (north) of the equator. During the Holocene, Atlantic forcing was lower amplitude, thus seasonal insolation forcing generally predominated with a weaker-than-normal SASM during the early Holocene resulting in dry conditions in the south-western tropics and wet conditions in the eastern lowlands and Nordeste; in the late Holocene seasonal insolation reached a maximum in the southern tropics and climate conditions reversed.

  18. Influence of Surface Processes over Africa on the Atlantic Marine ITCZ and South American Precipitation.

    Hagos, Samson M.; Cook, Kerry H.

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies show that the climatological precipitation over South America, particularly the Nordeste region, is influenced by the presence of the African continent. Here the influence of African topography and surface wetness on the Atlantic marine ITCZ (AMI) and South American precipitation are investigated.Cross-equatorial flow over the Atlantic Ocean introduced by north south asymmetry in surface conditions over Africa shifts the AMI in the direction of the flow. African topography, for example, introduces an anomalous high over the southern Atlantic Ocean and a low to the north. This results in a northward migration of the AMI and dry conditions over the Nordeste region.The implications of this process on variability are then studied by analyzing the response of the AMI to soil moisture anomalies over tropical Africa. Northerly flow induced by equatorially asymmetric perturbations in soil moisture over northern tropical Africa shifts the AMI southward, increasing the climatological precipitation over northeastern South America. Flow associated with an equatorially symmetric perturbation in soil moisture, however, has a very weak cross-equatorial component and very weak influence on the AMI and South American precipitation. The sensitivity of the AMI to soil moisture perturbations over certain regions of Africa can possibly improve the skill of prediction.

  19. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  20. Introducing medication abortion into public sector facilities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: an operations research study.

    Blanchard, Kelly; Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Fetters, Tamara; Devjee, Jaymala; de Menezes, Ilundi Durão; Trueman, Karen; Sudhinaraset, May; Nkonko, Errol; Moodley, Jack

    2015-10-01

    Examine the feasibility of introducing mifepristone-misoprostol medication abortion into existing public sector surgical abortion services in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Cohort study of women offered medication or surgical abortion in a larger medication abortion introduction study. The sample included 1167 women seeking first-trimester abortion at four public sector facilities; 923 women at ≤9 weeks' gestation were eligible for medication abortion. Women who chose medication abortion took 200 mg of mifepristone orally at the facility and 800 mcg of misoprostol buccally (or vaginally if they anticipated or experienced problems with buccal administration) 48 h later at home, based on international research and global safe abortion guidelines. Women who chose surgical abortion received 600 mg of misoprostol sublingually or vaginally on the day of their procedure followed by manual vacuum aspiration 4 h later. Main outcome measures included proportion of eligible women who chose each method, proportion with complete abortion and proportion reporting adverse events. Ninety-four percent of eligible women chose medication abortion. No adverse events were reported by women who chose surgical abortion; 3% of women in the medication abortion group reported adverse events and 0.4% reported a serious adverse event. Seventy-six percent of women received a family planning method at the facility where their received their abortion, with no difference based on procedure type. Medication abortion patients were significantly more likely to report they would choose this method again (94% vs. 78%, ppublic sector surgical abortion services in South Africa and was chosen by a large majority of women who were eligible and offered choice of early termination method; access to medication abortion should be expanded in South Africa and other similar settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Organizations Learn without Political Leadership? The Case of Public Sector Reform among South African Home Affairs Officials

    Segatti, Aurelia; Hoag, Colin Brewster; Vigneswaran, Darshan

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the transformation of “institutional culture” in bureaucratic agencies. This is explored in the context of post-Apartheid South African public sector reform, and more particularly that of migration management within the Department of Home Affairs (DHA). The paper assesses...... the effects on staff’s perceptions and practices of a politically driven attempt at inculcating a new sense of “service delivery”. Structural factors are not found to have been prevalent determinants explaining the difficulties in implementing the reform. It is rather the failure of the political leadership...

  2. Reporting the condition of South Africa’s water sector infrastructure

    Wall, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the “national infrastructure report cards” of the condition of engineering infrastructure in South Africa has been to draw the attention of government, and of the South African public at large to the importance of maintenance...

  3. Life cycle assessment: applications and implications for the greening of the South African construction sector

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The inordinate quantities of resources used and pollution released by construction products identify construction as a critical sector for a paradigm shift in consumption and production approaches. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) concept...

  4. Attraction and Retention of Talent in the Tourism Sector. Empirical Evidence in the South of Europe

    Ruíz-Molina, Antonio; Jiménez-Quintero, José Antonio; Casado-Salguero, Gisela

    2013-01-01

    The effect that an increase on the workmanship’s quality in the tourism sector, has over the productivity increase, the improvement of living conditions and the economic growth is widely known. In this context, strategy in human resources, one of the key factors in achieving a competitive advantage, must be a stimulus to attract the most talented human capital and to develop its career in this sector, which will result in an improvement in the business performance expectations. The aim in ...

  5. Diversification in the Andes: age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales).

    Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H; Weigend, Maximilian

    2011-10-01

    The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distributional patterns of the South American species of Hyalella (Amphipoda: Hyalellidae)

    De los Ríos-Escalante, Patricio; Morrone, Juan J; Rivera, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Distributional patterns of the South American species of the freshwater amphipod genus Hyalella were analysed using a panbiogeographic approach. Five generalized tracks were found: (1) northern Andes to Lake Titicaca (H. dielaii, H. meinerti, H. dybowskii, H.jelskii, H. lubominsky, and H. pauperocavae; (2) lake Titicaca (H. armata, H. cuprea, H. latinamus, H. lucifugax, H. montforti, H. neveulemairei, H. robusta, H. tiwanaku, H. simplex simplex, and H. solida); (3) central Andes (H. fossamanc...

  7. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Fernández, Araceli; Paz Villanueva, María; González, Mario; Fernández, Fabiola; Latif, Fadua; Flores, Sandra Nonier; Fernández, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and inv...

  8. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae) in Kerala, India - a case study

    A. Bijukumar; R. Smrithy; U. Sureshkumar; S. George

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae) of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991) and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855), in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) also failed t...

  9. Central plane of the ring current responsible for geomagnetic disturbance in the South-American region

    Kane, R.P.; Trivedi, N.B.

    1981-01-01

    Using hourly values of H, D, Z from a network of South American stations, operative during the IGY-IGC, the latitude dependence of storm effects was studied. It was found that whereas there were considerable distortions due to conductivity anomalies under the Andes, there was also evidence of latitudinal excursions of overhead current system, not only from storm to storm but even during the course of the same storm

  10. Human consumption of a vagrant South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis (Carnivora: Otariidae in Brazil

    S. Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The South American Fur Seal Arctocephalus australis is one of the most widely distributed South American otariid species. In Brazil, during austral winter months specimens of A. australis are regularly found along the Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina coasts. Occasionally, vagrants have been recorded along the southeastern coast but rarely moves north of Rio de Janeiro, at 23°S. On 01 May 2015, fishermen noticed in the surf zone an unidentified large animal in Ilhéus, Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Severely wounded, it was still alive when first spotted. Numerous shark bites were observed in the rostrum and flippers, the peduncle was severely lacerated and the intestines were protruding. The specimen was identified as an adult of South American Fur Seal based on the combination of the characteristic coloration of the pelage, head shape, body size, the relatively large eye size, and mainly due to the pronounced three cusped teeth in post canines. Fishermen decided to butcher the carcass and share the meat among their companions. The present record, however, is of special concern as human consumption South American Fur Seal seems to be unusual in Brazil. Pieces of meat were shared among fishermen. In addition, small pieces of blubber were used as bait in the local shark long-line fishery. Consumption of an injured and presumably weak marine mammal carcass points to an increasing risk of contact between potentially harmful viruses, bacteria and fungi and humans. This note represents an alert to public health specialists and wildlife authorities in Brazil. It calls the urgency of an outreach campaign advertising to the potential risks of ingesting bushmeat either from land or aquatic sources. 

  11. A comparative study between South African serial killers and their American counterparts

    2009-01-01

    M.A. This dissertation explores the similarities and differences between South African serial killers and their American counterparts. Seven male candidates, each having committed their reign of terror within the relevant time period, have been included. The candidates compared well in home environments, number of friendships, emotional maturity, abuse undergone, temperament, and anti-social behaviour. Differences were found in comparing family bonding, wealth and education. This dissertat...

  12. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  13. Stigma of poverty. The discursive construction of ­"South" term in Latin American countries

    GÓMEZ QUINTERO, Juan David

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects a general knowledge and a macro-paradigmatic contribution of developmentalist discourses, in particular, its modernist and Eurocentric roots. In particular we analyze the artificiality of the discursive construction of certain categories that represent geopolitical stigma of poverty, such as ­Third World® or ­South® or ­underdeveloped® adopted in the field of international relations and the development cooperation. It notes that there are not metaphors opposite (North-South in its own right, the ­South® is not the opposite of the ­North®, but its negative extension, as evidenced by the imaginarium of most Latin American countries. The metaphors that stigmatize poverty are symbolic discourse used to define in a European way the identity of the winner (rich people.

  14. Evaluation of insulin resistance in two kinds of South American camelids: llamas and alpacas.

    Araya, A V; Atwater, I; Navia, M A; Jeffs, S

    2000-10-01

    Insulin resistance was evaluated in South American camelids, llamas and alpacas, by use of the minimal model test and the insulin tolerance test. Animals were catheterized for long-term studies and tamed to minimize stress during evaluation. Results indicated a low insulin sensitivity index (SI) = 0 to 0.97, median = 0.39 x 10(-4) min/uIU x ml, about a fifth the value in other mammals and humans. The KITT was between 1.43 and 3.19 %/min, also significantly lower than that reported for humans. Glycosylated hemoglobin concentration was 6%, and HbAlc concentration was 5.5%; red blood cell lifetime, as measured by use of the 51Cr method, was 120 days, similar to the value in humans. We concluded that llamas and alpacas have naturally higher blood glucose concentration than do humans and other mammals during the glucose tolerance test. Using the same mathematical tools to evaluate glucose metabolism as those used in people, South American camelids appear to be resistant to insulin. Thus, the South American camelid may be a useful new animal model for the study of sugar metabolism and various facets of diabetes mellitus, especially protection from the deleterious effects of glycosylation.

  15. Splendid oddness: revisiting the curious trophic relationships of South American Pleistocene mammals and their abundance

    RICHARD A. FARIÑA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The South American Pleistocene mammal fauna includes great-sized animals that have intrigued scientists for over two centuries. Here we intend to update the knowledge on its palaeoecology and provide new evidence regarding two approaches: energetics and population density and relative abundance of fossils per taxa. To determine whether an imbalance exists, population density models were applied to several South American fossil faunas and the results compared to those that best describe the palaeoecology of African faunas. The results on the abundance study for Uruguay and the province of Buenos Aires during the Lujanian stage/age reveal that bulk-feeding ground sloths (Lestodon and Glossotherium were more represented in the first territory, while the more selective Scelidotherium and Megatherium were more abundant in the second. Although the obtained values were corrected to avoid size-related taphonomic biases, linear regressions of abundance vs. body mass plots did not fit the expected either for first or second consumers. South American Pleistocene faunas behave differently from what models suggest they should. Changes in sea level and available area could account for these differences; the possibility of a floodplain in the area then emerged could explain seasonal changes, which would modify the calculations of energetics and abundance.

  16. Potential use of the sterile insect technique against the South American fruit fly

    Ortiz, G.

    1999-01-01

    The Latin American countries have a strong interest in increasing fruit production and quality to facilitate commercialization within and outside the region. Various fruit fly control programmes in South America and their objectives and benefits are described here. Specific priorities to improve fruit fly control and eradication technologies include strengthening of quarantine, development of pre- and post-phytosanitary measures, and harmonization of the most effective and advanced technical procedures/methodologies to control fruit flies. A subregional strategy to control fruit flies in South America would promote technical co-operation among the South American countries and strengthen the activities of less advanced fruit fly programmes. Effective use can be made of local/regional infrastructure, expertise, sterile fly production and human/technical resources. In Argentina, advanced technology related to the use of medfly genetic sexing strains for SIT programmes has been successfully introduced. Joint efforts between technicians and scientists would contribute to developing new technology to control important pests in South America. (author)

  17. A literature review of teledermatology programs in the South African public health sector

    Walters, LEM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This is presentation on teledermatology programs in South Africa that indicate the inequitable access to health care, the ineffective and inefficient referral system as well as the shortage of dermatologists....

  18. Is there transparency in the pricing of medicines in the South African private sector?

    Bangalee, V; Suleman, F

    2018-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Competition Commission of South Africa (SA) of suspected excessive pricing of cancer medicines in SA by three global pharmaceutical companies have once again drawn attention to increasing medicine pricing transparency and warrant further public debate.

  19. An initial review of biodiversity reporting by South African corporates: The case of the food and mining sectors

    Hafsa Mansoor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent South African companies listed on the local stock exchange in the mining and food producer and retail sectors are including biodiversity-related issues in their integrated and sustainability reports. The study employs established biodiversity reporting frameworks for gauging changes in the frequency of disclosures from 2011 to 2013 and determining if biodiversity information is being included in either the integrated or sustainability reports of the companies under review. Consistent with the findings of a special edition of Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal (AAAJ, the research finds few examples of detailed reporting on biodiversity issues. This is despite the fact that South Africa has a well-established code of corporate governance, a long history of including non-financial information in corporate reports and is an advocate of the integrated reporting movement. The study calls into question the sincerity of companies in the two sectors under review when it comes to providing balanced accounts of their management of non-financial capital as recommended by the country’s codes on governance and the International Integrated Reporting Council.

  20. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  1. Private Schools in American Education: A Small Sector Still Lagging in Diversity. Working Paper

    Ee, Jongyeon; Orfield, Gary; Teitell, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Private schools have a long and important tradition in U.S. education and have been the focus of a great deal of political controversy in recent years. There is deep division among Americans over the desirability of using public funds to finance vouchers for private education--an issue that has become the leading educational goal of the Trump…

  2. Meteorology of the Southern Global Plume: African and South American Fires Pollute the South Pacific

    Guo, Z.; Chatfield, R. B.

    1999-01-01

    An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.

  3. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  4. Analysis of the genetic ancestry of patients with oral clefts from South American admixed populations.

    Vieira-Machado, Camilla D; de Carvalho, Flavia M; Santana da Silva, Luiz C; Dos Santos, Sidney E; Martins, Claudia; Poletta, Fernando A; Mereb, Juan C; Vieira, Alexandre R; Castilla, Eduardo E; Orioli, Iêda M

    2016-08-01

    Increased susceptibility to cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (CL±P) has been observed in South America, as related to Amerindian ancestry, using epidemiological data, uniparental markers, and blood groups. In this study, it was evaluated whether this increased risk remains when Amerindian ancestry is estimated using autosomal markers and considered in the predictive model. Ancestry was estimated through genotyping 62 insertion and deletion (INDEL) markers in sample sets of patients with CL±P, patients with cleft palate (CP), and controls, from Patagonia in southern Argentina and Belém in northern Brazil. The Amerindian ancestry in patients from Patagonia with CL±P was greater than in controls although it did not reach statistical significance. The European ancestry in patients with CL±P from Belém and in patients with CP from Belém and Patagonia was higher than in controls and statistically significant for patients with CP who were from Belém. This high contribution of European genetic ancestry among patients with CP who were from Belém has not been previously observed in American populations. Our results do not corroborate the currently accepted risks for CL±P and CP estimated by epidemiological studies in the North American populations and probably reflect the higher admixture found in South American ethnic groups when compared with the same ethnic groups from the North American populations. © 2016 Eur J Oral Sci.

  5. Explaining and improving breast cancer information acquisition among African American women in the Deep South.

    Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Hastrup, Janice L; Green, B Lee; Kohler, Connie L

    2012-06-01

    A major challenge facing contemporary cancer educators is how to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer prevention and control information to African American women in the Deep South who are believed to be cancer free. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the breast cancer information-acquisition experiences of African American women in Alabama and Mississippi and to make recommendations on ways to better reach members of this high-risk, underserved population. Focus group methodology was used in a repeated, cross-sectional research design with 64 African American women, 35 years old or older who lived in one of four urban or rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Axial-coded themes emerged around sources of cancer information, patterns of information acquisition, characteristics of preferred sources, and characteristics of least-preferred sources. It is important to invest in lay health educators to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer information to African American women who are believed to be cancer free in the Deep South.

  6. Doing more for less: identifying opportunities to expand public sector access to safe abortion in South Africa through budget impact analysis.

    Lince-Deroche, Naomi; Harries, Jane; Constant, Deborah; Morroni, Chelsea; Pleaner, Melanie; Fetters, Tamara; Grossman, Daniel; Blanchard, Kelly; Sinanovic, Edina

    2018-02-01

    To estimate the costs of public-sector abortion provision in South Africa and to explore the potential for expanding access at reduced cost by changing the mix of technologies used. We conducted a budget impact analysis using public sector abortion statistics and published cost data. We estimated the total costs to the public health service over 10 years, starting in South Africa's financial year 2016/17, given four scenarios: (1) holding service provision constant, (2) expanding public sector provision, (3) changing the abortion technologies used (i.e. the method mix), and (4) expansion plus changing the method mix. The public sector performed an estimated 20% of the expected total number of abortions in 2016/17; 26% and 54% of all abortions were performed illegally or in the private sector respectively. Costs were lowest in scenarios where method mix shifting occurred. Holding the proportion of abortions performed in the public-sector constant, shifting to more cost-effective service provision (more first-trimester services with more medication abortion and using the combined regimen for medical induction in the second trimester) could result in savings of $28.1 million in the public health service over the 10-year period. Expanding public sector provision through elimination of unsafe abortions would require an additional $192.5 million. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting the methods provided. More research is needed to understand whether the cost of expanding access could be offset by savings from averting costs of managing unsafe abortions. South Africa can provide more safe abortions for less money in the public sector through shifting to more first-trimester methods, including more medication abortion, and shifting to a combined mifepristone plus misoprostol regimen for second trimester medical induction. Expanding access in addition to method mix changes would require additional funds. Copyright

  7. Cretaceous to Recent Asymetrical Subsidence of South American and West African Conjugate Margins

    Kenning, J.; Mann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Two divergent interpretations have been proposed for South American rifted-passive margins: the "mirror hypothesis" proposes that the rifted margins form symmetrically from pure shear of the lithosphere while upper-plate-lower plate models propose that the rifted margins form asymmetrically by simple shear. Models based on seismic reflection and refraction imaging and comparison of conjugate, rifted margins generally invoke a hybrid stretching process involving elements of both end member processes along with the effects of mantle plumes active during the rift and passive margin phases. We use subsidence histories of 14, 1-7 km-deep exploration wells located on South American and West African conjugate pairs now separated by the South Atlantic Ocean, applying long-term subsidence to reveal the symmetry or asymmetry of the underlying, conjugate, rift processes. Conjugate pairs characterize the rifted margin over a distance of 3500 km and include: Colorado-South Orange, Punta Del Este-North Orange, South Pelotas-Lüderitz and the North Pelotas-Walvis Basins. Of the four conjugate pairs, more rapid subsidence on the South American plate is consistently observed with greater initial rift and syn-rift subsidence rates of >60m/Ma (compared to 100 m/Ma are observed offshore South Africa between approximately 120-80 Ma, compatible with onset of the post-rift thermal sag phase. During this period the majority of burial is completed and rates remain low at Argentina/Uruguay displays more gradual subsidence throughout the Cretaceous, consistently averaging a moderate 15-30m/Ma. By the end of this stage there is a subsequent increase to 25-60 m/Ma within the last 20 Ma, interpreted to reflect lithospheric loading due to increased sedimentation rates during the Cenozoic. This increase in subsidence rate is not seen in the African conjugate section where the majority of sediments bypassed the highly aggraded Cretaceous shelf. Initially greater on the Brazilian margin compared to

  8. Oceanic variability in the western sector of Algoa Bay, South Africa ...

    The city of Port Elizabeth lies in the western sector of Algoa Bay, and a number of projects have investigated the oceanic temperature, salinity and current structures in the vicinity. This paper analyses past results, and then incorporates measurements of salinity, sea temperatures and currents from projects over the years ...

  9. The private health sector in South Africa - current trends and future ...

    The private health sector is experiencing a crisis of spiralling costs, with average annual cost increases of between 13% and 32% over the decade 1978 - 1988. This trend is partly explained by the high utilisation rates that result from the combination of the 'fee-for-service' system and the 'third-party' payment structure of the ...

  10. Family Closeness and Domestic Abuse Among Caribbean and South American Women in South Florida

    Rojas, Patria; Dillon, Frank R.; Duan, Rui; De La Rosa, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the importance of family member closeness as a protective factor against domestic abuse. We explore the link between long-lasting relations within the family and intra-familial violence perpetrated against women in Latino households in South Florida. We use data from an Inter-generational Transmission of Drug Use between Latina Mothers and Daughters (ITDMD) study. The study includes data on family relations and domestic abuse. We estimate a series of multivariate regressions to obtain the probability of abuse against women, the types of abuse inflicted and the relationship with the abusers. Our results indicate that among abused women, the effects of long-lasting relations within the family differ depending on the type of relationship between the abuser and the victim and the degree of closeness the victim feels towards other family members. Given these findings, there is a need to further study family relations and abuse in Latino households. PMID:29033494

  11. Latin American social medicine across borders: South-South cooperation and the making of health solidarity.

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Muntaner, Carles

    2018-02-22

    Latin American social medicine efforts are typically understood as national endeavours, involving health workers, policymakers, academics, social movements, unions, and left-wing political parties, among other domestic actors. But Latin America's social medicine trajectory has also encompassed considerable between-country solidarity, building on early twentieth century interchanges among a range of players who shared approaches for improving living and working conditions and instituting protective social policies. Since the 1960s, Cuba's country-to-country solidarity has stood out, comprising medic exchanges, training, and other forms of support for the health and social struggles of oppressed peoples throughout Latin America and around the world, recently via Misión Barrio Adentro in Venezuela. These efforts strive for social justice-oriented health cooperation based on horizontal power relations, shared political values, a commitment to social and economic redistribution, bona fide equity, and an understanding of the societal determination of health that includes, but goes well beyond, public health and medical care. With Latin America's left-wing surge now receding, this article traces the provenance, dynamics, impact, challenges, and legacy of health solidarity across Latin American borders and its prospects for continuity.

  12. The role of records management as a tool to identify risks in the public sector in South Africa

    Mpho Ngoepe

    2014-06-01

    Objectives: The study utilised the King III report on corporate governance in South Africa as a framework to investigate the role of records management in identifying risks in the public sector, with a view to entrench the synergy between records management and risk management. Method: Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires distributed to records managers, risk managers and auditors in governmental bodies in South Africa. Provisions of the King III report, guided the research objectives. Results: Even though the study established that there is a reciprocal relationship between risk identification and records management, most governmental bodies in South Africa lack records management and risk-mitigating frameworks or strategy. Furthermore, records management did not feature in most governmental bodies’ risk registers. It has been established that most governmental bodies have established risk committees that do not include records management practitioners. In most governmental bodies, risk management resides within internal audit functions. Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that a strong records management regime can be one of an organisation’s primary tools in identifying risks and implementing proper risk management. Therefore, records management should be integrated with risk management processes for organisations to benefit from the synergy.

  13. Assessment and evolution of renewable energy policy: the transition of the Latin-American electricity sectors

    Bersalli, German

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable energy system requires a much faster development of new and renewable energy technologies for electricity generation (RENe). Thus, involving new challenges in the regulation of electricity sector. Additionally, a stronger commitment by emerging and developing countries for a deeper decarbonization trajectory, calls for the strengthening of renewable energy policies. Such policies include designing regulatory instruments that are better adapted for their specific economic and institutional needs. This thesis deals with the evaluation and the redesign of policies that encourage the diffusion of RENe in the context of Latin America's countries. To this end, we first use Environmental Economics theory to analyse the different regulatory instruments available, characterize them and to propose evaluation criteria based on a thorough review of the literature. We then carry out a panel data econometric study, to identify the determining factors of investments in regards to new RENe production capacity; and in particular, to measure the effectiveness of such policies. In a third phase, we mobilize the evolutionary theory of technological change to analyse the process of policy implementation, the existing barriers and the obtained results. This analysis is based on three case studies in the electricity sector of Chile, Brazil and Argentina. And finally, we focus on the challenges related to the massive deployment of RENe in Latin America by 2030-2040: the integration of intermittent energy sources, the access to financing and the industrial challenge. Our research shows that the evolution of the economic and institutional context encourages a dynamic which conditions public policy choices as well as their performance. We therefore propose the basis of an analytical framework for the design and assessment of ambitious long-term promoting policies. These policies must be integrated into a multidimensional and coherent project for the

  14. South Africa’s private sector investment in training and its erosion as a result of HIV and AIDS

    Gavin George

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s economic prospects depend on the productivity of its labour, and productivity can only be maximised when the labour force possess the appropriate skills. Business is playing its part by offering training opportunities to employees. Collectively, they are spending more than the government’s mandated level on training. However, the HIV and AIDS epidemic is eroding this investment in southern Africa where the HIV epidemic is at its worst. While there has been empirical work that provides estimates on the cost of HIV and AIDS to business, there is very little data on the actual amounts large companies spend on training, and how much of this investment is eroded as a result of HIV and AIDS deaths. Using an estimate of the HIV and AIDS death rate in the private sector and survey data which identifies training expenditure by sector, the authors estimate the extent to which HIV and AIDS has potentially eroded this investment. The loss for all sectors was estimated at almost R10 million (R9,871,732 during the study year, which equates to USD1,183,661 per annum. This amount represented on average 0.73 per cent of the actual investment in training. The real costs of HIV and AIDS on business, which includes absenteeism, declining productivity and other costs are difficult to quantify, but they are likely to significantly exceed this lost training investment as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality rates due to HIV. It is therefore in a company’s best interest to: (1 ensure that a sound HIV and AIDS policy is in place; (2 invest in effective prevention programmes; and (3 provide the appropriate ARV treatment to infected employees if this treatment is not easily accessible through the public health sector.

  15. Native South American genetic structure and prehistory inferred from hierarchical modeling of mtDNA.

    Lewis, Cecil M; Long, Jeffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity in Native South Americans forms a complex pattern at both the continental and local levels. In comparing the West to the East, there is more variation within groups and smaller genetic distances between groups. From this pattern, researchers have proposed that there is more variation in the West and that a larger, more genetically diverse, founding population entered the West than the East. Here, we question this characterization of South American genetic variation and its interpretation. Our concern arises because others have inferred regional variation from the mean variation within local populations without taking into account the variation among local populations within the same region. This failure produces a biased view of the actual variation in the East. In this study, we analyze the mitochondrial DNA sequence between positions 16040 and 16322 of the Cambridge reference sequence. Our sample represents a total of 886 people from 27 indigenous populations from South (22), Central (3), and North America (2). The basic unit of our analyses is nucleotide identity by descent, which is easily modeled and proportional to nucleotide diversity. We use a forward modeling strategy to fit a series of nested models to identity by descent within and between all pairs of local populations. This method provides estimates of identity by descent at different levels of population hierarchy without assuming homogeneity within populations, regions, or continents. Our main discovery is that Eastern South America harbors more genetic variation than has been recognized. We find no evidence that there is increased identity by descent in the East relative to the total for South America. By contrast, we discovered that populations in the Western region, as a group, harbor more identity by descent than has been previously recognized, despite the fact that average identity by descent within groups is lower. In this light, there is no need to postulate separate founding

  16. An evaluation of the public sector optometric service provided within the health districts in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Moraka E. Maake

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, optometry has been traditionally positioned within the private sector. The situation has gradually changed over the past two decades, with optometry being introduced into the public sector in many parts of the country. Despite the growing numbers, optometrists are still new within the public health sector, motivating this study to evaluate the eye care services they provide. Methods: A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken. Stratified random selection was applied to select the study sites, and systematic sampling was used to select patients’ files. A saturated sample of public sector optometrists employed in the selected districts completed study questionnaires. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 21. Results: A total of 2968 records were reviewed, and gender distribution was 67.6% female and 32.4% male. Refraction (86.73% was the most frequently conducted test, followed by ophthalmoscopy (74.73%, colour vision (0.07% and gonioscopy (0.03%. The response rate for the questionnaires was 64.7%. Optometric outreach services were conducted by 54.5% of optometrists, and the majority (83.3% reported that the farthest outreach facility was more than 50 km from their base hospital. The availability of equipment at outreach facilities was less as compared to base hospitals, while some reported not having the necessary equipment even at base hospitals. None of the optometrists did contact lens fitting at outreach facilities. A lack of equipment was cited as one of the reasons for not providing this service by 100% of optometrists. Most optometrists (63.6% believed that more than 30% of their referrals might have been avoided if they had prescribed therapeutic agents to manage ocular conditions. Conclusion: Introducing optometrists within the public sector improves access to services for rural communities. However, the minimum standard of optometric care

  17. U.S. foreign policy, the south american integration, and the case of the military bases in Colombia

    Iglesias Cavicchioli, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the nature of the conflict generated in South America by the adoption of the new military agreement between the U.S. and Colombia. The article will evaluate the political and the geostrategic implications of this agreement, especially its repercussions for the regional integration process of South America. It will also analyze the stances of the local actors in order to consider prospective scenarios, and will assess the U.S. approach to South American int...

  18. Supply chain challenges in the South African automotive sector: do location, size and age matter?

    Micheline Juliana Naude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry makes an important contribution to the South African economy. However, there are deficiencies within the local automotive component manufacturers’ (ACMs supplier base and therefore automotive assemblers, or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, have to import many of their parts requirements. These deficiencies are caused by ACMs’ lack of technology, global supply capability, cost competitiveness and their geographic location (ACMs are scattered across the country. A study was conducted to explore the supply chain challenges South African ACMs face and whether the location, size and age of participating ACMs have a bearing on whether they face the same challenges. The results revealed that the most significant supply chain challenges in South Africa were in the customer relationship category. From the hypotheses testing, the conclusion could be drawn that, in general, participating ACMs face common supply chain challenges, irrespective of their location, age and size.This article contributes to the published research on the topic and the findings reveal that business opportunities in the automotive industry exist for entrepreneurs aspiring to enter into the automotive component industry.

  19. Grandparent caregiving among rural African Americans in a community in the American South: challenges to health and wellbeing.

    Clottey, Emmanuel N; Scott, Alison J; Alfonso, Moya L

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of grandparents in rural USA are serving as primary caregivers for their grandchildren because of parental incarceration, addiction, joblessness, or illness. Low-income, African American women from the South are overrepresented in this growing population. There is a paucity of research exploring the challenges faced by rural grandparent caregivers, and past studies have not explicitly addressed the potential consequences of rural grandparent caregiving for health. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore grandparent caregiving among rural, low-income, African American grandmothers in a community in the American South, and to identify challenges to health that arose in that context. McLeroy's social ecological model (SEM) was used to examine these challenges at multiple levels of influence. This qualitative interview-based study was conducted in a high-poverty community in rural Georgia. In-depth interviews were conducted with African American grandparent caregivers and key informants from local community-based organizations. A key informant assisted in identifying initial interview participants, and then snowball sampling was used to recruit additional participants. Interview questions were grouped under five domains (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy), according to the levels of the SEM. Iterative content analysis of interview transcripts was utilized. Transcripts were coded to identify text segments related to each domain of the SEM, which were grouped together for analysis by domain. Reflexive memo-writing aided in development of themes, and data quality was assessed using Lincoln and Guba's trustworthiness criteria. Rural African American grandparent caregivers faced a range of challenges to health. Direct physical challenges included chronic pain that interfered with sleep and daily functioning, mobility issues exacerbated by child care, and the pressure of managing their own medical conditions

  20. A bayesian approach to genome/linguistic relationships in native South Americans.

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Ramallo, Virginia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the evolution of genes and languages has been studied for over three decades. These studies rely on the assumption that languages, as many other cultural traits, evolve in a gene-like manner, accumulating heritable diversity through time and being subjected to evolutionary mechanisms of change. In the present work we used genetic data to evaluate South American linguistic classifications. We compared discordant models of language classifications to the current Native American genome-wide variation using realistic demographic models analyzed under an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework. Data on 381 STRs spread along the autosomes were gathered from the literature for populations representing the five main South Amerindian linguistic groups: Andean, Arawakan, Chibchan-Paezan, Macro-Jê, and Tupí. The results indicated a higher posterior probability for the classification proposed by J.H. Greenberg in 1987, although L. Campbell's 1997 classification cannot be ruled out. Based on Greenberg's classification, it was possible to date the time of Tupí-Arawakan divergence (2.8 kya), and the time of emergence of the structure between present day major language groups in South America (3.1 kya).

  1. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800).

    Artico, L O; Bianchini, A; Grubel, K S; Monteiro, D S; Estima, S C; Oliveira, L R de; Bonatto, S L; Marins, L F

    2010-09-01

    The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande), both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop) was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7), with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%). Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62%) and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%). Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  2. Mitochondrial control region haplotypes of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800

    L.O. Artico

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion, Otaria flavescens, is widely distributed along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America. However, along the Brazilian coast, there are only two nonbreeding sites for the species (Refúgio de Vida Silvestre da Ilha dos Lobos and Refúgio de Vida Silvestre do Molhe Leste da Barra do Rio Grande, both in Southern Brazil. In this region, the species is continuously under the effect of anthropic activities, mainly those related to environmental contamination with organic and inorganic chemicals and fishery interactions. This paper reports, for the first time, the genetic diversity of O. flavescens found along the Southern Brazilian coast. A 287-bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region (D-loop was analyzed. Seven novel haplotypes were found in 56 individuals (OFA1-OFA7, with OFA1 being the most frequent (47.54%. Nucleotide diversity was moderate (π = 0.62% and haplotype diversity was relatively low (67%. Furthermore, the median joining network analysis indicated that Brazilian haplotypes formed a reciprocal monophyletic clade when compared to the haplotypes from the Peruvian population on the Pacific coast. These two populations do not share haplotypes and may have become isolated some time back. Further genetic studies covering the entire species distribution are necessary to better understand the biological implications of the results reported here for the management and conservation of South American sea lions.

  3. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  4. The use of disruptive information technologies for competitive advantage in the banking sector of South Africa.

    Windell, Anneke C.; Kroeze, Jan H.

    2009-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is to determine the impact of disruptive technology in the ICT environment and how new technologies can be managed in a secured architecture framework of organisations in the banking sector. Change management has a specific role to play as any introduction of new technology in the workplace is dependent on a successful change management process. Furthermore, the purpose of the research is to provide insight and principles when companies need to make informat...

  5. Arthroscopic approach and intraarticular anatomy of the stifle in South American camelids.

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Santschi, Elizabeth

    2012-05-01

    To describe a cranial arthroscopic approach to the stifle of South American camelids and to report our clinical experience with camelid stifle arthroscopy. Experimental study and retrospective case series. (1) Cadaveric alpaca hindlimbs (n = 18; 9 alpacas); (2) 1 alpaca and 1 llama Polymethylmethacrylate joint casts (n = 2) were made to define stifle joint dimensions. Cadaveric stifle joints (n = 16) were evaluated arthroscopically to determine arthroscopic portal locations, describe the intraarticular anatomy, and report potential complications. An alpaca and a llama with stifle joint disease had diagnostic arthroscopy. Successful entry into the stifle joint was achieved in 16 cadaver limbs. Observed structures were: the suprapatellar pouch, articular surface of the patella, femoral trochlear ridges and groove, cranial aspect of the femoral condyles (n = 16); distal aspect of the cranial and proximal aspect of the caudal cruciate ligaments (14); and cranial aspects of the medial and lateral menisci (11), and cranial meniscotibial and intermeniscal ligaments (8). Stifle arthroscopy allowed for joint evaluation and removal of osteochondral fragments in 1 alpaca and 1 llama with naturally occurring stifle disease. Complications of cadaver or live procedures included minor cartilage scoring (3 stifles) and subcutaneous periarticular fluid accumulation (8 stifles). Arthroscopy provides a safe approach for diagnosis and treatment of stifle lesions in South American camelids. Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. The role of SST on the South American atmospheric circulation during January, February and March 2001

    Drumond, Anita Rodrigues De Moraes; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2005-06-01

    Precipitation deficits were observed over southeastern, northeastern and Central Brazil during the 2001 Austral Summer. They contributed to the worsening of the energy crisis that was occurring in the country. A low-level anomalous anticyclonic circulation observed over eastern Brazil enhanced the deviation of moisture transport that usually occurs from the Amazon Basin to southeastern Brazil and inhibited the occurrence of South Atlantic Convergence Zone events in that period. However, an anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux was observed over the La Plata Basin, and positive precipitation anomalies occurred over Bolivia, Paraguay, northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. Using the ensemble technique, a numerical study was carried out to investigate the role of different sea surface temperature (SST) forcings observed over this anomalous South American atmospheric circulation. Reynolds SST monthly means were used as boundary conditions to study the influence of South Atlantic, South Indian, South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans. The simulations were run from September 2000 to April 2001 using the Community Climate Model version 3.6 General Circulation Model. Ten integrations using different initial conditions were done to each experiment. Numerical experiments suggested that the combined influence of South Pacific and Equatorial Pacific oceans could be responsible for the drought observed over Central Brazil. These experiments simulated the low-level anticyclonic anomaly observed over eastern Brazil. However, both experiments have poorly reproduced the intensity of the anomalous low-level northerly moisture flux observed over the La Plata Basin. Therefore, the intensity of the simulated precipitation anomalies over the subtropical regions was much weaker than observed.

  7. Local content requirements and the impact on the South African renewable energy sector: A survey-based analysis

    Christopher Ettmayr

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Economies aim to grow over time, which usually implies the need for increased energy availability. Governments can use their procurement of energy to increase benefits in their economies via certain policy tools. One such tool is local content requirements (LCRs, where the purchase of goods prescribes that a certain value has to be sourced locally. The argument for this tool is that spending is localised and manufacturing, as well as job creation, can be stimulated because industry will need to establish in the host economy. However, this practice is distortionary in effect and does not create a fair playing ground for global trade. Furthermore, if the local content definition is weak, or open to manipulation, the goals of such a policy may not be achieved at all. Aim: The objective of this study was to determine how LCRs would ultimately impact on the overall procurement programme. Setting: This study took place as South Africa commenced with large scale development of the renewable energy sector. This was largely achieved via the State run Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (REIPPPP. Method: This study utilised opinion-based surveys to look into the LCRs of South Africa’s REIPPPP and measure the impact of this policy on the renewable energy sector in general. The mixed method approach was utilised to analyse qualitative and quantitative data and this was then triangulated with an international peer group to arrive at certain conclusions. The Delphi Technique was then employed to achieve population consensus on the findings. Results and conclusion: It was found that, in order to implement a policy such as local content without any negative welfare effects, the host economy had to show certain pre-existing conditions. Because South Africa does not hold all supportive pre-conditions, the impact and effect of LCRs have not been optimal, and it has not been found to be a sustainable mechanism to

  8. Genetic diversity of neotropical Myotis (chiroptera: vespertilionidae with an emphasis on South American species.

    Roxanne J Larsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryptic morphological variation in the Chiropteran genus Myotis limits the understanding of species boundaries and species richness within the genus. Several authors have suggested that it is likely there are unrecognized species-level lineages of Myotis in the Neotropics. This study provides an assessment of the diversity in New World Myotis by analyzing cytochrome-b gene variation from an expansive sample ranging throughout North, Central, and South America. We provide baseline genetic data for researchers investigating phylogeographic and phylogenetic patterns of Myotis in these regions, with an emphasis on South America. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cytochrome-b sequences were generated and phylogenetically analyzed from 215 specimens, providing DNA sequence data for the most species of New World Myotis to date. Based on genetic data in our sample, and on comparisons with available DNA sequence data from GenBank, we estimate the number of species-level genetic lineages in South America alone to be at least 18, rather than the 15 species currently recognized. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide evidence that the perception of lower species richness in South American Myotis is largely due to a combination of cryptic morphological variation and insufficient sampling coverage in genetic-based systematic studies. A more accurate assessment of the level of diversity and species richness in New World Myotis is not only helpful for delimiting species boundaries, but also for understanding evolutionary processes within this globally distributed bat genus.

  9. Tectonothermal events of southeastern Brazil: Implications for consolidation of the South American platform

    Hackspacher, P.C.; Fetter, A.H; Dantas, E.L; Hadler Neto, J.C; Ribeiro, L.F.B; Tello, C.E.S

    2001-01-01

    The tectonothermal history of the South American Platform and it consolidation have to be analyzed considering different tectonic and stabilization stages. For that propose we have studied the Precambrian basement southwest of the city of Sao Paulo, which was consolidated and deformed during the Brasiliano Orogeny and later affected by Phanerozoic tectonics. Geological data from a northwest/southeast transect between Sao Roque and Jundiai - SP, were obtained through U/Pb, K/Ar and Ar/Ar mineral and whole rock studies. Metamorphic PT values, relation of brittle-ductile zone of felsic crustal rocks and fission track ages were also obtained. Such data were plotted on a temperature-time plot representing a preliminary overview of the geological evolution of this part of the South American platform. Recently dated highly deformed metaplutons from the Ribeira Belt suggest that convergence that preceded collision was underway by around 650 Ma. Low-grade (rarely reaching 4000 o C) metasediments and metavolcanics of the Sao Roque Group, interpreted to be a backarc basin that formed during active Brasiliano collision, yield a crystallization age of 627 Ma (Hackspacher et al., 2000). Syn-collisional granitoids with U/Pb zircon and monazite ages of 625 Ma (Janasi, 1999) provide more constraints on the timing of active collision. Temperatures of these calc-alkaline rocks can be considered around 650 o C. U/Pb zircon and monazite ages between 610 and 595 Ma obtained igneous bodies associated with transpressional tectonics place age constraints on the transition to a transpressional regime, with crystallization temperature around 580 o C. Related strike-slip shear zones in brittle-ductile transition, present K-Ar ages on biotite and hornblende between 600 and 580 Ma. The temperature interval for these greenschist grade shear zones is estimated between 450 and 300 o C. Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA) near the Jundiuvira Shear Zone present a corrected Fission Track Age of 477

  10. Tendency towards learned pessimism in the South African industrial multinational sector industry / Heidi van Schalkwyk

    Van Schalkwyk, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    South Africa's business environment is changing dramatically. Companies are continuously placed under pressure to reform. Government introduced clear guidelines in the form of transformation strategies to assist companies in moving towards a more democratic, non-racial and fully representative organisational structure. The two major strategies are coined Black Economic Empowerment and Affirmative Action. The aim of the strategies is to empower and uplift the previously disadvan...

  11. An investigation into logistics outsourcing practices, trends and issues within the manufacturing sector in South Africa

    2009-01-01

    D.Comm. Logistics outsourcing can make a significant contribution to the competitive advantage and profitability of a company through its role in reducing costs and improving customer service. In a country such as South Africa, where companies are under increasing pressure from both customers and shareholders to improve performance, and where the growth strategy is aimed at exports, logistics outsourcing can have an important impact. However, if not undertaken properly it can result in fai...

  12. Governance and Public Sector Transformation in South Africa: Reporting and Providing Assurance on Service Delivery Information

    Mariaan Roos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3(a. The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2 (c. The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the implementation thereof in South Africa. The aim through deploying these set objectives is to formulate possible future considerations for improved governance. As central part of the methodology, review of literature on reporting and audit of non-financialwas conducted. The research included scrutiny of the different philosophies and approaches adopted by different countries to the reporting and providing assurance on service delivery information. In this respect, the research reflects a comparative element. In South Africa the Auditor-General adopted a phasing-in approach. The development of the audit approach and audit procedures has reached a stable stage, nine years after the initial process started. The audit of performance information now forms an integral part of the regularity audit process. The analysis of audit findings of the period under study indicates a considerable improvement once initiated, but stagnation persists in subsequent years. Numerous challenges remain around the application of performance reporting in South Africa including non-compliance, the lack of sufficient and appropriate audit evidence, inconsistencies between the various strategic documents and the need to improve the usefulness of performance information. In conclusion the article proposes some steps to address the challenges.

  13. Governance responses to hacking in the banking sector of South Africa : an exploratory study

    2013-01-01

    D.Comm. (Auditing) Organisations today are critically dependent on IT to enable business operations and ensure competitiveness in a growing international marketplace. At the same time, IT also introduces significant risks, such as hacking. The board of directors is ultimately responsible for mitigating IT risk as a component of business risk. This task is included in its corporate governance responsibilities, which, in the South African context, is underpinned by the King Code of Corporate...

  14. Governance and Public Sector Transformation in South Africa: Reporting and Providing Assurance on Service Delivery Information

    Mariaan Roos

    2012-01-01

    Reporting on performance was legislatively established in South Africa in terms of the Public Finance Management Act, Act 1 of 1999, section 40 (3)(a). The auditing of the reported information was legislated in the Public Audit Act, Act 25 of 2004, section 20(2) (c). The objectives of the article are firstly to provide an overview of the development and application of the reporting and secondly providing assurance on service delivery information and thirdly to reflect on challenges to the imp...

  15. South American regional ionospheric maps computed by GESA: A pilot service in the framework of SIRGAS

    Brunini, C.; Meza, A.; Gende, M.; Azpilicueta, F.

    2008-08-01

    SIRGAS (Geocentric Reference Frame for the Americas) is an international enterprise of the geodetic community that aims to realize the Terrestrial Reference Frame in the America's countries. In order to fulfill this commitment, SIRGAS manages a network of continuously operational GNSS receivers totalling around one hundred sites in the Caribbean, Central, and South American region. Although the network was not planed for ionospheric studies, its potential to be used for such a purpose was recently recognized and SIRGAS started a pilot experiment devoted to establish a regular service for computing and releasing regional vertical TEC (vTEC) maps based on GNSS data. Since July, 2005, the GESA (Geodesia Espacial y Aeronomía) laboratory belonging to the Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas of the Universidad Nacional de La Plata computes hourly maps of vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment. These maps exploit all the GNSS data available in the South American region and are computed with the LPIM (La Plata Ionospheric Model). LPIM implements a de-biasing procedure that improves data calibration in relation to other procedures commonly used for such purposes. After calibration, slant TEC measurements are converted to vertical and mapped using local-time and modip latitude. The use of modip latitude smoothed the spatial variability of vTEC, especially in the South American low latitude region and hence allows for a better vTEC interpolation. This contribution summarizes the results obtained by GESA in the framework of the SIRGAS pilot experiment.

  16. Experimental infection of two South American reservoirs with four distinct strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    Roellig, Dawn M.; McMillan, Katherine; Ellis, Angela E.; Vandeberg, John L.; Champagne, Donald E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a diverse species with 2 primary genotypes, TcI and TcII, with TcII further subdivided into 5 subtypes (IIa–e). This study evaluated infection dynamics of 4 genetically and geographically diverse T. cruzi strains in 2 South American reservoirs, degus (Octodon degus) and grey short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica). Based on prior suggestions of a genotype-host association, we hypothesized that degus (placental) would more readily become infected with TcII strains while short-tailed opossums (marsupial) would be a more competent reservoir for a TcI strain. Individuals (n = 3) of each species were intraperitoneally inoculated with T. cruzi trypomastigotes of TcIIa [North America (NA)-raccoon (Procyon lotor) origin], TcI [NA-Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)], TcIIb [South America (SA)-human], TcIIe (SA-Triatoma infestans), or both TcI and TcIIa. Parasitaemias in experimentally infected degus peaked earlier (7–14 days post-inoculation (p.i.)) compared with short-tailed opossums (21–84 days p.i.). Additionally, peak parasitaemias were higher in degus; however, the duration of detectable parasitaemias for all strains, except TcIIa, was greater in short-tailed opossums. Infections established in both host species with all genotypes, except for TcIIa, which did not establish a detectable infection in short-tailed opossums. These results indicate that both South American reservoirs support infections with these isolates from North and South America; however, infection dynamics differed with host and parasite strain. PMID:20128943

  17. An optimization model to agroindustrial sector in antioquia (Colombia, South America)

    Fernandez, J.

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops a proposal of a general optimization model for the flower industry, which is defined by using discrete simulation and nonlinear optimization, whose mathematical models have been solved by using ProModel simulation tools and Gams optimization. It defines the operations that constitute the production and marketing of the sector, statistically validated data taken directly from each operation through field work, the discrete simulation model of the operations and the linear optimization model of the entire industry chain are raised. The model is solved with the tools described above and presents the results validated in a case study.

  18. Social responsability accouting in the South African ‘chemicals’ corporate sector

    Manuel A.C. Vieira Freitas

    1994-01-01

    A Contabilidade Sócio - Ambiental é um tópico que, na África do Sul - em comparação com alguns outros países - tem sido um pouco marginalizado, tanto pelos contabilistas profissionais, como pelos professores de contabilidade universitários. Neste artigo, no qual se focou atentamente nas companhias do sector 'químico', cotadas na Bolsa de Valores de Joanesburgo, o autor tenta estabelecer, em primeiro lugar, a natureza geral e dimensão da informação de tipo sócio - ambiental, divulgada nos rela...

  19. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American Sea Lions, Otaria flavescens, From Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    Berón-Vera, B.; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; Raga Esteve, Juan Antonio; Pedraza, S. N.

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were...

  20. Highly Structured Duets in the Song of the South American Hornero

    Laje, Rodrigo; Mindlin, Gabriel B.

    2003-12-01

    The South American Hornero (Furnarius rufus) is a suboscine bird widely known for its mud-made, oven-looking nest. Beyond their architectural skills, the male and female Horneros sing in highly structured duets. The analysis of field recordings reported in this work reveals that as the male increases the note production rate the female responds by switching to different locking states: the ones predicted by the theory of nonlinear forced oscillators. This gives the duet a most appealing rhythm, and unveils the nonlinear nature of the underlying brain activity needed to generate the song.

  1. Natural Infection of the South American Tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by Theileria equi.

    Da Silveira, Alexandre Welzel; De Oliveira, Gustavo Gomes; Menezes Santos, Leandro; da Silva Azuaga, Lucas Bezerra; Macedo Coutinho, Claudia Regina; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Antunes, Tamires Ramborger; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Izabel de Souza, Alda

    2017-04-01

    Theileria equi is a tick-borne piroplasm considered endemic in equines in Brazil. The cohabitation of domestic and wild animals in areas of extensive cattle breeding favors the close contact between different species and the sharing of vectors and, consequently, pathogens. We report the natural infection of a young South American tapir ( Tapirus terrestris ) by T. equi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Although it was not possible to associate the clinical and hematologic status of the animal with the infection by the protozoan parasite, our report represents an alert on the sharing of pathogens between domestic and wild animals.

  2. Relationship between CEO remuneration and company financial performance in the South African retail and consumer goods sector

    Mark Bussin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was motivated by the need to better understand the effects of the global financial crisis in 2008 on the relationship between company financial performance and CEO guaranteed cost to company (CTC. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between company financial performance using DuPont analysis and CEO guaranteed CTC in the South African retail and consumer goods sector. Design: The research was a quantitative, archival study of companies listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE, measured over a period of six years (2006–2011. The statistical analysis included regression and correlation analysis. Findings: The research found that CEO guaranteed CTC has shown no sensitivity towards company financial performance in terms of DuPont analysis over the six-year period, which included the global financial crises in 2008. Furthermore, a negative relationship existed between the return on equity and the guaranteed CTC of CEOs in the retail and consumer goods sector during this period. Practical implications: The findings suggest that there is misalignment between company strategy and performance and the guaranteed CTC of CEOs. A practical implication would be to have independent and competent remuneration committees ensuring alignment of the interests of a company with those of its leaders in this regard.

  3. Cost-savings accruable to removing value added tax from antiretrovirals in the South African private health sector

    Varsha Bangalee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the important and essential role that medicines play in any society, all medicines, including those identified as essential, are uniformly subjected to 14% value added tax (VAT, regardless of their therapeutic value in the private healthcare sector of South Africa. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the potential cost-saving attained from the removal of VAT from the private sector pricing of essential medicines, using antiretroviral treatment as an example. Methods: An empirical analysis was undertaken to illustrate the potential cost-saving achieved by removing VAT from the Single Exit Price and the dispensing fee of essential medicines. This outcome was demonstrated by applying the methodology to an adult fixed dose combination 1st line antiretroviral regimen as well as to a group of 3rd line antiretroviral medicines. Results: The potential saving for the lowest priced generic and originator 1st line antiviral regimen accrued to ZAR 693.84 and ZAR 1085.04 over a year respectively. Regarding the 3rd line antiretroviral drugs, results yielded an annual saving of ZAR 1678.68 (darunavir, ZAR5741.04 (maraviroc and ZAR 159.48 (rilpivirine. Conclusions: Lobbying for the removal of VAT from the supply chain of medicines should be intensified. Policy development to monitor and recover lost government revenue through the removal of taxes should be explored.

  4. Impact of Inadequate Experience and Skill on the Construction Sector in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    B. Ntuli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Civil engineering contractors encounter serious challenges in order to sustain their businesses, especially in a weak economic climate. A certain level of construction experience, expertise and training are required to manage a sustainable construction company. The Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB was established in 2000 as a statutory body to provide leadership to stakeholders and stimulate sustainable growth, reform and improvement of the construction sector for effective infrastructure delivery and improvement of construction skills. The objectives of this research were to investigate challenges faced by civil engineering contractors whilst making their enterprises sustainable. Contractors’ views were presented at “Construction Indaba 2011” held on 1–2 June 2011 and hosted by eThekwini Municipality’s Business Support, Tourism and Markets in Durban KwaZulu-Natal. Discussion and findings revealed to a skills’ shortage in the construction section and underlined the need for continuous training of the contractors’ employees. The South African government in conjunction with all stakeholders should develop and implement contractor programs to address the lack of technical and management skills in the construction sector.

  5. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision

  6. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    Ashmore John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers

  7. Chronic disease list conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in the private healthcare sector of South Africa.

    Olivier, Nericke; Burger, Johanita; Joubert, Rianda; Lubbe, Martie; Naudé, Adele; Cockeran, Marike

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about the burden of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in South Africa. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of RA and coexisting chronic disease list (CDL) conditions in the private health sector of South Africa. A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis was performed on medicine claims data from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2014 to establish the prevalence of RA. The cohort of RA patients was then divided into those with and those without CDL conditions, to determine the number and type of CDL conditions per patient, stratified by age group and gender. A total 4352 (0.5%) patients had RA, of whom 69.3% (3016) presented with CDL conditions. Patients had a median age of 61.31 years (3.38; 98.51), and 74.8% were female. Patients with CDL conditions were older than those patients without (p Gender had no influence on the presence of CDL conditions (p = 0.456). Men had relatively higher odds for hyperlipidemia (OR 1.83; CI 1.33-2.51; p < 0.001) and lower odds for asthma (OR 0.83; CI 0.48-1.42; p = 0.490) than women. In combination with hyperlipidemia, the odds for asthma were reversed and strongly increased (OR 6.74; CI 2.07-21.93; p = 0.002). The odds for men having concomitant hyperlipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism were insignificant and low (OR 0.40; CI 0.16-1.02; p = 0.055); however, in the absence of hypothyroidism, the odds increased to 3.26 (CI 2.25-4.71; p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism was an important discriminating factor for comorbidity in men with RA. This study may contribute to the body of evidence about the burden of RA and coexisting chronic conditions in South Africa.

  8. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals.

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Globally, flexible work arrangements - through the use of temporary nursing staff - are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Hospital managers and policy-makers need to address the effective

  9. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion

  10. Institutional delivery in public and private sectors in South Asia: A comparative analysis of prospective data from four demographic surveillance sites

    S. Das (Sushmita); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); A. Kuddus (Abdul); A. Manandhar; B. Shrestha (Bhim); N. Nair (Nirmala); S. Rath (Santosh); N.S. More (Neena Shah); N. Saville (Naomi); A.J. Houweling (Tanja); D. Osrin (David)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Maternity care in South Asia is available in both public and private sectors. Using data from demographic surveillance sites in Bangladesh, Nepal and rural and urban India, we aimed to compare institutional delivery rates and public-private share. __Methods:__ We

  11. Introducing the female condom through the public health sector: experiences from South Africa.

    Mantell, J E; Scheepers, E; Karim, Q A

    2000-10-01

    The successful implementation of new public health policy is influenced by provider preparedness and user acceptability of the new intervention. This paper describes the development and implementation of a participatory Training of Trainers (TOT) programme as a precursor to launch the South African government's female-initiated HIV prevention strategies in public health clinics. Three hundred peer-trainees from throughout South Africa were trained through a comprehensive, modular and interactive three-day workshop. The workshop content included: HIV/AIDS knowledge, beliefs and attitudes; values clarification regarding HIV infection and sexuality; sexual desensitization; 'hands-on' training in the use of and introduction of the female condom; and counselling, communication and programme planning skills. The TOT generated a cadre of knowledgeable health care workers for training others and provided a support structure at the service delivery level for ensuring potential users' access to the female condom within each province. Qualitative assessments of the training and trainer debriefing sessions suggest that the training was successful in increasing knowledge and promoting positive attitudes about female condoms. In addition, the expanded repertoire of problem-solving approaches left providers feeling confident about recommending this method to clients.

  12. Integrated Financial Management Information Systems: Guidelines for effective implementation by the public sector of South Africa

    Christoffel J. Hendriks

    2012-12-01

    Objectives: The research was conducted in order to identify the challenges and risks that are involved in the implementation of the IFMIS in South Africa. After identification of the challenges and risks, solutions or guidelines were developed that may make the implementation more successful. Method: The methodology that was used is that of a literature study where theories were explored and used to solve a research problem. Based on the theoretical research, solutions and guidelines were developed to solve challenges and risks experienced. Results: The results indicated that there are a number of challenges involved with the implementation of an IFMIS. A set of best practice guidelines was developed that may make the implementation more successful. Conclusion: The sheer size and complexity of an IFMIS poses significant challenges and a number of risks to the implementation process. There are, however, critical success factors or best practices that can be used for the project to succeed. It is recommended that these best practices be used by the South African Public Service.

  13. Monitoring risk to water logging: sector south of Ciudad de la Costa. Canelones, Uruguay

    Marmisolle, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ciudad de La Costa had experimented in the last decades an important urban expansion with serious environmental consequences, with the objective to establish the hazards of flooding. Originally started in 2002, to contribute to future urban planning, new hazard maps where made for the Southern sector of the city. Through new geological, geomorphologic, hydro-geological studies and precipitation values, zones of high risk of flooding (under 0.5 meters) were identified for the first semester of 2005 which reach 40% of the total surface area. At the same time microbiological analysis of the groundwater confirm an important bacteriological contamination of the waters in the upper free aquifer. Apart from the Carrasco creek all the water samples from the water courses in the area and beaches showed no levels of contamination. (author)

  14. PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON, cloud amount/frequency and other data from COLUMBUS ISELIN in the North American Coastline-South and South Atlantic Ocean from 1990-05-23 to 1990-06-13 (NODC Accession 9100150)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data was collected from R/V COLUMBUS ISELIN in South Atlantic Ocean and North American Coast line-South during the Amazon Shelf Sediment Study (AMASSEDS) between May...

  15. Factors Associated with Toothache among African American Adolescents Living in Rural South Carolina

    Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Magruder, Kathryn M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Salinas, Carlos F.; London, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to explore behavioral factors associated with toothache among African American adolescents living in rural South Carolina. Methods Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected on toothache experience in the past 12 months, oral hygiene behavior, dental care utilization, and cariogenic snack and non-diet soft drink consumption in a convenience sample of 156 African American adolescents aged 10-18 years old living in rural South Carolina. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the associations between reported toothache experience and socio-demographic variables, oral health behavior, and snack consumption. Results Thirty-four percent of adolescents reported having toothache in the past 12 months. In univariable modeling, age, dental visit in the last two years, quantity and frequency of cariogenic snack consumption, and quantity of non-diet soft drink consumption were each significantly associated with experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values cariogenic snacks, and number of cans of non-diet soft drink consumed during the weekend significantly increased the odds of experiencing toothache in the past 12 months (all p-values ≤ 0.01). Conclusion Findings indicate age, frequent consumption of cariogenic snacks and number of cans of non-diet soft drinks are related to toothache in this group. Public policy implications related to selling cariogenic snacks and soft drink that targeting children and adolescents especially those from low income families are discussed. PMID:22085328

  16. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  17. IMPROVING MASS REARING TECHNOLOGY FOR SOUTH AMERICAN FRUIT FLY (DIPTERA:TEPHRITIDAE

    Raimundo Braga Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on availability of suitable and economic diets for adults and larvae of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830 were carried out at the Entomology Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria with the aim to find the best diets to fit in a large scale mass rearing production. The best diet for adult was the combination of Hydrolysate Corn Protein + Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (3:1:3. This diet resulted in the highest numbers of egg/female/day, spermatozoid in the spermathecae, percentages of egg hatch, the lowest mortality rate of adults and the highest average mating duration compared with the standard adult diet based on Yeast Hydrolysate Enzymatic + Sugar (1:3. Among eleven larval diets tested, diets based on sugarcane and sugarbeet bagases plus 7% brewer yeast, 8% sugar, 0.2% sodium benzoate, 0.8% of hydrochloric acid and 60% water (adjusted, yielded the highest percentages of egg hatching, pupal recovery, pupal weight and adult emergence. There was no statistical difference with the standard larval diet based on wheat germ 3%, corncob 15%, corn flower 8%, brewer yeast 6%, sugar 8%, sodium benzoate 0.23%, hydrochloric acid 0.63%, nipagin 0.14% and water 59% (adjusted. The significant performance of these adult and larval diets open discussion for future researches on improvement of rearing techniques required for the establishment of sterile insect technique (SIT program focused on the South American fruit fly.

  18. Brightness of venous blood in South American camelids: implications for jugular catheterization.

    Grint, Nicola; Dugdale, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    To compare the brightness of South American camelid venous blood to that of Equidae. Prospective clinical evaluation. Twelve South American camelids (eight llamas, four alpacas), eight horses and ponies (control group). Appropriately sized catheters were placed in the jugular vein of each animal under local anaesthesia. The blood spilt before the catheter was capped was caught on a white tile. A sample of blood was drawn for blood-gas analysis. The brightness of the blood (both on the tile and in the syringe) was matched to a colour chart (1 = darkest red, 8 = brightest red) by a single observer under bright light conditions. Packed cell volume (PCV) and partial pressure of oxygen (PvO(2)) in the blood were also measured on the syringe blood. Normally distributed data were compared using a two tailed t-test, and non-normally distributed data were compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Significance was set at p Camelid venous blood was significantly brighter red than that of horses and ponies both on the white tile (p = 0.0003) and in the syringe (p = 0.0001). PCV was significantly lower in camelids (32 +/- 4%) compared with horses (37 +/- 5%). Partial pressure of oxygen values were similar between groups. Jugular venous blood in alpacas and llamas is significantly brighter red than that of horses. Colour should not be used as a sole determinant of venous or arterial catheterization in this species.

  19. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens

    Carlos Hermosilla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium. Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  20. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging “Urban” South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health. PMID:27051860

  1. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging "Urban" South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens).

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging "urban" colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) technique, carbol fuchsin-stained faecal smears and Giardia/Cryptosporidium coproantigen ELISAs, revealed infections with 8 different parasites belonging to protozoan and metazoan taxa with some of them bearing anthropozoonotic potential. Thus, five of these parasites were zoonotic (Diphyllobothriidae gen. sp., Anisakidae gen. sp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Balantidium). Overall, these parasitological findings included four new parasite records for Otaria flavescens, that is, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium, and Otostrongylus. The current data serve as a baseline for future monitoring studies on anthropozoonotic parasites circulating in these marine mammals and their potential impact on public health.

  2. Second-generation bioethanol from industrial wood waste of South American species

    María E. Vallejos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a global interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable sources of energy. The present review evaluates the significance of South-American wood industrial wastes for bioethanol production. Four countries have been chosen for this review, i.e., Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, based on their current or potential forestry industry. It should be noted that although Brazil has a global bioethanol market share of 25%, its production is mainly first-generation bioethanol from sugarcane. The situation in the other countries is even worse, in spite of the fact that they have regulatory frameworks in place already allowing the substitution of a percentage of gasoline by ethanol. Pines and eucalyptus are the usually forested plants in these countries, and their industrial wastes, as chips and sawdust, could serve as promising raw materials to produce second-generation bioethanol in the context of a forest biorefinery. The process to convert woody biomass involves three stages: pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation. The operational conditions of the pretreatment method used are generally defined according to the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw materials and subsequently determine the characteristics of the treated substrates. This article also reviews and discusses the available pretreatment technologies for eucalyptus and pines applicable to South-American industrial wood wastes, their enzymatic hydrolysis yields, and the feasibility of implementing such processes in the mentioned countries in the frame of a biorefinery.

  3. A deforestation-induced tipping point for the South American monsoon system

    Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest has been proposed as a tipping element of the earth system, with the possibility of a dieback of the entire ecosystem due to deforestation only of parts of the rainforest. Possible physical mechanisms behind such a transition are still subject to ongoing debates. Here, we use a specifically designed model to analyse the nonlinear couplings between the Amazon rainforest and the atmospheric moisture transport from the Atlantic to the South American continent. These couplings are associated with a westward cascade of precipitation and evapotranspiration across the Amazon. We investigate impacts of deforestation on the South American monsoonal circulation with particular focus on a previously neglected positive feedback related to condensational latent heating over the rainforest, which strongly enhances atmospheric moisture inflow from the Atlantic. Our results indicate the existence of a tipping point. In our model setup, crossing the tipping point causes precipitation reductions of up to 40% in non-deforested parts of the western Amazon and regions further downstream. The responsible mechanism is the breakdown of the aforementioned feedback, which occurs when deforestation reduces transpiration to a point where the available atmospheric moisture does not suffice anymore to release the latent heat needed to maintain the feedback.

  4. Normalized difference vegetation index for the South American continent used as a climatic variability indicator

    Liu, W.T.; Massambani, O.; Festa, M.

    1992-01-01

    The NOAA AVHRR GAC data set was used to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) maps for the South American Continent covering the period from August 1, 1981 to June 30, 1987. A 15-day maximum value composite procedure was used to partially eliminate the cloud contamination and atmospheric attenuation. Monthly evolution of NDVI for a dry and a wet year within the period studied was used to estimate the area covered by NDVI value less than 0.223, This value was used as an indicator of the drought area and the delineation of the Low rainfall areas in the continent. It was observed a well defined regional dependence of the drought area variability for the Northeast, Southwest and Northwest continent and also for the Amazon region. It is shown a relative estimation of the area coverage with NDVI less than 0.223 for the years 1982/83 and 1984/85. The dynamics of the drought area evolution in the continent is discussed. It is also presented a diagnosis of regional variability of the continental distribution of drought area from 1981 to 1987 for the months of May and September. This information is also used to discuss its relationship with the EL-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the South American Precipitation patterns during this period. It is suggested that the use of NDVI image to identify the dynamics of the drought induced by low rainfall may provide us valuable information to study the large scale climatic variation

  5. Change in the foraging strategy of female South American sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia after parturition

    Massimiliano Drago

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the hypothesis that female South American sea lions shift from off-shore, pelagic prey to coastal, benthic prey after parturition in order to reduce the foraging trip duration and hence the time pups remain unattended on the beach during early lactation. The δ13C and δ15N values of the serum and blood cells of 26 South American sea lion suckling pups from northern Patagonia were used to track the dietary changes of their mothers from late pregnancy to early lactation, after correction for differential isotopic fractionation between tissues. Primary producers and potential prey species were also analysed to establish a baseline for interpreting the stable isotope concentration of serum and blood cells. Isotopic ratios revealed a generalized increase in the consumption of coastal-benthic prey after parturition. Such a generalized post-partum shift will allow females to spend more time on land and look after their pups. The effects of this foraging strategy on the nutritional quality of the female’s diet are discussed.

  6. Digenetic trematodes in South American sea lions from southern Brazilian waters.

    Pereira, E M; Müller, G; Secchi, E; Pereira, J; Valente, A L S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a systematic study to detect and quantify the digenetic trematode infections in South American sea lions from the southern Brazilian coast. Twenty-four South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens (Carnivora: Otaridae), were found dead along the coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, between June 2010 and September of 2011. Two trematode species were found in the intestines of O. flavescens, i.e., Stephanoprora uruguayense (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Digenea: Heterophyidae). Ascocotyle (P.) longa reached a prevalence of 33.3% and mean intensity of 248,500, whereas S. uruguayense showed a prevalence of 4.2% and mean intensity of 202. The 2 trematode species infecting sea lions were likely transmitted by feeding on mullets, Mugil platanus, that commonly harbor heterophyid metacercariae. The present work is the first report of digenetic trematodes infecting O. flavescens in Brazil. The high prevalence and mean intensity values of the 2 trematode species infecting sea lions in the present study suggest caution in human consumption of mullets and other fish, which can be infected with the metacercariae of these trematodes known to have zoonotic potential.

  7. IAEA Helps Remove Highly Radioactive Material from Five South American Countries

    2018-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has helped remove 27 disused highly radioactive sources from five South American countries in a significant step forward for nuclear safety and security in the region. It was the largest such project ever facilitated by the IAEA. The material, mainly used for medical purposes such as treating cancer and sterilizing instruments, was transported to Germany and the United States for recycling. Canada, where some of the sources were manufactured, funded the project upon requests for IAEA support from Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. The sealed Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 sources pose safety and security risks when no longer in use, according to Raja Adnan, Director of the IAEA’s Division of Nuclear Security. “The removal of this large number of radioactive sources has significantly reduced those risks in the five countries,” Adnan said. In recent years, the IAEA has assisted Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cameroon, Costa Rica, Honduras, Lebanon, Morocco, Tunisia and Uzbekistan in the removal of disused sources. The South American operation was the largest the IAEA has so far coordinated in terms of both the number of highly radioactive sources and countries involved. While nuclear safety and security are national responsibilities, the IAEA helps Member States upon request to meet these responsibilities through training, technical advice, peer reviews and other advisory services. Such efforts may include support for Member States in implementing the safe and cost-effective recovery, conditioning, storage, disposal or transportation of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS).

  8. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 years

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie

    2015-04-01

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  9. On the Origin of the Bolivian High and Related Circulation Features of the South American Climate.

    Lenters, J. D.; Cook, K. H.

    1997-03-01

    The climatological structure in the upper-tropospheric summertime circulation over South America is diagnosed using a GCM (with and without South American topography), a linear model, and observational data. Emphasis is placed on understanding the origin of observed features such as the Bolivian high and the accompanying `Nordeste low' to the east. Results from the linear model indicate that these two features are generated in response to precipitation over the Amazon basin, central Andes, and South Atlantic convergence zone, with African precipitation also playing a crucial role in the formation of the Nordeste low. The direct mechanical and sensible heating effects of the Andes are minimal, acting only to induce a weak lee trough in midlatitudes and a shallow monsoonal circulation over the central Andes. In the GCM, the effects of the Andes include a strengthening of the Bolivian high and northward shift of the Nordeste low, primarily through changes in the precipitation field. The position of the Bolivian high is primarily determined by Amazonian precipitation and is little affected by the removal of the Andes. Strong subsidence to the west of the high is found to be important for the maintenance of the high's warm core, while large-scale convective overshooting to the east is responsible for a layer of cold air above the high.

  10. Widespread pollution of the South American atmosphere predates the industrial revolution by 240 y.

    Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G

    2015-02-24

    In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.

  11. PRODUCT ADAPTATIONS IN THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF THE FURNITURE SECTOR COMPANIES IN THE SOUTH OF BRAZIL

    Marise Mainieri de Ugalde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustaintability is deserving more attention from companies, not only in their market relations but also in their product development strategies, specially those related with brands and packaging. This study analyzed the product adaptations demanded on the exporting efforts of seven furniture companies of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in the South of Brazil. To do this a multiple case study was carried out involving in depth interviews, observation techniques and analysis of documents. The data collected were analyzed for content and categories were defined considering the literature on the subject and opinions of specialists. Main results showed that most companies do not have a defined and deliberated strategy to act in the international scenario and most adaptations were related to product, brands and packaging were made according to requests from importers and aimed, basically.

  12. Choice or no choice? The need for better branded public sector condoms in South Africa

    John Ashmore

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Condoms are one of the cornerstones to any response to the HIV epidemic. However, targetedmarketing strategies that make condoms more attractive to people at high risk of infection areoften overlooked. The South African National Department of Health has recently purchasedmore attractive condoms to distribute in higher-education settings free of charge, targeting atriskyouth including young women. The authors applaud this move but note the importance ofexpanding better branded condoms to young people elsewhere – for example, via youth clinicsand in high schools. Exploratory, routine data from Médecins Sans Frontières in Khayelitshaare presented, showing the popularity of alternatives to the government’s ‘Choice’ brand.

  13. Cefazolin high-inoculum effect in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from South American hospitals.

    Rincón, Sandra; Reyes, Jinnethe; Carvajal, Lina Paola; Rojas, Natalia; Cortés, Fabián; Panesso, Diana; Guzmán, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Adachi, Javier A; Murray, Barbara E; Nannini, Esteban C; Arias, Cesar A

    2013-12-01

    Clinical failures with cefazolin have been described in high-inoculum infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) producing type A β-lactamase. We investigated the prevalence of the cefazolin inoculum effect (InE) in MSSA from South American hospitals, since cefazolin is used routinely against MSSA due to concerns about the in vivo efficacy of isoxazolyl penicillins. MSSA isolates were recovered from bloodstream (n = 296) and osteomyelitis (n = 68) infections in two different multicentre surveillance studies performed in 2001-02 and 2006-08 in South American hospitals. We determined standard-inoculum (10(5)cfu/mL) and high-inoculum (10(7) cfu/mL) cefazolin MICs. PFGE was performed on all isolates that exhibited a cefazolin InE. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and sequencing of part of blaZ were performed on representative isolates. The overall prevalence of the cefazolin InE was 36% (131 isolates). A high proportion (50%) of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections exhibited the InE, whereas it was observed in 33% of MSSA recovered from bloodstream infections. Interestingly, Ecuador had the highest prevalence of the InE (45%). Strikingly, 63% of MSSA isolates recovered from osteomyelitis infections in Colombia exhibited the InE. MLST revealed that MSSA isolates exhibiting the InE belonged to diverse genetic backgrounds, including ST5, ST8, ST30 and ST45, which correlated with the prevalent methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones circulating in South America. Types A (66%) and C (31%) were the most prevalent β-lactamases. Our results show a high prevalence of the cefazolin InE associated with type A β-lactamase in MSSA isolates from Colombia and Ecuador, suggesting that treatment of deep-seated infections with cefazolin in those countries may be compromised.

  14. The Eocene South American metatherian Zeusdelphys complicatus is not a protodidelphidid but a hatcheriform: Paleobiogeographic implications

    Leonardo M. Carneiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zeusdelphys complicatus is one of the most enigmatic metatherians from the Itaboraí Basin. The type and only known specimen was previously regarded as the upper dentition of Eobrasilia; an M4 of a new taxon; an M3 of a Kollpaniidae (now regarded as a group of “condylarths”; a probable M1 of an incertae sedis taxon; and as an M1 of a Protodidelphidae. Herein, we present a morphological review of the dental structures of Zeusdelphys complicatus, presenting new interpretations and comparing it with other North and South American taxa. We also perform a phylogenetic analysis in order to test the affinities of Zeusdelphys and the validity of most studied characters. The results recovered Zeusdelphys complicatus as more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha than to any other metatherian. Glasbiidae were recovered as the sister lineage of Protodidelphidae within Didelphimorphia, as true marsupials. Ectocentrocristus was recovered as the sister taxon of Zeusdelphys + Hatcheritherium, as a Hatcheriformes. The analysis recovered this suborder as an independent lineage from Polydolopimorphia, being more closely related to “Alphadontidae”. The affinities with Protodidelphidae are a result of convergent evolution, as Zeusdelphys is more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The results support a North American origin for Hatcheriformes. The presence of strong sea-level lowstands and islands in the Caribbean Plate during the Late Cretaceous provide valid data to support a faunal interchange between Americas during the latest Late Cretaceous. Based on the results, Zeusdelphys represents a South American early Eocene surviving Hatcheriformes.

  15. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  16. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  17. Stakeholder influence in public sector information systems strategy implementation-The case of public hospitals in South Africa.

    Hwabamungu, Boroto; Brown, Irwin; Williams, Quentin

    2018-01-01

    Recent literature on organisational strategy has called for greater emphasis on individuals (stakeholders) and what they do in the process of strategizing. Public sector organisations have to engage with an array of heterogeneous stakeholders in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations on the implementation of Information Systems (IS) strategy in public hospitals in South Africa. An interpretive approach using two provinces was employed. The Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework, an enhanced form of activity theory, was used as the theoretical framework. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews, meetings, documents analysis, physical artefacts and observation. The collected data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings reveal that IS strategy implementation in public hospitals involves a large and complex network of stakeholder groups at different levels, and over different time periods. These stakeholder groups act in accordance with formal and informal roles, rules and modalities. Various contextual conditions together with the actions of, and interactions between stakeholder groups give rise to the situationality of stakeholder relations dynamics and strategy implementation. The multiple actions and interactions over time lead to the realisation of some aspects of the IS strategy in public hospitals. Given the complexity and dynamism of the context there are also certain unplanned implementations as well. These relationships are captured in a Stakeholder Relations Influence (SRI) framework. The SRI framework can be assistive in the assessment and mapping of stakeholders and stakeholder relations, and the assessment of the implications of these relations for effective IS strategy implementation in public hospitals. The

  18. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    Thambiran, Tirusha; Diab, Roseanne D.

    2011-01-01

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: → Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. → Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. → Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. → Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  19. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility.

    Mash, Robert; De Sa, Angela; Christodoulou, Maria

    2016-08-31

    Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA) survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA) and had 6 months of coaching. Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group.

  20. Air quality and climate change co-benefits for the industrial sector in Durban, South Africa

    Thambiran, Tirusha, E-mail: tthambiran@csir.co.za [CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 17001, Congella 4013 (South Africa); School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); Diab, Roseanne D. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville Campus, Private Bag X 54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2011-10-15

    Industries in Durban, South Africa, are a major source of air pollutant emissions and large users of fossil fuel based energy. Durban's energy strategy prioritises energy efficiency at industries as a key action, whilst industries are also the focus of the city's air quality management plan (AQMP). In this paper, measures that have been introduced in industries in Durban to effect air quality improvements and reduce energy consumption are examined in terms of their respective impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions. It was found that co-benefits for GHG mitigation were achieved when petroleum refineries switched from using heavy fuel oil to refinery gas and methane rich gas. Within other industries, co-benefits for air quality stemmed from reducing fossil fuel energy consumption and the improved efficiency of combustion systems. Air quality and energy policies in the city are being executed independently, without consideration of the trade-offs or synergies of the interventions being implemented. Recommendations are made for authorities and industries to consider the co-benefits for GHG mitigation in their AQMPs and where these are not possible to consider offsetting the increased GHG emissions through improved alignment with energy strategies. - Highlights: > Industrial energy use is a major source of atmospheric pollution in Durban. > Air quality and energy policies are executed independently. > Opportunities to harvest co-benefits and reduce trade-offs are overlooked. > Air quality management plans should be aligned with energy strategies.

  1. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    De Sa, Angela; Christodoulou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA) survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA) and had 6 months of coaching. Results Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group. PMID:27608671

  2. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  3. Risk factors for failure in newly established small, micro and medium-sized enterprises in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Zeleke Worku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The annual report issued for the financial year 2013/2014 by the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2015 shows that the business confidence index of South Africa was equal to 89.3% in January 2015. According to the South African National Department of Tourism (2015, the tourism sector contributed 93 Billion Rand (3% to the South African GDP in the year 2012. The contribution of the tourism sector was equal to 189.4 Billion Rand in the year 2009. This figure is projected to grow to 499 Billion Rand by the year 2020. According to the South African Small Enterprise Development Agency (2015, newly established and emerging business enterprises conducting business in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province are less viable and efficient in comparison with well-established tourism enterprises. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for underperformance and bankruptcy in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province in South Africa. The study was based on data collected from a stratified random sample of size 311 tourism enterprises that operate in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data was collected on a large number of socio-economic factors that adversely affect entrepreneurial activities in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analyses was used in the study. Examples of variables on which data was gathered was level of entrepreneurial skills, level of formal education, location of business, duration of experience, amount of capital, number of employees, ability to network with other tourist operators, degree of competition from rival operators, geographical location, category of business, category of entrepreneurial skills, average number of visitors per month, net profit, size of business, market share, access to finance, and degree of support from Government agencies. Results obtained from the study showed that the long-term survival

  4. Helminth parasites of South American fishes: current status and characterization as a model for studies of biodiversity.

    Luque, J L; Pereira, F B; Alves, P V; Oliva, M E; Timi, J T

    2017-03-01

    The South American subcontinent supports one of the world's most diverse and commercially very important ichthyofauna. In this context, the study of South American fish parasites is of increased relevance in understanding their key roles in ecosystems, regulating the abundance or density of host populations, stabilizing food webs and structuring host communities. It is hard to estimate the number of fish parasites in South America. The number of fish species studied for parasites is still low (less than 10%), although the total number of host-parasite associations (HPAs) found in the present study was 3971. Monogeneans, with 835 species (1123 HPAs, 28.5%), and trematodes, with 662 species (1127 HPAs, 30.9%), are the more diverse groups. Data gathered from the literature are useful to roughly estimate species richness of helminths from South American fish, even though there are some associated problems: the reliability of information depends on accurate species identification; the lack of knowledge about life cycles; the increasing number of discoveries of cryptic species and the geographically biased number of studies. Therefore, the closest true estimations of species diversity and distribution will rely on further studies combining both molecular and morphological approaches with ecological data such as host specificity, geographical distribution and life-cycle data. Research on biodiversity of fish parasites in South America is influenced by problems such as funding, taxonomic impediments and dispersion of research groups. Increasing collaboration, interchange and research networks in the context of globalization will enable a promising future for fish parasitology in South America.

  5. Cost and resource use of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the urban and semiurban public sectors of South Africa.

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Miners, Alec; Santos, Andreia C; Variava, Ebrahim; Venter, Willem Daniel Francois

    2012-11-01

    South Africa has the world's largest number of patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART). As coverage expands beyond urban environments, the cost of care is becoming increasingly important. Health care cost data for the first year after initiation were analyzed for cohorts of patients in a semiurban and an urban public sector ART clinic in South Africa. We compared mean cost by CD4 cell count and time on ART between clinics. Patients in both clinics had comparable CD4 cell counts at initiation and under treatment. In the urban clinic, mean cost per patient-year on ART in 2011 USD was $1040 [95% confidence interval (CI): $800 to $1280], of which outpatient cost was $692 (67%) and inpatient cost was $348 (33%). Fourteen percent of urban patients required inpatient care at a mean length of stay of 9 days and mean cost per hospitalized patient of $1663 (95% CI: $1103 to $2041). In the semiurban clinic, mean cost per patient-year on ART was $1115 (95% CI: $776 to $1453), of which outpatient cost was $697 (63%) and inpatient cost $418 (37%). Seven percent of semiurban patients required inpatient care at a mean length of stay of 28 days and mean cost per hospitalized patient of $3824 (95% CI: $1143 to $6505). Outpatient ART provision in the semiurban setting cost the same as in the urban setting, but inpatient costs are higher in the semiurban clinic because of longer hospitalizations. Cost in both clinics was highest in the first 3 months on ART and at CD4 cell counts <50 cells/μL.

  6. Quantifying the humanitarian and economic impact of earthquakes on South American capital cities (Invited)

    Zoback, M. L.; Cabrera, C.; Pomonis, A.; Baca, A.; Brunner, I.; Cheung, G.; Chen, A.; Nagel, B.; Carrasco, S.

    2009-12-01

    By 2000, an estimated 80% of South America’s population lived in urban areas (Veblen et al., The Physical Geography of South America, Oxford University Press, 2007). A significant fraction of those urban dwellers resides in the capital cities which are major economic centers and act as magnets for rural poor and refugees. This population concentration includes many residents living in extreme poverty in substandard and informal housing, often on the margins of these capital cities and sometimes on steep slopes, greatly compounding the vulnerability to natural hazards. We are analyzing the humanitarian and economic risk for six of the seismically most-at-risk South American capitals along the northern and western plate boundaries of South America: Caracas, Venezuela; Bogotá, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador; Lima, Perú; La Paz, Bolivia; and Santiago, Chile. Impacts are provided in the form of expected losses for a specific “likely” scenario earthquake and in a probabilistic format using exceedance probability curves (probability of exceeding a given loss in different return periods). Impacts to be quantified include: total economic losses, potential fatalities, potential serious injuries, and the number of displaced households. Probabilistic seismic hazard was developed in collaboration with numerous South American experts and includes subduction interface, intraslab, background crustal and, where available, active fault sources. A significant challenge for this study is to accurately account for the exposure and vulnerability of populations living in the informal, shanty areas. Combining analysis of aerial imagery and on-the-ground reconnaissance, we define between 20-30 “inventory districts” of relatively uniform construction styles within each capital. Statistical distributions of the different construction types and their characteristics (height, occupancy, year built, average value) are estimated for each district. In addition, working with local graduate

  7. How to change organisational culture: Action research in a South African public sector primary care facility

    Robert Mash

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organisational culture is a key factor in both patient and staff experience of the healthcare services. Patient satisfaction, staff engagement and performance are related to this experience. The department of health in the Western Cape espouses a values-based culture characterised by caring, competence, accountability, integrity, responsiveness and respect. However, transformation of the existing culture is required to achieve this vision. Aim: To explore how to transform the organisational culture in line with the desired values. Setting: Retreat Community Health Centre, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Participatory action research with the leadership engaged with action and reflection over a period of 18 months. Change in the organisational culture was measured at baseline and after 18 months by means of a cultural values assessment (CVA survey. The three key leaders at the health centre also completed a 360-degree leadership values assessment (LVA and had 6 months of coaching. Results: Cultural entropy was reduced from 33 to 13% indicating significant transformation of organisational culture. The key driver of this transformation was change in the leadership style and functioning. Retreat health centre shifted from a culture that emphasised hierarchy, authority, command and control to one that established a greater sense of cohesion, shared vision, open communication, appreciation, respect, fairness and accountability. Conclusion: Transformation of organisational culture was possible through a participatory process that focused on the leadership style, communication and building relationships by means of CVA and feedback, 360-degree LVA, feedback and coaching and action learning in a co-operative inquiry group.

  8. Who is accessing public-sector anti-retroviral treatment in the Free State, South Africa? An exploratory study of the first three years of programme implementation

    Booysen Frederik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although South Africa has the largest public-sector anti-retroviral treatment (ART programme in the world, anti-retroviral coverage in adults was only 40.2% in 2008. However, longitudinal studies of who is accessing the South African public-sector ART programme are scarce. This study therefore had one main research question: who is accessing public-sector ART in the Free State Province, South Africa? The study aimed to extend the current literature by investigating, in a quantitative manner and using a longitudinal study design, the participants enrolled in the public-sector ART programme in the period 2004-2006 in the Free State Province of South Africa. Methods Differences in the demographic (age, sex, population group and marital status socio-economic (education, income, neo-material indicators, geographic (travel costs, relocation for ART, and medical characteristics (CD4, viral load, time since first diagnosis, treatment status among 912 patients enrolled in the Free State public-sector ART programme between 2004 and 2006 were assessed with one-way analysis of variance, Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, and cross tabulations with the chi square test. Results The patients accessing treatment tended to be female (71.1% and unemployed (83.4%. However, although relatively poor, those most likely to access ART services were not the most impoverished patients. The proportion of female patients increased (P P P P P Conclusions Our analysis showed significant changes in the demographic, socio-economic, geographic, and medical characteristics of the patients during the first three years of the programme. Knowledge of the characteristics of these patients can assist policy makers in developing measures to retain them in care. The information reported here can also be usefully applied to target patient groups that are currently not reached in the implementation of the ART programme.

  9. Industrial consolidation. Merger and acquisition activities in the Latin American electricity and gas sector; Industriekonsolidierung. M and A-Aktivitaeten im lateinamerikanischen Strom- und Gassektor

    Petz, Marc; Maier, Klaus-Dieter; Zettl, Michael [Hochschule Aalen (Germany); Edgar, David A.; Temple, Bryan K. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    Over the past three decades industrial consolidation has been a global, dominating mega-trend, and this also holds for the energy sector. The drivers behind this phenomenon are market liberalisation and privatisation. These transformation processes have created new growth opportunities for energy supply companies such as the development of markets in emerging countries. How have Latin American countries such as Argentina, Brazil or Chile succeeded in opening their markets to international investors and what has been the impact of acquisition activities by companies in the electricity and gas sector?.

  10. American Indian Parents’ Assessment of and Concern About Their Kindergarten Child’s Weight Status, South Dakota, 2005-2006

    Arcan, Chrisa; Hannan, Peter J.; Himes, John H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Holy Rock, Bonnie; Smyth, Mary; Story, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is highly prevalent among American Indians, and effective prevention efforts require caregiver involvement. We examined American Indian (AI) parents' assessment of and level of concern about their kindergarten child's weight status. Methods We collected baseline data (fall of 2005 and fall of 2006) on children and their parents or caregivers for a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start) on an AI reservation in South Dakota. The current study uses 413 parent-c...

  11. The adrenergic retulation of the cardiovascular system in the South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus

    Galli, G.L.J.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Abe, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic...... arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating this response was mediated through α-adrenergic receptors. Injection of phentolamine gave rise to a pronounced vasodilatation (systemic conductance (Gsys) more than doubled), while...... injection of propranolol caused a systemic vasoconstriction, pointing to a potent α-adrenergic, and a weaker β-adrenergic tone in the systemic vasculature of Crotalus. Overall, the pulmonary vasculature was far less responsive to adrenergic stimulation than the systemic circulation. Adrenaline caused...

  12. [South American camelids in Switzerland. II. Reference values for blood parameters].

    Hengrave Burri, I; Tschudi, P; Martig, J; Liesegang, A; Meylan, M

    2005-08-01

    In order to establish reference values for blood parameters of South American camelids in Switzerland, 273 blood samples were collected from 141 llamas and 132 alpacas. These animals were classified in three categories (young animals blood cell count, white blood cell count, electrolytes, metabolites and enzymes). Significant differences between llamas and alpacas were evident for 26 parameters. This study also showed that differences between young animals, females and males must be taken into consideration. A comparison of blood values with the results of fecal analysis for parasite eggs showed that an infestation with Dicrocoelium dendriticum was associated with elevated activity of two liver enzymes (GLDH and gamma-GT) in the serum. In contrast, no differences were found in the results of blood analyses between animals shedding eggs of gastrointestinal strongyles or not.

  13. Comparing fairness perceptions of personnel selection techniques of American, French and South African job applicants

    Delene Visser

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether job applicants' perceptions of commonly used selection procedures vary across nationalities, because a negative impression of prospective employers that use selection techniques that are viewed as unfair, may result. In this study the fairness perceptions of 179 South African employees were compared with results obtained with 142 American and 117 French participants with regard to ten selection techniques using the framework of organisational justice theory. Opsomming Die doel van die ondersoek was om te bepaal of werkaansoekers van verskillende nasionaliteite se persepsies van bekende keuringsprosedures verskil. Indien voomemende werkgewers keuringstegnieke wat as onbillik beskou word, gebruik, kan 'n negatiewe beeld van hul organisasies geskep word. In hierdie studie is 179 Suid-Afrikaanse werknemers se persepsies van tien keuringstegnieke binne die raamwerk van organisasiebillikheidsteone vergelyk met persepsies van 142 Amerikaanse en 117 Franse respondente, In die algemeen was die Suid-Afrikaanse Wit groep die positiefste teenoor die keuringstegnieke.

  14. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  15. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Islam, M Tofazzal; Croll, Daniel; Gladieux, Pierre; Soanes, Darren M; Persoons, Antoine; Bhattacharjee, Pallab; Hossain, Md Shaid; Gupta, Dipali Rani; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Mahboob, M Golam; Cook, Nicola; Salam, Moin U; Surovy, Musrat Zahan; Sancho, Vanessa Bueno; Maciel, João Leodato Nunes; NhaniJúnior, Antonio; Castroagudín, Vanina Lilián; Reges, Juliana T de Assis; Ceresini, Paulo Cezar; Ravel, Sebastien; Kellner, Ronny; Fournier, Elisabeth; Tharreau, Didier; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; McDonald, Bruce A; Stitt, Timothy; Swan, Daniel; Talbot, Nicholas J; Saunders, Diane G O; Win, Joe; Kamoun, Sophien

    2016-10-03

    In February 2016, a new fungal disease was spotted in wheat fields across eight districts in Bangladesh. The epidemic spread to an estimated 15,000 hectares, about 16 % of the cultivated wheat area in Bangladesh, with yield losses reaching up to 100 %. Within weeks of the onset of the epidemic, we performed transcriptome sequencing of symptomatic leaf samples collected directly from Bangladeshi fields. Reinoculation of seedlings with strains isolated from infected wheat grains showed wheat blast symptoms on leaves of wheat but not rice. Our phylogenomic and population genomic analyses revealed that the wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh was most likely caused by a wheat-infecting South American lineage of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Our findings suggest that genomic surveillance can be rapidly applied to monitor plant disease outbreaks and provide valuable information regarding the identity and origin of the infectious agent.

  16. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Araceli Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  17. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwardsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion.

    Fernández, Araceli; Villanueva, María Paz; González, Mario; Fernández, Fabiola; Latif, Fadua; Flores, Sandra Nonier; Fernández, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds.

  18. Adhesive and invasive capacities of Edwarsiella tarda isolated from South American sea lion

    Fernández, Araceli; Villanueva, María Paz; González, Mario; Fernández, Fabiola; Latif, Fadua; Flores, Sandra Nonier; Fernández, Heriberto

    2014-01-01

    Edwarsiella tarda is a zoonotic bacterium that can be isolated from humans, animals and the environment. Although E. tarda is primarily considered a fish pathogen, it is the only species of its genus considered to be pathogenic for humans as well. A survey of zoonotic intestinal bacteria in fresh feces from South American sea lions (SASL) Otaria flavescens, reported E. tarda as the most frequently isolated species. In this study, we used HEp-2 cells to establish in vitro the adherence and invasive ability of 17 E. tarda strains isolated from SASL fecal material. All the strains were able to adhere and invade HEp-2 cells with adhesion and invasion percentages ranging from 56 to 100% and 21 to 74%, respectively. Despite the expression of these pathogenic factors, further investigation is needed to determine whether this bacterium could play a role as primary pathogen for this and other species of pinnipeds. PMID:25477948

  19. Morphological divergence in a continental adaptive radiation: South American ovenbirds of the genus Cinclodes

    Rader, Jonathan A.; Dillon, Michael E.; Chesser, R. Terry; Sabat, Pablo; Martinez del Rio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Cinclodes is an ecologically diverse genus of South American passerine birds and represents a case of continental adaptive radiation along multiple axes. We investigated morphological diversification in Cinclodes using a comprehensive set of morphometric measurements of study skins. Principal component analysis identified 2 primary axes of morphological variation: one describing body size and a second capturing differences in wing-tip shape and toe length. Phylogenetic analyses of the first principal component suggest an early divergence ofCinclodes into 2 main clades characterized by large and small body sizes. We suggest that 2 morphological outliers within these main clades (C. antarcticus and C. palliatus) may be cases of island gigantism and that a third (C. patagonicus) may reflect ecological character displacement. Despite its ecological and physiological diversity, the genus Cinclodes does not appear to show morphological diversity beyond what is typical of other avian genera.

  20. Invasion of South American suckermouth armoured catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. (Loricariidae in Kerala, India - a case study

    A. Bijukumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the occurrence of the exotic South American suckermouth armoured catfishes (Loricariidae of the genus Pterygoplichthys spp. in the drainages of Thiruvananthapuram City, Kerala.  The morphological taxonomy revealed that the specimens are closely related to Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus (Weber, 1991 and P. pardalis (Castelnau, 1855, in addition to intermediary forms of unknown identity.  DNA barcoding using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1 also failed to establish the identity of the invaded species.  There may be possible hybridisation in aquariums or in fish farms or in the wild, but this needs to be found out aided by detailed studies incorporating different molecular markers and with sequences of topotypes.  The possible threats due to Pterygoplichthys spp. invasion and management options are discussed in the paper. 

  1. Diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination in South American sea lions.

    Drago, Massimiliano; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Cardona, Luis; Inchausti, Pablo

    2015-08-30

    The use of accurate, species-specific diet-tissue discrimination factors is a critical requirement when applying stable isotope mixing models to predict consumer diet composition. Thus, diet-to-female and female-to-pup isotopic discrimination factors in several tissues for both captive and wild South American sea lions were estimated to provide appropriate values for quantifying feeding preferences at different timescales in the wild populations of this species. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in the blood components of two female-pup pairs and females' prey muscle from captive individuals were determined by elemental analyzer/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS) to calculate the respective isotopic discrimination factors. The same analysis was carried out in both blood components, and skin and hair tissues for eight female-pup pairs from wild individuals. Mean diet-to-female Δ(13) C and Δ(15) N values were higher than the female-to-pup ones. Pup tissues were more (15) N-enriched than their mothers but (13) C-depleted in serum and plasma tissues. In most of the tissue comparisons, we found differences in both Δ(15) N and Δ(13) C values, supporting tissue-specific discrimination. We found no differences between captive and wild female-to-pup discrimination factors either in Δ(13) C or Δ(15) N values of blood components. Only the stable isotope ratios in pup blood are good proxies of the individual lactating females. Thus, we suggest that blood components are more appropriate to quantify the feeding habits of wild individuals of this species. Furthermore, because female-to-pup discrimination factors for blood components did not differ between captive and wild individuals, we suggest that results for captive experiments can be extrapolated to wild South American sea lion populations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Revision of the Bee Genus Chlerogella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Part II: South American Species and Generic Diagnosis

    Michael Engel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the rare bee genus Chlerogella Michener (Halictinae: Augochlorini are revised, completing the study of the genus. Chlerogella diversity is significantly expanded beyond the five previously described South American species of Cherlogella azurea (Enderlein, comb. n., C. nasus (Enderlein, C. mourella Engel, C. octogesima (Brooks & Engel, comb. n., and C. buyssoni (Vachal. Twenty-two new species are described – C. agaylei sp. n., C. arhyncha sp. n., C. borysthenis sp. n., C. breviceps sp. n., C. cochabambensis sp. n., C. cooperella sp. n., C. cyranoi sp. n., C. dolichorhina sp. n., C. elysia sp. n., C. eumorpha sp. n., C. euprepia sp. n., C. hauseri sp. n., C. hypermeces sp. n., C. materdonnae sp. n., C. oresbios sp. n., C. picketti sp. n., C. rostrata sp. n., C. silvula sp. n., C. terpsichore sp. n., C. tychoi sp. n., C. vachali sp. n., C. xuthopleura sp. n. – and the distribution of the genus is expanded beyond Perú and Ecuador to include Bolivia, Colombia, and Venezuela. The female of C. azurea is described for the first time while the placement of Halictus buyssoni Vachal in Chlerogella is considered tentative, following the usage of previous authors, as the holotype and sole specimen is untraceable. The genus is newly diagnosed based on a greater understanding of variation in malar length across the species and a dichotomous key is provided. New floral records for species of Chlerogella include Psychotria pongoana Standl. (Rubiaceae and a putative record on Phragmopedium longifolium (Warsz. & Rchb.f. Rolfe (Orchidaceae.

  3. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: report of a multicenter South American study.

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Ojeda, Eliana; Sánchez, Sandra C; Morales-Luna, Ingrid F; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate depressive symptoms and related factors among mid-aged women using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). This was a cross-sectional multicenter study in which women aged 40 to 65 from various South American countries were surveyed with the CESD-10 and a general questionnaire containing personal and partner data. In all, 864 women were interviewed from Colombia (Afro-Colombian, n = 215), Ecuador (Mestizo, n = 202), Perú (Quechua at high altitude, n = 231), and Paraguay (Mestizo, n = 216). Mean age of the whole sample was 49.1 ± 6.0 years. Although the rate of postmenopausal status was similar among studied sites, differences were observed in relation to age, parity, hormone therapy use, hot flush rate, sedentary lifestyle, chronic medical conditions, habits, and partner aspects. Median total CESD-10 score for all sites was 7.0, with a 36.0% (n = 311) having scores equal to 10 or more (suggestive of depressed mood). Higher scores were observed for Afro-Colombian and Quechua women, and also for postmenopausal and perimenopausal ones. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that depressed mood (higher CESD-10 total scores) was significantly associated with ethnicity (Afro-Colombian), hot flush severity, hormone therapy use, sedentary lifestyle, postmenopause, perceived unhealthy status, and lower education. Higher monthly coital frequency and having a healthy partner without premature ejaculation was related to lower scores, hence less depressed mood. In this mid-aged female South American sample, depressive symptoms correlated to menopausal status and related aspects, ethnicity, and personal and partner issues. All these features require further research.

  4. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American grey fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus is a canid widely distributed in southern South America; however, some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (B sta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H' = 2.46 (H max ' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (>90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the northern zone; Oryctolagus cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes/km 2 . © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Comparative study of the atmospheric chemical composition of three South American cities

    Vasconcellos, Pérola C.; Souza, Davi Z.; Ávila, Simone G.; Araújo, Maria P.; Naoto, Edson; Nascimento, Kátia H.; Cavalcante, Fernando S.; Dos Santos, Marina; Smichowski, Patricia; Behrentz, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    PM10 samples were collected in 2008 at three sites in South America in the framework of an international project (South American Emissions Megacities, and Climate; SAEMC). The concentration of metals, metalloids, ion and organic compounds of most PM10 samples collected at three sites (Buenos Aires (BAI), Bogotá (BOG) and São Paulo (SPA)) is below the air quality standard of the respective countries. At the sites n-alkanes and carbon preference index distribution indicated the influence of petroleum residues derived from vehicular emissions. Most PAH detected are attributed to light-duty gasoline vehicles and to stationary sources. At all sites benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values mean a significant cancer risk. Sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium and sodium are the most abundant water-soluble ions at the three sites. Ammonium sulfate is likely the form presented for these species formed by photochemical reactions of precursors emitted mainly by vehicles. At BAI and SPA, formate/acetate ratios indicated the contribution of photochemical reactions; on the contrary, at BOG site, acetate is predominant, indicating strong contribution of vehicular emissions. São Paulo samples showed the highest concentrations of elements among all the sites. None of the toxic or potentially toxic elements exceed the guideline values of the World Health Organization. At BAI site earth crust seems to be the major source of Fe and Mn; at SPA, anthropogenic source is responsible for Pb and Zn presences. Traffic related element is well correlated at the three sites.

  6. Lamanema chavezi (Nematoda: Molineidae): epidemiological data of the infection in South American camelids of Northwest Argentina.

    Cafrune, M M; Marín, R E; Rigalt, F A; Romero, S R; Aguirre, D H

    2009-12-23

    Faecal samples from llamas (n=708), vicuñas (n=171) and guanacos (n=4) were obtained between December 2004 and May 2009 in three Provinces of Northwest Argentina (Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca) to know the distribution, prevalence and intensity of Lamanema chavezi infection in these South American camelid species (SACs). Faeces were examined by a sedimentation-flotation technique using a Cl(2)Zn+ClNa solution (specific gravity=1.59). Eggs of L. chavezi occurred in 30.3% of 89 llama herds and in 18.5% of 708 llamas sampled with a mean intensity of 271.8 eggs/g (EPG) of faeces (range 20-2120). The highest values for all parameters of the infection were registered in llamas from Catamarca Province. Significant differences (P<0.001, Fisher's exact test) were detected only for the lower prevalence in llamas from Jujuy respect to those from the other two Provinces. The overall individual prevalence of L. chavezi in llamas was lower than in reports from adult domestic camelids of neighbour countries while mean intensity was higher. The individual prevalence of L. chavezi in guanacos was 75.0%, with a mean intensity of 66.0 EPG (range 40-120) while no vicuñas were detected as infected. Most of infected SACs were located at the phytogeographical region of Andean Patagonic Domain with a dispersion ranging between 22 degrees 10' and 26 degrees 40' South latitude.

  7. Testing Bergmann's rule and the Rosenzweig hypothesis with craniometric studies of the South American sea lion.

    Sepúlveda, Maritza; Oliva, Doris; Duran, L René; Urra, Alejandra; Pedraza, Susana N; Majluf, Patrícia; Goodall, Natalie; Crespo, Enrique A

    2013-04-01

    We tested the validity of Bergmann's rule and Rosenzweig's hypothesis through an analysis of the geographical variation of the skull size of Otaria flavescens along the entire distribution range of the species (except Brazil). We quantified the sizes of 606 adult South American sea lion skulls measured in seven localities of Peru, Chile, Uruguay, Argentina, and the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Geographical and environmental variables included latitude, longitude, and monthly minimum, maximum, and mean air and ocean temperatures. We also included information on fish landings as a proxy for productivity. Males showed a positive relationship between condylobasal length (CBL) and latitude, and between CBL and the six temperature variables. By contrast, females showed a negative relationship between CBL and the same variables. Finally, female skull size showed a significant and positive correlation with fish landings, while males did not show any relationship with this variable. The body size of males conformed to Bergmann's rule, with larger individuals found in southern localities of South America. Females followed the converse of Bergmann's rule at the intraspecific level, but showed a positive relationship with the proxy for productivity, thus supporting Rosenzweig's hypothesis. Differences in the factors that drive body size in females and males may be explained by their different life-history strategies. Our analyses demonstrate that latitude and temperature are not the only factors that explain spatial variation in body size: others such as food availability are also important for explaining the ecogeographical patterns found in O. flavescens.

  8. Metagenomic Survey of Viral Diversity Obtained from Feces of Subantarctic and South American Fur Seals.

    Mariana Kluge

    Full Text Available The Brazilian South coast seasonally hosts numerous marine species, observed particularly during winter months. Some animals, including fur seals, are found dead or debilitated along the shore and may harbor potential pathogens within their microbiota. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was performed to evaluate the viral diversity in feces of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The fecal virome of two fur seal species was characterized: the South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis and the Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis. Fecal samples from 10 specimens (A. australis, n = 5; A. tropicalis, n = 5 were collected and viral particles were purified, extracted and amplified with a random PCR. The products were sequenced through Ion Torrent and Illumina platforms and assembled reads were submitted to BLASTx searches. Both viromes were dominated by bacteriophages and included a number of potentially novel virus genomes. Sequences of picobirnaviruses, picornaviruses and a hepevirus-like were identified in A. australis. A rotavirus related to group C, a novel member of the Sakobuvirus and a sapovirus very similar to California sea lion sapovirus 1 were found in A. tropicalis. Additionally, sequences of members of the Anelloviridae and Parvoviridae families were detected in both fur seal species. This is the first metagenomic study to screen the fecal virome of fur seals, contributing to a better understanding of the complexity of the viral community present in the intestinal microbiota of these animals.

  9. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  10. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Dennis Maletich Junqueira

    Full Text Available The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013. Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30 to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups.

  11. Short-Term Dynamic and Local Epidemiological Trends in the South American HIV-1B Epidemic.

    Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; de Medeiros, Rubia Marília; Gräf, Tiago; Almeida, Sabrina Esteves de Matos

    2016-01-01

    The human displacement and sexual behavior are the main factors driving the HIV-1 pandemic to the current profile. The intrinsic structure of the HIV transmission among different individuals has valuable importance for the understanding of the epidemic and for the public health response. The aim of this study was to characterize the HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) epidemic in South America through the identification of transmission links and infer trends about geographical patterns and median time of transmission between individuals. Sequences of the protease and reverse transcriptase coding regions from 4,810 individuals were selected from GenBank. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were inferred and submitted to ClusterPicker to identify transmission links. Bayesian analyses were applied only for clusters including ≥5 dated samples in order to estimate the median maximum inter-transmission interval. This study analyzed sequences sampled from 12 South American countries, from individuals of different exposure categories, under different antiretroviral profiles, and from a wide period of time (1989-2013). Continentally, Brazil, Argentina and Venezuela were revealed important sites for the spread of HIV-1B among countries inside South America. Of note, from all the clusters identified about 70% of the HIV-1B infections are primarily occurring among individuals living in the same geographic region. In addition, these transmissions seem to occur early after the infection of an individual, taking in average 2.39 years (95% CI 1.48-3.30) to succeed. Homosexual/Bisexual individuals transmit the virus as quickly as almost half time of that estimated for the general population sampled here. Public health services can be broadly benefitted from this kind of information whether to focus on specific programs of response to the epidemic whether as guiding of prevention campaigns to specific risk groups.

  12. Regional integration and Brazilian Foreign Policy: Strategies in the South American space

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present, based on theoretical studies of integration, the evolution of this process in Latin America and, most recently, in South America. Based on these studies, the goal is to analyze the role played by Brazil in the process, which defines as priorities of its foreign policy a regional and global framework for its international action that is based on both cooperation and power projection.The research has been conducted based on theories of integration, an historical background on Latin American integration and in Brazilian foreign policy, through its contemporary agenda. The answer was based on a comparative agenda and in a bibliographical critical analysis of the research material.The main findings of the paper point out that Latin American integration has specific features linked to the economic, political and stragetic realities of the continent that show the limitations of some theories applied to the European process, also that it depends on Brazilian foreign policy actions, that still sees the region as instrumental to its interests. So, Brazil sometimes fail to fulfill some requisites of integration that are essential to sustain its projects. Therefore, there is a cycle of enlargement and deepening of regional integration process in this political space that point out to the need of a more sustained compromise of Brazilian foreign policy towards these projects. If Brazil continues not to sustain these projects, they will lose momentum and significance once more, increasing power asymmetries in the region.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  14. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

    Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

  15. Precipitation changes in the South American Altiplano since 1300 AD reconstructed by tree-rings

    M. S. Morales

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the second half of the 20th century, the Central Andes has experienced significant climatic and environmental changes characterized by a persistent warming trend, an increase in elevation of the 0 °C isotherm, and sustained glacier shrinkage. These changes have occurred in conjunction with a steadily growing demand for water resources. Given the short span of instrumental hydroclimatic records in this region, longer time span records are needed to understand the nature of climate variability and to improve the predictability of precipitation, a key factor modulating the socio-economic development in the South American Altiplano and adjacent arid lowlands. In this study we present the first quasi-millennial, tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction for the South American Altiplano. This annual (November–October precipitation reconstruction is based on the Polylepis tarapacana tree-ring width series and represents the closest dendroclimatological record to the Equator in South America. This high-resolution reconstruction covers the past 707 yr and provides a unique record characterizing the occurrence of extreme events and consistent oscillations in precipitation. It also allows an assessment of the spatial and temporal stabilities of the teleconnections between rainfall in the Altiplano and hemispheric forcings such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Since the 1930s to present, a persistent negative trend in precipitation has been recorded in the reconstruction, with the three driest years since 1300 AD occurring in the last 70 yr. Throughout the 707 yr, the reconstruction contains a clear ENSO-like pattern at interannual to multidecadal time scales, which determines inter-hemispheric linkages between our reconstruction and other precipitation sensitive records modulated by ENSO in North America. Our reconstruction points out that century-scale dry periods are a recurrent feature in the Altiplano climate, and that the

  16. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry

    Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga (∼ 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga (∼16%), 2.7 - 2.6 (∼ 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining ∼ 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block, Contendas

  17. "No Unfavorable Comments from Any Quarter": Teaching Black History to White Students in the American South, 1928-1943

    Woyshner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: The history curriculum is often used to help reach the goal of racial tolerance and understanding by teaching about the nation's diversity. Many educators believe that teaching about diverse peoples in schools will bring about greater equity in society. This historical study looks at the segregated American South from 1928 to…

  18. Strategies to Improve Teacher Retention in American Overseas Schools in the Near East South Asia Region: A Qualitative Analysis

    Mancuso, Steven V.; Roberts, Laura; White, George P.; Yoshida, Roland K.; Weston, David

    2011-01-01

    Using a qualitative analysis and drawing from sociological theory, this study examined reasons for teacher turnover and retention from a representative sample of 248 teachers in American overseas schools in the Near East South Asia region. Results suggested that the most important reasons to stay or move pertained to supportive leadership,…

  19. Prevalence and genetic diversity of haematozoa in South American waterfowl and evidence for intercontinental redistribution of parasites by migratory birds

    Smith, Matthew M.; Ramey, Andy M.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the role of migratory birds in the movement and transmission of haematozoa within and between continental regions, we examined 804 blood samples collected from eleven endemic species of South American waterfowl in Peru and Argentina for infection by Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, and/or Leucocytozono blood parasites. Infections were detected in 25 individuals of six species for an overall apparent prevalence rate of 3.1%. Analysis of haematozoa mitochondrial DNA revealed twelve distinct parasite haplotypes infecting South American waterfowl, four of which were identical to lineages previously observed infecting ducks and swans sampled in North America. Analysis of parasite mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed close phylogenetic relationships between lineages originating from waterfowl samples regardless of continental affiliation. In contrast, more distant phylogenetic relationships were observed between parasite lineages from waterfowl and passerines sampled in South America for Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon, suggesting some level of host specificity for parasites of these genera. The detection of identical parasite lineages in endemic, South American waterfowl and North American ducks and swans, paired with the close phylogenetic relationships of haematozoa infecting waterfowl on both continents, provides evidence for parasite redistribution between these regions by migratory birds.

  20. Review of the South American characiform fish genus Chilodus, with description of a new species, C. gracilis (Pisces, Characiformes, Chilodontidae)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 291 specimens of Chilodus, a genus of South American fresh water fishes, yielded the presence of three species, viz.: C. punctatus, C. zunevei, and C. gracilis. Of the first species the lectotype is designated. The type material of C. zunevei is lost; new material enabled a

  1. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    2011-04-04

    ... where the infested avocados were grown will immediately be suspended from the export program until an... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... certain restrictions regarding the movement of fresh Hass variety avocados. Specifically, we are proposing...

  2. 75 FR 41237 - Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California

    2010-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCAC08000-L1430000-ET0000; CACA 41334] Public Land Order No. 7746; Withdrawal of Public Lands, South Fork of the American River; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Public Land Order. SUMMARY: This order withdraws 2...

  3. The present and future roles of Traditional Health Practitioners within the formal healthcare sector of South Africa, as guided by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007

    Gabriel Louw

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 was seen as the long awaited start-up of the traditional healing profession in South Africa. Act No 22 (2007 was strongly politically driven from the late 1960s onward. Many of these political motivators were based upon outdated cultural ideas, customs and traditions, rooted outside the modern day healthcare needs and demands of the particular population that traditional healing intends to serve. An in-depth needs and skills analysis, to test the viability and sustainability of the South African traditional healers as well as their positions and roles as health practitioners inside the formal healthcare sector, as guided and stipulated by the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007, was lacking in this early development and start-up process. This resulted in the traditional healers’ present and future roles as specific healthcare practitioners being both undefined and insufficiently formulated. In addition their existing education, training, skills and abilities to compete in the formal healthcare sector were ignored. Therefore, since the promulgation of the Act in 2007, there was limited professional-development for traditional healers, to improve their immediate professionalism and thus to promote effective role-playing and management in the formal healthcare sector. The South African traditional healing professional model is still in the foundational stage of its professional development; a stage which the other registered/regulated healthcare practitioners of the country surpassed long ago, making them well-equipped for role-playing and management as health professionals in the formal healthcare sector. The whole venture of the statutory recognition of the traditional health practitioners in 2007 as new healthcare professionals with the promulgation of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act No 22 (2007 seems to increasingly be a failure. There is

  4. Air pollution and climate change co-benefit opportunities in the road transportation sector in Durban, South Africa

    Thambiran T, Diab RD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of the road transportation sector to emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases is a growing concern in developing countries. Emission control measures implemented within this sector can have varying counteracting influences...

  5. Foreign direct investment in South Africa: how big is Southern Africa’s natural product opportunity and what trade issues impede sectoral development?

    Bennett, Ben

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the scale of the trade opportunity for natural product exports from Southern Africa and to recommend actions to address market access issues constraining sectoral growth.\\ud Field research was undertaken in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Namibia, South Africa and the United Kingdom between 9th January and 25th February 2006. The study concentrated on ten countries in Southern Africa1 with potential to export significant quantities of natural products. These products ar...

  6. Crustal and upper mantle investigations of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    The evolution of the Caribbean --- South America plate boundary has been a matter of vigorous debate for decades and many questions remain unresolved. In this work, and in the framework of the BOLIVAR project, we shed light on some aspects of the present state and the tectonic history of the margin by using different types of geophysical data sets and techniques. An analysis of controlled-source traveltime data collected along a boundary-normal profile at ˜65°W was used to build a 2D P-wave velocity model. The model shows that the Caribbean Large Igenous Province is present offshore eastern Venezuela and confirms the uniformity of the velocity structure along the Leeward Antilles volcanic belt. In contrast with neighboring profiles, at this longitude we see no change in velocity structure or crustal thickness across the San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. A 2D gravity modeling methodology that uses seismically derived initial density models was developed as part of this research. The application of this new method to four of the BOLIVAR boundary-normal profiles suggests that the uppermost mantle is denser under the South American continental crust and the island arc terranes than under the Caribbean oceanic crust. Crustal rocks of the island arc and extended island arc terranes of the Leeward Antilles have a relatively low density, given their P-wave velocity. This may be caused by low iron content, relative to average magmatic arc rocks. Finally, an analysis of teleseismic traveltimes with frequency-dependent kernels produced a 3D P-wave velocity perturbation model. The model shows the structure of the mantle lithosphere under the study area and clearly images the subduction of the Atlantic slab and associated partial removal of the lower lithosphere under northern South America. We also image the subduction of a section of the Caribbean plate under South America with an east-southeast direction. Both the Atlantic and Caribbean subducting slabs penetrate the

  7. Genetic Differentiation within the Puccinia triticina Population in South America and Comparison with the North American Population Suggests Common Ancestry and Intercontinental Migration

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most prevalent and widespread disease of wheat in South America. The objective of this study was to determine the number of genetically differentiated groups of P. triticina that are currently present in South America, and to compare the South American ...

  8. The energy geopolitics interests: the Initiative for South American Regional Integration - ISARI; Os interesses da geopolitica energetica: a Iniciativa para Integracao Regional Sul Americana - IIRSA

    Jeronymo, Alexandre; Roig, Carla de Almeida; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet Guy [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Energia], e-mail: alexandre.jeronymo@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: carla.roig@ufabc.edu.br, e-mail: sguerra@ufabc.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This work adds itself to the debates on the project Integration of South America Regional Infrastructure - ISARI. Its focus is related with Energy Geopolitics and the South America integration under the world system of commodities production. The ISARI, as a project oriented to the viability of low value aggregated which should be transported from the south american continent for consumption at the world market.

  9. An estimation of the impact of the 2012 platinum-sector strike on the South African economy

    Johannes C Jordaan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A Leontief-type economic-impact model for 2012 is used to estimate the potential impacts, in percentage terms, of the 2012 platinum-sector strike on the South African economy. Although it is impossible to incorporate and calculate all the potential impacts, such a model can provide an estimation based on sound statistics and methodologies. Understanding the potential, wider economic impacts of strike action can lead to valuable insights for policymakers, businesses and workers. This will hopefully result in improved policies, as well as enriched negotiations to find solutions to deadlocks in wage negotiations before such deadlocks progress to strike action. Data from the Department of Labour (DoL shows that 103,155 workers participated in the strike in the metal-ores sector during 2012, and company annual reports indicate that this strike action lasted seven weeks on average. Estimates show that the monetary value of ounces lost by the platinum-related mining industry as a result of lost production during the strike periods amounted to R10.6 billion. Two scenarios are estimated that result in a gross domestic product (GDP loss for 2012 of 0.53 per cent or R16.5 billion (Scenario 1, and of 0.49 per cent or R15.5 billion (Scenario 2. This implies that GDP growth could have been 3 per cent for Scenario 1 and 2.97 per cent for Scenario 2, instead of the actual GDP growth of 2.47 per cent. Exports could have been R9.05 billion higher for Scenario 1 and R8.4 billion higher for Scenario 2. The current-account deficit for 2012 could have been reduced to 4.93 per cent of GDP for Scenario 1 and to 4.9 per cent for Scenario 2, as against the actual deficit of 5.23 per cent. Tax income could have been R3.8 billion higher for Scenario 1 and R3.6 billion higher for Scenario 2. As a result, the government’s budget deficit could have been reduced to 5.13 per cent instead of 5.26 per cent. Expressing employment opportunities lost in terms of annual employment

  10. Horizontal thrusts and overthruts of South-East subsidence of the greater Caucasus and aquatorium of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian

    Aliyev, A.D

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Regional correlative analysis of basement formation nature and volcanogenic-sedimentary complex of South-East subsidence of the Greater Caucasus and Aquatorium of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian.III allowed to correct ideas of destruction of continental crust to develop new structural constructions: structural maps of studied region regional and paleotectonic profiles, maps of thickness, etc.A big reference material, data of field observations, drilling, deep seismic probing and gravimetry has been used in this work. All this allowed to reveal horizontal thrust, overthrusts, elements of transgressive bedding in Meso-Cenozoic deposits; which show long-term activation of geodynamic processes, different in some areas of region.The difference in geodynamic setting is emphasized due to intensive subsidence of SCD at Pliocene-Quaternary stage and this can be proved by data of paleotectonic profile made for Caspian depression in meridional direction where displacement of axial lines of troughing can be observed in regional aspect in wide stratigraphical range.Tectonic fluctuation movements have been clarified in western frame of Azerbaijan sector of Caspian aquatorium:so, according to field observations the western paleogeographical border of north-Absheron marginal trough has been defined in frontal parts of Siazan thrusts in zone of olistrom of Aptian age, underwater landslide and rock fall.Early it was carried out within contours of Quaternary terrace of Pre-Caspian-Kuba area.Tectonic breccias from Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks has been studied on line of Nardaran-Zorat profile,within cliffs of Beshbarmag mountain.It consists of fragmental compact rocks of light-grey colour by size 10-15 sm, they possibly form scale thrusts of thickness more than 500 m, where 2 km thickness of Mesozoik rocks thrusts over and tectonic-screen structures are formed.Transgressive subsidence on Pontain-Sarmatian deposiuts were revealed on the near-shore strip of trough on the above

  11. Prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders among low-income African Americans at a clinic on Chicago's south side.

    Bell, Carl C; Chimata, Radhika

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the point prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders among predominantly low-income, African-American psychiatric patients at Jackson Park Hospital's Family Medicine Clinic on Chicago's South Side. Using active case ascertainment methodology, the authors assessed the records of 611 psychiatric patients visiting the clinic between May 23, 2013, and January 14, 2014, to identify those with DSM-5 neurodevelopmental disorders. A total of 297 patients (49%) met criteria for a neurodevelopmental disorder during childhood. Moreover, 237 (39%) had clinical profiles consistent with neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, and 53 (9%) had other neurodevelopmental disorders. The authors disagreed on the specific type of neurodevelopmental disorder of seven (1% of 611) of the 297 patients with neurodevelopmental disorders. A high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders was found among low-income predominantly African-American psychiatric patients on Chicago's South Side. If replicated, these findings should bring about substantial changes in medical practice with African-American patients.

  12. Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use by HIV patients a decade after public sector antiretroviral therapy roll out in South Africa: a cross sectional study.

    Nlooto, Manimbulu; Naidoo, Panjasaram

    2016-05-17

    The roll out of antiretroviral therapy in the South African public health sector in 2004 was preceded by the politicisation of HIV-infection which was used to promote traditional medicine for the management of HIV/AIDS. One decade has passed since; however, questions remain on the extent of the use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) by HIV-infected patients. This study therefore aimed at investigating the prevalence of the use of African traditional medicine (ATM), complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) by adult patients in the eThekwini and UThukela Health Districts, South Africa. A cross- sectional study was carried out at 8 public health sector antiretroviral clinics using interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires. These were completed from April to October 2014 by adult patients who had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least three months. Use of TCAM by patients was analysed by descriptive statistics using frequency and percentages with standard error. Where the associated relative error was equal or greater to 0.50, the percentage was rejected as unstable. A p-value public health sector, the use of TCAM is still prevalent amongst a small percentage of HIV infected patients attending public healthcare sector antiretroviral clinics. Further research is needed to explore reasons for use and health benefits or risks experienced by the minority that uses both conventional antiretroviral therapy with TCAM.

  13. The effect of South American biomass burning aerosol emissions on the regional climate

    Thornhill, Gillian D.; Ryder, Claire L.; Highwood, Eleanor J.; Shaffrey, Len C.; Johnson, Ben T.

    2018-04-01

    The impact of biomass burning aerosol (BBA) on the regional climate in South America is assessed using 30-year simulations with a global atmosphere-only configuration of the Met Office Unified Model. We compare two simulations of high and low emissions of biomass burning aerosol based on realistic interannual variability. The aerosol scheme in the model has hygroscopic growth and optical properties for BBA informed by recent observations, including those from the recent South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) intensive aircraft observations made during September 2012. We find that the difference in the September (peak biomass emissions month) BBA optical depth between a simulation with high emissions and a simulation with low emissions corresponds well to the difference in the BBA emissions between the two simulations, with a 71.6 % reduction from high to low emissions for both the BBA emissions and the BB AOD in the region with maximum emissions (defined by a box of extent 5-25° S, 40-70° W, used for calculating mean values given below). The cloud cover at all altitudes in the region of greatest BBA difference is reduced as a result of the semi-direct effect, by heating of the atmosphere by the BBA and changes in the atmospheric stability and surface fluxes. Within the BBA layer the cloud is reduced by burn-off, while the higher cloud changes appear to be responding to stability changes. The boundary layer is reduced in height and stabilized by increased BBA, resulting in reduced deep convection and reduced cloud cover at heights of 9-14 km, above the layer of BBA. Despite the decrease in cloud fraction, September downwelling clear-sky and all-sky shortwave radiation at the surface is reduced for higher emissions by 13.77 ± 0.39 W m-2 (clear-sky) and 7.37 ± 2.29 W m-2 (all-sky), whilst the upwelling shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere is increased in clear sky by 3.32 ± 0.09 W m-2, but decreased by -1.36±1.67 W m-2 when cloud changes are

  14. Comparable ages for the independent origins of electrogenesis in African and South American weakly electric fishes.

    Sébastien Lavoué

    Full Text Available One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution among vertebrates is illustrated by the independent origins of an active electric sense in South American and African weakly electric fishes, the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea, respectively. These groups independently evolved similar complex systems for object localization and communication via the generation and reception of weak electric fields. While good estimates of divergence times are critical to understanding the temporal context for the evolution and diversification of these two groups, their respective ages have been difficult to estimate due to the absence of an informative fossil record, use of strict molecular clock models in previous studies, and/or incomplete taxonomic sampling. Here, we examine the timing of the origins of the Gymnotiformes and the Mormyroidea using complete mitogenome sequences and a parametric bayesian method for divergence time reconstruction. Under two different fossil-based calibration methods, we estimated similar ages for the independent origins of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes. Our absolute estimates for the origins of these groups either slightly postdate, or just predate, the final separation of Africa and South America by continental drift. The most recent common ancestor of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes was found to be a non-electrogenic basal teleost living more than 85 millions years earlier. For both electric fish lineages, we also estimated similar intervals (16-19 or 22-26 million years, depending on calibration method between the appearance of electroreception and the origin of myogenic electric organs, providing rough upper estimates for the time periods during which these complex electric organs evolved de novo from skeletal muscle precursors. The fact that the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea are of similar age enhances the comparative value of the weakly electric fish system for investigating pathways to evolutionary novelty

  15. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  16. 7Be content in rainfall and soil deposition in South American coastal ecosystems

    Cardoso, R.; Ayub, J. Juri; Anjos, Roberto Meigikos dos; Cid, Alberto Silva; Velasco, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Research about input, circulation and accumulation of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems allows examining sources, establishing time scales and elucidating environmental processes. Thinking this way, researchers at UFF and UNSL have applied short-lived particle-reactive tracers to understand the behaviour of species evolution, functioning and restorations of natural and semi-natural ecosystems as well as to investigate the patterns and frequency of disturbances due to modern global changes. This can be accomplished through a detailed understanding on the hydrology and water circulation pattern, soil characteristics, erosion, resuspension, reduction/oxidation, speciation, precipitation and accumulation, diagenetic processes and microbial activities. 7 Be is a natural radionuclide (Eγ = 477.6 keV, t 1 / 2 = 53.3 d), which originates in the upper atmosphere as a result of bombardment by cosmic rays. The global distribution of this radionuclide provides a valuable means for testing and validating global circulation models on short time-scales. Its removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition provides a useful tool for developing and validation of models about transport processes from the troposphere to the land surface. Knowledge of site-specific atmospheric fluxes is also crucial to evaluate the impact of atmospherically delivered pollutants on terrestrial ecosystems. The distribution of South American lands on different latitudes and its diversified topography can influence the development and action of many atmospheric systems contributing to generate non-homogeneous climatic conditions in this region. Increasing anthropogenic loads can further modify the precipitation rates and hence the climate of this region. Therefore it is important to study intra-system and inter-system interactions in different South American terrestrial ecosystems. Since 2006, UNSL has been investigating the 7 Be contents in rainfall and

  17. Diversity and disparity of sparassodonts (Metatheria) reveal non-analogue nature of ancient South American mammalian carnivore guilds

    Dolgushina, Tatiana; Wesley, Gina

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates whether terrestrial mammalian carnivore guilds of ancient South America, which developed in relative isolation, were similar to those of other continents. We do so through analyses of clade diversification, ecomorphology and guild structure in the Sparassodonta, metatherians that were the predominant mammalian carnivores of pre-Pleistocene South America. Body mass and 16 characters of the dentition are used to quantify morphological diversity (disparity) in sparassodonts and to compare them to extant marsupial and placental carnivores and extinct North American carnivoramorphans. We also compare trophic diversity of the Early Miocene terrestrial carnivore guild of Santa Cruz, Argentina to that of 14 modern and fossil guilds from other continents. We find that sparassodonts had comparatively low ecomorphological disparity throughout their history and that South American carnivore palaeoguilds, as represented by that of Santa Cruz, Argentina, were unlike modern or fossil carnivore guilds of other continents in their lack of mesocarnivores and hypocarnivores. Our results add to a growing body of evidence highlighting non-analogue aspects of extinct South American mammals and illustrate the dramatic effects that historical contingency can have on the evolution of mammalian palaeocommunities. PMID:29298933

  18. Open Spaces and Urban Ecosystem Services. Cooling Effect towards Urban Planning in South American Cities

    Luis Inostroza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Open space (OS is a key element in the provision of ecosystem services (ES in urban environments. Under a land cover-land use perspective, cities are incorporating into the expansion process to different types of surfaces: sealed, paved surfaces and OS. The first corresponds to a land cover change while the second, which includes bare soil, grass, forest or any other type of non-sealed surface, corresponds to a land use change, without physical transformations. As a land use change OS is able to keep fundamental pre-existing ecological properties. However, besides specific ecological characteristics, the overall capacity to provide ES depends also on the size, number and spatial distribution of OSs within the urban fabric. Those aspects which can determine the very ecological performance of urban ecosystem services (UES are not yet included in the current urban planning in Latin America. OS is still understood mainly as green infrastructure and related mostly with aesthetic and cultural benefits. On the contrary, under an ecological point of view, OS is capable to provide fundamental UES, which can be spatially assessed and analyzed. In this paper the provision of cooling services (CS is assessed in 2 South American cities: Lima and Santiago de Chile. The provision of CS is measured by means of a Remote Sensing-GIS-based method. Two aspects of CS are explored: (1 the current amount of existing OS; and (2 the trend of increasing/reducing CS within the urban tissue, in a dynamic assessment of spatial distribution and rates of OS incorporation to the continuous urban tissue. The aim is to analyze the CS generated by OS in those two cities. The analysis discusses the role of OS in the provision of CS, considering the current urban development trends and planning practice in these specific Latin American cities, highlighting the need to keep unsealed surfaces and increase in trees coverage, to retain the CS provision in certain levels.

  19. The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae: Justicieae) does not support the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis for South American seasonally dry forests.

    Côrtes, Ana Luiza A; Rapini, Alessandro; Daniel, Thomas F

    2015-06-01

    The Tetramerium lineage (Acanthaceae) presents a striking ecological structuring in South America, with groups concentrated in moist forests or in seasonally dry forests. In this study, we investigate the circumscription and relationships of the South American genera as a basis for better understanding historic interactions between dry and moist biomes in the Neotropics. We dated the ancestral distribution of the Tetramerium lineage based on one nuclear and four plastid DNA regions. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for this study using 104 terminals. Phylogenetic divergences were dated using a relaxed molecular clock approach and ancestral distributions obtained from dispersal-vicariance analyses. The genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus are nonmonophyletic. A dry forest lineage dispersed from North America to South America and reached the southwestern part of the continent between the end of the Miocene and beginning of the Pleistocene. This period coincides with the segregation between Amazonian and Atlantic moist forests that established the geographic structure currently found in the group. The South American genera Pachystachys, Schaueria, and Thyrsacanthus need to be recircumscribed. The congruence among biogeographical events found for the Tetramerium lineage suggests that the dry forest centers currently dispersed throughout South America are relatively old remnants, probably isolated since the Neogene, much earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum postulated by the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis. In addition to exploring the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis, this research also informs evolution in a lineage with numerous geographically restricted and threatened species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Private Investment in Power Sector in Developing Countries: Lessons from Reforms in Asian and Latin American Countries.

    Singh, Anoop

    2007-07-01

    The demand for investment in the electricity sector in the world between 2000 and 2030 is estimated to be USD9.8 trillion. Developing countries would require more than half of this investment. Given the limited fiscal space for public investment, a number of developing countries have undertaken policy initiatives to improve the investment climate for the private sector. The pace, scope, sequencing and outcome of reform process varies across countries. This paper undertakes a comparative evaluation of policy and regulatory reforms in Argentina, Brazil, India, Mexico, PRC and Thailand. The paper concludes that apart from macroeconomic stability, the pace and sequencing of reforms influences private investment in the power sector. Distribution reforms and setting up of an independent regulatory institution reduces risk for investors. A peace-meal approach to reform keeps uncertainties alive for investors and does not translate in significant investment in the sector. (auth)

  1. Overview of the South American biomass burning analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment

    Morgan, W. T.; Allan, J. D.; Flynn, M.; Darbyshire, E.; Hodgson, A.; Johnson, B. T.; Haywood, J. M.; Freitas, S.; Longo, K.; Artaxo, P.; Coe, H.

    2013-05-01

    Biomass burning represents one of the largest sources of particulate matter to the atmosphere, which results in a significant perturbation to the Earth's radiative balance coupled with serious negative impacts on public health. Globally, biomass burning aerosols are thought to exert a small warming effect of 0.03 Wm-2, however the uncertainty is 4 times greater than the central estimate. On regional scales, the impact is substantially greater, particularly in areas such as the Amazon Basin where large, intense and frequent burning occurs on an annual basis for several months (usually from August-October). Furthermore, a growing number of people live within the Amazon region, which means that they are subject to the deleterious effects on their health from exposure to substantial volumes of polluted air. Initial results from the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field experiment, which took place during September and October 2012 over Brazil, are presented here. A suite of instrumentation was flown on-board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and was supported by ground based measurements, with extensive measurements made in Porto Velho, Rondonia. The aircraft sampled a range of conditions with sampling of fresh biomass burning plumes, regional haze and elevated biomass burning layers within the free troposphere. The physical, chemical and optical properties of the aerosols across the region will be characterized in order to establish the impact of biomass burning on regional air quality, weather and climate.

  2. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. The HLA polymorphism of two distinctive South-American Indian tribes: the Kaingang and the Guarani.

    Petzl-Erler, M L; Luz, R; Sotomaior, V S

    1993-05-01

    The HLA-A, B, C, DR and DQ antigens of 240 Kaingang and 98 Guarani individuals have been characterized. The most frequent antigens found among the Kaingang are A31, 2, 24; B35, 51, 39, 48; Cw4, 7, 3, 1; DR8, 4, 2; DQ blank, 3. In the Guarani, they are A2, 28, 31; B40, 62, "53G"; Cw3, 4; DR2, 4, 8, 6; DQ3, blank. B " 53G" is an unusual antigen of the B5 cross-reactive group. DQ blank possibly corresponds to DQ4, not tested in this study. The reaction patterns of B35, B40 and DR4 indicate intra-tribal (of B35 and B40), and inter-tribal (DR4, B40 and B35) heterogeneity of these antigens. 408 Kaingang and 141 Guarani haplotypes were defined by segregation analysis. Of the commonest 10 Guarani and 9 Kaingang haplotypes, only one is shared by both tribes. Significant, positive linkage disequilibrium values for HLA-A,B; HLA-A,C; HLA-B,DR and most HLA-B,C antigen pairs were also different for the two populations. Genetic distance estimates between these two and another seven South-American Indian populations, and relative to the major human races (negroids, caucasoids, and mongoloids) reveal a comparatively high degree of divergence between the Kaingang and the Guarani, which is uncommon for Amerindian populations living close one to another.

  4. Speleothem records of changes in the South American Summer Monsoon during MIS stages 5 and 6

    Burns, S. J.; Kanner, L.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2011-12-01

    Little information exists about the behavior of the South American Summer Monsoon prior to the Last Glacial Period. Speleothems from the Peruvian Altiplano are one possible archive of SASM intensity because oxygen isotopes of rainfall on the Altiplano are primarily controlled by the intensity of rainfall in upstream moisture source region, the Amazon Basin. Here, we present results from a two speleothems collected from Gruta de Huagapo, a cave in the central Peruvian Altiplano (12°S, 76°W, ~3800m elevation). The samples grew from approximately 115-125 ky BP and from 136-168 ky BP, spanning time periods equivalent to much of MIS stage 5e and the transition into MIS 5d and MIS 6. Chronologies were determined by U-Th dating techniques and the dates are in stratigraphic with analytical errors Titicaca (Fritz et al, 2007). At present we have isotopic data from only the youngest 10 ky of the older sample. The values are generally more depleted, with most between -16% and -17%, suggesting an intensified SASM during MIS 6 as compared to 5e. A rapid increase in δ18O occurs at ~136 ky BP. Overall the trends in the data parallel major changes in δD from EPICA, but appear to lead the Antarctic time series by ~2 ky.

  5. Humoral response to 2 inactivated bluetongue virus serotype-8 vaccines in South American camelids.

    Zanolari, P; Bruckner, L; Fricker, R; Kaufmann, C; Mudry, M; Griot, C; Meylan, M

    2010-01-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) has caused disease in domestic ruminants in several countries of northern Europe since 2006. In 2008 a mass-vaccination program was launched in most affected countries using whole virus inactivated vaccines. To evaluate 2 inactivated vaccines (Bovilis BTV 8; BTVPUR AlSap8) for immunogenicity and safety against BTV-8 in South American camelids (SAC) in a field trial. Forty-two SAC (25 Alpacas, 17 Llamas) aged between 1 and 16 years. The animals were vaccinated twice at intervals of 21 days. They were observed clinically for adverse local, systemic, or both reactions throughout the trial. Blood samples collected on days 0, 14, 21, 43, and 156 after vaccination were tested for the presence of BTV-8 virus by real time-polymerase chain reaction and of specific antibodies by competitive ELISA and a serum neutralization test. All vaccinated animals developed antibodies to BTV-8 after the 2nd administration of the vaccine. No adverse effects were observed except for moderate local swellings at the injection site, which disappeared within 21 days. Slightly increased body temperatures were only observed in the first 2 days after vaccination. The BTV was not detected in any of the samples analyzed. The administration of the 2 inactivated commercial vaccines was safe and induced seroconversion against BTV-8 in all vaccinated animals. The results of this study suggest that 2 doses injected 3 weeks apart is a suitable vaccination regimen for SAC.

  6. Uncinaria hamiltoni (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in South American sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from northern Patagonia, Argentina.

    Berón-Vera, B; Crespo, E A; Raga, J A; Pedraza, S N

    2004-08-01

    Thirty-one South American sea lion pups (Otaria flavescens) found dead in Punta León, Argentina, during the summer of 2002, were examined for hookworms (Uncinaria hamiltoni). Parasite parameters were analyzed in 2 locations of the rookery, i.e., a traditional, well-structured breeding area and an expanding area with juveniles and a lax social structure. Prevalence of hookworms was 50% in both localities, and no difference was observed in prevalence between pup sexes (P > 0.05). Hookworms were concentrated in the small intestine. Transmammary transmission is assumed because only adult hookworms were found in the pups. The mean intensity of hookworms per pup was 135; the mean intensity in females (92.78) was significantly different (P 0.05) in intensity was found between the 2 breeding areas, although prevalence was higher in the traditional breeding area than in the other area. Location was the only factor affecting hookworm prevalence (P log-linear model: 0.9552; chi2: 1.5629). No apparent trend between body condition and intensity of hookworms was observed.

  7. Centennial-scale solar forcing of the South American Monsoon System recorded in stalagmites.

    Novello, Valdir F; Vuille, Mathias; Cruz, Francisco W; Stríkis, Nicolás M; de Paula, Marcos Saito; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Karmann, Ivo; Jaqueto, Plínio F; Trindade, Ricardo I F; Hartmann, Gelvam A; Moquet, Jean S

    2016-04-21

    The South American Monsoon System (SAMS) is generally considered to be highly sensitive to Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature variations on multi-centennial timescales. The direct influence of solar forcing on moisture convergence in global monsoon systems on the other hand, while well explored in modeling studies, has hitherto not been documented in proxy data from the SAMS region. Hence little is known about the sensitivity of the SAMS to solar forcing over the past millennium and how it might compete or constructively interfere with NH temperature variations that occurred primarily in response to volcanic forcing. Here we present a new annually-resolved oxygen isotope record from a 1500-year long stalagmite recording past changes in precipitation in the hitherto unsampled core region of the SAMS. This record details how solar variability consistently modulated the strength of the SAMS on centennial time scales during the past 1500 years. Solar forcing, besides the previously recognized influence from NH temperature changes and associated Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) shifts, appears as a major driver affecting SAMS intensity at centennial time scales.

  8. Microbial community diversity in the gut of the South American termite Cornitermes cumulans (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Grieco, Maria Angela B; Cavalcante, Janaina J V; Cardoso, Alexander M; Vieira, Ricardo P; Machado, Ednildo A; Clementino, Maysa M; Medeiros, Marcelo N; Albano, Rodolpho M; Garcia, Eloi S; de Souza, Wanderley; Constantino, Reginaldo; Martins, Orlando B

    2013-01-01

    Termites inhabit tropical and subtropical areas where they contribute to structure and composition of soils by efficiently degrading biomass with aid of resident gut microbiota. In this study, culture-independent molecular analysis was performed based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA clone libraries to describe the gut microbial communities within Cornitermes cumulans, a South American litter-feeding termite. Our data reveal extensive bacterial diversity, mainly composed of organisms from the phyla Spirochaetes, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Fibrobacteres. In contrast, a low diversity of archaeal 16S rRNA sequences was found, comprising mainly members of the Crenarchaeota phylum. The diversity of archaeal methanogens was further analyzed by sequencing clones from a library for the mcrA gene, which encodes the enzyme methyl coenzyme reductase, responsible for catalyzing the last step in methane production, methane being an important greenhouse gas. The mcrA sequences were diverse and divided phylogenetically into three clades related to uncultured environmental archaea and methanogens found in different termite species. C. cumulans is a litter-feeding, mound-building termite considered a keystone species in natural ecosystems and also a pest in agriculture. Here, we describe the archaeal and bacterial communities within this termite, revealing for the first time its intriguing microbiota.

  9. Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. (Microsporidia, Tubulinosematidae), a pathogen of the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus.

    Plischuk, Santiago; Sanscrainte, Neil D; Becnel, James J; Estep, Alden S; Lange, Carlos E

    2015-03-01

    An undescribed microsporidium was detected and isolated from the South American bumble bee Bombus atratus collected in the Pampas region of Argentina. Infection intensity in workers averaged 8.2 × 10(7)spores/bee. The main site of infection was adipose tissue where hypertrophy of adipocytes resulted in cyst-like body formation. Mature spores were ovoid and monomorphic. They measured 4.00 μm × 2.37 μm (fresh) or 3.98 μm × 1.88 μm (fixed). All stages were diplokariotic and developed in direct contact with host cytoplasm. Isofilar polar filament was arranged in 16 coils in one or, posteriorly, two layers. Coiling angle was variable, between perpendicular and almost parallel to major spore axis. Late meronts and sporogonial stages were surrounded by vesicles of approximately 60 nm in diameter. Based on both new and already designed primers, a 1827 bp (SSUrRNA, ITS, LSUrRNA) sequence was obtained. Data analyses suggest that this microsporidium is a new species of the genus Tubulinosema. The name Tubulinosema pampeana sp. n. is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  11. Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans' Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors.

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Saxena, Shubhada; Jillapalli, Regina; Jang, Yuri; Kim, Miyong

    2017-05-01

    To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy-tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers' or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  12. Marine parasites as biological tags in South American Atlantic waters, current status and perspectives.

    Cantatore, D M P; Timi, J T

    2015-01-01

    Many marine fisheries in South American Atlantic coasts (SAAC) are threatened by overfishing and under serious risk of collapsing. The SAAC comprises a diversity of environments, possesses a complex oceanography and harbours a vast biodiversity that provide an enormous potential for using parasites as biological tags for fish stock delineation, a prerequisite for the implementation of control and management plans. Here, their use in the SAAC is reviewed. Main evidence is derived from northern Argentine waters, where fish parasite assemblages are dominated by larval helminth species that share a low specificity, long persistence and trophic transmission, parasitizing almost indiscriminately all available fish species. The advantages and constraints of such a combination of characteristics are analysed and recommendations are given for future research. Shifting the focus from fish/parasite populations to communities allows expanding the concept of biological tags from local to regional scales, providing essential information to delineate ecosystem boundaries for host communities. This new concept arose as a powerful tool to help the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management, the new paradigm for fisheries science. Holistic approaches, including parasites as biological tags for stock delineation will render valuable information to help insure fisheries and marine ecosystems against further depletion and collapse.

  13. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri in a South American tapir.

    Lozano-Alarcón, F; Bradley, G A; Houser, B S; Visvesvara, G S

    1997-05-01

    Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are known to cause fatal central nervous system (CNS) disease in human beings. N. fowleri causes acute, fulminating primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which generally leads to death within 10 days. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris cause chronic granulomatous amebic encephalitis, which may last for 8 weeks. Acanthamoeba spp. and B. mandrillaris also cause CNS disease in animals. N. fowleri, however, has been described only in human beings. This report is the first of PAM in an animal, a South American tapir. Dry cough, lethargy, and coma developed in the animal, and its condition progressed to death. At necropsy, lesions were seen in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and lungs. The CNS had severe, suppurative meningoencephalitis with many neutrophils, fibrin, plasma cells, and amebas. Amebas were 6.5 microns to 9 microns in diameter and had a nucleus containing a large nucleolus. Amebas in the sections reacted with a monoclonal antibody specific for N. fowleri in the immunofluorescent assay and appeared bright green.

  14. Prediction of the burnout performance of some South American coals using a drop-tube furnace

    Richelieu Barranco; Michael Cloke; Edward Lester [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Fuel Technology Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2003-10-01

    An experimental investigation into the combustion burnout behaviour of some South American coals was carried out in a drop-tube furnace. The samples, in two size fractions, were initially pyrolysed at a temperature of 1300{sup o}C, in a 1% of oxygen in nitrogen atmosphere for 200 ms. The re-firing of these pyrolysed chars was performed in the same apparatus, at the same temperature, during 400 ms, in an atmosphere containing 5% of oxygen in nitrogen. The coal samples used in this study were characterised by standard tests along with a specially developed image analysis technique (grey-scale histogram). Data of intrinsic reactivity, morphology, and burnout of the chars were correlated with maceral content of the feed coal by mean of linear regressions. In most cases, the results showed a poor correlation. Subsequently, when the rank of the coals was included in the regressions, the correlations remarkably improved in all cases. When further regressions of char properties with the grey-scale histogram of the coals were carried out, much better correlations were achieved. Therefore, the results indicate that the grey-scale histogram analysis provides a simple and objective technique to predict the combustion behaviour of these coals. 17 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. South American camelid illegal traffic detection by means of molecular markers.

    Di Rocco, F; Posik, D M; Ripoli, M V; Díaz, S; Maté, M L; Giovambattista, G; Vidal-Rioja, L

    2011-11-01

    South American camelids comprise the wild species guanaco and vicuña and their respective domestic relatives llama and alpaca. The aim of the present study was to determine by DNA analysis to which of these species belong a herd of camelids confiscated from a llama breeder but alleged to be alpacas by the prosecution, and to evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA markers to solve judicial cases involving camelid taxa. Cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes and 7 STR were analyzed in 25 confiscated samples. Mitochondrial results were inconclusive because 18 of the sequestered samples presented haplotypes that corresponded to the guanaco haplogroup and the remaining seven belonged to a vicuña linage. Microsatellite data of casework samples and llama reference samples revealed different genetic profiles by the presence of private alleles at two microsatellites suggesting that the confiscated animals could be alpaca, or at least alpaca hybrids instead of pure llama. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Marine debris ingestion by the South American Fur Seal from the Southwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Denuncio, Pablo; Mandiola, María Agustina; Pérez Salles, Sofía Belén; Machado, Rodrigo; Ott, Paulo H; De Oliveira, Larissa Rosa; Rodriguez, Diego

    2017-09-15

    In this paper, we examined the ingestion of marine debris (MD) in South American fur seals (SAFS), Arctocephalus australis, found dead in coastal beaches of northern Argentina and southern Brazil. Seven percent of 133 SAFS analyzed presented marine debris in their stomach (n=10), with no differences between sampling countries (Brazil n=7, Argentina n=3) and sexes (female=3; male=6). However, significant differences were observed between ages classes, with MD exclusively present in stomach contents of young specimens. Plastics represents 90% of MD ingested by the SAFS, whereas regarding the source, fishery-related items (e.g. monofilament lines) were the main MD (70%), with a lesser proportion of packaging (e.g. pieces of bags). Low numbers but large size pieces of MD were found in each stomach affected. Negative effects on the individuals could not be fully evaluated. Therefore, the potential impacts of the marine debris to the SAFS deserve further elucidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of rainfall related to landslide activity during January-February 2003, South-Eastern Sector of Italy

    Fiorillo, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    On 24-26 th January 2003 a heavy storm struck the South-Eastern sector of the Italian peninsula, causing severe damage to agriculture and roads of the Abruzzo, Molise, Campania and Puglia regions. The areas involved are characterised by hilly morphology, up to 900m a.s.l. inland, and are made up of mainly argillaceous sequences of Flysch and fore deep deposits of the Apennine chain. Thousands of landslides occurred along hilly areas, generally characterized by shallow movements which ceased after some meters; deep-seated landslides also occurred and with reactivations of previous instabilities. Flood phenomena occurred in several places, mainly along the high-order drainage lines. The area is known to fall within a Mediterranean climate, with a long, hot 'dry season' between June and September and a temperate-wet season between October and May. Thus, the 24-26 January 2003 storm occurred in the mid-wet season, during winter; moreover, neither solid precipitation nor snow melt phenomena occurred. The first available hydrological data show that the 24-26 th January 2003 storm was the maximum in the historical series of some rain gauges, considering 24-hour and 2-day cumulative rainfall; return time reaches values exceeding 70 years, with usual distribution function (Gumbel, GEV, Lognormal). The storm occurred after a wet period, characterized by previous storms, which most likely caused the reaching of field capacity of the soil. All shallow landslides occurred during or immediately after this storm and, thus, were most likely caused by positive pore pressure development. At least 10 continuous rainy days after the storm (until 6th February 2003) were recorded, though they were characterized by low rainfall; it is important to highlight that it was mainly during these rainy days that some deep seated landslides were reactivated. On the bases of historical hydrological data and landslide activity, this study analyses the possible relation between rainfall and

  18. Medical care employment in the United States, 1968 to 1993: The importance of health sector jobs for African Americans and women.

    Himmelstein, D U; Lewontin, J P; Woolhandler, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the social and economic impact of health sector employment. US medical care employment was analyzed for each year between 1968 and 1993, with data from the March Current Population Survey. Between 1968 and 1993, medical care employment grew from 4.32 million to 11.40 million persons, accounting for 5.7% of all jobs in 1968 and 8.4% in 1993. Today, one seventh of employed women work in medical care; they hold 78% of medical care jobs. One fifth of all employed African-American women work in medical care. African-Americans hold 15.5% of jobs in the health sector: they hold 24.1% of the jobs in nursing homes, 15.9% of the jobs in hospitals, but only 5.6% of the jobs in practitioners' offices. Hispanics constitute 6.4% of medical care employees. Real wages rose 25% to 50% between 1968 and 1993 for most health occupations. Wages of registered nurses rose 86%; physicians' incomes rose 22%. Wages of nursing home workers were far lower than those of comparable hospital workers, and the gap has widened. In 1993, 11.7% of all medical care workers lacked health insurance and 597 000 lived in poverty. Hospital cuts and the continuing neglect of long-term care exacerbate unemployment and poverty among women and African Americans.

  19. Social Identity Integration, Parental Response, and Psychological Outcomes among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer South Asian Americans

    Kishore, Saanjh Aakash

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to understand how social identities are integrated across domains of identity. Focusing on a population in which cultural norms dictate sexuality behaviors as a condition of ethnic membership, the study examines how South Asian LGBQ Americans integrate their ethnic and sexual orientation identities, and also examines the role of this dual social identity integration in the relationship between the distal stress of parental responses to LGBQ identity, the proximal str...

  20. Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana

    Martin Kukwa; Marta Kolanowska

    2016-01-01

    The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of ...

  1. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  2. The relationship between personality traits and life balance : a quantitative study in the South African corporate sector

    2012-01-01

    M.A. South Africa is a country which has undergone many changes since its first democratic elections in 1994. Amongst other societal implications, these changes have catapulted South African businesses and employees into the global economy. Being part of the global economy means that South African employees, like their northern hemisphere counterparts, are struggling to create balance in their lives. The stress resulting from the often opposing demands of work and family has lead to increa...

  3. Neotropics and natural ingredients for pharmaceuticals: why isn't South American biodiversity on the crest of the wave?

    Desmarchelier, Cristian

    2010-06-01

    Despite the advent of biotechnology and modern methods of combinatorial chemistry and rational drug design, nature still plays a surprisingly important role as a source of new pharmaceutical compounds. These are marketed either as herbal drugs or as single active ingredients. South American tropical ecosystems (or the Neotropics) encompass one-third of the botanical biodiversity of the planet. For centuries, indigenous peoples have been using plants for healing purposes, and scientists are making considerable efforts in order to validate these uses from a pharmacological/phytochemical point of view. However, and despite the unique plant diversity in the region, very few natural pharmaceutical ingredients from this part of the world have reached the markets in industrialized countries. The present review addresses the importance of single active ingredients and herbal drugs from South American flora as natural ingredients for pharmaceuticals; it highlights the most relevant cases in terms of species of interest; and discusses the key entry barriers for these products in industrialized countries. It explores the reasons why, in spite of the region's competitive advantages, South American biodiversity has been a poor source of natural ingredients for the pharmaceutical industry. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  5. Understanding the Association of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Breast Cancer Among African American and European American Populations in South Carolina.

    Samson, Marsha E; Adams, Swann Arp; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R

    2016-09-01

    In South Carolina, the co-occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and breast cancer (BrCA) is much more prevalent among African American populations than among European American populations. The underlying relationship between diabetes and breast cancer may influence breast cancer survival. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effect of diabetes on developing breast cancer and to reduce racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Study participants included women of European American (EA) and African American (AA) ethnicity from both the Medicaid ICD-9 designations and the South Carolina Central Cancer Registry (SCCCR). A historical prospective cohort design was used to determine the risk of developing breast cancer among women of different ethnicities with and without DM. The chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the association; the logistic model was used to assess the relationship between breast cancer and other factors among EA and AA women. Menopause may have protective properties for AA compared to EA women. AA women have twice the odds of not surviving from each breast cancer stage compared to EA women with respect to their breast cancer stage. Adherence to diabetes medication may contribute to lower breast cancer death in EA. This study illustrates the discrepancy between EA and AA women in terms of breast cancer survival. AA women bear a higher disease burden than EA women. To create ethnic-appropriate public health policies, it is imperative that we understand the effect of comorbidities on breast cancer and how we can prevent them from occurring.

  6. The evaluation of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Se concentrations in the hair of South American camelids

    Milada Holasová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the content of trace elements in the hair of South American camelids and to evaluate the effect of coat colour, species, age, and sex on their concentration in the hair. The samples were collected from 77 animals – 23 llamas (Llama guanicoe f. gllama and 54 alpacas (Llama guanicoe f. pacos during a spring health check. The concentrations of copper (Cu, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and selenium (Se by Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. We found the following concentrations (mean ± standard deviation; mg/kg dry matter in the llama hair: Cu 9.70 ± 4.69; Zn 145.20 ± 21.07; Mn 12.49 ± 10.14; Se 0.25 ± 0.14. In alpaca hair we found the following concentrations: Cu 10.22 ± 2.90; Zn 129.81 ± 19.01; Mn 12.67 ± 13.85; Se 0.48 ± 0.24. We found a significant difference between llamas and alpacas in Zn and Se concentrations in the hair. From all the evaluated factors we found that coat colour had the highest effect on Mn and Se concentration. Dark haired animals had significantly higher concentrations of these trace elements than other coloured groups. The evaluation of the concentration of trace elements in the hair of llamas has a potential to be used for the evaluation of long-term status of trace elements in the body; however, it is necessary to continue with experimental work in this area. Our findings can serve as a pilot study for further works in this field.

  7. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  8. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental infection of South American camelids with bluetongue virus serotype 8.

    Schulz, Claudia; Eschbaumer, Michael; Rudolf, Miriam; König, Patricia; Keller, Markus; Bauer, Christian; Gauly, Matthias; Grevelding, Christoph G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2012-01-27

    Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non-contagious disease of wild and domestic ruminants. It is caused by bluetongue virus (BTV) and transmitted by Culicoides biting midges. Since 1998, BT has been emerging throughout Europe, threatening not only the naïve ruminant population. Historically, South American camelids (SAC) were considered to be resistant to BT disease. However, recent fatalities related to BTV in captive SAC have raised questions about their role in BTV epidemiology. Data on the susceptibility of SAC to experimental infection with BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) were collected in an animal experiment. Three alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and three llamas (Lama glama) were experimentally infected with BTV-8. They displayed very mild clinical signs. Seroconversion was first measured 6-8 days after infection (dpi) by ELISA, and neutralising antibodies appeared 10-13 dpi. BTV-8 RNA levels in blood were very low, and quickly cleared after seroconversion. However, spleens collected post-mortem were still positive for BTV RNA, over 71 days after the last detection in blood samples. Virus isolation was only possible from blood samples of two alpacas by inoculation of highly sensitive interferon alpha/beta receptor-deficient (IFNAR(-/-)) mice. An in vitro experiment demonstrated that significantly lower amounts of BTV-8 adsorb to SAC blood cells than to bovine blood cells. Although this experiment showed that SAC are generally susceptible to a BTV-8 infection, it indicates that these species play a negligible role in BTV epidemiology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  11. Fast nonlinear gravity inversion in spherical coordinates with application to the South American Moho

    Uieda, Leonardo; Barbosa, Valéria C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the relief of the Moho from gravity data is a computationally intensive nonlinear inverse problem. What is more, the modelling must take the Earths curvature into account when the study area is of regional scale or greater. We present a regularized nonlinear gravity inversion method that has a low computational footprint and employs a spherical Earth approximation. To achieve this, we combine the highly efficient Bott's method with smoothness regularization and a discretization of the anomalous Moho into tesseroids (spherical prisms). The computational efficiency of our method is attained by harnessing the fact that all matrices involved are sparse. The inversion results are controlled by three hyperparameters: the regularization parameter, the anomalous Moho density-contrast, and the reference Moho depth. We estimate the regularization parameter using the method of hold-out cross-validation. Additionally, we estimate the density-contrast and the reference depth using knowledge of the Moho depth at certain points. We apply the proposed method to estimate the Moho depth for the South American continent using satellite gravity data and seismological data. The final Moho model is in accordance with previous gravity-derived models and seismological data. The misfit to the gravity and seismological data is worse in the Andes and best in oceanic areas, central Brazil and Patagonia, and along the Atlantic coast. Similarly to previous results, the model suggests a thinner crust of 30-35 km under the Andean foreland basins. Discrepancies with the seismological data are greatest in the Guyana Shield, the central Solimões and Amazonas Basins, the Paraná Basin, and the Borborema province. These differences suggest the existence of crustal or mantle density anomalies that were unaccounted for during gravity data processing.

  12. Convergent evolution of alternative developmental trajectories associated with diapause in African and South American killifish.

    Furness, Andrew I; Reznick, David N; Springer, Mark S; Meredith, Robert W

    2015-03-07

    Annual killifish adapted to life in seasonally ephemeral water-bodies exhibit desiccation resistant eggs that can undergo diapause, a period of developmental arrest, enabling them to traverse the otherwise inhospitable dry season. Environmental cues that potentially indicate the season can govern whether eggs enter a stage of diapause mid-way through development or skip this diapause and instead undergo direct development. We report, based on construction of a supermatrix phylogenetic tree of the order Cyprinodontiformes and a battery of comparative analyses, that the ability to produce diapause eggs evolved independently at least six times within African and South American killifish. We then show in species representative of these lineages that embryos entering diapause display significant reduction in development of the cranial region and circulatory system relative to direct-developing embryos. This divergence along alternative developmental pathways begins mid-way through development, well before diapause is entered, during a period of purported maximum developmental constraint (the phylotypic period). Finally, we show that entering diapause is accompanied by a dramatic reduction in metabolic rate and concomitant increase in long-term embryo survival. Morphological divergence during the phylotypic period thus allows embryos undergoing diapause to conserve energy by shunting resources away from energetically costly organs thereby increasing survival chances in an environment that necessitates remaining dormant, buried in the soil and surrounded by an eggshell for much of the year. Our results indicate that adaptation to seasonal aquatic environments in annual killifish imposes strong selection during the embryo stage leading to marked diversification during this otherwise conserved period of vertebrate development. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Cytogenetic Examination of South American Tapirs, Tapirus Terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae, from the Wroclaw Zoological Garden

    Kosowska B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic Examination of South American Tapirs, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae from the Wroclaw Zoological Garden. Kosowska, B., Strzała, T., Moska, M., Ratajszczak, R., Dobosz, T. - Seven lowland tapirs (Tapirus terrestris from Wrocław ZOO (three females and four males, differing from each other with exterior and sexual behaviour were verified with cytogenetic analysis in order to check their taxonomic status. Cytogenetic analysis was done using two alternative methods of blood collection: 1 conventionally with venepuncture, and 2 with blood sucking bugs from the Reduviidae family. Lymphocytes capable of growing were obtained only with conventional method of blood sampling. Karyotypes and karyograms of all analyzed tapirs were created using classical cytogenetic methods of chromosomes staining. All possessed karyograms had diploid chromosome number equal 80 (2n = 80. Homologous chromosomes did not differ between each other with quantity, size, centromeres location, length of arms, G bands and all were classified as proper karyograms of Tapirus terrestris species representatives. The X chromosomes as well as the first pair of chromosomes (both metacentric, were the largest among all analyzed, respectively. All remaining 38 pairs of chromosomes were acrocentric with Y chromosome as the smallest one (in males’ karyograms. Blood collected with blood sucking bugs proved to be unsuitable for cell culture. None of the seven established cultures was effective as lymphocytes obtained with this method did not show growth potential in prepared media. Thus, blood collected from the tapirs via Dipetalogaster maxima species did not show usefulness for cytogenetic studies due to the inability of cells to proliferation, even after a relatively short period of time elapsed since the blood sampling (1 to 2 hours.

  14. Community-based game intervention to improve South Asian Indian Americans' engagement with advanced care planning.

    Radhakrishnan, Kavita; Van Scoy, Lauren Jodi; Jillapalli, Regina; Saxena, Shubhada; Kim, Miyong T

    2017-07-27

    Advance care planning (ACP) allows individuals to express their preferences for medical treatment in the event that they become incapable of making their own decisions. This study assessed the efficacy of a conversation game intervention for increasing South Asian Indian Americans' (SAIAs') engagement in ACP behaviors as well as the game's acceptability and cultural appropriateness among SAIAs. Eligible community-dwelling SAIAs were recruited at SAIA cultural events held in central Texas during the summer of 2016. Pregame questionnaires included demographics and the 55-item ACP Engagement Survey. Played in groups of 3-5, the game consists of 17 open-ended questions that prompt discussions of end-of-life issues. After each game session, focus groups and questionnaires were used to examine the game's cultural appropriateness and self-rated conversation quality. Postintervention responses on the ACP Engagement Survey and rates of participation in ACP behaviors were collected after 3 months through phone interviews or online surveys. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequencies, and paired t-tests comparing pre/post averages at a .05 significance level. Of the 47 participants, 64% were female, 62% had graduate degrees, 92% had lived in the U.S. for >10 years, 87% were first-generation immigrants, and 74% had no advance directive prior to the game. At the 3-month follow-up, 58% of participants had completed at least one ACP behavior, 42% had discussed end-of-life issues with loved ones, 15% did so with their healthcare providers, and 18% had created an advanced directive. ACP Engagement Survey scores increased significantly on all four of the process subscales by 3 months postgame. SAIA individuals who played a conversation game had a relatively high rate of performing ACP behaviors 3 months after the intervention. These findings suggest that conversation games may be useful tools for motivating people from minority communities to engage in ACP behaviors.

  15. On-site wildland activity choices among African Americans and White Americans in the rural south: implications for management

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker

    1999-01-01

    Johnson and Bowker compare wildland activity choices for a sample of rural African Americans and Whites who visited wildland settings in and around the Apalachicola National Forest. The authors also look at intra-racial (same race, different gender) variations for activity participation. This research extends previous research focused on the visit/not visit wildland...

  16. The identity of three South American “smiliine” treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae) and related taxonomic changes, including description of a new genus in Thuridini

    Based on examination of holotype or interpretation of original descriptions, four taxonomic changes are proposed for South American species erroneously placed in the tribe Smiliini: Flynnia, n. gen. (Thuridini) and F. fascipennis (Funkhouser), n. comb. from Bolivia; Antianthe atromarginata (Goding),...

  17. New species of Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 with a review of the South American species (Coleoptera, Adephaga, Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae, Bidessini

    Kelly Miller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The South American species of the New World genus Bidessonotus Régimbart, 1895 are reviewed with descriptions of seven new species. This brings the total number of valid Bidessonotus species to 37, making it the largest Bidessini genus in the New World. The new species are B. annae sp. n. (Venezuela, B. josiahi sp. n. (Venezuela, B. palecephalus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. reductus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. septimus sp. n. (Venezuela, B. spinosus sp. n. (Venezuela, and B. valdezi sp. n. (Guyana, Suriname. New distribution records are provided for many other South American Bidessonotus species. The main diagnostic features of Bidessonotus species are in the male genitalia, and these are illustrated for all South American species. Diagnostic features, distributions (including distribution maps, and additional comments are provided for all South American species.

  18. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-12-11

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  19. Long-term optimization of the transport sector to address greenhouse gas reduction targets under rapid growth. Application of an energy system model for Gauteng province, South Africa

    Tomaschek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transport sector is seen as one of the key factors for driving future energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially in developing countries, significant growth in transport demand is expected. Gauteng province, as the economic centre of South Africa and transport hub for the whole of southern Africa, is one emerging urban region that faces rapid growth. However, the province is on its way to playing a leading role for supporting ways to adapt to climate change and mitigate GHG emissions. Conversely, there is a lack of scientific research on the promising measures for GHG mitigation in the transport sector. For the rapidly growing transport sector of the province in particular, research is focused primarily on extending and structuring the road infrastructure. Moreover, it is important that the transport sector is considered as part of the whole energy system, as significant contributions to GHG emissions and the associated costs arise from energy supply, provision and conversion. This research is the first application of an integrated energy system model (i.e. the TIMES-GEECO model) for the optimization of the transport sector of Gauteng. Optimizing energy system models allows finding least-cost measures for various scenarios, by considering dependencies and interlinkages in the energy system as well as environmental constraints. To do so, the transport sector and the energy supply sector had to be incorporated into the model application in terms of the characteristics of a developing urban region, which includes all relevant transport modes, vehicle technologies, fuel options, vehicle-to-grid energy storage, the consideration of road types as well as explicit expansions of the public transport system and income-dependent travel demand modelling. Additionally, GHG mitigation options outside the provincial boundaries were incorporated to allow for mitigation at least cost and to consider regional resource availability. Moreover, in TIMES

  20. Room to spare: the role of the private sector in pro-poor ecotourism in South Africa and Tanzania

    Thawer, Mehnaz

    2008-01-01

    The tourism industry is changing in response to globalisation and shifting power relations between governments, communities and the private sector. It is one of the largest sources of foreign exchange revenues and contributions to GDP for some of the world’s poorest countries. The emergence of discourses around sustainability, conservation and people-centred approaches are increasingly influencing the growing tourism industry. This paper examines community engagement with the private sector i...

  1. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina.

    Claudio A González-Wevar

    Full Text Available Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI. Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in

  2. Genetics, Gene Flow, and Glaciation: The Case of the South American Limpet Nacella mytilina

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Rosenfeld, Sebastián; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Hüne, Mathias; Gérard, Karin; Ojeda, Jaime; Mansilla, Andrés; Brickle, Paul; Díaz, Angie; Poulin, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Glacial episodes of the Quaternary, and particularly the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) drastically altered the distribution of the Southern-Hemisphere biota, principally at higher latitudes. The irregular coastline of Patagonia expanding for more than 84.000 km constitutes a remarkable area to evaluate the effect of Quaternary landscape and seascape shifts over the demography of near-shore marine benthic organisms. Few studies describing the biogeographic responses of marine species to the LGM have been conducted in Patagonia, but existing data from coastal marine species have demonstrated marked genetic signatures of post-LGM recolonization and expansion. The kelp-dweller limpet Nacella mytilina is broadly distributed along the southern tip of South America and at the Falkland/Malvinas Islands. Considering its distribution, abundance, and narrow bathymetry, N. mytilina represents an appropriate model to infer how historical and contemporary processes affected the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity and structure along the southern tip of South America. At the same time, it will be possible to determine how life history traits and the ecology of the species are responsible for the current pattern of gene flow and connectivity across the study area. We conducted phylogeographic and demographic inference analyses in N. mytilina from 12 localities along Pacific Patagonia (PP) and one population from the Falkland/Malvinas Islands (FI). Analyses of the mitochondrial gene COI in 300 individuals of N. mytilina revealed low levels of genetic polymorphism and the absence of genetic differentiation along PP. In contrast, FI showed a strong and significant differentiation from Pacific Patagonian populations. Higher levels of genetic diversity were also recorded in the FI population, together with a more expanded genealogy supporting the hypothesis of glacial persistence of the species in these islands. Haplotype genealogy, and mismatch analyses in the FI population

  3. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa.

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance's perception of the health sector's absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from government revenue through demonstrating improved performance and the

  4. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis.

    Warita Alves de Melo

    Full Text Available Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM. We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers and nuclear (ITS nrDNA genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM. Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the

  5. Coalescent Simulation and Paleodistribution Modeling for Tabebuia rosealba Do Not Support South American Dry Forest Refugia Hypothesis.

    de Melo, Warita Alves; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Terribile, Levi Carina; Collevatti, Rosane G

    2016-01-01

    Studies based on contemporary plant occurrences and pollen fossil records have proposed that the current disjunct distribution of seasonally dry tropical forests (SDTFs) across South America is the result of fragmentation of a formerly widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the arid climatic conditions associated with the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), which is known as the modern-day dry forest refugia hypothesis. We studied the demographic history of Tabebuia rosealba (Bignoniaceae) to understand the disjunct geographic distribution of South American SDTFs based on statistical phylogeography and ecological niche modeling (ENM). We specifically tested the dry forest refugia hypothesis; i.e., if the multiple and isolated patches of SDTFs are current climatic relicts of a widespread and continuously distributed dry forest during the LGM. We sampled 235 individuals across 18 populations in Central Brazil and analyzed the polymorphisms at chloroplast (trnS-trnG, psbA-trnH and ycf6-trnC intergenic spacers) and nuclear (ITS nrDNA) genomes. We performed coalescence simulations of alternative hypotheses under demographic expectations from two a priori biogeographic hypotheses (1. the Pleistocene Arc hypothesis and, 2. a range shift to Amazon Basin) and other two demographic expectances predicted by ENMs (3. expansion throughout the Neotropical South America, including Amazon Basin, and 4. retraction during the LGM). Phylogenetic analyses based on median-joining network showed haplotype sharing among populations with evidence of incomplete lineage sorting. Coalescent analyses showed smaller effective population sizes for T. roseoalba during the LGM compared to the present-day. Simulations and ENM also showed that its current spatial pattern of genetic diversity is most likely due to a scenario of range retraction during the LGM instead of the fragmentation from a once extensive and largely contiguous SDTF across South America, not supporting the South

  6. Convergence characteristics between a rodent, the South American lowland paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain: An exemplary case study.

    Dubost, Gérard

    2017-03-01

    The level of convergence between a rodent, the South American lowland paca Cuniculus paca, and a ruminant, the African water chevrotain Hyemoschus aquaticus, is analysed using 231 characteristics belonging to different biological sectors. A convergence index is established based on the degree of rarity of each characteristic in each species compared to other members of its zoological group. Although the divergent characteristics are as numerous as the convergent ones, the two species are globally similar. Convergent characteristics occur in all biological categories, but their rate varies a great deal among them. From internal anatomy and osteology, through behaviour and ecology to the external appearance of the body, convergent characteristics are all the more frequent since the biological category is directly implicated in the adaptation of animals to their external environment (lowland rainforest). However, only the individuals' characteristics are concerned and not those of their population or social organisation. This could be due to differences between the communities of terrestrial mammals to which they belong. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of small, medium, and micro-sized enterprise (SMME business owner and stakeholder perceptions of barriers and enablers in the South African retail sector

    Mlenga G Jere

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the support extended to the small business sector in South Africa, the growth and survival rates of small, medium, and micro-sized enterprises (SMMEs are lower than expected. This paper investigates business owner and stakeholder perceptions of barriers and enablers of the start-up, survival, and growth of SMMEs in the South African retail sector. A qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews was employed for data collection from samples of stakeholders and business owners. Framework analysis was used to analyse both sets of data. The findings show that the stakeholders and business owners consider the lack of support, competition, skills shortages, and poor internal controls as the key barriers to the start-up, survival, and growth of SMMEs. Stakeholders considered the business environment as the key enabler while the business owners regarded increasing demand as the key enabler. To address the barriers, recommendations relating to skills development, funding, shelter and services, and other business development resources are presented

  8. Dinosaur speed demon: the caudal musculature of Carnotaurus sastrei and implications for the evolution of South American abelisaurids.

    W Scott Persons

    Full Text Available In the South American abelisaurids Carnotaurus sastrei, Aucasaurus garridoi, and, to a lesser extent Skorpiovenator bustingorryi, the anterior caudal ribs project at a high dorsolateral inclination and have interlocking lateral tips. This unique morphology facilitated the expansion of the caudal hypaxial musculature at the expense of the epaxial musculature. Distinct ridges on the ventrolateral surfaces of the caudal ribs of Aucasaurus garridoi are interpreted as attachment scars from the intra caudofemoralis/ilio-ischiocaudalis septa, and confirm that the M. caudofemoralis of advanced South American abelisaurids originated from a portion of the caudal ribs. Digital muscle models indicate that, relative to its overall body size, Carnotaurus sastrei had a substantially larger M. caudofemoralis than any other theropod yet studied. In most non-avian theropods, as in many extant sauropsids, the M. caudofemoralis served as the primary femoral retractor muscle during the locomotive power stroke. This large investment in the M. caudofemoralis suggests that Carnotaurus sastrei had the potential for great cursorial abilities, particularly short-burst sprinting. However, the tightly interlocking morphology of the anterior caudal vertebrae implies a reduced ability to make tight turns. Examination of these vertebral traits in evolutionary context reveals a progressive sequence of increasing caudofemoral mass and tail rigidity among the Abelisauridae of South America.

  9. Comparing Terrestrial Organic Carbon Cycle Dynamics in Interglacial and Glacial Climates in the South American Tropics

    Fornace, K. L.; Galy, V.; Hughen, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The application of compound-specific radiocarbon dating to molecular biomarkers has allowed for tracking of specific organic carbon pools as they move through the environment, providing insight into complex processes within the global carbon cycle. Here we use this technique to investigate links between glacial-interglacial climate change and terrestrial organic carbon cycling in the catchments of Cariaco Basin and Lake Titicaca, two tropical South American sites with well-characterized climate histories since the last glacial period. By comparing radiocarbon ages of terrestrial biomarkers (leaf wax compounds) with deposition ages in late glacial and Holocene sediments, we are able to gauge the storage time of these compounds in the catchments in soils, floodplains, etc. before transport to marine or lacustrine sediments. We are also able to probe the effects of temperature and hydrologic change individually by taking advantage of opposite hydrologic trends at the two sites: while both were colder during the last glacial period, precipitation at Titicaca decreased from the last glacial period to the Holocene, but the late glacial was marked by drier conditions at Cariaco. Preliminary data from both sites show a wide range of apparent ages of long-chain n-fatty acids (within error of 0 to >10,000 years older than sediment), with the majority showing ages on the order of several millennia at time of deposition and age generally increasing with chain length. While late glacial leaf waxes appear to be older relative to sediment than those deposited in the Holocene at both sites, at Cariaco we find a ~2-3 times larger glacial-interglacial age difference than at Titicaca. We hypothesize that at Titicaca the competing influences of wetter and colder conditions during the last glacial period, which respectively tend to increase and decrease the rate of organic carbon turnover on land, served to minimize the contrast between glacial and interglacial leaf wax storage time

  10. Associations between male infertility and ancestry in South Americans: a case control study.

    Skowronek, Maria Fernanda; Velazquez, Tatiana; Mut, Patricia; Figueiro, Gonzalo; Sans, Monica; Bertoni, Bernardo; Sapiro, Rossana

    2017-07-26

    Infertility affects 15% of human couples, with men being responsible in approximately 50% of cases. Moreover, the aetiology of male factor infertility is poorly understood. The majority of male factor infertility remains idiopathic and potentially genetic in origin. The association of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplogroups with male infertility has been previously reported. This association differs between studied populations and their geographical distributions. These effects have been only rarely analysed in mixed populations, such as South Americans. In this study, we analysed the contributions of the Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplogroups to male infertility in a mixed population. A case control study was conducted. Regular PCR and high-resolutionmelting- real-time PCR were performed to type haplogroups from fertile and infertile men. The sperm parameters from infertile men were compared in each haplogroup by logistic regression analysis and ANOVA. The genotyping confirmed the known admixture characteristic of the Uruguayan population. The European paternal contribution was higher than the maternal contribution in both fertile and infertile men. Neither maternal nor paternal ancestry presented differences between the cases and controls. Men belonging to the Y chromosome haplogroup F(xK) more frequently presented with an abnormal sperm morphology than men from other haplogroups. The sperm parameters were not associated with the mitochondrial haplogroups. The data presented in this study showed an association between male infertility and ancestry in the Uruguayan population. Specifically, abnormal sperm morphology was associated with the Y chromosome haplogroup F(xK). Since the Y chromosome lacks recombination, these data suggest that some genes that determine sperm morphology might be inherited in blocks with the region that determines specific haplogroups. However, the possible association between the Y chromosome haplogroup F(xK) and sperm

  11. Science and Technology vs. Defense and Security: Dual Use Consequences, a South American Perspective

    Espona, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays we can say that science and technology are development driven forces in most countries, with some exceptions especially in the Southern Hemisphere. Even though, we have to take into account their link to and impact on defense and security and not only when it comes to WMD but also in the economy and academy areas, both in developed and developing countries. Within this framework, when we analyze the spread of technology and knowledge, it is important to consider: the media where it takes place (e.g. journals, internet, conferences, commercial agreements); which the actors involved are (e.g. scientists, governmental agencies, commercial firms); and the motive why it occurs (e.g. scientific discoveries; commercial exchange; international agreements). Once known all these elements, which vary both intracountry and intercountry, we may have a deep and broad enough framework to consider which policies to take in order to foster scientific and technologic development without collaborating with state and non state WMD programs. Although we already have a legal framework to fight against WMD proliferation and terrorism, the diverse degree of success of such instruments makes it necessary to continue analyzing and debating ways to strengthen them and/or find new ones. Therefore, in this paper we will analyze how the phenomena of science and technology development and spread impacts on defense and security from a South American perspective, taking into account the particular differences among developed and developing countries. Among the primary findings we can mention the existing differences between countries when it comes to the place (military, academic or commercial ones) where the critical science and technology innovative developments take place; the origin of funding (private or governmental); the existence and fulfillment of plans to foster science and technology development; and the scientific community awareness in WMD topics. All these elements have a

  12. A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand.

    Reynolds, Jaratdao; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Pudpong, Nareerut; Watthayu, Nantiya; Dalliston, Alex; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Sawaengdee, Krisada

    2013-04-12

    The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced.

  13. Glacial refugia and the prediction of future habitat coverage of the South American lichen species Ochrolechia austroamericana.

    Kukwa, Martin; Kolanowska, Marta

    2016-12-08

    The biogeographic history of lichenized fungi remains unrevealed because those organisms rarely fossilize due to their delicate, often tiny and quickly rotting thalli. Also the ecology and factors limiting occurrence of numerous taxa, especially those restricted in their distribution to tropical areas are poorly recognized. The aim of this study was to determine localization of glacial refugia of South American Ochrolechia austroamericana and to estimate the future changes in the coverage of its habitats using ecological niche modeling tools. The general glacial potential range of the studied species was wider than it is nowadays and its niches coverage decreased by almost 25% since last glacial maximum. The refugial areas were covered by cool and dry grasslands and scrubs and suitable niches in South America were located near the glacier limit. According to our analyses the further climate changes will not significantly influence the distribution of the suitable niches of O. austroamericana.

  14. Stakeholder influence in public sector information systems strategy implementation—The case of public hospitals in South Africa

    Hwabamungu, B

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available in fulfilling their mandate. The public health sector in particular needs to engage with a diversity of stakeholders at local, regional and national levels when strategising. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of stakeholder relations...

  15. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    2012-11-20

    ... architecture, infrastructure, hospitality, healthcare, and environmental and information technologies sectors... account in their business planning, US&FCS will begin to make selection decisions beginning November 15... defined as a firm with 500 or fewer employees or that otherwise qualifies as a small business under SBA...

  16. Catching-up trajectories in the wine sector: a comparative study of Chile, Italy and South Africa.

    Cusmano, L.; Morrison, A.; Rabellotti, R.

    2010-01-01

    From a development perspective an investigation of the changes that have occurred in the wine industry is of particular interest because it provides evidence on how emerging economies have been able to acquire significant shares of the international market in a dynamic sector. Based on novel

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of stable isotope composition of precipitation over the south american continent

    1995-01-01

    centra en el estudio de la variabilidad espacial y temporal de la composición de isótopos estables de la precipitación a escala del continente. En este estudio se examina con cierto detalle la relación aparente entre la composición isotópica de la precipitación en la región y algunos parámetros climáticos tales como la cantidad de precipitación y la temperatura del aire. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, in collaboration with the World Meteorological Organization (WMO is conducting a world-wide survey of the isotope composition of precipitation. At present, around 60 stations are providing information on the stable isotope composition of precipitation over the South American continent. During the recent years, several national monitoring networks have been initiated (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Peru. They provide a valuable contribution to the global IAEA/WMO database. The paper is focused on spatial and temporal variability of the stable isotope composition of precipitation, observed over the South American continent. The relationship between isotopic signature of precipitation and climatically relevant parameters, such as surface air temperature or amount of precipitation is discussed in some detail.

  18. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  19. Outcomes of treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis at public sector primary healthcare clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

    Budgell, E P; Evans, D; Schnippel, K; Ive, P; Long, L; Rosen, S

    2016-09-05

    Despite the large number of tuberculosis (TB) patients treated in South Africa (SA), there are few descriptions in the published literature of drug-susceptible TB patient characteristics, mode of diagnosis or treatment outcomes in routine public sector treatment programmes. To enhance the evidence base for public sector TB treatment service delivery, we reported the characteristics of and outcomes for a retrospective cohort of adult TB patients at public sector clinics in the Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality (JHB), SA. We collected medical record data for a retrospective cohort of adult (≥18 years) TB patients registered between 1 April 2011 and 31 March 2012 at three public sector clinics in JHB. Data were abstracted from National TB Programme clinic cards and the TB case registers routinely maintained at study sites. We report patient characteristics, mode of diagnosis, mode of treatment supervision, treatment characteristics, HIV status and treatment outcomes for this cohort. A total of 544 patients were enrolled in the cohort. Most (86%) were new TB cases, 81% had pulmonary TB, 58% were smear-positive at treatment initiation and 71% were HIV co-infected. Among 495 patients with treatment outcomes reported, 80% (n=394) had successful outcomes, 11% (n=55) were lost to follow-up, 8% (n=40) died and 1% (n=6) failed treatment. Primary healthcare clinics in JHB are achieving relatively high rates of success in treating drug-susceptible TB. Missing laboratory results were common, including follow-up smears, cultures and drug susceptibility tests, making it difficult to assess adherence to guidelines and leaving scope for substantial improvements in record-keeping at the clinics involved.

  20. Does expanding fiscal space lead to improved funding of the health sector in developing countries?: lessons from Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa

    Doherty, Jane; Kirigia, Doris; Okoli, Chijioke; Chuma, Jane; Ezumah, N; Ichoku, Hyacinth; Hanson, Kara; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The global focus on promoting Universal Health Coverage has drawn attention to the need to increase public domestic funding for health care in low- and middle-income countries. Objectives: This article examines whether increased tax revenue in the three territories of Kenya, Lagos State (Nigeria) and South Africa was accompanied by improved resource allocation to their public health sectors, and explores the reasons underlying the observed trends. Methods: Three case studies were conducted by different research teams using a common mixed methods approach. Quantitative data were extracted from official government financial reports and used to describe trends in general tax revenue, total government expenditure and government spending on the health sector and other sectors in the first decade of this century. Twenty-seven key informant interviews with officials in Ministries of Health and Finance were used to explore the contextual factors, actors and processes accounting for the observed trends. A thematic content analysis allowed this qualitative information to be compared and contrasted between territories. Findings: Increased tax revenue led to absolute increases in public health spending in all three territories, but not necessarily in real per capita terms. However, in each of the territories, the percentage of the government budget allocated to health declined for much of the period under review. Factors contributing to this trend include: inter-sectoral competition in priority setting; the extent of fiscal federalism; the Ministry of Finance’s perception of the health sector’s absorptive capacity; weak investment cases made by the Ministry of Health; and weak parliamentary and civil society involvement. Conclusion: Despite dramatic improvements in tax revenue collection, fiscal space for health in the three territories did not improve. Ministries of Health must strengthen their ability to motivate for larger allocations from

  1. 10-Methyldodecanal, a Novel Attractant Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Eburodacrys vittata.

    Weliton D Silva

    Full Text Available We report the identification, synthesis, and field bioassay of a novel attractant pheromone produced by males of Eburodacrys vittata (Blanchard, a South American cerambycid beetle in the subfamily Cerambycinae. Headspace volatiles from males contained a sex-specific compound, identified as 10-methyldodecanal. In a field bioassay conducted in Brazil, significant numbers of males and females were caught in traps baited with synthesized racemic 10-methyldodecanal, consistent with the aggregation-sex pheromones produced by males of many cerambycine species. This compound represents a new structural class of cerambycid pheromones, and it is the first pheromone identified for a species in the tribe Eburiini.

  2. The South American species of Hibiscus sect. Furcaria DC. (Malvaceae-Hibisceae

    Antonio Krapovickas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hibiscus section Furcaria from South America is revised. Ten new species from Brasil are described: H. Andersonii, H. capitalensis, H. chapadensis, H. Gregoryi, H. Hochreutineri, H. itirapinensis, H. matogrossensis, H. Nanuzae, H. Saddii, H. Windischii, and a new one from Perú: H. Chancoae. Two new names are proposed: H. Hilarianus from Brasil and H. amambayensis from Paraguay. A key is provided to distinguish the 40 species of section Furcaria known from South America

  3. Obesity is associated with breast cancer in African-American women but not Hispanic women in South Los Angeles.

    Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2011-08-15

    Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  4. A literature review of tele-dermatology programs in the South African public health sector: Kwazulu-Natal perspective

    Walters, Laticha EM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is 17,9%, the highest being in KwaZulu-Natal. Dermatological diseases are linked to HIV/AIDS. Tele-dermatology was not part of the 1998 National Telemedicine Project. Only phase I (of three) was implemented...

  5. Evaluating a public sector organisation for SDI readiness – the case of a South African government department

    Hlela, S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available within the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) by describing DEA’s contribution to the South African SDI objectives and by assessing DEA’s SDI readiness.The qualitative method was used to collect data. The techniques used in this research were...

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Columbia. Sector: Research Institutions

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  8. Analysis of the South African input-output table to determine sector specific economic impacts: A study on real estate

    Douw Gert Brand Boshoff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Input-output analysis is a well known method of analysing specific economic activity and the influence of different sectors on the economy and on one another. This study investigates the ability of input-output analysis to consider the importance of commercial real estate on the economy. It analyses the economic activity, contribution to GDP, employment created and taxes generated with reference to direct, indirect and induced impacts. The research shows the contribution of the specific sector on the economy and highlights the ability of input-output analysis to determine the impact of different types of property and locational analysis. The interaction of property with the economy is discussed, which also enables the use of the analysis reported here for short term future forecasting, whereby expected real estate activity is used to forecast the direct, indirect and induced effects on the economy.

  9. Inventorying and pinpoint mapping of woody plants in the European and North American sectors of arboretum of the PetrSU Botanic Garden

    Eglacheva Arina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern information technologies allow us to combine different types of data into a unified system and to determine a transformation of species under the new conditions of introduction (Prokhorov et al., 2013, Annenkovа, 2014. In Karelia, arboretum of the PetrSU Botanic Garden has an exceptional importance due to the species diversity and organization of planting. Regardless of the various long-term studies conducted in the arboretum, no dot distribution map of plants is available today. The article represents mapping results of more than 500 woody plants on the territory of the arboretum’s European and North American sectors. Each object has complete information about its dendrometric characteristics, phytosanitary status, and presence of epiphytic organisms found on it (fungi, lichens, mosses.

  10. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA experiment

    G. Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September–31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p  >  0.05 level, Student t test between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model

  11. Phylogenetic correlograms and the evolution of body size in South American owls (Strigiformes

    José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, many models have been proposed to link microevolutionary processes to macroevolutionary patterns, defined by comparative data analysis. Among these, Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U processes have been used to model, respectively, genetic drift or directional selection and stabilizing selection. These models produce different curves of pairwise variance between species against time since divergence, in such a way that different profiles appear in phylogenetic correlograms. We analyzed variation in body length among 19 species of South American owls, by means of phylogenetic correlograms constructed using Moran's I coefficient in four distance classes. Phylogeny among species was based on DNA hybridization. The observed correlogram was then compared with 500 correlograms obtained by simulations of Brownian motion and O-U over the same phylogeny, using discriminant analysis. The observed correlogram indicates a phylogenetic gradient up to 45 mya, when coefficients tend to stabilize, and it is similar to the correlograms produced by the O-U process. This is expected when we consider that body size of organisms is correlated with many ecological and life-history traits and subjected to many constraints that can be modeled by the O-U process, which has been used to describe evolution under stabilizing selection.Nos últimos anos diversos modelos têm sido propostos a fim de realizar inferências sobre processos microevolutivos com base em padrões macroevolutivos obtidos a partir de dados comparativos. Dentre esses, o movimento Browniano e o processo Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (O-U têm sido utilizados para modelar principalmente deriva genética e seleção estabilizadora, respectivamente. Esses modelos produzem curvas diferentes de relação entre variância interespecífica e distância no tempo, de modo que eles podem ser distingüidos com base em correlogramas filogenéticos. Neste trabalho, nós analisamos a varia

  12. Assessment of fire emission inventories during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) experiment

    Pereira, Gabriel; Siqueira, Ricardo; Rosário, Nilton E.; Longo, Karla L.; Freitas, Saulo R.; Cardozo, Francielle S.; Kaiser, Johannes W.; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-06-01

    Fires associated with land use and land cover changes release large amounts of aerosols and trace gases into the atmosphere. Although several inventories of biomass burning emissions cover Brazil, there are still considerable uncertainties and differences among them. While most fire emission inventories utilize the parameters of burned area, vegetation fuel load, emission factors, and other parameters to estimate the biomass burned and its associated emissions, several more recent inventories apply an alternative method based on fire radiative power (FRP) observations to estimate the amount of biomass burned and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols. The Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) and the Fire Inventory from NCAR (FINN) are examples of the first, while the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model with FRP assimilation (3BEM_FRP) and the Global Fire Assimilation System (GFAS) are examples of the latter. These four biomass burning emission inventories were used during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign. This paper analyzes and inter-compared them, focusing on eight regions in Brazil and the time period of 1 September-31 October 2012. Aerosol optical thickness (AOT550 nm) derived from measurements made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operating on board the Terra and Aqua satellites is also applied to assess the inventories' consistency. The daily area-averaged pyrogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emission estimates exhibit significant linear correlations (r, p > 0.05 level, Student t test) between 3BEM and FINN and between 3BEM_ FRP and GFAS, with values of 0.86 and 0.85, respectively. These results indicate that emission estimates in this region derived via similar methods tend to agree with one other. However, they differ more from the estimates derived via the alternative approach. The evaluation of MODIS AOT550 nm indicates that model simulation driven by 3BEM and FINN

  13. Ground-based aerosol characterization during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment

    J. Brito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physical and chemical characteristics of aerosols at ground level at a site heavily impacted by biomass burning. The site is located near Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the southwestern part of the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, and was selected for the deployment of a large suite of instruments, among them an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. Our measurements were made during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA field experiment, which consisted of a combination of aircraft and ground-based measurements over Brazil, aimed to investigate the impacts of biomass burning emissions on climate, air quality, and numerical weather prediction over South America. The campaign took place during the dry season and the transition to the wet season in September/October 2012. During most of the campaign, the site was impacted by regional biomass burning pollution (average CO mixing ratio of 0.6 ppm, occasionally superimposed by intense (up to 2 ppm of CO, freshly emitted biomass burning plumes. Aerosol number concentrations ranged from ~1000 cm−3 to peaks of up to 35 000 cm−3 (during biomass burning (BB events, corresponding to an average submicron mass mean concentrations of 13.7 μg m−3 and peak concentrations close to 100 μg m−3. Organic aerosol strongly dominated the submicron non-refractory composition, with an average concentration of 11.4 μg m−3. The inorganic species, NH4, SO4, NO3, and Cl, were observed, on average, at concentrations of 0.44, 0.34, 0.19, and 0.01 μg m−3, respectively. Equivalent black carbon (BCe ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 μg m−3, with an average concentration of 1.3 μg m−3. During BB peaks, organics accounted for over 90% of total mass (submicron non-refractory plus BCe, among the highest values described in the literature. We examined the ageing of biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA using the changes in the H : C and O : C ratios, and found that throughout most of the

  14. Experimental transmission of Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum (Didelphis albiventris) to the North American opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Bowman, D D; Horton, K M; Venturini, C; Venturini, L

    2000-06-01

    Sarcocystis speeri Dubey and Lindsay, 1999 from the South American opossum Didelphis albiventris was successfully transmitted to the North American opossum Didelphis virginiana. Sporocysts from a naturally infected D. albiventris from Argentina were fed to 2 gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. The mice were killed 64 and 71 days after sporocyst feeding (DAF). Muscles containing sarcocysts from the KO mouse killed 71 DAF were fed to a captive D. virginiana; this opossum shed sporocysts 11 days after ingesting sarcocysts. Sporocysts from D. virginiana were fed to 9 KO mice and 4 budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). Schizonts, sarcocysts, or both of S. speeri were found in tissues of all 7 KO mice killed 29-85 DAF; 2 mice died 39 and 48 DAF were not necropsied. Sarcocystis stages were not found in tissues of the 4 budgerigars fed S. speeri sporocysts and killed 35 DAE These results indicate that S. speeri is distinct from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona, and that S. speeri is present in both D. albiventris and D. virginiana.

  15. A proof of concept study to assess the potential of PCR testing to detect natural Mycobacterium bovis infection in South American camelids.

    Crawshaw, Timothy R; Chanter, Jeremy I; McGoldrick, Adrian; Line, Kirsty

    2014-02-07

    Cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection South American camelids have been increasing in Great Britain. Current antemortem immunological tests have some limitations. Cases at post mortem examination frequently show extensive pathology. The feasibility of detecting Mycobacterium bovis DNA in clinical samples was investigated. A sensitive extraction methodology was developed and used on nasal swabs and faeces taken post-mortem to assess the potential for a PCR test to detect Mycobacterium bovis in clinical samples. The gross pathology of the studied South American camelids was scored and a significantly greater proportion of South American camelids with more severe pathology were positive in both the nasal swab and faecal PCR tests. A combination of the nasal swab and faecal PCR tests detected 63.9% of all the South American camelids with pathology that were tested. The results suggest that antemortem diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis in South American camelids may be possible using a PCR test on clinical samples, however more work is required to determine sensitivity and specificity, and the practicalities of applying the test in the field.

  16. First record of Wolbachia in South American terrestrial isopods: prevalence and diversity in two species of Balloniscus (Crustacea, Oniscidea

    Mauricio Pereira Almerão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria that commonly infect arthropods, inducing certain phenotypes in their hosts. So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus (B. sellowii and B. glaber were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. Fifteen new Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences were detected. Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii, but uninfected populations could be found in both species. Wolbachia strains from B. sellowii had a higher genetic variation than those isolated from B. glaber. AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts.

  17. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by 137 Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  18. Hematozoa of forest birds in American Samoa - Evidence for a diverse, indigenous parasite fauna from the South Pacific

    Atkinson, C.T.; Utzurrum, R.C.; Seamon, J.O.; Savage, Amy F.; Lapointe, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduced avian diseases pose a significant threat to forest birds on isolated island archipelagos, especially where most passerines are endemic and many groups of blood-sucking arthropods are either absent or only recently introduced. We conducted a blood parasite survey of forest birds from the main islands of American Samoa to obtain baseline information about the identity, distribution and prevalence of hematozoan parasites in this island group. We examined Giemsa-stained blood smears from 857 individual birds representing 20 species on Tutuila, Ofu, Olosega, and Ta'u islands. Four hematozoan parasites were identified - Plasmodium circumflexum (1%, 12/857), Trypanosoma avium (4%, 32/857), microfilaria (9%, 76/857), and an Atoxoplasma sp. (parasite infections. Given the central location of American Samoa in the South Pacific, it is likely that avian malaria and other hematozoan parasites are indigenous and widespread at least as far as the central South Pacific. Their natural occurrence may provide some immunological protection to indigenous birds in the event that other closely related parasites are accidentally introduced to the region.

  19. The privatization of the British power system: is it a meaningful example for the South American countries?

    Krause, Gilson G; Poppe, Marcelo K [Centre International de Recherche sur l` Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), Montrouge (France)

    1994-12-31

    United Kingdom (UK) privatization has become one of the most important deregulation experiences noticing the public economy. The objectives of the privatization, to the level of speech as well as in the real intention of its promoters (coming from economic, fiscal or even ideological rationale), stumble on a certain incoherence during their application, between actions based on the principles of market economy and the need of support from others complex regulation devices. The restructuring of UK power sector has been based on the conviction that competition is endowed to drive an increasing of global efficiency of the sector, and that delivering enterprises to a private management would mean results that could not be accomplished by the public administration. We will see all along this text that the speech has not yet become evidence and that up till now the fiscal aspect of the reform has been its main success. According to these purposes, this article will seen too critical regarding such reforms, but it is necessary to remind our serious reserves concerning the monopolistic, corporators and centralized structures previously practised. Beyond these points, the application of such reforms in the context of South America would face in all but a few cases insufficient size markets, the lack of technological and management skills, as well as the need of strong centralized co-ordination means, at least to negotiate external loans. (author) 29 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A comparative in silico linear B-cell epitope prediction and characterization for South American and African Trypanosoma vivax strains.

    Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Rodrigues, Carla Monadeli Filgueira; Coatnoan, Nicolas; Cosson, Alain; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio; Garcia, Herakles Antonio; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Minoprio, Paola Marcella Camargo; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2018-02-27

    Trypanosoma vivax is a parasite widespread across Africa and South America. Immunological methods using recombinant antigens have been developed aiming at specific and sensitive detection of infections caused by T. vivax. Here, we sequenced for the first time the transcriptome of a virulent T. vivax strain (Lins), isolated from an outbreak of severe disease in South America (Brazil) and performed a computational integrated analysis of genome, transcriptome and in silico predictions to identify and characterize putative linear B-cell epitopes from African and South American T. vivax. A total of 2278, 3936 and 4062 linear B-cell epitopes were respectively characterized for the transcriptomes of T. vivax LIEM-176 (Venezuela), T. vivax IL1392 (Nigeria) and T. vivax Lins (Brazil) and 4684 for the genome of T. vivax Y486 (Nigeria). The results presented are a valuable theoretical source that may pave the way for highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neotropical mammal diversity and the Great American Biotic Interchange: spatial and temporal variation in South America's fossil record

    Carrillo, Juan D.; Forasiepi, Analía; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.

    2015-01-01

    The vast mammal diversity of the Neotropics is the result of a long evolutionary history. During most of the Cenozoic, South America was an island continent with an endemic mammalian fauna. This isolation ceased during the late Neogene after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama, resulting in an event known as the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). In this study, we investigate biogeographic patterns in South America, just before or when the first immigrants are recorded and we review the temporal and geographical distribution of fossil mammals during the GABI. We performed a dissimilarity analysis which grouped the faunal assemblages according to their age and their geographic distribution. Our data support the differentiation between tropical and temperate assemblages in South America during the middle and late Miocene. The GABI begins during the late Miocene (~10–7 Ma) and the putative oldest migrations are recorded in the temperate region, where the number of GABI participants rapidly increases after ~5 Ma and this trend continues during the Pleistocene. A sampling bias toward higher latitudes and younger records challenges the study of the temporal and geographic patterns of the GABI. PMID:25601879

  2. Influence of Tertiary paleoenvironmental changes on the diversification of South American mammals: a relaxed molecular clock study within xenarthrans

    Vizcaíno Sergio F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomic data among organisms allow the reconstruction of their phylogenies and evolutionary time scales. Molecular timings have been recently used to suggest that environmental global change have shaped the evolutionary history of diverse terrestrial organisms. Living xenarthrans (armadillos, anteaters and sloths constitute an ideal model for studying the influence of past environmental changes on species diversification. Indeed, extant xenarthran species are relicts from an evolutionary radiation enhanced by their isolation in South America during the Tertiary era, a period for which major climate variations and tectonic events are relatively well documented. Results We applied a Bayesian approach to three nuclear genes in order to relax the molecular clock assumption while accounting for differences in evolutionary dynamics among genes and incorporating paleontological uncertainties. We obtained a molecular time scale for the evolution of extant xenarthrans and other placental mammals. Divergence time estimates provide substantial evidence for contemporaneous diversification events among independent xenarthran lineages. This correlated pattern of diversification might possibly relate to major environmental changes that occurred in South America during the Cenozoic. Conclusions The observed synchronicity between planetary and biological events suggests that global change played a crucial role in shaping the evolutionary history of extant xenarthrans. Our findings open ways to test this hypothesis further in other South American mammalian endemics like hystricognath rodents, platyrrhine primates, and didelphid marsupials.

  3. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction leve...

  4. Vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors: Differences between South Asian and American adults

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Kapoor, Deksha; Singh, Kalpana; Narayan, KM Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K; Kadir, M Masood; Mohan, Viswanathan; Tandon, Nikhil; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiometabolic diseases are increasing disproportionately in South Asia compared to other regions of the world despite high levels of vegetarianism. This unexpected discordance may be explained by differences in the healthfulness of vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets in South Asia versus the US. Objective (1) To compare the food group intake of vegetarians versus non-vegetarians in South Asia and the US and (2) to evaluate associations between vegetarianism and cardiometabolic disease risk factors (overweight/obesity, central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, high triglycerides, high LDL, low HDL, and high Framingham Heart Score). Design Using cross-sectional data from adults (20–69 years) in South Asia (CARRS 2010–2011; n=15,665) and the US (NHANES 2003–2006; n=2159), adherence to a vegetarian diet was assessed using food propensity questionnaires. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and predicted margins (e.g. adjusted prevalence of the outcomes). Results One-third (33.0%; n=4968) of adults in the South Asian sample were vegetarian in contrast to only 2.4% (n=59) in the US sample. Among South Asians, compared with non-vegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate dairy, legumes, vegetables, fruit, desserts, and fried foods (all pvegetarians, vegetarians more frequently ate legumes, fruit, and whole grains, and less frequently ate refined cereals, desserts, fried foods, fruit juice, and soft drinks (all pvegetarians were slightly less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians – 49% (95% CI: 45%, 53%) versus 53% (51%, 56%), respectively – while US vegetarians were considerably less frequently overweight/obese compared to non-vegetarians: 48% (32%, 63%) versus 68% (65%, 70%), respectively. Furthermore, US vegetarians were less likely to exhibit central obesity compared to non-vegetarians: 62% (43%, 78%) versus 78% (76%, 80%), respectively. Conclusions There is greater divergence between vegetarian and

  5. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes in Central and South American populations.

    Jara, Lilian; Morales, Sebastian; de Mayo, Tomas; Gonzalez-Hormazabal, Patricio; Carrasco, Valentina; Godoy, Raul

    2017-10-06

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. A major advance in the understanding of the genetic etiology of BC was the discovery of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) genes, which are considered high-penetrance BC genes. In non-carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, disease susceptibility may be explained of a small number of mutations in BRCA1/2 and a much higher proportion of mutations in ethnicity-specific moderate- and/or low-penetrance genes. In Central and South American populations, studied have focused on analyzing the distribution and prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations and other susceptibility genes that are scarce in Latin America as compared to North America, Europe, Australia, and Israel. Thus, the aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenic BRCA variants and other BC susceptibility genes. We conducted a comprehensive review of 47 studies from 12 countries in Central and South America published between 2002 and 2017 reporting the prevalence and/or spectrum of mutations and pathogenic variants in BRCA1/2 and other BC susceptibility genes. The studies on BRCA1/2 mutations screened a total of 5956 individuals, and studies on susceptibility genes analyzed a combined sample size of 11,578 individuals. To date, a total of 190 different BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations in Central and South American populations have been reported in the literature. Pathogenic mutations or variants that increase BC risk have been reported in the following genes or genomic regions: ATM, BARD1, CHECK2, FGFR2, GSTM1, MAP3K1, MTHFR, PALB2, RAD51, TOX3, TP53, XRCC1, and 2q35.

  6. Electricity sector reforms in four Latin-American countries and their impact on carbon dioxide emissions and renewable energy

    Janet Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza; Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions related to energy consumption for electricity generation in four Latin-American countries in the context of the liberalization process. From 1990 to 2006, power plants based on renewable energy sources decreased its share in power installed capacity, and the carbon index defined as CO 2 emission by unit of energy for electricity production stayed almost constant for all countries with the exception of Colombia, where the index reduced due to increase in hydroelectricity generation in the last years. The paper also presents a new set of policies to promote renewable energy sources that have been developed in the four countries. The paper concludes that restructuring did not bring about environmental benefits related to a decrease in CO 2 emissions because this depend on the existence of committed policies, and dedicated institutional and regulatory frameworks.

  7. The improvement of nuclear safety regulation : American, European, Japanese, and South Korean experiences

    Cho, Byung Sun

    2005-01-01

    Key concepts in South Korean nuclear safety regulation are safety and risk. Nuclear regulation in South Korea has required reactor designs and safeguards that reduce the risk of a major accident to less than one in a million reactor-years-a risk supposedly low enough to be acceptable. To data, in South Korean nuclear safety regulation has involved the establishment of many technical standards to enable administration enforcement. In scientific lawsuits in which the legal issue is the validity of specialized technical standards that are used for judge whether a particular nuclear power plant is to be licensed, the concept of uncertainty law is often raised with regard to what extent the examination and judgement by the judicial power affects a discretion made by the administrative office. In other words, the safety standards for nuclear power plants has been adapted as a form of the scientific technical standards widely under the idea of uncertainty law. Thus, the improvement of nuclear safety regulation in South Korea seems to depend on the rational lawmaking and a reasonable, judicial examination of the scientific standards on nuclear safety

  8. First record of Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880 From the South American continent (Pisces: Cyprinodontidae)

    Taphorn, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Rivulus marmoratus Poey, 1880 has previously been found only in south Florida, Cuba, the Bahamas, Barbuda, St. Martin and several islands off the Venezuelan coast (Curaçao, Bonaire and Gran Roque) (Hoedeman, 1958; Böhlke & Chaplin, 1968). In September of 1978, one of my students, Mr. Edgard W.

  9. Zoogeographic and Taxonomic status of the South American snake Tachymenis surinamensis (Colubridae)

    Myers, C.W.

    1974-01-01

    Introduction Tachymenis is a characteristic genus of colubrid snakes inhabiting extreme western South America, from coastal Peru and Chile east to Bolivia (Walker, 1945; Peters & Orejas-Miranda, 1970). An extralimital species in Brazil, Tachymenis brasiliensis Gomes, was referred to its own genus

  10. Identification of a divergent genotype of equine arteritis virus from South American donkeys.

    Rivas, J; Neira, V; Mena, J; Brito, B; Garcia, A; Gutierrez, C; Sandoval, D; Ortega, R

    2017-12-01

    A novel equine arteritis virus (EAV) was isolated and sequenced from feral donkeys in Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the new virus and South African asinine strains diverged at least 100 years from equine EAV strains. The results indicate that asinine strains belonged to a different EAV genotype. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Observational evidences on the modulation of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes according the ENSO variability

    G. A. M. Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The differences on the phase and wavelength of the quasi-stationary waves over the South America generated by El Niño (EN and La Niña (LN events seem to affect the daily evolution of the South American Low Level Jet east of the Andes (SALLJ. For the austral summer period of 1977–2004 the SALLJ episodes detected according to Bonner criterion 1 show normal to above-normal frequency in EN years, and in LN years the episodes show normal to below-normal frequency.

    During EN and LN years the SALLJ episodes were associated with positive rainfall anomalies over the La Plata Basin, but more intense during LN years. During EN years the increase in the SALLJ cases were associated to intensification of the Subtropical Jet (SJ around 30° S and positive Sea Level Pressure (SLP anomalies over the western equatorial Atlantic and tropical South America, particularly over central Brazil. This favored the intensification of the northeasterly trade winds over the northern continent and it channeled by the Andes mountain to the La Plata Basin region where negative SLP are found. The SALLJ cases identified during the LN events were weaker and less frequent when compared to those for EN years. In this case the SJ was weaker than in EN years and the negative SLP anomalies over the tropical continent contributed to the inversion of the northeasterly trade winds. Also a southerly flow anomaly was generated by the geostrophic balance due to the anomalous blocking over southeast Pacific and the intense cyclonic transient over the southern tip of South America. As result the warm tropical air brought by the SALLJ encounters the cold extratropical air from the southerly winds over the La Plata basin. This configuration can increase the conditional instability over the La Plata basin and may explain the more intense positive rainfall anomalies in SALLJ cases during LN years than in EN years.

  12. Future changes in South American biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra is dependent on applied atmospheric forcings.

    Langan, Liam; Scheiter, Simon; Higgins, Steven

    2017-04-01

    It remains poorly understood why the position of the forest-savanna biome boundary, in a domain defined by precipitation and temperature, differs in South America, Africa and Australia. Process based Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) are a valuable tool to investigate the determinants of vegetation distributions, however, many DGVMs fail to predict the spatial distribution or indeed presence of the South American savanna biome. Evidence suggests fire plays a significant role in mediating forest-savanna biome boundaries, however, fire alone appear to be insufficient to predict these boundaries in South America. We hypothesize that interactions between precipitation, constraints on tree rooting depth and fire, affect the probability of savanna occurrence and the position of the savanna-forest boundary. We tested our hypotheses at tropical forest and savanna sites in Brazil and Venezuela using a novel DGVM, aDGVM2, which allows plant trait spectra, constrained by trade-offs between traits, to evolve in response to abiotic and biotic conditions. Plant hydraulics is represented by the cohesion-tension theory, this allowed us to explore how soil and plant hydraulics control biome distributions and plant traits. The resulting community trait distributions are emergent properties of model dynamics. We showed that across much of South America the biome state is not determined by climate alone. Interactions between tree rooting depth, fire and precipitation affected the probability of observing a given biome state and the emergent traits of plant communities. Simulations where plant rooting depth varied in space provided the best match to satellite derived biomass estimates and generated biome distributions that reproduced contemporary biome maps well. Future projections showed that biomass distributions, biome distributions and plant trait spectra will change, however, the magnitude of these changes are highly dependent on the applied atmospheric forcings.

  13. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  14. Ethics and Rationing Access to Dialysis in Resource-Limited Settings: The Consequences of Refusing a Renal Transplant in the South African State Sector.

    Etheredge, Harriet; Paget, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Resource constraints in developing countries compel policy makers to ration the provision of healthcare services. This article examines one such set of Guidelines: A patient dialysing in the state sector in South Africa may not refuse renal transplantation when a kidney becomes available. Refusal of transplantation can lead to exclusion from the state-funded dialysis programme. This Guideline is legally acceptable as related to Constitutional stipulations which allow for rationing healthcare resources in South Africa. Evaluating the ethical merit of the Guideline, and exploring the ethical dilemma it poses, proves a more complex task. We examine the actions of healthcare professionals as constrained by the Guideline. From a best interests framework, we argue that in these circumstances directing patient decision making (pressurising a patient to undergo renal transplantation) is not necessarily unethical or unacceptably paternalistic. We then scrutinise the guideline itself through several different ethical 'lenses'. Here, we argue that bioethics does not provide a definitive answer as to the moral merit of rationing dialysis under these circumstances, however it can be considered just in this context. We conclude by examining a potential pitfall of the Guideline: Unwilling transplant recipients may not comply with immunosuppressive medication, which raises questions for policies based on resource management and rationing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The South-American distribution and southernmost record of Biomphalaria peregrina—a potential intermediate host of schistosomiasis

    Alejandra Rumi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major parasitic disease, endemic in large parts of South America. Five neotropical species of Biomphalaria have been found to act as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in natural populations, while others have been shown to be susceptible in experimental infections, although not found infected in the field. Among these potential intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria peregrina represents the most widespread species in South America, with confirmed occurrence records from Venezuela to northern Patagonia. In this study, we report the southernmost record for the species at the Pinturas River, in southern Patagonia, which finding implies a southward reassessment of the limit for the known species of this genus. The identities of the individuals from this population were confirmed through morphological examination, and by means of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S-rRNA. With both markers, phylogenetic analyses were conducted in order to compare the genetic background of individuals from the Pinturas River with previously genetically characterized strains of B. peregrina from various South-American locations. In addition, we produced a potential distribution model of B. peregrina in South America and identified the environmental variables that best predict that distribution. The model was estimated through a maximum entropy algorithm and run with occurrence points obtained from several sources, including the scientific literature and international databases, along with climatic and hydrographic variables. Different phylogenetic analyses with either the COI or 16S-rRNA sequences did not conflict, but rather gave very similar topological organizations. Two major groups were identified, with sequences from the Pinturas River grouping together with haplotypes from subtropical and temperate regions. The model developed had a satisfactory performance for the study area. We observed that the areas

  16. Depressed, not depressed or unsure: Prevalence and the relation to well-being across sectors in South Africa

    Christa Welthagen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work engagement, burnout and stress-related ill health levels of individuals,suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, or whodo not suffer from depression, have not been investigated in South Africa.Research purpose: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence ofdepression amongst employees in South African organisations and the relationship ofdepression with specific well-being constructs.Motivation for the study: Organisations should know about the prevalence of depression andthe effects this could have on specific well-being constructs.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional design was followed. Theavailability sample (n = 15 664 included participants from diverse demographics. The SouthAfrican Employee Health and Wellness Survey was followed to measure constructs.Main findings: The results showed that 18.3% of the population currently receive treatment fordepression, 16.7% are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression and 65% do not sufferfrom depression. Depression significantly affects the levels of work engagement, burnout andthe occurrence of stress-related ill health symptoms.Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationshipbetween depression and employee work-related well-being. Proactive measures to promote thework-related well-being of employees, and to support employees suffering from depression,should be considered.Contribution/value-add: This study provides insight into the prevalence of depression andwell-being differences that exist between individuals, suffering from depression, who areunsure whether or not they suffer from depression, and who do not suffer from depression.

  17. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Sue Brennan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  18. Depressed, not depressed or unsure: Prevalence and the relation to well-being across sectors in South Africa

    Christa Welthagen

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depression amongst employees in South African organisations and the relationship of depression with specific well-being constructs. Motivation for the study: Organisations should know about the prevalence of depression and the effects this could have on specific well-being constructs. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional design was followed. The availability sample (n = 15 664 included participants from diverse demographics. The South African Employee Health and Wellness Survey was followed to measure constructs. Main findings: The results showed that 18.3% of the population currently receive treatment for depression, 16.7% are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression and 65% do not suffer from depression. Depression significantly affects the levels of work engagement, burnout and the occurrence of stress-related ill health symptoms. Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between depression and employee work-related well-being. Proactive measures to promote the work-related well-being of employees, and to support employees suffering from depression, should be considered. Contribution/value-add: This study provides insight into the prevalence of depression and well-being differences that exist between individuals, suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, and who do not suffer from depression.

  19. The Development of South African Power Market and the Cooperation in Energy and Power Sector between South Africa and China%南非电力市场发展及中南电力合作

    沙苒; 杨宝荣; 邓锡广

    2012-01-01

    遭遇2008年的严重电力危机后,南非政府开始制定、实施大规模的电力建设计划,并积极向外寻求金融支持。南非政府支持能源发展规划的举措主要包括:推出“综合能源计划”、“独立发电厂商计划”、提高电费等。尽管南非电力缺口较大,但电力部门市场化水平较高,且非技术性准入条件较为严格,如公开招标、企业社会责任、南非《黑人经济赋权法案》相关规定的遵守等。中国企业宜在重视互利共赢基础上,加强市场研究并组建产融结合的开发模式,规避南非市场风险,以期促进中国企业在南非电力市场的发展。%After South Africa' s Power Crisis in 2008, the government has been setting for financial tion ' s source up and implementing the giant power infrastructure plan, and seeking supports outside of South Africa to increase capacity and change the na- energy mix and competitive landscape. The measures include Integrated Re- Plan 2010 (IRP 2010) , Independent increase and so on. The electricity shortfall in Power Producers (IPPs) plan, tariff South Africa is huge, but the level of marketization in electricity sector is high, and the non - technical access conditions, such as open tender, social responsibility and high local content requirements (BEE shareholding), are stringent. On the basis of highlighted mutual benefits, Chinese power enterprises, to promote their development in South African power sector, should strengthen market research, construct the development mode combined by the energy industry and finance , and avoid the market risk.

  20. Anticommunism as cultural praxis : South Vietnam, war, and refugee memories in the Vietnamese American community

    Vo Dang, Thanh Thuy

    2008-01-01

    In dialogue with new critical scholarship on immigration, refugee, war, and memory studies as well as drawing from the methodologies of cultural studies and ethnography, this dissertation examines "anticommunism" as a set of cultural discourses and practices that shape the past, present, and future of Vietnamese diasporic communities by exploring when, where, and for what purposes South Vietnam emerges in refugee memories. That anticommunism continues to be an important paradigm for Vietnames...