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Sample records for south american native

  1. Y-chromosome lineages in native South American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Verea, A; Jaime, J C; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2010-04-01

    The present work tries to investigate the population structure and variation of the Amerindian indigenous populations living in Argentina. A total of 134 individuals from three ethnic groups (Kolla, Mapuche and Diaguitas) living in four different regions were collected and analysed for 26 Y-SNPs and 11 Y-STRs. Intra-population variability was analysed, looking for population substructure and neighbour populations were considered for genetic comparative analysis, in order to estimate the contribution of the Amerindian and the European pool, to the current population. We observe a high frequency of R1b1 and Q1a3a* Y-chromosome haplogroups, in the ethnic groups Mapuche, Diaguita and Kolla, characteristic of European and Native American populations, respectively. When we compare our native Argentinean population with other from the South America we also observe that frequency values for Amerindian lineages are relatively lower in our population. These results show a clear Amerindian genetic component but we observe a predominant European influence too, suggesting that typically European male lineages have given rise to the displacement of genuinely Amerindian male lineages in our South American population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) alleles in the Quechua, a high altitude South American native population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, J L; Devine, D V; Monsalve, M V; Hochachka, P W

    1999-01-01

    Recently it was reported that an allelic variant of the gene encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was significantly over-represented in a cohort of elite British mountaineers. It was proposed that this may be evidence for a specific genetic factor influencing the human capacity for physical performance. The implication that this allele could enhance performance at high altitude prompted us to determine its frequency in Quechua speaking natives living at altitudes greater than 3000m on the Andean Altiplano in South America. We found that the frequency of the putative performance allele in the Quechuas, although significantly higher than in Caucasians, was not different from lowland Native American populations. This observation suggests that, although the higher frequency of the 'performance allele' may have facilitated the migration of the ancestral Quechua to the highlands, the ACE insertion allele has not been subsequently selected for in this high altitude population.

  4. A bayesian approach to genome/linguistic relationships in native South Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Ramallo, Virginia; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bonatto, Sandro Luis; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Hünemeier, Tábita

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between the evolution of genes and languages has been studied for over three decades. These studies rely on the assumption that languages, as many other cultural traits, evolve in a gene-like manner, accumulating heritable diversity through time and being subjected to evolutionary mechanisms of change. In the present work we used genetic data to evaluate South American linguistic classifications. We compared discordant models of language classifications to the current Native American genome-wide variation using realistic demographic models analyzed under an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework. Data on 381 STRs spread along the autosomes were gathered from the literature for populations representing the five main South Amerindian linguistic groups: Andean, Arawakan, Chibchan-Paezan, Macro-Jê, and Tupí. The results indicated a higher posterior probability for the classification proposed by J.H. Greenberg in 1987, although L. Campbell's 1997 classification cannot be ruled out. Based on Greenberg's classification, it was possible to date the time of Tupí-Arawakan divergence (2.8 kya), and the time of emergence of the structure between present day major language groups in South America (3.1 kya).

  5. Native South American genetic structure and prehistory inferred from hierarchical modeling of mtDNA.

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    Lewis, Cecil M; Long, Jeffrey C

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity in Native South Americans forms a complex pattern at both the continental and local levels. In comparing the West to the East, there is more variation within groups and smaller genetic distances between groups. From this pattern, researchers have proposed that there is more variation in the West and that a larger, more genetically diverse, founding population entered the West than the East. Here, we question this characterization of South American genetic variation and its interpretation. Our concern arises because others have inferred regional variation from the mean variation within local populations without taking into account the variation among local populations within the same region. This failure produces a biased view of the actual variation in the East. In this study, we analyze the mitochondrial DNA sequence between positions 16040 and 16322 of the Cambridge reference sequence. Our sample represents a total of 886 people from 27 indigenous populations from South (22), Central (3), and North America (2). The basic unit of our analyses is nucleotide identity by descent, which is easily modeled and proportional to nucleotide diversity. We use a forward modeling strategy to fit a series of nested models to identity by descent within and between all pairs of local populations. This method provides estimates of identity by descent at different levels of population hierarchy without assuming homogeneity within populations, regions, or continents. Our main discovery is that Eastern South America harbors more genetic variation than has been recognized. We find no evidence that there is increased identity by descent in the East relative to the total for South America. By contrast, we discovered that populations in the Western region, as a group, harbor more identity by descent than has been previously recognized, despite the fact that average identity by descent within groups is lower. In this light, there is no need to postulate separate founding

  6. Native American nurse leadership.

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    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  7. Native American medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  8. Rapid City Native American Population Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, Abdollah

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 301 Native American households in Rapid City, South Dakota, examined demographic variables and attitudes and needs in the areas of education, housing, transportation, health care, recreation, and employment. The ultimate goals for Native American people are achieving empowerment and group determination through greater cultural…

  9. The Native American Holocaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  10. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2015, 240, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 60% more ...

  11. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable). It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this. PMID:25903057

  12. Traditional Healing, Biomedicine and the Treatment of HIV/AIDS: Contrasting South African and Native American Experiences

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    Adrian Flint

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing remains an important aspect of many people’s engagement with healthcare and, in this, responses to the treatment of HIV/AIDS are no different. However, given the gravity of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic, there has been much debate as to the value of traditional healing in this respect. Accordingly, this paper explores the extent to which meaningful accommodation between the biomedical and traditional sectors is possible (and/or even desirable. It does this through a consideration of Native American and South African experiences, looking at how the respective groups, in which medical pluralism is common, have addressed the issue of HIV/AIDS. The paper points to the importance of developing “culturally appropriate” forms of treatment that emphasise complementary rather than adversarial engagement between the traditional and biomedical systems and how policymakers can best facilitate this.

  13. A Native American Theatre Ensemble

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    Brown, Kent R.

    1973-01-01

    The ceremonial rituals American Indians have practiced for centuries are uncontestable testimony to how strongly they respond to theatre. These rituals, a pure and functional form of dramatic art, are practiced today by a Native American theater group. (FF)

  14. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  15. Native American youth and justice

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    Dr.Sc. Laurence A. French

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth and delinquency issues have long been problematic among Native Americans groups both on- and off-reservation. This phenomenon is further complicated by the cultural diversity among American Indians and Alaska Natives scattered across the United States. In address these issues, the paper begins with a historical overview of Native American youth. This history presents the long tradition of federal policies that, how well intended, have resulted in discriminatory practices with the most damages attacks being those directed toward the destruction of viable cultural attributes – the same attributes that make Native Americans unique within United States society. Following the historical material, the authors contrast the pervasive Native American aboriginal ethos of harmony with that of Protestant Ethic that dominates the ethos of the larger United States society. In addition to providing general information on Native American crime and delinquency, the paper also provides a case study of Native American justice within the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe, in both size and population, in the United States. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues specific to Native American youth and efforts to address these problems.

  16. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

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    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian tribes, are rich with history, tradition, spirituality, and art. There are 562 Federally recognized tribes across the ...

  18. Native American Architecture.

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    Nabokov, Peter; Easton, Robert

    This book presents building traditions of the major Indian tribes in nine regions of the North American continent, from the huge, plankhouse villages of the Northwest Coast, to the moundbuilder towns and temples of the Southeast, to the Navajo hogans and adobe pueblos of the Southwest. Indian buildings are a central element of Indian culture, the…

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in native South American Atlantic coast populations of smooth shelled mussels: hybridization with invasive European Mytilus galloprovincialis.

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    Zbawicka, Małgorzata; Trucco, María I; Wenne, Roman

    2018-02-22

    Throughout the world, harvesting of mussels Mytilus spp. is based on the exploitation of natural populations and aquaculture. Aquaculture activities include transfers of spat and live adult mussels between various geographic locations, which may result in large-scale changes in the world distribution of Mytilus taxa. Mytilus taxa are morphologically similar and difficult to distinguish. In spite of much research on taxonomy, evolution and geographic distribution, the native Mytilus taxa of the Southern Hemisphere are poorly understood. Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used to clarify the taxonomic status of populations of smooth shelled mussels from the Pacific coast of South America. In this paper, we used a set of SNPs to characterize, for the first time, populations of smooth shelled mussels Mytilus from the Atlantic coast of South America. Mytilus spp. samples were collected from eastern South America. Six reference samples from the Northern Hemisphere were used: Mytilus edulis from USA and Northern Ireland, Mytilus trossulus from Canada, and Mytilus galloprovincialis from Spain and Italy. Two other reference samples from the Southern Hemisphere were included: M. galloprovincialis from New Zealand and Mytilus chilensis from Chile. Fifty-five SNPs were successfully genotyped, of which 51 were polymorphic. Population genetic analyses using the STRUCTURE program revealed the clustering of eight populations from Argentina (Mytilus platensis) and the clustering of the sample from Ushuaia with M. chilensis from Chile. All individuals in the Puerto Madryn (Argentina) sample were identified as M. platensis × M. galloprovincialis F2 (88.89%) hybrids, except one that was classified as Mediterranean M. galloprovincialis. No F1 hybrids were observed. We demonstrate that M. platensis (or Mytilus edulis platensis) and M. chilensis are distinct native taxa in South America, which indicates that the evolutionary histories of Mytilus taxa along the

  20. Native American Women: Living with Landscape.

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    Bales, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of Native American women in the spiritual and cultural life of American Indians. Native American spirituality is deeply connected to the land through daily use, ritual, and respect for sacred space. Often Native American women act as conduits and keepers of this knowledge. (MJP)

  1. The population genetics of Quechuas, the largest native South American group: autosomal sequences, SNPs, and microsatellites evidence high level of diversity.

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    Scliar, Marilia O; Soares-Souza, Giordano B; Chevitarese, Juliana; Lemos, Livia; Magalhães, Wagner C S; Fagundes, Nelson J; Bonatto, Sandro L; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen J; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    Elucidating the pattern of genetic diversity for non-European populations is necessary to make the benefits of human genetics research available to individuals from these groups. In the era of large human genomic initiatives, Native American populations have been neglected, in particular, the Quechua, the largest South Amerindian group settled along the Andes. We characterized the genetic diversity of a Quechua population in a global setting, using autosomal noncoding sequences (nine unlinked loci for a total of 16 kb), 351 unlinked SNPs and 678 microsatellites and tested predictions of the model of the evolution of Native Americans proposed by (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496). European admixture is Quechua or Melanesian populations, which is concordant with the African origin of modern humans and the fact that South America was the last part of the world to be peopled. The diversity in the Quechua population is comparable with that of Eurasian populations, and the allele frequency spectrum based on resequencing data does not reflect a reduction in the proportion of rare alleles. Thus, the Quechua population is a large reservoir of common and rare genetic variants of South Amerindians. These results are consistent with and complement our evolutionary model of South Amerindians (Tarazona-Santos et al.: Am J Hum Genet 68 (2001) 1485-1496), proposed based on Y-chromosome data, which predicts high genomic diversity due to the high level of gene flow between Andean populations and their long-term effective population size. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Odor Learning and Its Experience-Dependent Modulation in the South American Native Bumblebee Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

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    Palottini, Florencia; Estravis Barcala, María C.; Farina, Walter M.

    2018-01-01

    Learning about olfactory stimuli is essential in bumblebees’ life since it is involved in orientation, recognition of nest sites, foraging efficiency and food yield for the colony as a whole. To evaluate associative learning abilities in bees under controlled environmental conditions, the proboscis extension response (PER) assay is a well-established method used in honey bees, stingless bees and successfully adapted to bumblebees of the genus Bombus. However, studies on the learning capacity of Bombus atratus (Hymenoptera: Apidae), one of the most abundant native species in South America, are non-existent. In this study, we examined the cognitive abilities of worker bees of this species, carrying out an olfactory PER conditioning experiment. Bumblebees were able to learn a pure odor when it was presented in paired association with sugared reward, but not when odor and reward were presented in an unpaired manner. Furthermore, if the bees were preexposed to the conditioned odor, the results differed depending on the presence of the scent either as a volatile in the rearing environment or diluted in the food. A decrement in learning performance results from the non-reinforced pre-exposure to the to-be-conditioned odor, showing a latent inhibition phenomenon. However, if the conditioned odor has been previously offered diluted in sugared reward, the food odor acts as a stimulus that improves the learning performance during PER conditioning. The native bumblebee B. atratus is thus a new hymenopteran species capable of being trained under controlled experimental conditions. Since it is an insect increasingly reared for pollination service, this knowledge could be useful in its management in crops. PMID:29755391

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF NATIVE SOUTH AMERICAN UNGULATE MANDIBLES. A TRIBUTE TO D’ARCY THOMPSON IN THE CENTENNIAL OF “ON GROWTH AND FORM”

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    Cassini, Guillermo H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South American native ungulates include several extinct lineages that evolved within the context of South American Cenozoic geographic isolation. By the late early Miocene Santacrucian Age, the orders Notoungulata, Litopterna, and Astrapotheria were differentiated. Recent ecomorphological studies highlighted complex functional patterns between their habitat/diet and hypsodonty. In order to understand these relationships in an evolutionary context we used geometric morphometrics methods (27 3-D landmarks to evaluate the morphological integration of two of the primary functional units of the mandible: the alveolar region and the ascending ramus. Principal component analyses (PCA and two blocks Partial Least Squares analyses (PLS were used to explore the patterns of variation and covariation between these two modules. The main variation in shape is related to the robusticity and curvature of the mandibular corpus, and the relative size of the angular and coronoid process. The PLS analyses show a very strong morphological integration within the Litopterna, but a pattern of modularity in the Notoungulata. There is a common pattern of covariation in Astrapotheria and Litopterna, which might be due to similar constraints. The different covariation patterns in notoungulates with respect to litopterns are in concordance with both the taxonomic and morphological diversity of the clades, particularly in the typotheres. The modularity present in notoungulates could have allowed specializations in each module of the mandible, related to crown height or muscle attachments, without a high morphological constrain. This could have resulted in their high morphological diversity, in contrast with the more conservative morphology present in litopterns.

  4. North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the spring of 2015, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction brought together tribal Elders from across North Dakota to share stories, memories, songs, and wisdom in order to develop the North Dakota Native American Essential Understandings (NDNAEU) to guide the learning of both Native and non-Native students across the state. They…

  5. Exploring Aesthetics: Focus on Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Natalie

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that effectively presenting another culture in the classroom is one of the most fundamental problems facing teachers using a multicultural curriculum. Discusses the role of music and the arts in Native American culture. Provides suggestions for presenting traditional Native American music in Western classrooms. (CFR)

  6. Stennis Space Center celebrates Native American culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Famie Willis (left), 2009-2010 Choctaw Indian Princess, displays artifacts during Native American Heritage Month activities at Stennis Space Center on Nov. 24. The celebration featured various Native American cultural displays for Stennis employees to view. Shown above are (l to r): Willis, Elaine Couchman of NASA Shared Services Center, John Cecconi of NSSC and Lakeisha Robertson of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  7. Native American Biographies. Multicultural Biographies Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    This book, appropriate for secondary students, includes brief biographies of 21 Native Americans of the 20th century. The biographies focus on childhood experiences, cultural heritage, and career goals. The book is divided into four units that feature Native Americans with successful careers in the fields of literature and drama; fine arts and…

  8. South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The South Texas Native Plant Restoration Project was a resounding success in that the primary goal of : developing commercial sources of native seed has been substantially met. By the conclusion of the project : on August 31, 2011, 20 native seed sou...

  9. Native American Music and Curriculum: Controversies and Cultural Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Native American music and curricula, the differences in Western and Native American perspectives of music, the role of music in Native American life, and music as art. Considers how Native Americans live in two worlds (the preserved and lived cultures) and how Native American music should be taught. (CMK)

  10. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview Information; Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program...

  11. Red blood cell antigen genotype analysis for 9087 Asian, Asian American, and Native American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Meghan; Harris, Samantha; Haile, Askale; Johnsen, Jill; Teramura, Gayle; Nelson, Karen

    2015-10-01

    There has yet to be a comprehensive analysis of blood group antigen prevalence in Asian Americans and Native Americans. There may be ethnic differences in blood group frequencies that would result in clinically important mismatches through transfusion. Blood donors who self-identified as Asian or Native American were tested using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array (HEA BeadChip kit, Bioarray Solutions Ltd) that predicts expression of 38 human erythrocyte antigens (HEAs) and by serology for ABO, D, C, M, N, Jk(a) , and Jk(b) . The prevalence of blood group antigens was compared to published European prevalence. Discrepancies between SNP-predicted and serology-detected antigens were tallied. A total of 9087 blood donors were tested from nine Asian and Native American heritages. The predicted prevalence of selected antigens in the RHCE, JK, FY, MNS, LU, CO, and DO blood group systems were variable between Asian populations, but overall not significantly different than Europeans. Compared to European frequencies, Kell blood group allele frequencies were significantly different in the Chinese, Native American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, South Asian, and Southeast Asian heritage blood donors; Diego antigens Di(a) and Di(b) were different in donors of Native American and South Asian ancestries (p Asian and Native Americans donors. Several ethnic groups exhibited differences in HEA frequencies compared to Europeans. Genotype-serotype discrepancies were detected in all systems studied. © 2015 AABB.

  12. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

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    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  13. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  14. Native American Ceremonial Athletic Games.

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    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the relationship of North American Indian athletic games to ceremonies. Data for this investigation were researched from 48 "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution" published from 1881 to 1933, and the 84 volumes of the "American Anthropologist" published from 1888 to 1974. Observational…

  15. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic......The origins of the First Americans remain contentious. Although Native Americans seem to be genetically most closely related to east Asians, there is no consensus with regard to which specific Old World populations they are closest to. Here we sequence the draft genome of an approximately 24...... that the region was continuously occupied by humans throughout the Last Glacial Maximum. Our findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans....

  16. Dimensions of Native American Stereotyping.

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    Hanson, Jeffery R.; Rouse, Linda P.

    1987-01-01

    Reports responses of 226 University of Texas undergraduates concerning their stereotypical perceptions of American Indians. Examines cultural stereotypes, personal stereotypes, perceived degree of Indian homogeneity, attitudes toward assimilation, and victim blaming. Suggests an emergent Indian stereotype based on cultural relativism prevailing…

  17. Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Indian/Alaska Native > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska ... as compared to non-Hispanic white mothers. Infant Mortality Rate: Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  18. Jurisprudence, Peyote and the Native American Church.

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    Lawson, Paul E.; Scholes, Jennifer

    1986-01-01

    Examines federal and state governments' attempts to suppress peyote use in Indian rituals as historically Christian-inspired. Focuses on questions of morality versus criminal law. Explains history and development of Native American Church of North America. Examines nine contemporary peyote trials. Concludes larger questions of tribal sovereignty…

  19. Native American Culture: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Andrea

    1995-01-01

    Provides suggestions for a literature-based approach when integrating Native American culture into the middle school curriculum. Recommends resources in the following subjects: language arts, mathematics, physical education, health, home and career skills, technology, art, music, and second language. (AEF)

  20. Native American Media Needs: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerman, Laurell E.; And Others

    Twenty five urban centers, 70 Indian tribes, and 60 public television stations responded to questionnaires in an attempt to collect information useful to the process of making programmatic decisions about future goals and activities of the Native American Public Broadcasting Consortium (NAPBC). The Tribal and Urban Center questionnaires were…

  1. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.

  2. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  3. Stylized Figures: Inspired by Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susie B.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching elementary-level art in the Pacific Northwest makes it natural for the author to develop a lesson based on Native American art of the area. The designs of the Northwest Indians can sometimes be a bit too sophisticated for the students to grasp, however, and it can be frustrating when developing such a project. Over a Labor Day weekend,…

  4. Challenges to Native American health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, J; Kindig, D; Sprenger, A

    1998-01-01

    Native American health care programs face complex and unprecedented challenges resulting from the increased assumption of clinical operations by tribal authorities, shortfalls in Federal funding, modifications in state and Federal health and welfare programs, and intensifying involvement with managed care organizations. These challenges are further complicated by service populations that are increasing at a faster rate than the growth in funding. The authors conducted onsite surveys of 39 Native American health programs in 10 states in order to assess the organizational and management problems they faced. The trend toward transfer of health programs from the Indian Health Service to tribal operation seems likely to continue and accelerate. The survey results indicate that in order for programs to be effective in the long run, they will need to be guided by skilled managers able to adapt to these powerful changes in the health care environment.

  5. Hierarchical modeling of genome-wide Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers infers native American prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M

    2010-02-01

    This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated from the South American group, which is more consistent with a serial founder effect into South America than that previously described. Western (Andean) South America is found to harbor similar levels of variation as eastern (Equatorial-Tucanoan and Ge-Pano-Carib) South America, which is inconsistent with an initial west coast migration into South America. Moreover, in all relevant models, the estimates of genetic diversity within geographic regions suggest a major bottleneck or founder effect occurring within the North American subcontinent, before the peopling of Central and South America. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Cultural Strengths to Persevere: Native American Women in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephanie J.; Lindley, Lorinda S.

    2013-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of historical perspectives of Native American women, this article includes some discussion of values and practices of contemporary Native American women, data pertaining to Native American women's participation in higher education, and an introduction of familial cultural capital, community cultural wealth, Native…

  7. An introduction to South American camelids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urquieta, B.; Rojas, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The South American camelids - the domesticated alpaca and llama, and the wild vicuna and guanaco - which belong to the Camelidae family of the Artiodactyla order are of considerable sociological, economic and ecological importance to the native populations living in the high plateau (altiplano) of the central Andes. Owing to their biological characteristics they are able to provide meat, wool, hides and transportation without disrupting the fragile ecosystem. Increasing interest is being taken in these animals, both in their native lands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru and in other parts of the world. (author). 55 refs, 5 figs

  8. 75 FR 49484 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Office of Postsecondary Education; Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-Serving Institutions (AANAPISI), Native American-Serving Nontribal Institutions (NASNTI), Hispanic Serving Institutions-STEM and Articulation (HSI-STEM), and Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI...

  9. Native Americans With Diabetes PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  10. Current Conditions in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Margaret Connell

    The school experience of American Indian and Alaska Native children hinges on the context in which their schooling takes place. This context includes the health and well-being of their families, communities, and governments, as well as the relationship between Native and non-Native people. Many Native children are in desperate straits because of…

  11. Exploring Native American Students' Perceptions of Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Timothy A.; Crofford, Geary Don; Marek, Edmund A.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore Native American (NA) students' perceptions of scientists by using the Draw-A-Scientist Test and to determine if differences in these perceptions exist between grade level, gender, and level of cultural tradition. Data were collected for students in Grades 9-12 within a NA grant off-reservation boarding school. A total of 133 NA students were asked to draw a picture of a scientist at work and to provide a written explanation as to what the scientist was doing. A content analysis of the drawings indicated that the level of stereotype differed between all NA subgroups, but analysis of variance revealed that these differences were not significant between groups except for students who practised native cultural tradition at home compared to students who did not practise native cultural tradition at home (p educational and career science, technology, engineering, and mathematics paths in the future. The educational implication is that once initial perceptions are identified, researchers and teachers can provide meaningful experiences to combat the stereotypes.

  12. [Ritual use of Anadenanthera seeds among South America natives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carod-Artal, F J; Vázquez Cabrera, C B

    2007-01-01

    Several South-American native societies snuff psychoactive seeds in magic-religious rituals since ancient times. To describe archeological, historical and ethnographical evidences regarding the ritual use of vilca or yopo (Anadenanthera sp). Anadenanthera seeds were used in South America 3,000 years ago. Archeological studies found vilca seeds in funerary tombs from 1,000 BC in the north of Chile and Argentina; ceramics and snuff tubes were found in San Pedro de Atacama archeological sites from the same data, and in Tiwanaku ceremonial center in Bolivian Altiplano. Today, Anadenanthera sp is used by several native groups in Orinoco basin, where is known as yopo, and in the Brazilian and Colombian Amazon. Hallucinogenic effect is due to the presence of methyl-tryptamine derivatives. Most snuff is prepared from the roasted and powdered seeds, vegetable ash and/or lime obtained from shells. Archeological and ethnographical data suggest that vilca was used and is still used by native shamans as a sacred seed in South America, due to its hallucinogenic effects.

  13. Socioeconomic profiles of native American communities: Duckwater Shoshone Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamby, M. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents socioeconomic aspects of Native Americans of the Duckwater Shoshone Reservation. A survey is included concerning their views on the proposed Yucca Mountain waste repository. (CBS)

  14. Native Americans and state and local governments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusco, E.R. [Cultural Resources Consultants, Ltd. Reno, Nevada (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans` concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain.

  15. Native Americans and state and local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusco, E.R.

    1991-10-01

    Native Americans' concerns arising from the possibility of establishment of a nuclear repository for high level wastes at Yucca Mountain fall principally into two main categories. First, the strongest objection to the repository comes from traditional Western Shoshones. Their objections are based on a claim that the Western Shoshones still own Yucca Mountain and also on the assertion that putting high level nuclear wastes into the ground is a violation of their religious views regarding nature. Second, there are several reservations around the Yucca Mountain site that might be affected in various ways by building of the repository. There is a question about how many such reservations there are, which can only be decided when more information is available. This report discusses two questions: the bearing of the continued vigorous assertion by traditionalist Western Shoshones of their land claim; and the extent to which Nevada state and local governments are able to understand and represent Indian viewpoints about Yucca Mountain

  16. Native American Training Program in Petroleum Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Winifred M.; Kokesh, Judith H.

    1999-04-27

    This report outlines a comprehensive training program for members of Native American tribes whose lands have oil and gas resources. The program has two components: short courses and internships. Programs are proposed for: (1) adult tribes representatives who are responsible for managing tribal mineral holdings, setting policy, or who work in the oil and gas industry; (2) graduate and undergraduate college students who are tribal members and are studying in the appropriate fields; and (3) high school and middle school teachers, science teachers. Materials and program models already have been developed for some components of the projects. The plan is a coordinated, comprehensive effort to use existing resources to accomplish its goals. Partnerships will be established with the tribes, the BIA, tribal organizations, other government agencies, and the private sector to implement the program.

  17. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; Ponce de León, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J.; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M.; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R.; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R.; Malhi, Ripan S.; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J.; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Song, Yun S.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we find that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (KYA), and after no more than 8,000-year isolation period in Beringia. Following their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 KYA, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other is restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative ‘Paleoamerican’ relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. PMID:26198033

  18. Social Skills Efficacy and Proactivity among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Reich, Allison N.; Trotter, Michelle J.; Siewart, Jason J.

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses Native American urban adolescents' construal of social skills, and relationships between these skills and proactivity behaviors as identified in the Integrative Contextual Model of Career Development (Lapan, 2004). Recommendations that build upon the social skills strengths of Native American young people are included.…

  19. Dimensions of Acculturation in Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sodano, Sandro M.; Ecklund, Timothy R.; Guyker, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the responses of two respective independent samples of Native American college students on the Native American Acculturation Scale (NAAS). Three correlated dimensions were found to underlie NAAS items and these dimensions may also comprise a broader higher order dimension of Native…

  20. Teaching Native American Music with Story for Multicultural Ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyea, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    States that the alliance between story and music within Native American culture can be carried over into the curriculum. Provides a rationale for utilizing story while teaching Native American music, specifically related to the multicultural curriculum. Discusses the value of cultural music to the multicultural curriculum. (CMK)

  1. The Native American Studies Program at the University of Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2001-01-01

    Begun in 1994, the Native American Studies program at the University of Oklahoma is an interdisciplinary B.A. program with a liberal arts orientation and strong emphasis on contemporary American Indian policy. Program strengths include the number and diversity of the faculty involved, the four Native languages taught, connections to tribal…

  2. Native Americans in California Surveyed on Diets, Nutrition Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Joanne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A survey of the diets of 51 Native Americans in California's Yosemite-Mariposa region was undertaken to develop a culturally relevant nutrition education and counseling program. Native Americans in this region have limited opportunities to obtain the foods they need for a healthy diet and also need information on obtaining help from federally…

  3. Victimization and Substance Use among Native American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Jillian; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A.

    2017-01-01

    According to Tribal Critical Race Theory, Native American students have low retention rates due to the structural barriers and racism inherent in colleges and universities. Similarly, structural barriers and racism could put Native American students at risk for victimization and substance use, thus influencing their academic success. The purposes…

  4. 75 FR 65611 - Native American Tribal Insignia Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Native American Tribal Insignia Database ACTION... comprehensive database containing the official insignia of all federally- and State- recognized Native American... to create this database. The USPTO database of official tribal insignias assists trademark attorneys...

  5. Give It Your Best! Profiles of Native American Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Russell; Kast, Sherry

    The purpose of this publication is to encourage and enhance the participation of American Indian and Alaska Native athletes in organized sports at the secondary, collegiate, and professional levels. Profiles are given of 37 young Native American women and men who are succeeding in competitive athletics, as well as in the classroom. One page is…

  6. Native American Visual Vocabulary: Ways of Thinking and Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyc, Gloria; Milligan, Carolyn

    Visual literacy is a culturally-derived strength of Native American students. On a continent with more than 200 languages, Native Americans relied heavily on visual intelligence for trade and communication between tribes. Tribal people interpreted medicine paint, tattoos, and clothing styles to determine the social roles of those with whom they…

  7. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinruecken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Howand when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand....... Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericues and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly...

  8. Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve, Sioux Author. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students describes the life and career of Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve (Sioux), a Native American free-lance writer, and includes her photograph and a map of South Dakota reservations. A story by Mrs. Sneve tells about a half-Sioux boy who confronts his heritage when his grandfather makes a long journey between his…

  9. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso's Selected Poems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam, Widad Allawi; Ya, Wan Roselezam Wan

    2015-01-01

    Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American…

  10. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  11. The Status of Native American Women in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    A study of the status of Native American women in higher education obtained questionnaires from 61 undergraduate women at 4 colleges and 9 women with advanced degrees, interviewed 6 women in or about to enter graduate programs, and reviewed previous research and available statistical data. Results indicated that: relatively few Native American…

  12. "Borrowing" Activities from Another Culture: A Native American's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Gordon W. A.

    1992-01-01

    Criticizes the practice in adventure education of using Native American rituals and practices without the proper cultural context. Suggests that western society uses rites and ceremonies initiated in its own culture for experiential education. (KS)

  13. Book Bonanza: Long before Columbus: Native American Culture and Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Lee Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Presented are a wide variety of current and older titles that teachers and students can use to better understand Native Americans. The following are included in the bibliography: planning aids, music, poetry, art, and fiction. (KC)

  14. Poor representation of Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M; Adelson, Wendi J

    2015-04-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how various systems in medicine are limiting representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. Flat and decreasing percentages of Underrepresented Minorities in Medicine (URMM), especially in the black and Native American populations, is concerning for family medicine since members from URMM groups care for minority and underserved populations in greater numbers. Underrepresentation is not only noted in the medical community but also in our medical schools when it comes to numbers of URMM faculty. The changing definition of "disadvantaged" in medical school admissions has also played a part in limiting URMM representation. In addition, the Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) excludes black, Latino, and Native American students in greater numbers. The authors support these arguments with evidence from the medical literature. Although unintentional, these systems effectively limit representation of blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans in medicine. Effective changes are suggested and can be implemented to ensure that URMM individuals have equal representation in careers in medicine.

  15. The Native American: Warriors in the U.S. Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    large as 95 percent.Ŗ Europeans brought measles, smallpox, cholera , and other diseases that reduced the Native American population and wiped out...Press, 1984. Clevenger, Steven. America’s First Warriors: Native Americans and Iraq. Museum of New Mexico Press. 2010. Clodfelter, MichaeL The Dakota...Autobiography of a Winnebago Indian. Dover Publications, Inc., 1963. Vandervort, Bruce. Indian Wars of Mexico , Canada, and the United States, 1812-1900

  16. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, Ulla

    1997-01-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  17. Environmental racism: the US nuclear industry and native Americans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtinen, Ulla [Organization of the Fourth World - First Peoples (Finland)

    1997-03-01

    The author argues that the United States nuclear industry has acted in a discriminatory fashion towards Native American peoples and the land they hold as reservations. Both uranium mining and nuclear weapons testing is commonplace and plans now exist to locate a low-level radioactive waste dump in the Mojave desert in California, a sacred site for many native people. Opposition to such plans is growing among the Native Americans, sharpened by their existing commitment to conservation of the environment, but on their own, they are not a lobby powerful enough to oppose the might of the nuclear industry. (UK).

  18. New Interpretations of Native American Literature: A Survival Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Galen

    1980-01-01

    Uses examples from the work of several Native American authors, including N. Scott Momaday and Leslie Silko, to discuss five unique elements in American Indian literature: reverence for words, dependence on a sense of place, sense of ritual, affirmation of the need for community, and a significantly different world view. (SB)

  19. 77 FR 66527 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... American dream. In paying tribute to Native American achievements, we must also acknowledge the parts of... to sign the Helping Expedite and Advance Responsible Tribal Homeownership (HEARTH) Act into law... succeed in college and careers. And under the Tribal Law and Order Act and the Safe Indian Communities...

  20. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  1. Obesity and sexual abuse in American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, James A; McCrady-Spitzer, Shelly K; Bighorse, William

    2016-08-01

    Mainstream American culture frequently minimizes the prevalence and significance of sexual abuse. Unfortunately, this denial of extensive victimization of women is also present in many underserved populations. In June 2007, Amnesty International released its report on sexual abuse in indigenous women, which states that, "One in three Native American or Alaska Native women will be raped at some point in their lives. Most do not seek justice because they know they will be met with inaction or indifference." This report highlighted an infrequently discussed issue namely, very high levels of sexual abuse in Native American and Alaska Native women. The relationship between sexual abuse and obesity has been delineated in several studies; overall about one quarter to one half of women with high levels of obesity have been sexually abused and it has been postulated that weight-gain serves as an adaptive response for many survivors of sexual abuse. It is also well known in Native American and Alaskan Native women that there is a high prevalence of obesity (about 40% greater than the population average) and that this obesity is associated with a many-fold greater risk of diabetes and increased risks of hypertension, cancer and cardiovascular disease. The link between the concomitantly high rates of sexual abuse and obesity in this population may or may not be partial causality but the issue is nonetheless important. If approaches are to succeed in reversing the trend of increasing levels of obesity in Native American and Alaskan Native women, the high prevalence of sexual abuse will need to be specifically and comprehensively addressed.

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in North American, South American, and Mexican Indian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedde, H W; Agarwal, D P; Harada, S; Rothhammer, F; Whittaker, J O; Lisker, R

    1986-01-01

    While about 40% of the South American Indian populations (Atacameños, Mapuche, Shuara) were found to be deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme I (ALDH2 or E2), preliminary investigations showed very low incidence of isozyme deficiency among North American natives (Sioux, Navajo) and Mexican Indians (mestizo). Possible implications of such trait differences on cross-cultural behavioral response to alcohol drinking are discussed. PMID:3953578

  3. The Relationship between Native American Ancestry, Body Mass Index and Diabetes Risk among Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Huff, Chad D; Yamamura, Yuko; Wu, Xifeng; Strom, Sara S

    2015-01-01

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is a well-established risk factor for type 2 diabetes, and rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are substantially higher among Mexican-Americans relative to non-Hispanic European Americans. Mexican-Americans are genetically diverse, with a highly variable distribution of Native American, European, and African ancestries. Here, we evaluate the role of Native American ancestry on BMI and diabetes risk in a well-defined Mexican-American population. Participants were randomly selected among individuals residing in the Houston area who are enrolled in the Mexican-American Cohort study. Using a custom Illumina GoldenGate Panel, we genotyped DNA from 4,662 cohort participants for 87 Ancestry-Informative Markers. On average, the participants were of 50.2% Native American ancestry, 42.7% European ancestry and 7.1% African ancestry. Using multivariate linear regression, we found BMI and Native American ancestry were inversely correlated; individuals with ancestry were 2.5 times more likely to be severely obese compared to those with >80% Native American ancestry. Furthermore, we demonstrated an interaction between BMI and Native American ancestry in diabetes risk among women; Native American ancestry was a strong risk factor for diabetes only among overweight and obese women (OR = 1.190 for each 10% increase in Native American ancestry). This study offers new insight into the complex relationship between obesity, genetic ancestry, and their respective effects on diabetes risk. Findings from this study may improve the diabetes risk prediction among Mexican-American individuals thereby facilitating targeted prevention strategies.

  4. POPULATION GENETICS. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrücken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodríguez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmström, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergström, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilán; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Smith, Colin I; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly-Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Posukh, Olga L; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M J; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome; Petzelt, Barbara; Mitchell, Joycelynn; Worl, Rosita; Norman, Paul J; Parham, Peter; Kemp, Brian M; Kivisild, Toomas; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Crawford, Michael; Villems, Richard; Smith, David Glenn; Waters, Michael R; Goebel, Ted; Johnson, John R; Malhi, Ripan S; Jakobsson, Mattias; Meltzer, David J; Manica, Andrea; Durbin, Richard; Bustamante, Carlos D; Song, Yun S; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-08-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa

    2015-07-21

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  6. Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

    KAUST Repository

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Steinrü cken, Matthias; Harris, Kelley; Schiffels, Stephan; Rasmussen, Simon; DeGiorgio, Michael; Albrechtsen, Anders; Valdiosera, Cristina; Á vila-Arcos, Marí a C.; Malaspinas, Anna Sapfo; Eriksson, Anders; Moltke, Ida; Metspalu, Mait; Homburger, Julian R.; Wall, Jeff; Cornejo, Omar E.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Ví ctor; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S.; Pierre, Tracey; Rasmussen, Morten; Campos, Paula F.; De Barros Damgaard, Peter; Allentoft, Morten E.; Lindo, John; Metspalu, Ene; Rodrí guez-Varela, Ricardo; Mansilla, Josefina; Henrickson, Celeste; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Malmstö m, Helena; Stafford, Thomas; Shringarpure, Suyash S.; Moreno-Estrada, André s; Karmin, Monika; Tambets, Kristiina; Bergströ m, Anders; Xue, Yali; Warmuth, Vera; Friend, Andrew D.; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul; Balloux, Francois; Leboreiro, Ilá n; Vera, Jose Luis; Rangel-Villalobos, Hector; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Davis, Loren G.; Heyer, Evelyne; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce De Leó n, Marcia S.; Smith, Colin I.; Grimes, Vaughan; Pike, Kelly Anne; Deal, Michael; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Standen, Vivien; Luz, Maria F.; Ricaut, Francois; Guidon, Niede; Osipova, Ludmila; Voevoda, Mikhail I.; Posukh, Olga L.; Balanovsky, Oleg; Lavryashina, Maria; Bogunov, Yuri; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Gubina, Marina; Balanovska, Elena; Fedorova, Sardana; Litvinov, Sergey; Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mosher, M. J.; Archer, David; Cybulski, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    How and when the Americas were populated remains contentious. Using ancient and modern genome-wide data, we found that the ancestors of all present-day Native Americans, including Athabascans and Amerindians, entered the Americas as a single migration wave from Siberia no earlier than 23 thousand years ago (ka) and after no more than an 8000-year isolation period in Beringia. After their arrival to the Americas, ancestral Native Americans diversified into two basal genetic branches around 13 ka, one that is now dispersed across North and South America and the other restricted to North America. Subsequent gene flow resulted in some Native Americans sharing ancestry with present-day East Asians (including Siberians) and, more distantly, Australo-Melanesians. Putative "Paleoamerican" relict populations, including the historical Mexican Pericúes and South American Fuego-Patagonians, are not directly related to modern Australo-Melanesians as suggested by the Paleoamerican Model. © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

  7. Nativity, Chronic Health Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Filipino Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayog, Maria L G; Waters, Catherine M

    2018-05-01

    Nearly half of Americans have a chronic health condition related to unhealthful behavior. One in four Americans is an immigrant; yet immigrants' health has been studied little, particularly among Asian American subpopulations. Years lived in United States, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, walking, adiposity, and fruit/vegetable variables in the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed to examine the influence of nativity on chronic health conditions and health behaviors in 555 adult Filipinos, the second largest Asian American immigrant subpopulation. Recent and long-term immigrant Filipinos had higher odds of having hypertension and diabetes, but lower odds of smoking and overweight/obesity compared with second-generation Filipinos. Being born in the United States may be protective against chronic health conditions, but not for healthful behaviors among Filipinos. Chronic disease prevention and health promotion strategies should consider nativity/length of residence, which may be a more consequential health determinant than other immigration and acculturation characteristics.

  8. Native American Death Taboo: Implications for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Yoshiko Yamashita

    2017-07-01

    This study was conducted to highlight Native American (NA) perspectives on death taboo in order to examine the cultural appropriateness of hospice services for NA patients, if any. Searching literature that addressed taboo and death from historical, psychological, sociological, and anthropological aspects, a comparison of death perspectives was made between NAs and European Americans. A culturally sensitive transition from palliative care to hospice care was suggested for NA patients and their family.

  9. Native Americans in Cold War Public Diplomacy: Indian Politics, American History, and the US Information Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This essay examines the depiction of Native Americans by the US Information Agency (USIA), the bureau charged with explaining American politics to the international public during the Cold War. In the 1950s and 1960s, the USIA broadcast the message that Americans had begun to acknowledge their nation's history of conquest and were working to…

  10. Native American Religious Freedom and Federal Land Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eric William

    1990-01-01

    Explains the importance of specific locations to the performance of ceremonies and rituals in traditional Native American religions. Discusses recent court decisions in favor of federal land management agencies denying protection to sacred sites because of economic or development considerations. Contains 15 references. (SV)

  11. This Path We Travel: Celebrations of Contemporary Native American Creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pena, Frank

    1994-01-01

    An exhibition at the opening of the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City presents the talents of 15 contemporary Native American artists who during the past several years met at four different locations representing the cardinal directions. The exhibit combines sculpture, performance, poetry, music, and video to portray Indian world views…

  12. Promoting Books and Media: A Native American Indian Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses children's literature on Native American Indians and suggests ideas for using the literature in the school library media center or classroom by the library media specialist or by the classroom teacher. Activities and appropriate materials are suggested for the topics of housing, poetry, food, biography, crafts and music, and traditional…

  13. Peer Mentoring: Encouraging Persistence in Native American Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    Native Americans have endured historical and contemporary challenges that have adversely affected their achievement, including in the realm of postsecondary education. The difficulties have included, but are not limited to, the problems inherent in the process of assimilation into Caucasian culture, the repercussions of Indian Boarding Schools,…

  14. Ball Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The problem under investigation concerned (1) determining the ball games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) determining the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) determining the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were obtained from the 48 "Annual Reports of the…

  15. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  16. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  17. Mining and Environmental Health Disparities in Native American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Johnnye; Hoover, Joseph; MacKenzie, Debra

    2017-06-01

    More than a century of hard rock mining has left a legacy of >160,000 abandoned mines in the Western USA that are home to the majority of Native American lands. This article describes how abrogation of treaty rights, ineffective policies, lack of infrastructure, and a lack of research in Native communities converge to create chronic exposure, ill-defined risks, and tribal health concerns. Recent results show that Native Americans living near abandoned uranium mines have an increased likelihood for kidney disease and hypertension, and an increased likelihood of developing multiple chronic diseases linked to their proximity to the mine waste and activities bringing them in contact with the waste. Biomonitoring confirms higher than expected exposure to uranium and associated metals in the waste in adults, neonates, and children in these communities. These sites will not be cleaned up for many generations making it critical to understand and prioritize exposure-toxicity relationships in Native populations to appropriately allocate limited resources to protect health. Recent initiatives, in partnership with Native communities, recognize these needs and support development of tribal research capacity to ensure that research respectful of tribal culture and policies can address concerns in the future. In addition, recognition of the risks posed by these abandoned sites should inform policy change to protect community health in the future.

  18. The Native American Persistence in Higher Education: A Journey through Story to Identify the Family Support to Native American Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbee, Yolanda J. Guzman

    2013-01-01

    This Indigenous Framed Research will utilize counter-storytelling through shared collaborator stories provided by Nez Perce Native American Graduates. The methodology is shaped by an Indigenous Framework as this form of research promotes and develops a culturally resonant environment for constructing, analyzing and sharing information. The…

  19. The Native American Experience. American Historical Images on File.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardwell, Lelia, Ed.

    This photo-documentation reference body presents more than 275 images chronicling the experiences of the American Indian from their prehistoric migrations to the present. The volume includes information and images illustrating the life ways of various tribes. The images are accompanied by historical information providing cultural context. The book…

  20. The Use in Experiential Education of Ceremonies and Rituals from Native American Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, McClellan; Couch, G. Owen

    1992-01-01

    McClellan Hall, a Native American, expresses distress and embarrassment at the improper use of Native cultural ceremonies at Association for Experiential Education conferences. G. Owen Couch, a non-Native, describes his personal experiences in using Native American philosophies inappropriately and his realization of the dangers in doing so. Both…

  1. Crying for a Vision: The Native American Sweat Lodge Ceremony as Therapeutic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Torres-Rivera, Edil; Brubaker, Michael; Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Brotherton, Dale; West-Olatunji, Cirecie; Conwill, William; Grayshield, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The Native American sweat lodge ceremony or sweat therapy is being used increasingly in various medical, mental health, correctional, and substance abuse treatment centers serving both Native and non-Native clients. This article explores the sweat lodge ceremony's background, elements of Native American spirituality, origin story, cultural…

  2. Renewable energy for federal facilities serving native Americans: preprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiffert, P.; Sprunt Crawley, A.; Bartow, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is targeting Federal facilities serving Native American populations for cost-effective renewable energy projects. These projects not only save energy and money, they also provide economic opportunities for the Native Americans who assist in producing, installing, operating, or maintaining the renewable energy systems obtained for the facilities. The systems include solar heating, solar electric (photovoltaic or PV), wind, biomass, and geothermal energy systems. In fiscal years 1998 and 1999, FEMP co-funded seven such projects, working with the Indian Health Service in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Bureau of Indian Affairs in the U.S. Department of the Interior, and their project partners. The new renewable energy systems are helping to save money that would otherwise be spent on conventional energy and reduce the greenhouse gases associated with burning fossil fuels

  3. An Exploration of Physiological Responses to the Native American Flute

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Eric B.; Goss, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study explored physiological responses to playing and listening to the Native American flute. Autonomic, electroencephalographic (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV) metrics were recorded while participants (N = 15) played flutes and listened to several styles of music. Flute playing was accompanied by an 84% increase in HRV (p < .001). EEG theta (4-8 Hz) activity increased while playing flutes (p = .007) and alpha (8-12 Hz) increased while playing lower-pitched flutes (p = .009...

  4. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene

    2012-01-01

    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  5. Broadening the Participation of Native Americans in Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno Watts, Nievita

    Climate change is not a thing of the future. Indigenous people are being affected by climate changes now. Native American Earth scientists could help Native communities deal with both climate change and environmental pollution issues, but are noticeably lacking in Earth Science degree programs. The Earth Sciences produce the lowest percentage of minority scientists when compared with other science and engineering fields. Twenty semi-structured interviews were gathered from American Indian/ Alaska Native Earth Scientists and program directors who work directly with Native students to broaden participation in the field. Data was analyzed using qualitative methods and constant comparison analysis. Barriers Native students faced in this field are discussed, as well as supports which go the furthest in assisting achievement of higher education goals. Program directors give insight into building pathways and programs to encourage Native student participation and success in Earth Science degree programs. Factors which impede obtaining a college degree include financial barriers, pressures from familial obligations, and health issues. Factors which impede the decision to study Earth Science include unfamiliarity with geoscience as a field of study and career choice, the uninviting nature of Earth Science as a profession, and curriculum that is irrelevant to the practical needs of Native communities or courses which are inaccessible geographically. Factors which impede progress that are embedded in Earth Science programs include educational preparation, academic information and counseling and the prevalence of a Western scientific perspective to the exclusion of all other perspectives. Intradepartmental relationships also pose barriers to the success of some students, particularly those who are non-traditional students (53%) or women (80%). Factors which support degree completion include financial assistance, mentors and mentoring, and research experiences. Earth scientists

  6. Long-term trends of native and non-native fish faunas in the American Southwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden, J. D.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and the proliferation of non-native fish species threaten the endemic, and highly unique fish faunas of the American Southwest. The present study examines long-term trends (> 160 years of fish species distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin and identifies those native species (n = 28 exhibiting the greatest rates of decline and those non-native species (n = 48 exhibiting the highest rates of spread. Among the fastest expanding invaders in the basin are red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis, fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas, green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus, largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, western mosquitofish (Gambussia affinis and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus; species considered to be the most invasive in terms of their negative impacts on native fish communities. Interestingly, non-native species that have been recently introduced (1950+ have generally spread at substantially lower rates as compared to species introduced prior to this time (especially from 1920 to 1950, likely reflecting reductions in human-aided spread of species. We found general agreement between patterns of species decline and extant distribution sizes and official listing status under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. ‘Endangered’ species have generally experienced greater declines and have smaller present-day distributions compared to ‘threatened’ species, which in turn have shown greater declines and smaller distributions than those species not currently listed. A number of notable exceptions did exist, however, and these may provide critical information to help guide the future listing of species (i.e., identification of candidates and the upgrading or downgrading of current listed species that are endemic to the Lower Colorado River Basin. The strong correlation between probability estimates of local extirpation and patterns of native species decline and present-day distributions suggest a possible proactive

  7. The palaeobiogeography of South American gomphotheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer G. Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gomphotheriid proboscideans reached South America as Late Cenozoic immigrants from North America. However, disagreements over alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships have produced three competing hypotheses about this immigration: (1 a single gomphothere immigration took place soon after the ~3 Ma closure of the Panamanian isthmus; (2 two separate gomphothere immigrations took place after closure of the isthmus; or (3 an earlier, Late Miocene (before 9 Ma immigration brought gomphotheres into South America. A critical re-evaluation of the alpha taxonomy, age dating and phylogenetic relationships of Neotropical gomphotheres identifies two valid genera of South American gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Notiomastodon (= “Haplomastodon”, = “Stegomastodon” from South America and recognizes “Amahuacatherium” as an invalid genus likely based on a specimen of Notiomastodon. The oldest well-dated South American gomphothere fossil is Marplatan, ~2.5 Ma, from Argentina. The case for an age of “Amahuacatherium” older than 9 Ma is refuted by mammalian biostratigraphy and a re-evaluation of the relevant magnetostratigraphy. North American Rhynchotherium descended from Gomphotherium during the Late Hemphillian (~5–6 Ma and gave rise to Cuvieronius in North America by the end of the Blancan (~2 Ma time. Notiomastodon evolved from Cuvieronius in South America during the Pleistocene. The case for a close relationship between the Neotropical gomphotheres and Sinomastodon from China is rejected. Central America was not a center of endemic gomphothere evolution and merely acted as a pathway for the immigration of gomphotheres from north to south: Gomphotherium into Central America during the Miocene, Cuvieronius to Central America by Early Pleistocene time and on to South America. After closure of the Panamanian isthmus, Cuvieronius immigrated to South America, where it gave rise to Notiomastodon by Middle Pleistocene time. The

  8. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  9. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeerae Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries

  10. Multi-generational perspectives on health, cancer, and biomedicine: Northeastern Native American perspectives shaped by mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Mary K; Weiner, Diane; Samos, Markos; Wampler, Nina S

    2011-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death among Native Americans, who have-some of the poorest cancer survival rates of any race/ethnicity nationwide. Considering the cancer burden experienced by Native Americans and the lack of research exploring Northeastern tribal communities' cancer experiences, a qualitative investigation of Native Americans' cancer coping strategies and health education needs was undertaken. Data were collected through group (74) and individual (17) interviews with 91 Native Americans from the Northeast. Relationships between intergenerational mistrust, individual mistrust, and utilization of biomedical health care systems for Northeastern Native Americans are presented. Trust is central to the provider-patient relationship and the foundation for developing and maintaining connections to Native American communities. Intergenerational mistrust, shaped by historical and contemporary issues of prejudice and miscommunication, affect cancer health experiences and views. Approaches for reducing mistrust and building relationships between health care providers and Native communities are highlighted.

  11. Review of South American mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the mining activity and plans for South America. The countries which are presented are Columbia, Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Chile, Peru, and Bolivia. The products of the mines include coal, bauxite, gold, iron, uranium, copper and numerous other minor materials. A discussion of current production, support and processing facilities, and mining strategies is also given

  12. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-1998) Secondary American History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio R.

    As a follow-up to studies by R. Costo and J. Henry (1970) and J. Loewen (1995), this study examined 12 current secondary level U.S. history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans. The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the "Five Great Values" (generosity and sharing, respect for elders and…

  13. The Trail of Tears Continues: Dispossession and Genocide of the Native American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Albert M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the high cultural level of native American Indian populations at the time of conquest. Illustrates how cultural breakdown and demographic decimation have resulted from systematic policies that focused on exploiting natural resources at the expense of native peoples. (GC)

  14. The Function of Native American Storytelling as Means of Education in Luci Tapahonso’s Selected Poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widad Allawi Saddam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Native American storytelling has become a very vital issue in education. It preserves Native American history for the next generation and teaches them important lessons about the Native American culture. It also conveys moral meanings, knowledge and social values of the Native American people to the universe. More importantly, Native American storytelling teaches people not to be isolated, and the key issues discussed in this paper are borrowed from the selected poems of Native American Luci Tapahonso: ‘The Holy Twins’ and ‘Remember the Things that you told.’   Keywords:  folklore, narrating, Native American, oral tradition, storytelling

  15. Remapping Place and Narrative in Native American Literature: David Treuer's "The Hiawatha"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Padraig

    2007-01-01

    David Treuer's 1997 novel, "The Hiawatha," engages the traditional literary strategies employed by Native American writing, compares those strategies to earlier narratives (Native American and canonically American), offers a reassessment of indigenous novelistic structures, engages critical responses to tribal fiction, and does so in response to…

  16. Utilizing the Arts for Healing from a Native American Perspective: Implications for Creative Arts Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This report on how Native American healing methods can be utilized in Western creative art therapy emphasizes that for Native Americans, art is an element of life--not a separate aesthetic ideal. Furthermore, American Indian philosophy does not separate healing from art or religion; the belief is that traditional healing, which uses shamanic…

  17. 76 FR 23331 - Native American Business Development Institute (NABDI) Funding Solicitations and Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Native American Business Development Institute... Development (DED), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. The DED created the Native American Business...

  18. Early Twentieth Century Arrow, Javelin, and Dart Games of the Western Native American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    The general purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional native American ball games continued to be positive culture traits of the American Indian in the early twentieth century. The investigation was centered about (1) determining the current arrow, javelin, and dart games of western native Americans, (2) determining the…

  19. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2014, Series Information File for the Current American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Areas (AIANNH) National Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian (AIANNH) Areas Shapefile includes the following legal entities: federally recognized American Indian reservations...

  20. New views on American colonization: critical tests from South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.

  1. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-09-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  2. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group; Summer 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community.

  3. Blood politics, ethnic identity, and racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haozous, Emily A; Strickland, Carolyn J; Palacios, Janelle F; Solomon, Teshia G Arambula

    2014-01-01

    Misclassification of race in medical and mortality records has long been documented as an issue in American Indian/Alaska Native data. Yet, little has been shared in a cohesive narrative which outlines why misclassification of American Indian/Alaska Native identity occurs. The purpose of this paper is to provide a summary of the current state of the science in racial misclassification among American Indians and Alaska Natives. We also provide a historical context on the importance of this problem and describe the ongoing political processes that both affect racial misclassification and contribute to the context of American Indian and Alaska Native identity.

  4. Native Americans and resource development: Third World brought home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, N.

    1978-03-01

    Indian reservations that are rich in uranium, oil, and coal deposits provide a development problem that is similar to that of Third World countries. The tribes have been cheated by government leasing of their lands for energy development without adequate payment, employment opportunities, environmental constraints, or prior consultation. Examples of this treatment illustrate the exploitation of Indian lands and tribes, but recent lawsuits indicate a growing awareness on the part of Native Americans of the impact that resource development has on their lives and a willingness to assert themselves. Government and industry opposition to this assertiveness is demonstrated by the bills in Congress that would revoke treaties with Indian tribes and would, under the guise of equal opportunity, strip them of their sovereignty over aboriginal lands.

  5. Prevalence of astigmatism in Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H; Miller, Joseph M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of high astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. SureSight autorefraction measurements were obtained for 1461 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of astigmatism >2.00 diopters was 30% in Tohono O'odham children during infancy (6 months to O'odham infants show a high prevalence of astigmatism, which decreases in the second year of life. However, the prevalence of high astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children increases by age 2 to <3 years to a level near that seen in infancy and remains at that level until at least age 8 years. Longitudinal data are needed to determine whether the increase in high astigmatism after infancy occurs in infants who had astigmatism as infants or is due to the development of high astigmatism in children who did not show astigmatism during infancy.

  6. Mentoring in Native American Communities using STEM Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we will present a concept for mentoring built on STEM principles, and applied to the Native American community in Chinle, AZ. Effective mentoring includes being sensitive, listening to, and advising mentees based upon a 'correct' appreciation not only of their needs but also of the desires of the community they come from. Our project is an outreach effort on the part of NASA's contribution to the International Rosetta mission. Our initial program design incorporated ambitious STEM materials developed by NASA/JPL for other communities that excite and engage future generations in geoscience careers, to be re-packaged and brought to the Navajo community in Chinle. We were cognizant of the communities' emphasis on the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Recognizing that one of the most important near-term problems in Native American communities across the country is preservation of aboriginal language, a first step in our program involved defining STEM vocabulary. Community participation was required to identify existing words, write a STEM thesaurus, and also define contemporary words (what we called 'NASA words') that have no equivalent in the native tongue. This step critically involved obtaining approval of new words from tribal Elders. Finally, our objective was to put this newly defined STEM vocabulary to work, helping the kids to learn STEM curriculum in their own language. The communities' response to our approach was guarded interest, an invitation to return for further work, and finally a request that we co-sponsor a Summer Science Academy that was not focused on the subjects of space exploration originally envisioned by the project. Thus a first lesson learned was that ambitious material might not be the first step to a sustained educational program on the reservation. Understanding the end-users' environment, requirements and constraints is a major component to sustainability. After several months of

  7. Weight-Bearing Exercise and Foot Health in Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuaderes, Elena; DeShea, Lise; Lamb, W Lyndon

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes contributes to sensory peripheral neuropathy, which has been linked to lower limb abnormalities that raise the risk for foot ulcers and amputations. Because amputations are a reason for pain and hospitalization in those with diabetes, it is of critical importance to gain insight about prevention of ulcer development in this population. Although the American Diabetes Association (ADA) now recommends that individuals with neuropathy can engage in moderate-intensity weight-bearing activity (WBA), they must wear appropriate footwear and inspect their feet daily. The physical forces and inflammatory processes from WBA may contribute to plantar characteristics that lead to ulcers. The purpose of this study was to compare neuropathic status and foot characteristics in Native Americans according to WBA classification. The t tests for unequal sample sizes found that exercisers had more difficulty sensing baseline temperature than nonexercisers, except at the right foot (all p values Exercisers demonstrated higher surface skin temperature gradients at the first metatarsal head, a plantar site where wounds tend to form. The more consistently exercisers performed, the higher the plan-tar pressures were at the right second ( r = .24, p = .02) and third metatarsal heads ( r = .26, p = .01). Findings from this investigation do not refute current ADA recommendations and further intervention studies are needed that are longitudinal and measures WBA more accurately.

  8. Evaluation of log submergence to control EAB and preserve black ash for native American basketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Damon J. Crook; Tina M. Ciaramitaro

    2011-01-01

    Many Native American cultures use black ash, Fraxinus nigra, for basket-making because its ring-porous wood allows the annual layers of xylem to be easily separated. The emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis) is threatening North America's ash resource including black ash, and a centuries-old native art form. Native...

  9. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  10. 77 FR 9216 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Proposed Waivers and Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Proposed Waivers...) 2007 under the Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary proposes... secondary school career and technical education programs. \\1\\ Section 116(a)(2) of the Carl D. Perkins...

  11. 36 CFR 219.15 - Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Collaborative Planning for Sustainability § 219.15 Interaction with American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives...

  12. Cultural plant harvests on federal lands: perspectives from members of the Northwest Native American Basketweavers Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Dobkins; Ceara Lewis; Susan Hummel; Emily. Dickey

    2016-01-01

    Native Americans who wish to harvest forest plants for traditional uses report difficulties gaining access to federal lands in the northwestern United States. To learn more about this issue, we reviewed the published literature on site access and resource harvests by tribal members and discussed it with Native American traditional users of plant resources. Specifically...

  13. Strategies for the Recruitment and Retention of Native American Students. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Timothy C.; Thurber, Hanna J.

    This paper describes issues involved in increasing the number of Native American students in higher education, with a specific focus on psychology and rehabilitation training programs. The paper also describes many specific strategies for use by colleges and universities to recruit, retain, and graduate Native American students. Three sections…

  14. 78 FR 25292 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... Awards; Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical Assistance; Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY... (NOFA) for the Office of Native American Programs Training and Technical Assistance (ONAP T&TA). This... nonprofit organizations, as well as for-profit entities to provide Training & Technical Assistance to the...

  15. Native American High School Seniors' Perceptions of Higher Education: Motivating and Demotivating Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogman, Calvin

    2013-01-01

    For many Native American students, particularly those from reservations, the pursuit of higher education is a formidable concept to grasp. Poverty, rural isolation, and a myriad of social ills all take a role as demotivational factors that act as barriers between Native American students and a college education. On the other hand, family,…

  16. Critical Contexts for Biomedical Research in a Native American Community: Health Care, History, and Community Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahota, Puneet Chawla

    2012-01-01

    Native Americans have been underrepresented in previous studies of biomedical research participants. This paper reports a qualitative interview study of Native Americans' perspectives on biomedical research. In-depth interviews were conducted with 53 members of a Southwest tribal community. Many interviewees viewed biomedical research studies as a…

  17. Embracing Intercultural Diversification: Teaching Young Adult Literature with Native American Themes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Kenan; Box, Andrea; Blasingame, James

    2013-01-01

    According to the most recent census, there are five million Native Americans in the United States. Of these, there are at least 500,000 Native Americans attending public schools. However, the educational system does not fully serve this population and in fact often ignores them. More importantly, each tribe and clan has its own distinct cultural…

  18. Native American Mascots in Contemporary Higher Education: Part 1--Politically Acceptable or Ethnically Objectionable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamey, Becky Avery

    2009-01-01

    The battle of the Little Big Horn in 1876 was one of the last great wars fought by Native Americans on a grassy battlefield. The battle was fought over territory and the right to live in the Dakota and Montana territories. The Native Americans won the battle of Little Big Horn but eventually lost the war and were forced to live on a reservation…

  19. Native American Arts and Crafts of the United States. Bibliography 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC.

    The selected readings listed in this annotated bibliography are suggested as an introduction to the varied arts and crafts created from prehistoric to modern times by Native American peoples of the United States. The publications are organized by culture area to encompass major media practiced by Native American artists and craftsmen of these…

  20. 76 FR 76603 - Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational Opportunities and Strengthening Tribal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ..., including Native language immersion programs, that encourage the learning and development of AI/AN children... Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1059c). Sec. 3. White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. (a) Establishment. There is hereby established the White House Initiative on American Indian and...

  1. A Qualitative Study of a Native American Mascot at "Public University"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Michelle Lyn

    2010-01-01

    At the time this study began, there were approximately 60 senior colleges and universities using Native American mascots or nicknames to represent their athletic teams (Fournier, 2003). Many Native Americans, coalitions, organizations, and researchers (Connolly, 2000; Davis, 2002; King & Springwood, 2000; NCAA, 2001) believe that these mascots…

  2. STUDIES ON SOUTH AMERICAN YELLOW FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nelson C.; Shannon, Raymond C.

    1929-01-01

    Yellow fever virus from M. rhesus has been inoculated into a South American monkey (Cebus macrocephalus) by blood injection and by bites of infected mosquitoes. The Cebus does not develop the clinical or pathological signs of yellow fever. Nevertheless, the virus persists in the Cebus for a time as shown by the typical symptoms and lesions which develop when the susceptible M. rhesus is inoculated from a Cebus by direct transfer of blood or by mosquito (A. aegypti) transmission. PMID:19869607

  3. Home Environment and Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Native American, African American, and Latino Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H

    2018-05-07

    Context helps determine what individuals experience in the settings they inhabit. Context also helps determine the likelihood that those experiences will promote adaptive development. Theory suggests likely interplay between various aspects of home context and development of ideas about self that influence patterns of development for children. This study addressed relations between two aspects of home life (companionship and investment, modeling and encouragement) and three types of self-efficacy beliefs (enlisting social resources, independent learning, self-regulatory behavior) considered important for long-term adaptive functioning. The study focused on three groups of minority adolescents (Native American, African American, Latino). Relations were examined using regression models that also included four aspects of household risk that often hinder the development of self-efficacy. Although findings varied somewhat across the three groups, significant relations emerged between the two domains of home life examined and self-efficacy beliefs in all three groups, even controlling for overall household risk. Companionship and investment appeared particularly relevant for African American adolescents, while modeling and encouragement appeared particularly relevant for Native American adolescents. Both were relevant for Latino adolescents. © 2018 Family Process Institute.

  4. Native American Indian Successes in Natural Resources, Science and Engineering: PreK through Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolman, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    We are living in a definite time of change. Distinct changes are being experienced in our most sacred and natural environments. This is especially true on Native lands. Native people have lived for millennia in distinct and unique ways. The knowledge of balancing the needs of people with the needs of our natural environments is paramount in all tribal societies. This inherent knowledge has become the foundation on which to build a "blended" contemporary understanding of western science. The Dakota's and Northern California have recognized the critical need in understanding successful tribal strategies to engage educational systems (K-12 and higher education), to bring to prominence the professional development opportunities forged through working with tribal peoples and ensure the growth of Native people in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) professions. The presentation will highlight: 1) current philosophies on building a STEM Native workforce; 2) successful educational programs/activities in PreK-Ph.D. systems; 3) current Native professionals, their research and tribal applicability; and 4) forwarding thinking for creating sustainable environmental and social infrastructures for all people. South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM&T) and Humboldt State University (HSU) have been recognized nationally for their partnerships with Native communities. SDSM&T has set record numbers for graduating Native students in science and engineering. SDSM&T had 27 graduates in five years (2000-2005) and hosted more than 1000+ Native students for programs and activities. Humboldt State University is the only university in the CSU system with a program focusing specifically on Natives in natural resources, science and engineering as well as a Native American Studies degree. Both universities have designed programs to meet current needs and address challenging issues in Earth, Wind, Fire and Water. The programs are funded through NASA, NSF, NIH and

  5. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals substantial Native American ancestry in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cruzado, J C; Toro-Labrador, G; Ho-Fung, V; Estévez-Montero, M A; Lobaina-Manzanet, A; Padovani-Claudio, D A; Sánchez-Cruz, H; Ortiz-Bermúdez, P; Sánchez-Crespo, A

    2001-08-01

    To estimate the maternal contribution of Native Americans to the human gene pool of Puerto Ricans--a population of mixed African, European, and Amerindian ancestry--the mtDNAs of two sample sets were screened for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) defining the four major Native American haplogroups. The sample set collected from people who claimed to have a maternal ancestor with Native American physiognomic traits had a statistically significant higher frequency of Native American mtDNAs (69.6%) than did the unbiased sample set (52.6%). This higher frequency suggests that, despite the fact that the native Taíno culture has been extinct for centuries, the Taíno contribution to the current population is considerable and some of the Taíno physiognomic traits are still present. Native American haplogroup frequency analysis shows a highly structured distribution, suggesting that the contribution of Native Americans foreign to Puerto Rico is minimal. Haplogroups A and C cover 56.0% and 35.6% of the Native American mtDNAs, respectively. No haplogroup D mtDNAs were found. Most of the linguistic, biological, and cultural evidence suggests that the Ceramic culture of the Taínos originated in or close to the Yanomama territory in the Amazon. However, the absence of haplogroup A in the Yanomami suggests that the Yanomami are not the only Taíno ancestors.

  6. A Preliminary Investigation of Dynamic Assessment With Native American Kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukrainetz, Teresa A; Harpell, Stacey; Walsh, Chandra; Coyle, Catherine

    2000-04-01

    This study examined dynamic assessment as a lessbiased evaluation procedure for assessing the languagelearning ability of Native American children. Twenty-three Arapahoe/Shoshone kindergartners were identified as stronger (n = 15) or weaker (n = 8) language learners through teacher report and examiner classroom observation. Through a test-teach-test protocol, participants were briefly taught the principles of categorization. Participant responses to learning were measured in terms of an index of modifiability and post-test categorization scores. The modifiability index, determined during the teaching phase, was a combined score reflecting the child's learning strategies, such as ability to attend, plan, and self-regulate, and the child's responses to the learning situation. Post-test scores consisted of performance on expressive and receptive subtests from a standardized categorization test after partialling out pretest score differences. Effect sizes and confidence intervals were also determined. Group and individual results indicated that modifiability and post-test scores were significantly greater for stronger than for weaker language learners. The response to modifiability components was a better discriminator than was the learner strategies components. These results provide support for the further development of dynamic assessment as a valid measure of language learning ability in minority children.

  7. Perceptions of Native Americans: Indigenous science and connections to ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellcourt, Mark Alan

    2005-11-01

    Indigenous peoples of Turtle Island (North America) have had a special connection to and understanding of Mother Earth and Father Sky, and a long tradition of respect for the earth's resources. Based on this connection, understanding and respect, they have developed and used their own scientific theories and methods, and have used sustainable environmental practices. However, the problem is that despite centuries of scientific environmental practice and knowledge, Indigenous wisdom is virtually absent from the dominant mainstream Western science curriculums, literature, and practice. The purpose of this study is to explore Indigenous wisdom and how it might be better integrated into science and ecology education programs which are currently taught almost exclusively from Western perspectives. This study addresses the following two research questions: (1) What are the worldviews of Native American and science? (2) How can these worldviews be brought into mainstream Western science? The study of Indigenous wisdom involves an exploration of the stories a population of people whose core beliefs can not be easily quantified. A qualitative research approach, in-depth interviews and observations, have been selected for this study. The interviews and observations will be transcribed and the text will be reviewed and analyzed to find Indigenous worldviews and strategies for including these worldviews in current science curriculums.

  8. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  9. The Politics of Native American Health Care and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    This article examines an important but largely overlooked dimension of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), namely, its significance for Native American health care. The author maintains that reading the ACA against the politics of Native American health care policy shows that, depending on their regional needs and particular contexts, many Native Americans are well-placed to benefit from recent Obama-era reforms. At the same time, the kinds of options made available by the ACA constitute a departure from the service-based (as opposed to insurance-based) Indian Health Service (IHS). Accordingly, the author argues that ACA reforms--private marketplaces, Medicaid expansion, and accommodations for Native Americans--are best read as potential "supplements" to an underfunded IHS. Whether or not Native Americans opt to explore options under the ACA will depend in the long run on the quality of the IHS in the post-ACA era. Beyond understanding the ACA in relation to IHS funding, the author explores how Native American politics interacts with the key tenets of Obama-era health care reform--especially "affordability"--which is critical for understanding what is required from and appropriate to future Native American health care policy making. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  10. Literature review and ethnohistory of Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Olmsted, J.E.; Evans, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of the literature concerning Native American occupancy and use of the Yucca Mountain area and vicinity. It draws on a wide range of material, including early traveler reports, government documents, ethnographic and historical works, and local newspapers. The report complements two other concurrent studies, one focused on the cultural resources of Native American people in the study area and the other an ethnobotanical study of plant resources used by Native American people in the study area. The literature review has had two principal purposes: to determine the completeness of the Yucca Mountain Native American study design and to contribute to the understanding of the presence of Native American people in the Yucca Mountain area. A review of the existing literature about the Yucca Mountain area and southern Nye County, supplemented by the broader literature about the Great Basin, has verified three aspects of the study design. First, the review has aided in assessing the completeness of the list of Native American ethnic groups that have traditional or historical ties to the site. Second, it has aided in the production of a chronology of Native American activities that occurred on or near the site during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Third, it has helped to identify the location of cultural resources, including burials and other archaeological sites, in the study area and vicinity. 200 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Simple Enough--Even for Web Virgins: Lisa Mitten's Access to Native American Web Sites. Web Site Review Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgarde, Mary Jiron

    1998-01-01

    A mixed-blood Mohawk urban Indian and university librarian, Lisa Mitten provides access to Web sites with solid information about American Indians. Links are provided to 10 categories--Native nations, Native organizations, Indian education, Native media, powwows and festivals, Indian music, Native arts, Native businesses, and Indian-oriented home…

  12. The American South in the Atlantic World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    decisively shaped the history and culture of the American South from colonial times to the modern era. The essays in this interdisciplinary volume examine a wide range of topics, including race, migration, religion, law, slavery, emancipation, literature, memoir, popular culture, and ethnography. At a time...... when there is growing emphasis on globalizing southern studies the collection both demonstrates and critiques the value of Atlantic World perspectives on the region. Equally important, the mix of case studies and state-of-the field essays combines the latest historical thinking on the South’s myriad...

  13. Denisovan Ancestry in East Eurasian and Native American Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Pengfei; Stoneking, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Although initial studies suggested that Denisovan ancestry was found only in modern human populations from island Southeast Asia and Oceania, more recent studies have suggested that Denisovan ancestry may be more widespread. However, the geographic extent of Denisovan ancestry has not been determined, and moreover the relationship between the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania and that elsewhere has not been studied. Here we analyze genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 2,493 individuals from 221 worldwide populations, and show that there is a widespread signal of a very low level of Denisovan ancestry across Eastern Eurasian and Native American (EE/NA) populations. We also verify a higher level of Denisovan ancestry in Oceania than that in EE/NA; the Denisovan ancestry in Oceania is correlated with the amount of New Guinea ancestry, but not the amount of Australian ancestry, indicating that recent gene flow from New Guinea likely accounts for signals of Denisovan ancestry across Oceania. However, Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA populations is equally correlated with their New Guinea or their Australian ancestry, suggesting a common source for the Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA and Oceanian populations. Our results suggest that Denisovan ancestry in EE/NA is derived either from common ancestry with, or gene flow from, the common ancestor of New Guineans and Australians, indicating a more complex history involving East Eurasians and Oceanians than previously suspected. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure among Alaska Native/American Indian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A

    2013-01-01

    Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.

  15. Establishing an anthropogenic nitrogen baseline using Native American shell middens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn eOczkowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, has been heavily influenced by anthropogenic nutrients for more than 200 years. Recent efforts to improve water quality have cut sewage nitrogen (N loads to this point source estuary by more than half. Given that the bay has been heavily fertilized for longer than monitoring programs have been in place, we sought additional insight into how N dynamics in the system have historically changed. To do this, we measured the N stable isotope (δ15N values in clam shells from as early as 3000 BP to the present. Samples from Native American middens were compared with those collected locally from museums, an archaeological company, and graduate student thesis projects, during a range of time periods. Overall, δ15N values in clam shells from Narragansett Bay have increased significantly over time, reflecting known patterns of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment. Pre-colonization midden shell δ15N values were significantly lower than those post-European contact. While there were no statistical differences among shells dated from the late 15th Century to 2005, there was a significant difference between 2005 and 2015 shells, which we attribute to the higher δ15N values in the effluent associated with recent sewage treatment upgrades. In contrast, the δ15N values of shells from the southern Rhode Island coast remained constant through time; while influenced by human activities, these areas are not directly influenced by point-source sewage discharge. Overall, our results show that this isotope technique for measuring δ15N values in clam shells provides useful insight into how N dynamics in coastal ecosystems have changed during thousands of years, providing managers vital historical information when setting goals for N reduction.

  16. Salish Kootenai College Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolberry, Jacque

    The purpose of the Salish Koontenai College (SKC) Project for Recruitment and Retention of Native Americans in Associate Degree Nursing was to increase the numbers of Native American registered nurses providing health care to the Native American population of Montana and the northwest mountain states. Recruitment and retention efforts targeted…

  17. Two sides of a coin: Effects of climate change on the native and non-native distribution of Colossoma macropomum in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Taise M; Bailly, Dayani; Almeida, Bia A; Santos, Natália C L; Gimenez, Barbara C G; Landgraf, Guilherme O; Sales, Paulo C L; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Cassemiro, Fernanda A S; Rangel, Thiago F; Diniz-Filho, José A F; Agostinho, Angelo A; Gomes, Luiz C

    2017-01-01

    Climate change and species invasions interact in nature, disrupting biological communities. Based on this knowledge, we simultaneously assessed the effects of climate change on the native distribution of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum as well as on its invasiveness across river basins of South America, using ecological niche modeling. We used six niche models within the ensemble forecast context to predict the geographical distribution of C. macropomum for the present time, 2050 and 2080. Given that this species has been continuously introduced into non-native South American basins by fish farming activities, we added the locations of C. macropomum farms into the modeling process to obtain a more realistic scenario of its invasive potential. Based on modelling outputs we mapped climate refuge areas at different times. Our results showed that a plenty of climatically suitable areas for the occurrence of C. macropomum occurrence are located outside the original basins at the present time and that its invasive potential is greatly amplified by fish farms. Simulations of future geographic ranges revealed drastic range contraction in the native region, implying concerns not only with respect to the species conservation but also from a socio-economic perspective since the species is a cornerstone of artisanal and commercial fisheries in the Amazon. Although the invasive potential is projected to decrease in the face of climate change, climate refugia will concentrate in Paraná River, Southeast Atlantic and East Atlantic basins, putting intense, negative pressures on the native fish fauna these regions. Our findings show that short and long-term management actions are required for: i) the conservation of natural stocks of C. macropomum in the Amazon, and ii) protecting native fish fauna in the climate refuges of the invaded regions.

  18. Two sides of a coin: Effects of climate change on the native and non-native distribution of Colossoma macropomum in South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise M Lopes

    Full Text Available Climate change and species invasions interact in nature, disrupting biological communities. Based on this knowledge, we simultaneously assessed the effects of climate change on the native distribution of the Amazonian fish Colossoma macropomum as well as on its invasiveness across river basins of South America, using ecological niche modeling. We used six niche models within the ensemble forecast context to predict the geographical distribution of C. macropomum for the present time, 2050 and 2080. Given that this species has been continuously introduced into non-native South American basins by fish farming activities, we added the locations of C. macropomum farms into the modeling process to obtain a more realistic scenario of its invasive potential. Based on modelling outputs we mapped climate refuge areas at different times. Our results showed that a plenty of climatically suitable areas for the occurrence of C. macropomum occurrence are located outside the original basins at the present time and that its invasive potential is greatly amplified by fish farms. Simulations of future geographic ranges revealed drastic range contraction in the native region, implying concerns not only with respect to the species conservation but also from a socio-economic perspective since the species is a cornerstone of artisanal and commercial fisheries in the Amazon. Although the invasive potential is projected to decrease in the face of climate change, climate refugia will concentrate in Paraná River, Southeast Atlantic and East Atlantic basins, putting intense, negative pressures on the native fish fauna these regions. Our findings show that short and long-term management actions are required for: i the conservation of natural stocks of C. macropomum in the Amazon, and ii protecting native fish fauna in the climate refuges of the invaded regions.

  19. Native American  student perspectives of challenges in natural resource higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breanna Gervais; Chase R. Voirin; Chris Beatty; Grace Bulltail; Stephanie Cowherd; Shawn Defrance; Breana Dorame; Raymond Gutteriez; Jessica Lackey; Candy Lupe; April B. Negrette; Natalya C. Robbins Sherman; Ruth Swaney; Kevin Tso; Marvin Victor; Royale Wilson; Kimberly Yazzie; Jonathan W. Long; Serra J. Hoagland

    2017-01-01

    Native Americans have vital interests in promoting forest management decisions based on sound science and consistent with cultural values to sustain and conserve tribal natural resources. Advancing the next generation of natural resource professionals into key positions is essential to advance the self-determination of tribes; yet, there are unique challenges Native...

  20. 78 FR 76834 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families [CFDA Numbers: 93.581, 93.587, 93.612] Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native... by members of the public at the Administration for Native Americans, 901 D Street SW., Washington, DC...

  1. Running the "Medicine Line": Images of the Border in Contemporary Native American Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Kate

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author is concerned with the intersection of two congruent phenomena: (1) an increasing number of references to borders in contemporary Native American art; and (2) an increasing occurrence of border-rights conflicts between Native nations and the governments of the United States and Canada. Focusing on the period roughly 1990…

  2. Recovery of native forest after removal of an invasive tree, Falcataria moluccana, in American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Flint Hughes; Amanda L. Uowolo; Tavita P. Togia

    2012-01-01

    Invasive species are among the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Unfortunately, meaningful control of invasive species is often difficult. Here, we present results concerning the effects of invasion by a non-native, N2-fixing tree, Falcataria moluccana, on native-dominated forests of American Samoa and the response of...

  3. 76 FR 35462 - Proposed Renewal of Information Collection; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... contact the business. Internet Web site address To identify whether the business advertises and/or sells...; Source Directory of American Indian and Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses... Alaska Native Owned and Operated Arts and Crafts Businesses (Source Directory) is a program of the Indian...

  4. Hemisphericity and information processing in North American Native (Ojibwa) and non-native adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, L L; Allen, J D; Williams, N H

    1994-04-01

    Thirty-two male and female adolescents of native ancestry (Ojibwa) and 32 controls were tested using (1) four WISC-R subtests and (2) two dichotic listening tasks which employed a focused-attention paradigm for processing consonant-vowel combinations (CVs) and musical melodies. On the WISC-R, natives scored higher than controls on Block Design and Picture Completion subtests but lower on Vocabulary and Similarities subtests. On laterality measures more native males showed a left ear advantage on the CV task and the melody task. For CVs the left ear advantage was due to native males' lower right ear (i.e., left hemisphere) involvement. For melodies, the laterality index pointed to less left hemisphere involvement for native males, however, the raw scores showed that natives were performing lower overall. The findings are consistent with culturally-based strategy differences, possibly linked to "hemisphericity," but additional clarifying research regarding the cause and extent of such differences is warranted. Thus, implications for education are premature but a focus on teaching "left hemisphere type" strategies to all individuals not utilizing such skills, including many native males, may prove beneficial.

  5. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... traditional Native American religion by present-day adherents, which is recovered from Federal land after... agencies to consider regulatory approaches that reduce burdens and maintain flexibility and freedom of...

  6. FastStats: Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Source: Summary Health Statistics Tables for the U.S. Population: National Health Interview Survey, 2015, Table P-1c [ ...

  7. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  8. Lumbee Native American ancestry and the incidence of aggressive histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: In this retrospective cohort analysis, Lumbee Native American ancestry was not a significant independent predictor of rates of high-risk histological subtypes of endometrial cancer or poor survival outcomes.

  9. Recruitment and retention of Native American graduate students in school psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Brown, Jacqueline A; Machek, Greg R; Swaney, Gyda

    2016-09-01

    There is a clear underrepresentation of Native Americans in the field of school psychology. There are a number of factors that have led to this underrepresentation, including cultural and historical variables, barriers to accessing higher educational opportunities, and lack of financial support. Given the importance of having diverse perspectives in the field, as well as the need for mental health services and academic supports for Native American children and their families, school psychology trainers should consider actively recruiting and retaining Native American graduate students to doctoral and specialist programs. This article provides specific research-based recommendations for recruiting Native American students and strategies for supporting their success and matriculation in the program. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy; November 16-17, 1996; Bartlesville, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Thirty-three Native American tribal members, council members, and other interested parties gathered in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, to attend the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy on October 16 and 17 1996, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and BDM-Oklahoma, Inc. Tribes represented at the workshop included the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, Osage, Seminole, and Ute. Representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) also attended. BDM-Oklahoma developed and organized the Native American Conference on Petroleum Energy to help meet the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's Domestic Gas and Oil Initiative to help Native American Tribes become more self-sufficient in developing and managing petroleum resources.

  11. 38 CFR 36.4527 - Direct housing loans to Native American veterans on trust lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... No service or brokerage fee shall be charged against the Native American veteran-borrower by any..., including, but not limited to, contracts of sale, installment contracts, deeds, leases, bills of sale...

  12. 78 FR 66619 - National Native American Heritage Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... violence, marginalization, broken promises, and upended justice. There was a time when native languages and... natural disasters strike their homelands. In March, I signed the Violence Against Women Reauthorization...

  13. The Depiction of Native Americans in Recent (1991-2004) Secondary American History Textbooks: How Far Have We Come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined 15 secondary American history textbooks to evaluate their accuracy in depicting Native Americans as a follow-up to studies by Costo and Henry (1970) and Loewen (1995). The criteria embodied an authenticity guideline based upon the Five Great Values with a rating scale between 1 (lowest) and 5 (highest). The results indicate…

  14. Native Americans and cultural impact analysis: The proposed nuclear waste repository at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Beneath a surface patterning of legal, political, economic and other formal structures, Native American reservations and their tribes possess many culturally distinctive values and patterns of life. Generally it is this ancient underlying culture that Native American leaders wish to preserve and nourish. Their primary objective is tribal survival, and socioeconomic and cultural impact assessment theories and methods must reflect this objective. Conventional impact analysis rarely meets the needs of tribal leadership. Current, fragmented approaches must be replaced by integrative, holistic alternatives

  15. A day of immersive physiology experiments increases knowledge and excitement towards physiology and scientific careers in Native American students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Bryan K; Schiller, Alicia M; Zucker, Irving H; Eager, Eric A; Bronner, Liliana P; Godfrey, Maurice

    2017-03-01

    Underserved minority groups are disproportionately absent from the pursuit of careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. One such underserved population, Native Americans, are particularly underrepresented in STEM fields. Although recent advocacy and outreach designed toward increasing minority involvement in health care-related occupations have been mostly successful, little is known about the efficacy of outreach programs in increasing minority enthusiasm toward careers in traditional scientific professions. Furthermore, very little is known about outreach among Native American schools toward increasing involvement in STEM. We collaborated with tribal middle and high schools in South Dakota and Nebraska through a National Institutes of Health Science Education Partnership Award to hold a day-long physiology, activity-based event to increase both understanding of physiology and enthusiasm to scientific careers. We recruited volunteer biomedical scientists and trainees from the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Nebraska Wesleyan University, and University of South Dakota. To evaluate the effectiveness of the day of activities, 224 of the ~275-300 participating students completed both a pre- and postevent evaluation assessment. We observed increases in both students self-perceived knowledge of physiology and enthusiasm toward scientific career opportunities after the day of outreach activities. We conclude that activity-based learning opportunities in underserved populations are effective in increasing both knowledge of science and interest in scientific careers. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Curare: the South American arrow poison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M R

    2005-02-01

    The history of curare is both curious and convoluted. A product of South American culture it emerged in the sixteenth century from the mists of antiquity at the same time as quinine, coca, and chocolate. Like quinine, at first came the extract but no plant, and later the plant but no chemical compound. It took more than 300 years and the efforts of many explorers and scientists to resolve the problem. These included Condamine, Humboldt, Brodie, Waterton, Bernard, Dale, Walker, and King. Finally, the pure compound d-tubocurarine was isolated from the liana Chondrodendron and synthesised. Its specific physiological action was blockade of the effect of acetylcholine at the neuro-muscular junction. Such a paralytic poison could be used to kill oneself or others. The bizarre plot to kill the Prime Minister, Lloyd George, during the First World War is described. Fortunately this nefarious plan was thwarted by the Secret Service!

  17. The relevance of cultural activities in ethnic identity among California Native American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigman, Kurt; Soto, Claradina; Wright, Serena; Unger, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed data from a large statewide sample of Native American adolescents throughout California to determine whether participation in cultural practices was associated with stronger ethnic identity. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) scale was used to measure the ethnic identity of 945 Native American adolescents (416 male, 529 female) aged 13 - 19 across California. Respondents who participated in cultural activities including pow-wows, sweat lodge, drum group and roundhouse dance reported significantly higher Native American ethnic identity than their counterparts who did not take part in cultural activities. The association between cultural activities and ethnic identity was only significant among urban youth and not among reservation youth. Higher grades in school were associated with ethnic identity among females but not among males. Findings from this study show a strong association between cultural activities and traditional practices with tribal enculturation among Native American youth in California. Cultural-based practices to enhance Native identity could be useful to improve mental and behavioral health among Native American youth.

  18. Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura Chromosomes of South American Bufonidae (Amphibia, Anura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brum Zorrilla N.

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.Karyotypes of eight of South American Bufonidae were studied: B.ictericus, B. spinulosus spinulosus, B. arenarum, B. g. fernandezae, B. g. d'orbignyi, B. crucifer, B. paracnemis and B. marinus. In all species 2n = 22 chromosomes were found. Neither heteromorphic pairs of chromosomes nor bivalents with characteristic morphology and behavior of sex chromosomesduring male meiosis were observed in any species.

  19. [Endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids and their control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmäschke, R

    2015-01-01

    In a literature review, common endo- and ectoparasites of South American camelids are described, presenting morphological details and clinical signs important for diagnosis. Based on the life cycle of the parasites, possibilities for prophylaxis and therapy are indicated. The review should aid the veterinarian to diagnose and control common parasitic infections in South American camelids.

  20. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  1. Marital Patterns and Use of Mother Tongue at Home among Native-Born Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chigon; Min, Pyong Gap

    2010-01-01

    This article examines marital patterns and use of mother tongue at home among native-born Asian Americans using the 2005-2007 American Community Survey 3-Year Public Use Microdata Sample. There are variations in mother-tongue use across Asian ethnic groups, but variations among different types of marriage are even greater. Those who marry within…

  2. 77 FR 30512 - Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and Extension of Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Native American Career and Technical Education Program; Final Waivers and... American Career and Technical Education Program Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84... and Technical Education Program (NACTEP), the Secretary waives 34 CFR 75.250 and 75.261(c)(2) in order...

  3. Honoring the Past, Changing the Future: Bringing Native American Voices into Dance Theory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Robin

    2016-01-01

    The inclusion of Native American perspectives adds an important voice in honoring the multiplicities of histories and cultures inherent in American society. And yet, teachers run the risk of committing unknown offenses if they are not familiar with the potential pitfalls that longstanding asymmetrical power relations between cultures can produce.…

  4. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  5. Alcohol Use and American Indian/Alaska Native Student Academic Performance among Tribal Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometsevah, Cecelia L.

    2013-01-01

    Student academic performance, persistence, and graduation among American Indian/Alaska Native students in higher education are very low compared to other racial groups. Studies have shown that American Indian students enter higher education with a lack of academic preparedness, financial challenges, lack of social skills development, and lack of…

  6. 75 FR 74077 - Information Collection for Native American Business Development Institute Funding for Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Business Development Institute Funding for Economic Development Feasibility Studies and Long-Term Strategic...), Office of Indian Energy and Economic Development (IEED) seeks to spur job growth and sustainable economies on American Indian reservations. DED created the Native American Business Development Institute...

  7. 3 CFR 8449 - Proclamation 8449 of October 30, 2009. National Native American Heritage Month, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lives. Native Americans have distinguished themselves as inventors, entrepreneurs, spiritual leaders... Americans. These programs will increase educational opportunities, address the scourge of alcohol abuse and... affordable health care. While funding increases do not make up for past deficiencies, they do reflect our...

  8. 78 FR 39539 - Establishing the White House Council on Native American Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... efforts to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of tribal justice systems and protect tribal communities; (d) expanding and improving lifelong educational opportunities for American Indians and Alaska... Executive Order 13592 of December 2, 2011 (Improving American Indian and Alaska Native Educational...

  9. Rock, Reservation and Prison: The Native American Occupation of Alcatraz Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklansky, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the 1969-71 occupation of Alcatraz Island by young radical American Indians as a set of metaphors for Indian America. Examines the central images of cultural revitalization through independence, protest against the position of Native Americans nationwide and rebellion against White oppression. Contains 47 references. (SV)

  10. American Indian and Alaska Native Heart Disease and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent have a bachelor’s degree or higher. The poverty rate of people who report American Indian and ... I11, I13, 120–151. Data Sources: National Vital Statistics System, CDC, and the U.S. Census Bureau. American ...

  11. Unexpected inverse correlation between Native American ancestry and Asian American variants of HPV16 in admixed Colombian cervical cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Esteban A; Baena, Armando; Florez, Victor; Montiel, Jehidys; Duque, Constanza; Ramirez, Tatiana; Borrero, Mauricio; Cordoba, Carlos M; Rojas, Fredy; Pareja, Rene; Bedoya, Astrid M; Bedoya, Gabriel; Sanchez, Gloria I

    2014-12-01

    European (E) variants of HPV 16 are evenly distributed among world regions, meanwhile Non-European variants such as European-Asian (EAs), Asian American (AA) and African (Af) are mostly confined to Eastern Asia, The Americas and African regions respectively. Several studies have shown that genetic variation of HPV 16 is associated with the risk of cervical cancer, which also seems to be dependent on the population. This relationship between ethnicity and variants have led to the suggestion that there is co-evolution of variants with humankind. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the individual ancestry proportion and infection with HPV 16 variants in cervical cancer. We examined the association between ancestry and HPV 16 variants in samples of 82 cervical cancer cases from different regions of Colombia. Individual ancestry proportions (European, African and Native American) were estimated by genotyping 106 ancestry informative markers. Variants were identified by PCR amplification of the E6 gene, followed by reverse line blot hybridization (RLB) with variants specific probes. Overall European (E) and Asian American (AA) variants frequency was 66.5% and 33.5% respectively. Similar distribution was observed in cases with higher proportions of European or African ancestry. A higher Native American ancestry was significantly associated with higher frequency of E variants (median ancestry>23.6%, Age and place of birth adjusted OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.26-10.03, p=0.01). Even further, an inverse geographic correlation between Native American ancestry and frequency of infections with AA variants was observed (ρ=-0.825, p=0.008). Regions with higher proportion of Native American ancestry had a lower frequency of AA variants of HPV 16. This study suggests replacement of AA variants by E variants of human papillomavirus 16 in cervical cancer cases with high Native American ancestry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. South American climate during the Last Glacial Maximum: Delayed onset of the South American monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Vizy, E. K.

    2006-01-01

    The climate of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) over South America is simulated using a regional climate model with 60-km resolution, providing a simulation that is superior to those available from global models that do not resolve the topography and regional-scale features of the South American climate realistically. LGM conditions on SST, insolation, vegetation, and reduced atmospheric CO2 on the South American climate are imposed together and individually. Remote influences are not included. Annual rainfall is 25-35% lower in the LGM than in the present day simulation throughout the Amazon basin. A primary cause is a 2-3 month delay in the onset of the rainy season, so that the dry season is about twice as long as in the present day. The delayed onset occurs because the low-level inflow from the tropical Atlantic onto the South American continent is drier than in the present day simulation due to reduced evaporation from cooler surface waters, and this slows the springtime buildup of moist static energy that is needed to initiate convection. Once the monsoon begins in the Southern Hemisphere, LGM rainfall rates are similar to those in the present day. In the Northern Hemisphere, however, rainfall is lower throughout the (shortened) rainy season. Regional-scale structure includes slight precipitation increases in the Nordeste region of Brazil and along the eastern foothills of the Andes, and a region in the center of the Amazon basin that does not experience annual drying. In the Andes Mountains, the signal is complicated, with regions of significant rainfall increases adjacent to regions with reduced precipitation.

  13. Chronic disease risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M

    2011-11-01

    The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.

  14. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  15. Assessment of elder mistreatment in two American Indian samples: psychometric characteristics of the HS-EAST and the Native Elder Life-Financial Exploitation and -Neglect measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Janette

    2014-04-01

    Although elder mistreatment among ethnic minorities is increasingly gaining attention, our empirical knowledge of this phenomenon among American Indians remains quite limited, especially with respect to measurement. The Shielding American Indian Elders (SAIE) Project used a collaborative approach to explore culturally informed measurement of elder mistreatment in two American Indian elder samples (a Northern Plains reservation and a South Central metropolitan area). The project sought to investigate the performance characteristics of the commonly used Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (HS-EAST), as well as to examine the psychometric properties of a new measure developed to capture culturally salient aspects of mistreatment in American Indian contexts--the Native Elder Life Scale (NELS). Using methods and samples comparable to those in the literature, the HS-EAST performed adequately in these Native samples. The NELS also shows promise for use with this population and assesses different aspects of elder mistreatment than does the HS-EAST.

  16. Committee opinion no. 515: Health care for urban American Indian and Alaska Native women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  17. Landscape, Memory and Myth: An Interview with Native American Artist, Jeremy Dennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis, Jeremy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Dennis is a photographer and visual artist living and working in Southampton, New York. He is a member of the Shinnecock Indian Nation; a federally recognised tribe of historically Algonquian-speaking Native Americans based at the eastern end of Long Island, New York. He received his MFA from Pennsylvania State University in 2016, and in the same year, was one of only two artists in the USA awarded the Harpo Native American Residency Fellowship. In his work, Jeremy channels his experiences as an indigenous artist to explore and expand upon issues relating to identity, assimilation and post-colonialism. Through a combination of digitally manipulated photography, site-specific installation, performance and documentation, Dennis attempts to create multi-dimensional conversations around local and broader contemporary Native American issues, whilst also referencing its rich and complex history. jeremynative.com

  18. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, R.

    2008-03-01

    The United States is home to more than 700 American Indian tribes and Native Alaska villages and corporations located on 96 million acres. Many of these tribes and villages have excellent wind resources that could be commercially developed to meet their electricity needs or for electricity export. The Wind Powering America program engages Native Americans in wind energy development, and as part of that effort, the NAWIG newsletter informs readers of events in the Native American/wind energy community. This issue features an interview with Steven J. Morello, director of DOE's newly formed Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, and a feature on the newly installed Vestas V-47 turbine at Turtle Mountain Community College.

  19. Evaluation of a health sciences internship for Latino and Native American library students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Quasem, Sanjana; Kelly, Janice E; Dutcher, Gale A

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of a graduate-level internship for Latino and Native American library science students or students who are interested in serving those populations. The authors analyzed semi-structured interviews with thirteen internship program graduates or participants. The analysis suggests that the program increased participants' interest in health sciences librarianship and led to improved career opportunities, both in health sciences libraries and other libraries with health information programming. It also highlights specific factors that are likely to contribute to the strength of career pipeline programs aiming to bring Latino and Native American students and students who are interested in serving those communities into health librarianship. Exposing graduate-level interns to a broad range of health sciences librarianship tasks, including outreach to Latino and Native American communities and formal mentorship, is likely to maximize interns' interests in both health sciences librarianship and service to these communities.

  20. 'Snag bags': adapting condoms to community values in Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, Brian Joseph

    2006-01-01

    HIV/AIDS researchers working among Native Americans have consistently noted resistance to discussions of sexuality and the distribution of condoms. This resistance is inspired by long held values about shame and public discussions of sexuality. Also, American Indians have been reluctant to welcome public discussions of HIV/AIDS and sexuality from external entities, such as governmental agencies. As a result, Native peoples have some of the lowest documented condom use rates. However, innovations in culturally integrating condoms and safe sex messages into Native cultural ideals are proving beneficial. One such innovation is the snag bag, which incorporates popular Native sexual ideology while working within local ideals of shame to distribute condoms and safe sex materials to sexually active young people and adults. Using snag bags as an example, this research proposes that an effective approach to HIV prevention among Native peoples is not cultural sensitivity but cultural integration. That is, HIV prevention strategies must move beyond the empty promise of merely culturally-sensitizing ideas about disease cause. Instead of simply 'translating' HIV/AIDS programming into Native culture, prevention strategies must be integrated by Native peoples into their own disease theories and contemporary culture.

  1. Ohoyo Makachi: Words of Today's American Indian Women. A First Collection of Oratory by American Indian/Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verble, Sedelta, Ed.

    The volume presents a collection of 39 conference speeches symbolizing an effort by American Indian and Alaska Native women to speak for themselves, about themselves and to each other. Topics of speeches presented at Tahlequah consist of: past positives and present problems of Indian women; squaw image stereotyping; status of Indian women in…

  2. American Indian Tribal Values: A Critical Consideration in the Education of American Indians/Alaska Natives Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippeconnic, John W., III; Tippeconnic Fox, Mary Jo

    2012-01-01

    The education of American Indians and Alaska Natives has increasingly become more complex given the differences in tribal languages and cultures, especially as changing demographics and issues of Indian identity are considered. There are over 200 languages and vast cultural differences between and within the 565 federally recognized tribes in…

  3. Using Photo-Elicitation with Native American Students to Explore Perceptions of the Physical Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Neurohr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This research project explored Native American students’ perceptions of the Edmon Low Library at Oklahoma State University (OSU. The study sought to understand how Native American students perceived the role of the academic library in their lives, and which elements of the library students depicted and described as holding meaning for them. Methods – Photo-elicitation, a form of visual research and a participatory research method, was the primary method chosen to explore students’ perceptions of the library. To qualify for this study, students self-identified as Native American and as frequent library users. They also had completed three or more semesters of study at OSU. Five students followed a photo prompt for taking at least fifteen pictures of the library, then participated in two separate interviews with the primary researcher. Participants also completed a demographic/questionnaire form, answered semi-structured questions, and ranked the photos they took. Results – This study produced several emergent findings. First, students expressed uncertainty about the library’s books. Second, functional library tools such as express printers and library signage played a valuable role for facilitating student work. Third, the method of photo-elicitation was enjoyable for students and served as library discovery. Fourth, Native American resources and exhibits in the library had varied salience for students. Conclusion – Limited research focuses on Native American students in academic libraries, particularly on how students use and experience the library. Exploring how individual students who identify as Native American perceive the university library enhanced our understanding of how libraries in Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs can best serve and support students. This study provided insight into the method of photo-elicitation interviews. This research also provided practical benefits for student

  4. Tobacco Industry Promotional Strategies Targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and Exploiting Tribal Sovereignty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Lauren K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2018-03-12

    American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovereign, they are not subject to state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws. This study analyzes tobacco industry promotional efforts specifically targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands to understand appropriate policy responses in light of American Indians'/Alaska Natives' unique sovereign status and culture. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents available at the Truth Tobacco Documents Library (https://industrydocuments.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/). Tobacco companies used promotional strategies targeting American Indians/Alaska Natives and exploiting Tribal lands that leveraged the federally-recognized Tribes' unique sovereign status exempting them from state cigarette taxes and smokefree laws, and exploited some Tribes' existing traditional uses of ceremonial tobacco and poverty. Tactics included price reductions, coupons, giveaways, gaming promotions, charitable contributions and sponsorships. Additionally, tobacco companies built alliances with Tribal leaders to help improve their corporate image, advance ineffective "youth smoking prevention" programs, and defeat tobacco control policies. The industry's promotional tactics likely contribute to disparities in smoking prevalence and smoking-related diseases among American Indians//Alaska Natives. Proven policy interventions to address these disparities including tobacco price increases, cigarette taxes, comprehensive smokefree laws, and industry denormalization campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-related disease could be considered by Tribal communities. The sovereign status of federally-recognized Tribes does not prevent them

  5. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    OpenAIRE

    Gong Ni; Wang Yu-Tao; Björn Lars Olof; Li Shao-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lo...

  6. 77 FR 71396 - Council for Native American Farming and Ranching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... American Farming and Ranching (CNAFR) a public advisory committee of the Office of Tribal Relations (OTR... documents other than rules #0;or proposed rules that are applicable to the public. Notices of hearings #0..., filing of petitions and applications and agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples...

  7. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  8. Dna c-values of 20 invasive alien species and 3 native species in south china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Ni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultivated fields and forests in South China are experiencing serious damage due to invasive alien plants. We investigated the relation between DNA C-values and invasiveness. The DNA C-values of 23 species ranged from 0.39 pg to 3.37 pg. Herbs, perennials and native species had higher mean DNA C-values than shrubs, annuals and invasive alien species. DNA C-values decreased with increasing invasiveness. Paederia scandens, a harmful native species, has the lowest DNA C-value among the perennials, indicating that native species with low nuclear content may also possess an invasive potential.

  9. A NASA Community of Practice for Scientists and Educators Working with American Indians and Alaskan Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalice, D.; Sparrow, E. B.; Johnson, T. A.; Allen, J. E.; Gho, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    One size does not fit all. This is especially true in education, where each learner meets new information from a unique standpoint, bringing prior experiences and understandings to the learning space. It is the job of the educator to be sensitive to these unique perspectives, and work with them to bring learners to new levels of knowledge. This principle is foundational to conducting science education with Native American communities, as they have a distinct history in the US, especially where education is concerned. Many scientists and educators at agencies like NASA are engaging in science education with Native communities across the US, and are approaching the work from varied prior experiences, levels of knowledge of the history of Native America, and desired outcomes. Subsequently, there are varied levels of success, and in some cases, oppressive patterns may be perpetuated. It is therefore the responsibility of the science educator to become informed and sensitized to the unique situation of Native Americans and their history with education and science. It is incumbent on science educators to ensure that the goals they have for Native youth are derived from the goals Native leaders have for their youth, and programming is co-created with Native partners. Toward supporting its science education community to do this, NASA's Science Mission Directorate has initiated a Working Group of individuals, teams, and organizations that are involved in science education with Native American communities via K-12 and/or tribal college programming, and/or grant-making. The purpose is to cultivate a Community of Practice through the sharing of information, knowledge, wisdom, ideas, experience, and best practices, and through the leveraging of resources, assets, and networks. The ultimate goal is the improvement and increased cultural competence of the programs implemented and managed by the group's members.

  10. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Activities Related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report describes the activities that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted with American Indian and Alaska Native governments, educational institutions, and individuals during Federal fiscal year (FY) 2005. Most of these USGS activities were collaborations with Tribes, Tribal organizations, or professional societies. Others were conducted cooperatively with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) or other Federal entities. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). The USGS does not have regulatory or land management responsibilities. As described in this report, there are many USGS activities that are directly relevant to American Indians, Alaska Natives, and to Native lands. A USGS website, dedicated to making USGS more accessible to American Indians, Alaska Natives, their governments, and institutions, is available at www.usgs.gov/indian. This website includes information on how to contact USGS American Indian/Alaska Native Liaisons, training opportunities, and links to other information resources. This report and previous editions are also available through the website. The USGS realizes that Native knowledge and cultural traditions of living in harmony with nature result in unique Native perspectives that enrich USGS studies. USGS seeks to increase the sensitivity and openness of its scientists to the breadth of Native knowledge, expanding the information on which their research is based. USGS scientific studies include data collection, mapping, natural resource modeling, and research projects. These projects typically last 2 or 3 years, although some are parts of longer-term activities. Some projects are funded cooperatively, with USGS funds matched or supplemented by individual Tribal governments, or by the BIA. These projects may also receive funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the Indian Health Service (part of the Department of Health and Human Services

  12. Haemotrophic mycoplasmas in South American camelids in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, C; Meli, Marina L; Robert, N; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Wengi, Nicole; Lutz, Hans; Zanolari, P

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cell parasite 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae', formerly Eperythrozoon, is known to be widespread in South American camelids in the USA, causing anaemia in affected animals. Up to now, haemotrophic mycoplasmas were not observed in South American camelids in Europe; however, they were known in a herd of alpacas in Switzerland and to identify them as 'Candidatus M. haemolamae'. Possible ways of transmission are discussed.

  13. "The Poison That Ruined the Nation": Native American Men-Alcohol, Identity, and Traditional Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamonasa-Bennett, Arieahn

    2017-07-01

    Alcoholism and destructive drinking patterns are serious social problems in many Native American reservation and urban communities. This qualitative study of men from a single Great Lakes reservation community examined the social, cultural, and psychological aspects of their alcohol problems through their life stories. The men were in various stages of recovery and sobriety, and data collection consisted of open-ended interviews and analysis utilizing principles and techniques from grounded theory and ethnographic content analysis. Alcoholism and other serious social problems facing Native American communities need to be understood in the sociocultural and historical contexts of colonization and historical grief and trauma. This study suggests that for Native American men, there are culturally specific perspectives on alcohol that have important implications for prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse. The participants' narratives provided insight into the ways reconnecting with traditional cultural values (retraditionalization) helped them achieve sobriety. For these men, alcohol was highly symbolic of colonization as well as a protest to it. Alcohol was a means for affirming "Indian" identity and sobriety a means for reaffirming traditional tribal identity. Their narratives suggested the ways in which elements of traditional cultural values and practices facilitate healing in syncretic models and Nativized treatment. Understanding the ways in which specific Native cultural groups perceive their problems with drinking and sobriety can create more culturally congruent, culturally sensitive, and effective treatment approaches and inform future research.

  14. 20 CFR 668.100 - What is the purpose of the programs established to serve Native American peoples (INA programs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... them more competitive in the workforce; (3) Promote the economic and social development of Indian... LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Purposes and... support comprehensive employment and training activities for Indian, Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian...

  15. Afrikaans, American and British Models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions in a national and international context, by comparing the traditions and the roles of the lan- ... The changing linguistic, social, and educational situations in South Africa ... abroad, by the British and American leXicographical traditions. ... interactional styles in the South African social psychology and cross-cultural.

  16. Idea Bank: The Native American Flute--A Possibility for Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacanek, Hal

    2011-01-01

    The sound of the Native American flute seems to convey care, sadness, loneliness, longing, heartfelt emotion, a sense of the natural world, wisdom, the human spirit, and a sense of culture. It is a sound that competes for attention, dramatically punctuating messages about First Nation peoples on television and in movies. A relatively small group…

  17. 78 FR 12955 - Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria-Native American Career and Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... career and technical education programs (20 U.S.C. 2326(e)). This notice does not preclude us from... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter IV [Docket ID ED-2012-OVAE-0053] Final Requirements, Definitions, and Selection Criteria--Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP) [Catalog...

  18. Methamphetamine Use among Rural White and Native American Adolescents: An Application of the Stress Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David J.; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine use has been identified as having significant adverse health consequences, yet we know little about the correlates of its use. Additionally, research has found that Native Americans are at the highest risk for methamphetamine use. Our exploratory study, informed by the stress process model, examines stress and stress buffering…

  19. School Psychologists Working with Native American Youth: Training, Competence, and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Zanartu, Carol; Butler-Byrd, Nola; Cook-Morales, Valerie; Dauphinais, Paul; Charley, Elvina; Bonner, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing emphases on multicultural competence, Native American youth remain tremendously underserved by schools: low achievement, high dropout rates, and over-identification for special education persist. The authors analyzed responses of 403 school psychologists to a national survey regarding their competence gained in training, in current…

  20. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  1. Incorporating the Culture of American Indian/Alaska Native Students into the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Raphael M.; Williams, Garnet L.

    2014-01-01

    Focus group interviews were conducted with educators and stakeholders for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students, including teachers, elementary and high school principals, tribal community leaders, and parents, to determine a global definition of culture and ways of infusing culture into curriculum to better educate AI/AN students. Focus…

  2. Using Self-Regulated Learning Methods to Increase Native American College Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A.; Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A big challenge facing colleges and university programs across the United States is retaining students to graduation. This is especially the case for Native American students, who have had one of the highest dropout rates over the past several decades. Using data from a large university that implemented a self-regulated learning course for…

  3. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.

  4. Protocol for Appraisal of Petroleum Producing Properties on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-27

    Petroleum is currently produced on Native American Tribal Lands and has been produced on some of these lands for approximately 100 years. As these properties are abandoned at a production level that is considered the economic limit by the operator, Native American Tribes are considering this an opportunity to assume operator status to keep the properties producing. In addition to operating properties as they are abandoned, Native American Tribes also are assuming liabilities of the former operator(s) and ownership of equipment left upon abandonment. Often, operators are assumed by Native American Tribes without consideration of the liabilities left by the former operators. The purpose of this report is to provide protocols for the appraisal of petroleum producing properties and analysis of the petroleum resource to be produced after assuming operations. The appraisal protocols provide a spreadsheet for analysis of the producing property and a checklist of items to bring along before entering the property for onsite appraisal of the property. The report will provide examples of some environmental flags that may indicate potential liabilities remaining on the property left unaddressed by previous operators. It provides a starting point for appraisal and analysis of a property with a basis to make the decision to assume operations or to pursue remediation and/or closure of the liabilities of previous operators.

  5. Native American Students in U.S. Higher Education: A Look from Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simi, Demi; Matusitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the behavioral patterns of Native American college students in U.S. higher education. Attachment theory is the theoretical framework used in this analysis. Developed by Bowlby ("Attachment and loss: Separation, anxiety and anger," 1973), attachment theory postulates that behaviors can be predicted based on one's…

  6. Challenges to Evaluating Physical Activity Programs in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Erica Blue; Butler, James; Green, Kerry M.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of evaluation to successful programming, a lack of physical activity program (PAP) evaluation for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) programs exists, which is significant given the high rates of obesity and diabetes in this population. While evaluation barriers have been identified broadly among AI/AN programs, challenges…

  7. 75 FR 13595 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room S...: Mrs. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American Program, Employment and Training Administration, U.S...

  8. 77 FR 22003 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166 (h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs...

  9. 75 FR 7524 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act.... Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Indian and Native American...

  10. 78 FR 3031 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce... to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of Labor, 200.... Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native American Programs, Employment and Training...

  11. Reflections on the Elusive Promise of Religious Freedom for the Native American Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the April 1990 Supreme Court decision that a member of a religion may not challenge, under the First Amendment free exercise clause, a generally applicable criminal law that infringes on a specific religious practice. Discusses political and legal implications for the Native American Church and other minority religions. (SV)

  12. Native American Business Participation in E-Commerce: An Assessment of Technical Assistance and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregendahl, Corry; Flora, Cornelia

    A combined outreach and research initiative addressed the participation of Native American business owners in electronic commerce. E-commerce can provide many benefits to producers and consumers but does not ensure unmitigated economic success. It is only one part of a development process leading to achievement of tribes' broader social goals,…

  13. Does the Worm Live in the Ground? Reflections on Native American Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Michael Tlanusta; Wilbur, Michael P.

    1999-01-01

    Describes Native American spirituality through the four basic cultural elements of Medicine, Harmony, Relation, and Vision. With these elements in mind, practical implications for counseling are offered concerning greeting, hospitality, silence, space, eye contact, intention, and collaboration. States that once a counselor has some understanding…

  14. 40 CFR 255.33 - Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclusion of Federal facilities and Native American Reservations. 255.33 Section 255.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Responsibilities of Identified Agencies and Relationship to Other Programs § 255.33 Inclusion of Federal facilities...

  15. Working across cultures to protect Native American natural and cultural resources from invasive species in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice M. Alexander; Susan J. Frankel; Nina Hapner; John L. Phillips; Virgil Dupuis

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species know no boundaries; they spread regardless of ownership, and actions by neighboring landowners can influence local and regional populations and impacts. Native Americans and mainstream Western society (representing the prevalent attitudes, values, and practices of US society) both depend on forests for food, fiber, and emotional well-being, but in...

  16. Cross-Cultural Service Learning with Native Americans: Pedagogy for Building Cultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a curricular approach that centers on a Native American service learning course. Social work students engaged in cross-cultural immersion on a reservation in the United States. By examination of historical United States policy impacting Indian tribes and contemporary experiences that challenge basic instruction in public…

  17. Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among American Indian and Alaska Native High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Everett Jones, Sherry; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Doshi, Sonal

    2014-01-01

    Background: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. Methods: We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior…

  18. Perceptions of Lakota Native American Students Taking Online Business Course at Oglala Lakota College (OLC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Ahmed; Bryant, Carol

    2011-01-01

    This research examined the perceptions of Lakota Native American students taking a Business online course at the Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reservation. The study was conducted in the fall of 2010 and spring of 2011. The themes found in this study were flexibility, transportation, communication, and technical support. Furthermore, the…

  19. 78 FR 15008 - Applications for New Awards; Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native American Career and Technical Education Program (NACTEP); Correction AGENCY: Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Department of... the Code of Federal Regulations is available via the Federal Digital System at: www.gpo.gov/fdsys . At...

  20. Risk Factors for Physical Assault and Rape among Six Native American Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Koss, Mary P.; Polacca, Mona; Goldman, David

    2006-01-01

    Prevalence and correlates of adult physical assault and rape in six Native American tribes are presented (N = 1,368). Among women, 45% reported being physically assaulted and 14% were raped since age 18 years. For men, figures were 36% and 2%, respectively. Demographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, adulthood alcohol dependence,…

  1. Javelin, Arrow, Dart and Pin Games of Native American Women of the Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, Wilma J.; Pesavento, Lisa C.

    This study was designed to determine (1) the arrow, dart, javelin, and pin games of Native American girls and women of the Great Plains, (2) the geographical spread of the games within the culture area, and (3) the characteristics of the various games. Data for this investigation were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American…

  2. Strategy and Resistance: How Native American Students Engage in Accommodation in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masta, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a group of Native American 8th graders who attend a mainstream school and how they engage in accommodation as an act of agency and resistance to protect and maintain their identities in their school environment. By using tribal critical race theory to examine these experiences, this study raises important…

  3. "Not at the Expense of Their Culture": Graduating Native American Youth from High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Kristen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    What kinds of challenges do educators face in increasing Native American high school graduation rates, and what kinds of adaptations to a traditional high school are understood as necessary to achieve this outcome? This case study explored these questions as part of a larger multiple case study that investigated practices and processes related to…

  4. Regrounding in Place: Paths to Native American Truths at the Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Margin acts as ground to receive the figure of the text. Margin is initially unreadable, but as suggested by gestalt studies, may be reversed, or regrounded. A humanities course, "Native American Architecture and Place," was created for a polytechnic student population, looking to place as an inroad for access to the margins of a better…

  5. Iberian (South American) Model of Judicial Review: Toward Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores Latin American countries legislation with the view to identify specific features of South American model of judicial review. The research methodology rests on comparative approach to analyzing national constitutions' provisions and experts' interpretations thereof. The constitutional provisions of Brazil, Peru, Mexico, and…

  6. The Growth of the Native American Gaming Industry: What Has the Past Provided, and What Does the Future Hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, James I.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review which embodies a general inquiry about the growth of the Native American gaming industry and possibilities the future may hold for America's indigenous people. Tribal gaming is different from other forms of gaming. It is conducted by Native American governments as a way to carry out their natural self-governing…

  7. A Model of Successful Adaptation to Online Learning for College-Bound Native American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaler, Collier Butler

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the conditions for Native American high school students that result in successful adaptation to an online learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: In total, eight Native American students attending high schools located on Montana Indian reservations, and one urban city, were interviewed.…

  8. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Preterm Birth Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglan, Greta B; Lannon, Sophia M; Jones, Katherine M; Schulkin, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth disproportionately affects American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women. This disparity in birth outcomes may stem from higher levels of exposure to psychosocial, sociodemographic, and medical risk factors. This paper reviews relevant research related to preterm birth in American Indian and Alaska Native women. This narrative review examines disparities in preterm birth rates between AI/AN and other American women, and addresses several maternal risk factors and barriers that contribute to elevated preterm birth rates among this racial minority group. Additionally, this paper focuses on recent evidence that geographical location can significantly impact preterm birth rates among AI/AN women. In particular, access to care among AI/AN women and differences between rural and urban areas are discussed.

  10. Cartographies of the Voice: Storying the Land as Survivance in Native American Oral Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Yi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Native places are made, named, and reconstructed after colonization through storytelling. Storying the land is a process whereby the land is invested with the moral and spiritual perspectives specific to Native American communities. As seen in the oral traditions and written literature of Native American storytellers and authors, the voices of indigenous people retrace and remap cartographies for the land after colonization through storytelling. This article shows that the Americas were storied by Native American communities long before colonial contact beginning in the fifteenth century and demonstrates how the land continues to be storied in the present as a method of decolonization and cultural survivance. The article examines manifestations of the oral tradition in multiple forms, including poetry, interviews, fiction, photography, and film, to demonstrate that the land itself, through storytelling, becomes a repository of the oral tradition. The article investigates oral narratives from precontact and postcolonial time periods and across numerous nations and geographical regions in the Americas, including stories from the Mayan Popol Vuh; Algonkian; Western Apache; Hopi; Haudenosaunee/Iroquois; and Laguna Pueblo stories; and the contemporary poetry and fiction of Joy Harjo (Mvskoke/Creek Nation and Leslie Marmon Silko (Laguna Pueblo.

  11. Motivating Young Native American Students to Pursue STEM Learning Through a Culturally Relevant Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Sally; Andrade, Rosi; Page, Melissa

    2016-12-01

    Data indicate that females and ethnic/race minority groups are underrepresented in the science and engineering workforce calling for innovative strategies to engage and retain them in science education and careers. This study reports on the development, delivery, and outcomes of a culturally driven science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) program, iSTEM, aimed at increasing engagement in STEM learning among Native American 3rd-8th grade students. A culturally relevant theoretical framework, Funds of Knowledge, informs the iSTEM program, a program based on the contention that the synergistic effect of a hybrid program combining two strategic approaches (1) in-school mentoring and (2) out-of-school informal science education experiences would foster engagement and interest in STEM learning. Students are paired with one of three types of mentors: Native American community members, university students, and STEM professionals. The iSTEM program is theme based with all program activities specifically relevant to Native people living in southern Arizona. Student mentees and mentors complete interactive flash STEM activities at lunch hour and attend approximately six field trips per year. Data from the iSTEM program indicate that the program has been successful in engaging Native American students in iSTEM as well as increasing their interest in STEM and their science beliefs.

  12. Climate change and American Bullfrog invasion: what could we expect in South America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Nori

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological invasion and climate change pose challenges to biodiversity conservation in the 21(st century. Invasive species modify ecosystem structure and functioning and climatic changes are likely to produce invasive species' range shifts pushing some populations into protected areas. The American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus is one of the hundred worst invasive species in the world. Native from the southeast of USA, it has colonized more than 75% of South America where it has been reported as a highly effective predator, competitor and vector of amphibian diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We modeled the potential distribution of the bullfrog in its native range based on different climate models and green-house gases emission scenarios, and projected the results onto South America for the years of 2050 and 2080. We also overlaid projected models onto the South American network of protected areas. Our results indicate a slight decrease in potential suitable area for bullfrog invasion, although protected areas will become more climatically suitable. Therefore, invasion of these sites is forecasted. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide new evidence supporting the vulnerability of the Atlantic Forest Biodiversity Hotspot to bullfrog invasion and call attention to optimal future climatic conditions of the Andean-Patagonian forest, eastern Paraguay, and northwestern Bolivia, where invasive populations have not been found yet. We recommend several management and policy strategies to control bullfrog invasion and argue that these would be possible if based on appropriate articulation among government agencies, NGOs, research institutions and civil society.

  13. The problems inherent in teaching technical writing and report writing to native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowski/faust, J.

    1981-01-01

    Teaching technical writing to Native Americans contending with a second language and culture is addressed. Learning difficulties arising from differences between native and acquired language and cultural systems are examined. Compartmentalized teaching, which presents the ideals of technical writing in minimal units, and skills development are considered. Rhetorical problems treated include logic of arrangement, selection of support and scope of detail, and time and space. Specific problems selected include the concept of promptness, the contextualization of purpose, interpersonal relationships, wordiness, mixture of registers, and the problem of abstracting. Four inductive procedures for students having writing and perception problems are included. Four sample exercises and a bibliography of 13 references are also included.

  14. Field and laboratory guide to freshwater cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms for Native American and Alaska Native communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; St. Amand, Ann

    2015-09-14

    Cyanobacteria can produce toxins and form harmful algal blooms. The Native American and Alaska Native communities that are dependent on subsistence fishing have an increased risk of exposure to these cyanotoxins. It is important to recognize the presence of an algal bloom in a waterbody and to distinguish a potentially toxic harmful algal bloom from a non-toxic bloom. This guide provides field images that show cyanobacteria blooms, some of which can be toxin producers, as well as other non-toxic algae blooms and floating plants that might be confused with algae. After recognition of a potential toxin-producing cyanobacterial bloom in the field, the type(s) of cyanobacteria present needs to be identified. Species identification, which requires microscopic examination, may help distinguish a toxin-producer from a non-toxin producer. This guide also provides microscopic images of the common cyanobacteria that are known to produce toxins, as well as images of algae that form blooms but do not produce toxins.

  15. Are immigrants more likely than native-born Americans to perpetrate intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Cooper-Sadlo, Shannon; Maynard, Brandy R; Larson, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Despite an emerging body of research indicating that immigrants are less likely than native-born Americans to engage in crime and antisocial behavior, less attention has focused specifically on intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among immigrant populations. We address this gap by using data from Wave II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans with respect to multiple forms of IPV. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that in the aggregate, immigrants are significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV. However, examination of major world regions indicates these results are driven by Latin American immigrants. Immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Europe report a lower prevalence of IPV perpetration than native-born Americans. This study extends prior research on the immigrant paradox and suggests that future studies take into account regional heterogeneity when examining IPV and other forms of violence in immigrant populations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  17. Genetic ancestry and indigenous heritage in a Native American descendant community in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaieski, Jill B; Owings, Amanda C; Vilar, Miguel G; Dulik, Matthew C; Gaieski, David F; Gittelman, Rachel M; Lindo, John; Gau, Lydia; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-11-01

    Discovered in the early 16th century by European colonists, Bermuda is an isolated set of islands located in the mid-Atlantic. Shortly after its discovery, Bermuda became the first English colony to forcibly import its labor by trafficking in enslaved Africans, white ethnic minorities, and indigenous Americans. Oral traditions circulating today among contemporary tribes from the northeastern United States recount these same events, while, in Bermuda, St. David's Islanders consider their histories to be linked to a complex Native American, European, and African past. To investigate the influence of historical events on biological ancestry and native cultural identity, we analyzed genetic variation in 111 members of Bermuda's self-proclaimed St. David's Island Native Community. Our results reveal that the majority of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplotypes are of African and West Eurasian origin. However, unlike other English-speaking New World colonies, most African mtDNA haplotypes appear to derive from central and southeast Africa, reflecting the extent of maritime activities in the region. In light of genealogical and oral historical data from the St. David's community, the low frequency of Native American mtDNA and NRY lineages may reflect the influence of genetic drift, the demographic impact of European colonization, and historical admixture with persons of non-native backgrounds, which began with the settlement of the islands. By comparing the genetic data with genealogical and historical information, we are able to reconstruct the complex history of this Bermudian community, which is unique among New World populations. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. The South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchi, R.A.; Araujo, E.L.; Canal D, N.A.; Uchoa F, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus, the South American fruit fly, is the most common and economically important pest for the fruit-bearing species in the Neotropical region. However, there are some species that are close to A. fraterculus and, sometimes they can be erroneously identified as A. fraterculus. The separation of A. fraterculus from A. obliqua, A. sororcula and A. zenildae, species closely related to South American fruit fly, is discussed. Also, information on the host plants and braconid parasitoids for A. fraterculus in Brazil is presented. (author)

  19. CDC Vital Signs–Native Americans With Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-10

    This podcast is based on the January 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and Native Americans have a greater chance of having diabetes than any other racial group in the U.S. Learn how to manage your diabetes to delay or prevent kidney failure.  Created: 1/10/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/10/2017.

  20. Estimation of body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance in Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T G; Caballero, B; Himes, J H; Davis, C E; Stewart, D; Houtkooper, L; Going, S B; Hunsberger, S; Weber, J L; Reid, R; Stephenson, L

    2000-08-01

    Obesity, as measured by body mass index, is highly prevalent in Native American children, yet there are no valid equations to estimate total body fatness for this population. This study was designed to develop equations to estimate percentage body fat from anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance as a critical part of Pathways, a multi-site study of primary prevention of obesity in Native American children. Percentage fat was estimated from deuterium oxide dilution in 98 Native American children (Pima/Maricopa, Tohono O'odham and White Mountain Apache tribes) between 8 and 11 y of age. The mean fat content (38.4%+/-8. 1%) was calculated assuming the water content of the fat-free body was 76%. Initial independent variables were height, weight, waist circumference, six skinfolds and whole-body resistance and reactance from bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Using all-possible-subsets regressions with the Mallows C (p) criterion, and with age and sex included in each regression model, waist circumference, calf and biceps skinfolds contributed least to the multiple regression analysis. The combination of weight, two skinfolds (any two out of the four best: triceps, suprailiac, subscapular and abdomen) and bioelectrical impedance variables provided excellent predictability. Equations without BIA variables yielded r2 almost as high as those with BIA variables. The recommended equation predicts percentage fat with a root mean square error=3.2% fat and an adjusted r2=0.840. The combination of anthropometry and BIA variables can be used to estimate total body fat in field studies of Native American children. The derived equation yields considerably higher percentage fat values than other skinfold equations in children.

  1. A caution to Native American institutional review boards about scientism and censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askland, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Native American Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) promote the health and welfare of tribes by reviewing protocols for research studies that focus on their tribes. The benefits of approved protocols should not be overstated lest good studies disappoint because they do not satisfy unachievable expectations. IRBs also should avoid the temptation to censor the outcomes of those studies. Science relies on candor and clarity about results and methods to move forward.

  2. Glyphosate sustainability in South American cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffoleti, Pedro J; Galli, Antonio J B; Carvalho, Saul J P; Moreira, Murilo S; Nicolai, Marcelo; Foloni, Luiz L; Martins, Bianca A B; Ribeiro, Daniela N

    2008-04-01

    South America represents about 12% of the global land area, and Brazil roughly corresponds to 47% of that. The major sustainable agricultural system in South America is based on a no-tillage cropping system, which is a worldwide adopted agricultural conservation system. Societal benefits of conservation systems in agriculture include greater use of conservation tillage, which reduces soil erosion and associated loading of pesticides, nutrients and sediments into the environment. However, overreliance on glyphosate and simpler cropping systems has resulted in the selection of tolerant weed species through weed shifts (WSs) and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed (HRW) biotypes to glyphosate. It is a challenge in South America to design herbicide- and non-herbicide-based strategies that effectively delay and/or manage evolution of HRWs and WSs to weeds tolerant to glyphosate in cropping systems based on recurrent glyphosate application, such as those used with glyphosate-resistant soybeans. The objectives of this paper are (i) to provide an overview of some factors that influence WSs and HRWs to glyphosate in South America, especially in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay soybean cropped areas; (ii) to discuss the viability of using crop rotation and/or cover crops that might be integrated with forage crops in an economically and environmentally sustainable system; and (iii) to summarize the results of a survey of the perceptions of Brazilian farmers to problems with WSs and HRWs to glyphosate, and the level of adoption of good agricultural practices in order to prevent or manage it. Copyright (c) 2008 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Craton Heterogeneity in the South American Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, S.; Van der Lee, S.; Assumpcao, M.; Feng, M.; Franca, G. S.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate structure of the lithosphere beneath South America using receiver functions, surface wave dispersion analysis, and seismic tomography. The data used include recordings from 20 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed across eastern Brazil (BLSP02) and from the Chile Ridge Subduction Project seismic array in southern Chile (CRSP). By jointly inverting Moho point constraints, Rayleigh wave group velocities, and regional S and Rayleigh wave forms we obtain a continuous map of Moho depth. The new tomographic Moho map suggests that Moho depth and Moho relief vary slightly with age within the Precambrian crust. Whether or not a correlation between crustal thickness and geologic age can be derived from the pre-interpolation point constraints depends strongly on the selected subset of receiver functions. This implies that using only pre-interpolation point constraints (receiver functions) inadequately samples the spatial variation in geologic age. We also invert for S velocity structure and estimate the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) in Precambrian South America. The new model reveals a relatively thin lithosphere throughout most of Precambrian South America (< 140 km). Comparing LAB depth with lithospheric age shows they are overall positively correlated, whereby the thickest lithosphere occurs in the relatively small Saõ Francisco craton (200 km). However, within the larger Amazonian craton the younger lithosphere is thicker, indicating that locally even larger cratons are not protected from erosion or reworking of the lithosphere.

  4. Millennial-scale sustainability of the Chesapeake Bay Native American oyster fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Torben C; Reeder-Myers, Leslie A; Hofman, Courtney A; Breitburg, Denise; Lockwood, Rowan; Henkes, Gregory; Kellogg, Lisa; Lowery, Darrin; Luckenbach, Mark W; Mann, Roger; Ogburn, Matthew B; Southworth, Melissa; Wah, John; Wesson, James; Hines, Anson H

    2016-06-07

    Estuaries around the world are in a state of decline following decades or more of overfishing, pollution, and climate change. Oysters (Ostreidae), ecosystem engineers in many estuaries, influence water quality, construct habitat, and provide food for humans and wildlife. In North America's Chesapeake Bay, once-thriving eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) populations have declined dramatically, making their restoration and conservation extremely challenging. Here we present data on oyster size and human harvest from Chesapeake Bay archaeological sites spanning ∼3,500 y of Native American, colonial, and historical occupation. We compare oysters from archaeological sites with Pleistocene oyster reefs that existed before human harvest, modern oyster reefs, and other records of human oyster harvest from around the world. Native American fisheries were focused on nearshore oysters and were likely harvested at a rate that was sustainable over centuries to millennia, despite changing Holocene climatic conditions and sea-level rise. These data document resilience in oyster populations under long-term Native American harvest, sea-level rise, and climate change; provide context for managing modern oyster fisheries in the Chesapeake Bay and elsewhere around the world; and demonstrate an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied broadly to other fisheries.

  5. Justifications for caregiving in white, Asian American, and native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Race has been found to predict justifications for caregiving in family caregivers for older adults. However, little is known about this relationship in another type of family caregiver, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (GRG). This study examined relationships between race and justifications for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG. A sample of 259 GRG registered as students' primary caregivers with a public school system completed a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. CJCG items did not load onto a single analytic factor. Two factors, custom and responsibility, emerged. Race was predictive of custom, with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. Justifications for raising grandchildren appear to differ among groups based on racial identification. Findings elucidate cultural justification for caregiving in understudied GRG populations and suggest that justifications for caregiving are configured differently in GRG and family caregivers for older adults. Future studies should examine justifications for caregiving in GRG of other races.

  6. Analysis of admixture and genetic structure of two Native American groups of Southern Argentinean Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Andrea; Corach, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Argentinean Patagonia is inhabited by people that live principally in urban areas and by small isolated groups of individuals that belong to indigenous aboriginal groups; this territory exhibits the lowest population density of the country. Mapuche and Tehuelche (Mapudungun linguistic branch), are the only extant Native American groups that inhabit the Argentinean Patagonian provinces of Río Negro and Chubut. Fifteen autosomal STRs, 17 Y-STRs, mtDNA full length control region sequence and two sets of Y and mtDNA-coding region SNPs were analyzed in a set of 434 unrelated individuals. The sample set included two aboriginal groups, a group of individuals whose family name included Native American linguistic root and urban samples from Chubut, Río Negro and Buenos Aires provinces of Argentina. Specific Y Amerindian haplogroup Q1 was found in 87.5% in Mapuche and 58.82% in Tehuelche, while the Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups were present in all the aboriginal sample contributors investigated. Admixture analysis performed by means of autosomal and Y-STRs showed the highest degree of admixture in individuals carrying Mapuche surnames, followed by urban populations, and finally by isolated Native American populations as less degree of admixture. The study provided novel genetic information about the Mapuche and Tehuelche people and allowed us to establish a genetic correlation among individuals with Mapudungun surnames that demonstrates not only a linguistic but also a genetic relationship to the isolated aboriginal communities, representing a suitable proxy indicator for assessing genealogical background.

  7. From Marginalized to Validated: An In-Depth Case Study of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Nguyen, Mike Hoa; Nguyen, Bach Mai Dolly; Gasman, Marybeth; Conrad, Clifton

    2018-01-01

    This article highlights the capacity of an Asian American, Native American and Pacific Islander Institution (AANAPISI) to serve as an institutional convertor--by addressing challenges commonly associated with marginalized students--for low-income, Asian American and Pacific Islander students entering college. Through an in-depth case study, we…

  8. Germination of native understorey species for revegetation of New South Wales coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, M.J.; Bellairs, S.M.; Mulligan, D.R. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Agriculture and Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1997-06-01

    This project investigates the suitability of a range of native understorey species for rehabilitation at several coal mines in New South Wales. The germination of seeds from 69 species representing 12 families was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Germination occurred in all but two of the species tested and 50% germination was exceeded by 29 species. Species of the Mimosaceae, Fabaceae and Proteaceae tended to have above average germination; however species representing other families had variable germination results. A pre-germination heat treatment applied to all of the Acacia species increased germination in some but not all species. Seeds of these understorey species which were used in this trial, are native to the New South Wales coal fields and available commercially or are relatively easy to collect. Glasshouse and field trials are now being undertaken to assess establishment and growth on mine soil, spoil and coal reject materials. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Experiential Learning for Native American Students at Tribal Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauve, M. L.; Moore, K.

    2003-12-01

    In reaffirming its commitment to Indian tribes and Alaska Native entities, the Federal Government issued Executive Order 13270 of July 3, 2002, stating the policy that " this Nation's commitment to education excellence and opportunity must extend as well to the tribal colleges and universities." Further, the Federal Government has called on the private sector to contribute to these colleges' educational and cultural mission. American University, through its American Indian Internship Program, has responded to this call. American University, a private liberal arts institution of higher education in the Nation's capital, has long ago recognized the importance of experiential learning in undergraduate education. For over 50 years, its Washington Semester Program brings students from other universities around the country and the world to American University's campus and to Washington, D.C. for a unique academic experience. The Washington Semester Program combines academic seminars in various fields of concentration with internship work in government agencies, congressional offices, non-profit organizations, foundations and research institutions in the Nation's capital. Students in this Program get to meet the Nation's leaders, experts in the field, and notable newsmakers while incorporating their academic skills and courses in practice at their internship assignments. The American Indian Internship Program (also knows as Washington Internship for Native Students-WINS) is one of the programs in Washington Semester. This program is designed to give American Indian students the chance to study issues of interest to the Native community and to gain valuable work experience through an internship in the Nation's capital. All costs to attend the program are paid by the internship sponsors and American University, including transportation between the students' home and Washington, DC, tuition and program fees for 6 credit hours in the summer and 12 credit hours in fall

  10. 1,3-Butadiene exposure and metabolism among Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungshim Lani; Kotapati, Srikanth; Wilkens, Lynne R; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Murphy, Sharon E; Tretyakova, Natalia; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2014-11-01

    We hypothesize that the differences in lung cancer risk in Native Hawaiians, whites, and Japanese Americans may, in part, be due to variation in the metabolism of 1,3-butadiene, one of the most abundant carcinogens in cigarette smoke. We measured two biomarkers of 1,3-butadiene exposure, monohydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (MHBMA) and dihydroxybutyl mercapturic acid (DHBMA), in overnight urine samples among 584 Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, and white smokers in Hawaii. These values were normalized to creatinine levels. Ethnic-specific geometric means were compared adjusting for age at urine collection, sex, body mass index, and nicotine equivalents (a marker of total nicotine uptake). We found that mean urinary MHBMA differed by race/ethnicity (P = 0.0002). The values were highest in whites and lowest in Japanese Americans. This difference was only observed in individuals with the GSTT1-null genotype (P = 0.0001). No difference across race/ethnicity was found among those with at least one copy of the GSTT1 gene (P ≥ 0.72). Mean urinary DHBMA did not differ across racial/ethnic groups. The difference in urinary MHBMA excretion levels from cigarette smoking across three ethnic groups is, in part, explained by the GSTT1 genotype. Mean urinary MHBMA levels are higher in whites among GSTT1-null smokers. The overall higher excretion levels of MHBMA in whites and lower levels of MHBMA in Japanese Americans are consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in the former. However, the excretion levels of MHBMA in Native Hawaiians are not consistent with their disease risk and thus unlikely to explain their high risk of lung cancer. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Distribution of native and exotic branchiobdellidans (Annelida: Clitellata on their respective crayfish hosts in northern Italy, with the first record of native Branchiobdella species on an exotic North American crayfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy N. RAYBURN

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Branchiobdellidans were found on crayfish at the 18 sites examined in northern Italy. At 15 of the sites the native crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes, was collected and all supported specimens of Branchiobdella italica. A few specimens of B. parasita were found at only two of these sites and no specimens of B. hexodonta were observed during the survey. The North American Louisiana red swamp crayfish, Procambarus (Scapulicambarus clarkii has been found in three additional sites around Carmagnola, south of Torino. The exotic Cambarincola mesochoreus was recovered from red crayfish at two sites. However, no specimens of C. mesochoreus were found at the third site, but specimens B. italica and B. parasita were identified. This is the first record of native Branchiobdella spp. on an exotic and wild crayfish in northern Italy.

  12. South American Youth : Regional Democracy-Building Dialogue ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will undertake a comparative analysis of South American youth in the Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional integration. Researchers will examine the meaning that young people, adults and mediators of youth demands attribute to ...

  13. Mitogenomic phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography of South American spiny rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Upham, Nathan S.; Emmons, Louise H.

    2017-01-01

    Echimyidae is one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse rodent families in the world, occupying a wide range of habitats in the Neotropics. However, a resolved phylogeny at the genus-level is still lacking for these 22 genera of South American spiny rats, including the coypu (Myocastorina...... Atlantic and Amazonian Forests and (2) the Northern uplift of the Andes....

  14. Cultural Patterns of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    An overview of South Asian and Southeast Asian Americans is discussed to aid teachers in understanding behaviors exhibited by Asian students. Culture influences in the following areas are explored: family relationships, respect for age, social interaction, communication style, family expectations, humility, school situations, decision making, and…

  15. Strategic Plans for Use of Modern Technology in the Education of American Indian and Alaska Native Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Paul K.; Ohler, Jason

    The American school system is an invention of the Industrial Revolution. Schools were organized like industries to train workers for an industrial society. The resulting large, low-context, industrial schools institutionally discriminate against Native students. Also antagonistic to Native students is the dogma of Western science, a reductionist…

  16. Mexican-American Disciplinary Practices and Attitudes toward Child Maltreatment: A Comparison of Foreign- and Native-Born Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buriel, Raymond; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines disciplinary practices and child-maltreatment attitudes in foreign- and native-born Mexican-American mothers. Subjects responded to accounts of child misconduct and mistreatment. Foreign-born mothers more likely than natives to use spanking and verbal reasoning. Spanking not preferred by either group. Child-mistreatment-response…

  17. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results.

  18. Problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska native adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Smith, Philip H; Pilver, Corey; Hoff, Rani; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the association between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders among American-Indian/Alaska-Native (AI/AN) individuals. Thus, we examined these factors among a nationally representative sample of AI/AN and other American adults in the USA. Using the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) data, we conducted separate Wald tests and multinomial logistic regression analyses comparing AI/AN to black/African American, white/Caucasian, and all other racial/ethnic groups, respectively. Relative to other American adults, AI/AN adults were least likely to report non-/low-frequency gambling (NG: AI/AN 66.5%, white/Caucasian 70.5%, black/African American 72.8%, other racial/ethnic group 72.3%) and most likely to report low-risk gambling (LRG: AI/AN 30.1%, white/Caucasian 26.5%, black/African American 23.4%, other racial/ethnic group 24.7%). The association between at-risk/problem-gambling (ARPG) and any past-year Axis-I disorder was stronger among AI/AN versus other American adults. Although ARPG and LRG were associated with multiple past-year Axis-I and lifetime Axis-II psychiatric disorders in both AI/AN and other American adults, LRG was more strongly associated with both Axis-I disorders (particularly major depression, generalized anxiety disorder and nicotine dependence) and Cluster-B Axis-II (particularly antisocial personality disorder) disorders in AI/AN versus other American adults. A stronger association between problem-gambling severity and past-year psychiatric disorders among AI/AN relative to other American adults suggests the importance of enhancing mental health and problem-gambling prevention and treatment strategies that may help AI/AN individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Burden of Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Asian American Hospitalized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, T L; Cheng, Y; Saito, E; Seto, T B; Miyamura, J; Mau, M; Juarez, D T

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about diabetes in hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Asian Americans. We determined the burden of diabetes (both diagnosed and undiagnosed) among hospitalized Native Hawaiian, Asian (Filipino, Chinese, Japanese), and White patients. Diagnosed diabetes was determined from discharge data from a major medical center in Hawai'i during 2007-2008. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was determined by Hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% or glucose ≥200 mg/dl values for those without diagnosed diabetes. Multivariable log-binomial models predicted diabetes (potentially undiagnosed and diagnosed, separately) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Of 17,828 hospitalized patients, 3.4% had potentially undiagnosed diabetes and 30.5% had diagnosed diabetes. In multivariable models compared to Whites, Native Hawaiian and all Asian subgroups had significantly higher percentages of diagnosed diabetes, but not of potentially undiagnosed diabetes. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with significantly more hospitalizations during the study period compared to both those without diabetes and those with diagnosed diabetes. In all racial/ethnic groups, those with potentially undiagnosed diabetes also had the longest length of stay and were more likely to die during the hospitalization. Hospitalized Native Hawaiians (41%) and Asian subgroups had significantly higher overall diabetes burdens compared to Whites (23%). Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients, irrespective of race/ethnicity, may require more effective inpatient identification and management of previously undiagnosed diabetes to improve clinical outcomes.

  20. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Fall 2008, Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE?s Wind Powering America program produces a newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. This issue features an interview with Dave Danz, a tribal planner for the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa in northeastern Minnesota, and a feature on the new turbine that powers the KILI radio station on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

  1. Academic achievement of American Indian and Alaska native students: Does social-emotional competence reduce the impact of poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    Chain, J; Shapiro, VB; LeBuffe, PA; Bryson, AMK

    2017-01-01

    © Centers for American Indian and Alaska Native Health. Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between socialemotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to det ermine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emo...

  2. The assessment of radiation exposures in native American communities from nuclear weapons testing in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohmberg, E.; Goble, R.; Sanchez, V.; Quigley, D.

    2000-01-01

    Native Americans residing in a broad region downwind from the Nevada Test Site during the 1950s and 1960s received significant radiation exposures from nuclear weapons testing. Because of differences in diet, activities, and housing, their radiation exposures are only very imperfectly represented in the Department of Energy dose reconstructions. There are important missing pathways, including exposures to radioactive iodine from eating small game. The dose reconstruction model assumptions about cattle feeding practices across a year are unlikely to apply to the native communities as are other model assumptions about diet. Thus exposures from drinking milk and eating vegetables have not yet been properly estimated for these communities. Through consultations with members of the affected communities, these deficiencies could be corrected and the dose reconstruction extended to Native Americans. An illustration of the feasibility of extending the dose reconstruction is provided by a sample calculation to estimate radiation exposures to the thyroid from eating radio-iodine-contaminated rabbit thyroids after the Dedan test. The illustration is continued with a discussion of how the calculation results may be used to make estimates for other tests and other locations

  3. The American mink (Neovison vison) is a competent host for native European parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rondán, F J; Ruiz de Ybáñez, M R; Tizzani, P; López-Beceiro, A M; Fidalgo, L E; Martínez-Carrasco, C

    2017-11-30

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a mustelid native to North America that was introduced in Europe and the former USSR for fur farming. Throughout the last century, accidental or deliberate escapes of mink from farms caused the establishment of stable feral populations. In fact, the American mink is considered an invasive alien species in 28 European countries. The present study evaluates the gastrointestinal and cardiopulmonary helminth fauna of the American mink in Galicia (NW Spain) to understand its role as a potential reservoir for parasites affecting other autochthonous mustelids. In the period 2008-2014, fifty American mink (35 males and 15 females) of different ages (22 immature and 28 adults) from the provinces of Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra were captured and sacrificed. Eight parasite species were found (6 nematodes and 2 trematodes) with the following prevalences: Molineus patens (68%), Aonchotheca putorii (54%), Crenosoma melesi (10%), Aonchotheca annulosa (8%), Angiostrongylus daskalovi (6%), Aelurostrongylus spp. (2%), Troglotrema acutum (2%) and an unidentified trematode (2%). Eighty-two per cent of the mink harboured helminths, including 15 animals (30%) infected by only one parasite species, 19 (38%) by two species, 5 (10%) by three species and 2 mink (4%) by four species. All helminth species identified are native to European mustelids. Statistical models were used to evaluate if animal characteristics (age, sex and weight), date and capture area influenced the prevalence, intensity or parasite richness. Statistical differences were detected only in models for intensity of M. patens, A. putorii and C. melesi. This is the first report of Angiostrongylus daskalovi, a cardiopulmonary nematode, and A. annulosa, a gastrointestinal nematode specific of rodents, in American mink. Moreover, although the fluke T. acutum has already been cited in American mink, to our knowledge, the present study represents the first report of this trematode in the

  4. South American Field Experience: An Initiative in International Education. The Implementation Journal for the South American Field Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William J.

    A description is provided of Williamsport Area Community College's (WACC's) South American Field Experience program, a travel/study program for faculty and staff designed to provide a variety of learning experiences through a three week trip to Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. Chapter I presents an overview of the development of the project,…

  5. Can north american fish passage tools work for South american migratory fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rafael Mariano Baigún

    Full Text Available In North America, the Numerical Fish Surrogate (NFS is used to design fish bypass systems for emigrating juvenile salmon as they migrate from hatchery outfalls and rearing habitats to adult habitat in the oceans. The NFS is constructed of three linked modules: 1 a computational fluid dynamics model describes the complex flow fields upstream of dams at a scale sufficiently resolved to analyze, understand and forecast fish movement, 2 a particle tracking model interpolates hydraulic information from the fixed nodes of the computational fluid model mesh to multiple locations relevant to migrating fish, and 3 a behavior model simulates the cognition and behavior of individual fish in response to the fluid dynamics predicted by the computational fluid dynamics model. These three modules together create a virtual reality where virtual fish exhibit realistic dam approach behaviors and can be counted at dam exits in ways similar to the real world. Once calibrated and validated with measured fish movement and passage data, the NFS can accurately predict fish passage proportions with sufficient precision to allow engineers to select one optimum alternative from among many competing structural or operational bypass alternatives. Although South American fish species are different from North American species, it is likely that the basic computational architecture and numerical methods of the NFS can be used for fish conservation in South America. Consequently, the extensive investment made in the creation of the NFS need not be duplicated in South America. However, its use in South America will require that the behavioral response of the continent's unique fishes to hydrodynamic cues must be described, codified and tested before the NFS can be used to conserve fishes by helping design efficient South American bypass systems. To this end, we identify studies that could be used to describe the movement behavior of South American fishes of sufficient detail

  6. A culturally appropriate program that works: Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergun, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    For more than ten years, the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University has carried out the Native Americans in Marine and Space Sciences (NAMSS) Program. Its long-term goal is to increase the number of American Indian and Native Alaskan undergraduates in science who complete degrees, continue to graduate school and enter the professional scientific work force. Ninety-eight percent of NAMSS students have earned BS degrees and almost forty percent have continued in graduate school. These are impressive results considering the high national drop-out rate for Native American studentsaround 70% according to the Chronicle of Higher Education (26 May 1993, page A29). Most often, Native students wishing to earn degrees in science find few programs that fit with their traditional sense of place and community. Most programs are narrowly focused and do not support or nurture Native views of interrelationship of all things. While Western science's recent ecological systems thinking approach more closely resembles the traditional Native view, Traditional Ecological Knowledge is often perceived as anecdotal or storytelling and not real science. This is a problem for Native students who are strongly underrepresented in the U.S. scientific community as a whole and nearly absent from the marine sciences. Undergraduates from this group are without scientific career models or mentors from their ethnic group and experience difficulty establishing contacts with majority scientists. They have limited access to opportunities to explore career possibilities in the sciences through research participation. Once on campus they have difficulty establishing a sense of belonging in the University community and do not have an organized way to enter into the scientific activities that initially attracted them. Representation of Native Americans in the ranks of U.S. scientists will not be increased without special efforts to retain them as undergraduates and to recruit

  7. Internet cigarette sales and Native American sovereignty: political and public health contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Kari A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S

    2012-05-01

    Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) advertise low prices for tobacco products, subverting public health policy efforts to curtail smoking by raising prices. Many online retailers in the United States claim affiliation with Native American tribes and share in tribal tax-free status. Sales of discounted cigarettes from both online vendors and brick-and-mortar stores have angered non-Native retailers and triggered enforcement actions by state and federal governments in the United States concerned over lost cigarette excise tax revenue. Examination of the history and politics of cigarette sales on reservations and attempts to regulate Internet cigarette sales highlights the potential role for greater use of negotiated intergovernmental agreements to address reservation-based tobacco sales. Our review notes global parallels and explicates history and politics of such regulation in the United States, and offers background for collaborative efforts to regulate tobacco sales and decrease tobacco use.

  8. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, J P; Johnson, W E; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J

    1994-09-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using the methods of Fitch-Margoliash and neighbor-joining on a matrix of Nei's unbiased genetic distances for all pairs of species. Results of a relative-rate test indicate changes in two-dimensional electrophoresis data are constant among all South American felids with respect to a hyena outgroup. Allelic frequencies were transformed to discrete character states for maximum parsimony analysis. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicates a major split occurred approximately 5-6 million years ago, leading to three groups within the ocelot lineage. The earliest divergence led to Leopardus tigrina, followed by a split between an ancestor of an unresolved trichotomy of three species (Oncifelis guigna, O. geoffroyi, and Lynchailuris colocolo) and a recent common ancestor of Leopardus pardalis and L. wiedii. The results suggest that modern South American felids are monophyletic and evolved rapidly after the formation of the Panama land bridge between North and South America.

  9. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  10. Native American interpretation of cultural resources in the area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Harshbarger, C.L.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute (for a summary, see Pippin and Zerga, 1983; Pippin, 1984). Interpretations provided by Native American Indian people are not intended to refute other scientific studies, such as botanical, wildlife, and archaeological studies. Rather, they provide additional hypotheses for future studies, and they provide a more complete cultural understanding of the Yucca Mountain area. Representatives of sixteen American Indian tribes identified the cultural value of these resources as part of a consultation relationship with the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding initial consultation with the sixteen tribes, in-depth interviews with tribal elders, and findings from the first on-site visit with representatives of the sixteen tribes. As additional information is collected, it will be reviewed separately. An annual report will integrate all findings. 44 refs., 58 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Cultivating Native American scientists: an application of an Indigenous model to an undergraduate research experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete

    2018-03-01

    With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States. Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare. This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences. Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in 2012-2014. Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences. Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members

  12. Insight into American tourists’ experiences with weather in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddy Julia K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are often important factors determining the success of a tourism destination and resultant satisfaction among tourists. This is particularly true for South Africa due the predominance of outdoor tourist attractions. Increasing numbers of international tourists have visited South Africa since the fall of apartheid, particularly those from the United States (U.S., which is an important market for South African tourism. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine a sample of American tourists’ experience with day-to-day weather and climatic conditions in South Africa. The results show that although respondents did not feel that climatic conditions were an important factor in motivations to visit the country, the day-to-day weather did often impact the enjoyment of their visit. Most notably, weather controlled their ability to participate in outdoor activities. In correlating accounts of unpleasant weather conditions with the meteorological records, a close association emerged, particularly for excessively high temperatures. This indicates that the experiences of American tourists are an accurate indication of climatic unsuitability for tourism, which poses threats to the South African outdoor tourism sector.

  13. Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Jr., Wilson A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Paixão, Beatriz M.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Rodriguez-Delfin, Luis; Barbosa, Marcela; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luiza; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Valente, Valeria; Santos, Sidney E. B.; Zago, Marco A.

    2002-01-01

    There is general agreement that the Native American founder populations migrated from Asia into America through Beringia sometime during the Pleistocene, but the hypotheses concerning the ages and the number of these migrations and the size of the ancestral populations are surrounded by controversy. DNA sequence variations of several regions of the genome of Native Americans, especially in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, have been studied as a tool to help answer these questions. However, the small number of nucleotides studied and the nonclocklike rate of mtDNA control-region evolution impose several limitations to these results. Here we provide the sequence analysis of a continuous region of 8.8 kb of the mtDNA outside the D-loop for 40 individuals, 30 of whom are Native Americans whose mtDNA belongs to the four founder haplogroups. Haplogroups A, B, and C form monophyletic clades, but the five haplogroup D sequences have unstable positions and usually do not group together. The high degree of similarity in the nucleotide diversity and time of differentiation (i.e., ∼21,000 years before present) of these four haplogroups support a common origin for these sequences and suggest that the populations who harbor them may also have a common history. Additional evidence supports the idea that this age of differentiation coincides with the process of colonization of the New World and supports the hypothesis of a single and early entry of the ancestral Asian population into the Americas. PMID:12022039

  14. Solar Energy Technologies and the Utilization on Native American Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Kathryn [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-08-31

    As an undergraduate researcher, I worked on a new technology called nanofluid-based direct absorption solar collectors (DASC) which is a type of solar water heater that has the potential to be more efficient than traditional solar water heaters. Because of my experience with this type of technology, I decided to look into other types of solar energy technologies which could be used on Native American tribal lands. Some types of solar energy technologies that I wanted to focus on are photovoltaic solar energy systems, passive solar design, and solar water heaters.

  15. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Verst, Scott Van [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Rochette, Elizabeth A. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  16. Land, language, and loci: mtDNA in Native Americans and the genetic history of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cecil M; Tito, Raúl Y; Lizárraga, Beatriz; Stone, Anne C

    2005-07-01

    Despite a long history of complex societies and despite extensive present-day linguistic and ethnic diversity, relatively few populations in Peru have been sampled for population genetic investigations. In order to address questions about the relationships between South American populations and about the extent of correlation between genetic distance, language, and geography in the region, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable region I sequences and mtDNA haplogroup markers were examined in 33 individuals from the state of Ancash, Peru. These sequences were compared to those from 19 American Indian populations using diversity estimates, AMOVA tests, mismatch distributions, a multidimensional scaling plot, and regressions. The results show correlations between genetics, linguistics, and geographical affinities, with stronger correlations between genetics and language. Additionally, the results suggest a pattern of differential gene flow and drift in western vs. eastern South America, supporting previous mtDNA and Y chromosome investigations. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  17. National Conference on High Blood Pressure Control in Native American Communities (2nd, Tulsa, Oklahoma, November 6-7, 1980). Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    As part of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program effort, the conference explored the impact of high blood pressure (hypertension) on Native Americans. Participants, including health professionals, health service consumers, and volunteers providing health services to Native Americans, discussed these issues: traditional Native American…

  18. Archeology and Native American Religion at the Leon River Medicine Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    varieties of plants. The eastern side of including pecan (Carya illinoinensis), slippery elm the facility (East Range) is typified by dense (Ulmus rubra...southern part of the Cross Timbers and Prairies texana), and cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia). A Vegetation Area. Alired and Mitchell (1955) term variety of...south (West Fort americana), American elm (Ulmus americana), Hood) are generally more open, ranging from TRC MARIAH ASSOCIATES, INC. (662-21

  19. The Appropriateness of Using Three Measures of Self-Beliefs with European American, Latino/a, and Native American College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…

  20. "We Don't Live like that Anymore": Native Peoples at the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, 1970-1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1970, the Smithsonian's Festival of American Folklife, an annual event on the National Mall featuring tradition bearers from around the country, premiered a new American Indian program that combined presentations of Native traditions with panel discussions of contemporary social, political, and economic issues facing Native…

  1. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  2. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  3. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, So-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  4. Assessment training for practice in American Indian and Alaska Native settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James

    2002-10-01

    The collaborative assessment model is extended as a training model. The experience of psychological assessment in American Indian and Alaska Native communities is often negative due to culturally inappropriate services and test interpretation. It is productive to address this negative experience, using it as a catalyst for learning. Training in measurement and construct validation provides initial basis for critique of negative experience. Training in collaborative assessment procedures then focuses on culturally appropriate assessment service practices, cultural orientation's affect on test interpretation, and multicultural assessment ethics. Writing skills are emphasized, including procedures in report writing for description of local adaptations, norms, and interpretative rules, and integration of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (4th ed., text revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) cultural formulation. Development of local norms and emic tests are emphasized.

  5. Eye gaze during comprehension of American Sign Language by native and beginning signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Thompson, Robin; Colvin, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    An eye-tracking experiment investigated where deaf native signers (N = 9) and hearing beginning signers (N = 10) look while comprehending a short narrative and a spatial description in American Sign Language produced live by a fluent signer. Both groups fixated primarily on the signer's face (more than 80% of the time) but differed with respect to fixation location. Beginning signers fixated on or near the signer's mouth, perhaps to better perceive English mouthing, whereas native signers tended to fixate on or near the eyes. Beginning signers shifted gaze away from the signer's face more frequently than native signers, but the pattern of gaze shifts was similar for both groups. When a shift in gaze occurred, the sign narrator was almost always looking at his or her hands and was most often producing a classifier construction. We conclude that joint visual attention and attention to mouthing (for beginning signers), rather than linguistic complexity or processing load, affect gaze fixation patterns during sign language comprehension.

  6. Astronomy and Geology Vocabulary, I.e. "NASA Words" in Native American Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrum, A.; Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.

    2014-12-01

    The US Rosetta Project has developed a program in Native American communities in which contemporary STEM vocabulary is taught alongside the same vocabulary in Navajo. NASA images and science are used and described in the native language, alongside both lay English, and scientific English. Additionally, science curriculum (geology/chemistry/botany/physics) elements drawn from the reservation environment, including geomorphology, geochemistry, soil physics, are included and discussed in the native language as much as possible — with their analogs in other planetary environments (such as Mars). The program began with a student defining 30 Navajo words to describe what he called 'NASA' words, such as: cell phone, astronaut, space suit, computer, and planets not visible to the naked eye. The use of NASA material and imagery have a positive impact on the accessibility of the overall STEM material but community involvement, and buy-in, is criti! cal to the success of the program. The US Rosetta Project modified its goals, and curriculum, to accommodate the programmatic desires of teachers in the district, and the capabilities of the medicine men that agreed to participate. In this presentation we will report on lessons learned, as well as metrics and successes associated with our most recent Summer Science Academy [2014].

  7. Phylogenetic reconstruction of South American felids defined by protein electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Pecon Slattery, J.; Johnson, W. E.; Goldman, D.; O'Brien, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Phylogenetic associations among six closely related South American felid species were defined by changes in protein-encoding gene loci. We analyzed proteins isolated from skin fibroblasts using two-dimensional electrophoresis and allozymes extracted from blood cells. Genotypes were determined for multiple individuals of ocelot, margay, tigrina, Geoffroy's cat, kodkod, and pampas cat at 548 loci resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and 44 allozyme loci. Phenograms were constructed using...

  8. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clarkson, C

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucas martinicensis (L.) R.Br. BP01204 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 0.813.3 Water 0.7 > 100 Ocimum americanum L. var. americanum BP01210 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 0.14.2 Water 0.8 > 100 Salvia repens Burch. ex Benth. BP00998 Whole plant DCM/MeOH (1:1) 1... al., 1997) and Ocimum americanum L. var. ameri- canum (Lamiaceae) (Vieira et al., 2003), there are no reports on their antiplasmodial activity. Several representatives Table 2 Native or naturalised South African plants with high antiplasmodial...

  9. Beautiful Earth: Inspiring Native American students in Earth Science through Music, Art and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasanto, V.; Rock, J.; Hallowell, R.; Williams, K.; Angell, D.; Beautiful Earth

    2011-12-01

    The Beautiful Earth program, awarded by NASA's Competitive Opportunities in Education and Public Outreach for Earth and Space Science (EPOESS), is a live multi-media performance at partner science centers linked with hands-on workshops featuring Earth scientists and Native American experts. It aims to inspire, engage and educate diverse students in Earth science through an experience of viewing the Earth from space as one interconnected whole, as seen through the eyes of astronauts. The informal education program is an outgrowth of Kenji Williams' BELLA GAIA Living Atlas Experience (www.bellagaia.com) performed across the globe since 2008 and following the successful Earth Day education events in 2009 and 2010 with NASA's DLN (Digital Learning Network) http://tinyurl.com/2ckg2rh. Beautiful Earth takes a new approach to teaching, by combining live music and data visualizations, Earth Science with indigenous perspectives of the Earth, and hands-on interactive workshops. The program will utilize the emotionally inspiring multi-media show as a springboard to inspire participants to learn more about Earth systems and science. Native Earth Ways (NEW) will be the first module in a series of three "Beautiful Earth" experiences, that will launch the national tour at a presentation in October 2011 at the MOST science museum in collaboration with the Onandaga Nation School in Syracuse, New York. The NEW Module will include Native American experts to explain how they study and conserve the Earth in their own unique ways along with hands-on activities to convey the science which was seen in the show. In this first pilot run of the module, 110 K-12 students with faculty and family members of the Onandaga Nations School will take part. The goal of the program is to introduce Native American students to Earth Sciences and STEM careers, and encourage them to study these sciences and become responsible stewards of the Earth. The second workshop presented to participants will be the

  10. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-09

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  11. Self-reported injury history in Native American professional rodeo competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichlow, Renée; Williamson, Steve; Geurin, Mike; Heggem, Heather

    2006-07-01

    Evaluation of rodeo injury and the use of protective equipment. Cross-sectional survey. Indian National Finals Rodeo 2004 in San Jacinto, CA. One hundred sixty-nine native American, professional rodeo competitors. On-site survey completed before competition. A total of 180 native American competitors received the survey. Respondents reported the event of participation, prior injury histories (including number, type and disability), use of protective equipment, and access to health care. Main outcomes were determined before survey distribution and included self-reported injury rate, time away from rodeo secondary to injury, and protective equipment usage during competition. Total 94% response rate. There was a range of injury history-from 100% of bull riders to only 24% of tie-down ropers-reporting a history of injuries. Forty percent of competitors reported using protective equipment; of these, 32% reported wearing vests. Twenty-six percent of the competitors had a history of injury that prevented them from working an average of 3.2 months. As hypothesized, a greater injury rate resulted from rough stock events; older competitors are more likely to have had work time loss from injury; and vests are the most frequently used protective equipment in rodeo.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA variability among six South American Amerindian villages from the Pano linguistic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Simoes, Aguinaldo L

    2014-01-01

    Although scattered throughout a large geographic area, the members of the Pano linguistic group present strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity, a feature that causes them to be considered components of a same "Pano" tribe. Nevertheless, the genetic homogeneity between Pano villages has not yet been examined. To study the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group, four major Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) founder haplogroups were analyzed in 77 Amerindians from six villages of four Pano tribes (Katukina, Kaxináwa, Marúbo, and Yaminawa) located in the Brazilian Amazon. The central position of these tribes in the continent makes them relevant for attempts to reconstruct population movements in South America. Except for a single individual that presented an African haplogroup L, all remaining individuals presented one of the four Native American haplogroups. Significant heterogeneity was observed across the six Pano villages. Although Amerindian populations are usually characterized by considerable interpopulational diversity, the high heterogeneity level observed is unexpected if the strong ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity of the Pano linguistic group is taken into account. The present findings indicate that the ethnic, linguistic, and cultural homogeneity does not imply genetic homogeneity. Even though the genetic heterogeneity uncovered may be a female-specific process, the most probable explanation for that is the joint action of isolation and genetic drift as major factors influencing the genetic structure of the Pano linguistic group. Copyright © 2014 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  13. Implications of the regional haze rule on renewable and wind energy development on native American lands in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, T.L.; Auberle, W.M.; Duque, E.P.N.; Jeffery, W.D.; LaRoche, D.R.; Masayesva, V.; Smith, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided. (author)

  14. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabanayagam, Ch.; Shankar, A.; Sabanayagam, Ch.; Buchwald, D.; Goins, R.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  15. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  16. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Costa, M Fernanda; Macinko, James; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Mello; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-05-01

    The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined.

  17. Impact of disability and other physical health issues on academic outcomes among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Vanzile-Tamsen, Carol; Black, Jessica; Billiot, Shanondora M; Tovar, Molly

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether self-identified disabilities among American Indian and Alaskan Native college students impact academic performance and persistence to graduation and explored the differences in health and academic grades between American Indian and Alaskan Native students and students of other racial and ethnic identities using the National College Health Assessment. Findings indicate that American Indian or Alaskan Native students have significantly lower grades than White and Asian students, and American Indian and Alaskan Native women report the highest incidence of health problems of any demographic group. Exploratory results point to future research to determine the full impact of disabilities and poor health on academic success.

  18. First South American Agathis (Araucariaceae), Eocene of Patagonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Peter; Escapa, Ignacio H; Cúneo, N Rubén; Kooyman, Robert M; Johnson, Kirk R; Iglesias, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Agathis is an iconic genus of large, ecologically important, and economically valuable conifers that range over lowland to upper montane rainforests from New Zealand to Sumatra. Exploitation of its timber and copal has greatly reduced the genus's numbers. The early fossil record of Agathis comes entirely from Australia, often presumed to be its area of origin. Agathis has no previous record from South America. We describe abundant macrofossils of Agathis vegetative and reproductive organs, from early and middle Eocene rainforest paleofloras of Patagonia, Argentina. The leaves were formerly assigned to the New World cycad genus Zamia. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. is the first South American occurrence and the most complete representation of Agathis in the fossil record. Its morphological features are fully consistent with the living genus. The most similar living species is A. lenticula, endemic to lower montane rainforests of northern Borneo. Agathis zamunerae sp. nov. demonstrates the presence of modern-aspect Agathis by 52.2 mya and vastly increases the early range and possible areas of origin of the genus. The revision from Zamia breaks another link between the Eocene and living floras of South America. Agathis was a dominant, keystone element of the Patagonian Eocene floras, alongside numerous other plant taxa that still associate with it in Australasia and Southeast Asia. Agathis extinction in South America was an integral part of the transformation of Patagonian biomes over millions of years, but the living species are disappearing from their ranges at a far greater rate.

  19. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  20. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  1. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Nelson Biological Laboratory, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  2. Intestinal helminths in lowland South American Indians: some evolutionary interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confalonieri, U; Ferreira, L F; Araújo, A

    1991-12-01

    Data on intestinal parasite infections for South American Indians in prehistoric times as revealed by coprolite analysis are being used to support transoceanic migration routes from the Old World to the New World. These same findings on modern semi-isolated aborigines, considered persisting prehistoric patterns, are also of great importance as indicators of pre-Columbian peopling of South America. This is the case for the Lengua Indians from Paraguay, studied in the 1920s, and the Yanomami and the Salumã from Brazil, studied in the 1980s. The intestinal parasitic profile of these groups can be empirically associated with culture change, but no clear correlations with the population biology of their hosts can be made at present because of scarcity of data.

  3. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.

  4. Regular tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska native adolescents: an examination of protective mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osilla, Karen Chan; Lonczak, Heather S; Mail, Patricia D; Larimer, Mary E; Marlatt, G Alan

    2007-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents use tobacco at earlier ages and in larger quantities compared to non-AIAN peers. Regular tobacco use was examined against five protective factors (peer networks supportive of not using drugs, college aspirations, team sports, playing music, and volunteerism). Participants consisted of 112 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 who participated in a study testing the efficacy of a life-skills program aimed at reducing substance-related consequences. Findings indicated that, with the exception of prosocial peer networks and volunteerism, each of the above factors was significantly associated with a reduced probability of being a regular tobacco user. Gender differences were notable. These results hold important treatment implications regarding the reduction and prevention of tobacco use among AIAN youth.

  5. Native American adolescents' views of fetal alcohol syndrome prevention in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, G X; Toubbeh, J; Cline, J; Chisholm, A

    1998-04-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance among adolescents in the United States. Adolescent females are recognized as one group at risk for giving birth to babies with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Sixth through eighth grade Native Americans were surveyed about their attitudes toward and knowledge of FAS risk factors and prevention strategies. Data revealed that 52% of students drank alcohol prior to the survey. Though sexually active, students lacked knowledge about the relationship between alcohol and FAS. The study revealed 1) limited prevention programs in middle schools and 2) the most influential factor in determining attitudes and decisions about alcohol use was the immediate family. Students felt FAS prevention is an important topic in school health education, noting the important role peers play in teaching and role modeling. Various strategies incorporating music and communication technology such as videotape and computer-assisted interactive tools into prevention materials are discussed.

  6. Similarities and Differences Between Yoruba Traditional Healers (YTH) and Native American and Canadian Healers (NACH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adekson, Mary Olufunmilayo

    2016-10-01

    Indigenous people of the world have used the services of medicine men and traditional healers from time immemorial. According to the World Health Organization, 80 % of the world's populations consult traditional healers. With an emerging globalization of health services in the world, there is a need for western mental health practitioners to learn and understand the practices of indigenous healers across the globe. This paper will not only highlight the similarities and differences between Yoruba traditional healers of Western Nigeria and Native American and First Nation Canadian traditional healers, but it will also allow practitioners to gain clearer perspectives of indigenous clients from Yoruba land and those from the United States of America and Canada. This ultimately will inform culturally sensitive clinical practice with these populations.

  7. Sun-Earth Scientists and Native Americans Collaborate on Sun-Earth Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y.; Lopez, R. E.; Hawkins, I.

    2004-12-01

    Sun-Earth Connection scientists have established partnerships with several minority professional societies to reach out to the blacks, Hispanics and Native American students. Working with NSBP, SACNAS, AISES and NSHP, SEC scientists were able to speak in their board meetings and national conferences, to network with minority scientists, and to engage them in Sun-Earth Day. Through these opportunities and programs, scientists have introduced NASA research results as well indigenous views of science. They also serve as role models in various communities. Since the theme for Sun-Earth Day 2005 is Ancient Observatories: Timeless Knowledge, scientists and education specialists are hopeful to excite many with diverse backgrounds. Sun-Earth Day is a highly visible annual program since 2001 that touches millions of students and the general public. Interviews, classroom activities and other education resources are available on the web at sunearthday.nasa.gov.

  8. The prostitution and trafficking of American Indian/Alaska Native women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.

  9. Mortality patterns among a Native American population in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, A M; Mahoney, M C; Cummings, K M; Hanley, J; Snyder, R

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated patterns of mortality among a Native American tribe, the Seneca Nation of Indians (SNI). The names of 962 tribal members reported to have died in New York State between 1955 and the end of 1984 were identified through a review of tribal roll books maintained by the Seneca Nation. Positive matches were obtained for 796 (83%) of these individuals using New York State mortality files for the period under investigation. Standardized Proportionate Mortality Ratios (PMR) were computed for major causes of death based on cause-specific mortality patterns in the New York State population for each sex during the same time period. Significantly elevated risks of mortality were observed for all infectious diseases, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis, and accidents. Depressed mortality ratios were noted for deaths due to all cancers combined, and for cancers of the lung, pancreas, breast, and lymphatic/hematopoietic cancers. Changes in mortality risks over time were also observed.

  10. Religion and suicide: Buddhism, Native American and African religions, Atheism, and Agnosticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi, D; Gearing, R E

    2010-09-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that religiosity can potentially serve as a protective factor against suicidal behavior. A clear understanding of the influence of religion on suicidality is required to more fully assess for the risk of suicide. The databases PsycINFO and MEDLINE were used to search peer-reviewed journals prior to 2008 focusing on religion and suicide. Articles focusing on suicidality across Buddhism, Native American and African religions, as well as on the relationship among Atheism, Agnosticism, and suicide were utilized for this review. Practice recommendations are offered for conducting accurate assessment of religiosity as it relates to suicidality in these populations. Given the influence of religious beliefs on suicide, it is important to examine each major religious group for its unique conceptualization and position on suicide to accurately identify a client's suicide risk.

  11. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  12. Cultural adaptation, psychometric properties, and outcomes of the Native American Spirituality Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Brenna L; Hallgren, Kevin A; Venner, Kamilla L; Hagler, Kylee J; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Sheche, Judith N; Homer, Everett; Lupee, Donna

    2015-05-01

    Spirituality is central to many Native Americans (NAs) and has been associated with recovery from substance use disorders (SUDs). However, no published questionnaire uniquely taps tribal-specific spiritual beliefs and practices. This hinders efforts to integrate traditional NA spirituality into SUD treatment and track spiritual outcomes. As part of a randomized controlled trial examining SUD treatment for NAs, we adapted the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES) in collaboration with members of a Southwest tribe to create the Native American Spirituality Scale (NASS) and measured changes in the NASS over the course of treatment. The 83 participants (70% male) were from a single Southwest tribe and seeking SUD treatment. They completed the NASS at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis of the NASS was conducted and its temporal invariance, construct validity, and longitudinal changes in the factor and item scores were examined. The NASS yielded a 2-factor structure that was largely invariant across time. Factor 1 reflected behavioral practices, while Factor 2 reflected more global beliefs. Both factors significantly increased across 12 months, albeit at different assessment points. At baseline, Factor 1 was negatively related to substance use and positively associated with measures of tribal identification while Factor 2 was unrelated to these measures. Given the importance of tribal spirituality to many NAs, the development of this psychometrically sound measure is a key precursor and complement to the incorporation of tribal spirituality into treatment, as well as research on mechanisms of change for SUD treatment among NAs and assessment of NA spirituality in relation to other aspects of health. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Unequal contribution of native South African phylogeographic lineages to the invasion of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte De Busschere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to both deliberate and accidental introductions, invasive African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis populations have become established worldwide. In this study, we investigate the geographic origins of invasive X. laevis populations in France and Portugal using the phylogeographic structure of X. laevis in its native South African range. In total, 80 individuals from the whole area known to be invaded in France and Portugal were analysed for two mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, allowing a comparison with 185 specimens from the native range. Our results show that native phylogeographic lineages have contributed differently to invasive European X. laevis populations. In Portugal, genetic and historical data suggest a single colonization event involving a small number of individuals from the south-western Cape region in South Africa. In contrast, French invasive X. laevis encompass two distinct native phylogeographic lineages, i.e., one from the south-western Cape region and one from the northern regions of South Africa. The French X. laevis population is the first example of a X. laevis invasion involving multiple lineages. Moreover, the lack of population structure based on nuclear DNA suggests a potential role for admixture within the invasive French population.

  14. The impact of the subtropical South Atlantic SST on South American precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Taschetto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The Community Climate Model (CCM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR is used to investigate the effect of the South Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST anomalies on interannual to decadal variability of South American precipitation. Two ensembles composed of multidecadal simulations forced with monthly SST data from the Hadley Centre for the period 1949 to 2001 are analysed.

    A statistical treatment based on signal-to-noise ratio and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF is applied to the ensembles in order to reduce the internal variability among the integrations. The ensemble treatment shows a spatial and temporal dependence of reproducibility. High degree of reproducibility is found in the tropics while the extratropics is apparently less reproducible. Austral autumn (MAM and spring (SON precipitation appears to be more reproducible over the South America-South Atlantic region than the summer (DJF and winter (JJA rainfall. While the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ region is dominated by external variance, the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ over South America is predominantly determined by internal variance, which makes it a difficult phenomenon to predict. Alternatively, the SACZ over western South Atlantic appears to be more sensitive to the subtropical SST anomalies than over the continent.

    An attempt is made to separate the atmospheric response forced by the South Atlantic SST anomalies from that associated with the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Results show that both the South Atlantic and Pacific SSTs modulate the intensity and position of the SACZ during DJF. Particularly, the subtropical South Atlantic SSTs are more important than ENSO in determining the position of the SACZ over the southeast Brazilian coast during DJF. On the other hand, the ENSO signal seems to influence the intensity of the SACZ not only in DJF but especially its oceanic branch during MAM. Both local and

  15. Correlates of social support in older American Indians: the Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Kathleen P.; Schure, Marc B.; Goins, R. Turner

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study examined social support and identified demographic and health correlates among American Indians aged 55 years and older. Methods Data were derived from the Native Elder Care Study, a cross-sectional study of 505 community-dwelling American Indians aged ≥55 years. Social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey measure (MOS-SSS) of which psychometric properties were examined through factor analyses. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations between age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, depressive symptomatology, lower body physical functioning, and chronic pain and social support. Results Study participants reported higher levels of affectionate and positive interaction social support (88.2% and 81.8%, respectively) than overall (75.9%) and emotional (69.0%) domains. Increased age, being married/partnered, and female sex were associated with high social support in the final model. Decreased depressive symptomatology was associated with high overall, affectionate, and positive interaction support, and decreased chronic pain with affectionate support. The count of chronic conditions and functional disability were not associated with social support. Conclusions Overall, we found high levels of social support for both men and women in this population, with the oldest adults in our study exhibiting the highest levels of social support. Strong cultural values of caring for older adults and a historical tradition of community cooperation may explain this finding. Future public health efforts may be able to leverage social support to reduce health disparities and improve mental and physical functioning. PMID:25322933

  16. Challenges of hepatitis C treatment in Native Americans in two North Dakota medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, S; Jalil, S; Guerrero, D M; Sahmoun, A E

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic liver disease (CLD) in the Aboriginal North American population is disproportionately higher than that of the non-indigenous population. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the second leading cause of CLD in American Indians or Alaska Natives (AIANs). This study described the experience of two teaching community medical centers in North Dakota in treating HCV infection among AIANs and compared treatment outcomes to a cohort of Caucasian patients. The retrospective study described the characteristics and proportion of AIAN patients with HCV who received treatment. Documented reasons for not receiving treatment were analyzed. For those AIAN patients treated for HCV infection, responses to treatment, including rapid, early and sustained virological responses (SVRs), were compared with those of Caucasians. Only 22 (18%) of 124 AIANs with HCV infection received treatment. Common reasons for not receiving treatment include lack of access to specialists, concomitant or decompensated liver disease, alcohol and drug abuse and cost. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics and key predictors of SVR in AIANs compared to Caucasian controls. Most AIAN patients with HCV infection do not receive treatment despite comparable treatment response rates to Caucasians. Further population-based studies, addressing access to specialized hepatitis C treatment and public health concerns are warranted, as it is crucial to treat chronic HCV infection to decrease the burden of disease in the AIAN community.

  17. Behavioral symptoms of eating disorders in Native Americans: results from the ADD Health Survey Wave III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H; Rosselli, Francine; Holtzman, Niki; Dierker, Lisa; Becker, Anne E; Swaney, Gyda

    2011-09-01

    To examine prevalence and correlates (gender, Body Mass Index) of disordered eating in American Indian/Native American (AI/NA) and white young adults. We examined data from the 10,334 participants (mean age 21.93 years, SD = 1.8) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health) Wave III for gender differences among AI/NA participants (236 women, 253 men) and ethnic group differences on measures of eating pathology. Among AI/NA groups, women were significantly more likely than men to report loss of control and embarrassment due to overeating. In gender-stratified analyses, a significantly higher prevalence of AI/NA women reported disordered eating behaviors compared with white women; there were no between group differences in prevalence for breakfast skipping or having been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Among men, disordered eating behaviors were uncommon and no comparison was statistically significant. Our study offers a first glimpse into the problem of eating pathology among AI/NA individuals. Gender differences among AI/NA participants are similar to results reported in white samples. That AI/NA women were as likely as white women to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder is striking in light of well documented under-utilization of mental health care among AI/NA individuals. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Review of Tenure for Black, Latino, and Native American Faculty in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Zedeena E; Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2017-01-01

    Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Education Resources Information Center for articles relating to URMM faculty and tenure. Articles published in the last 20 years, in English, that discussed recruitment or retention of women, URMM faculty, and tenure in academic medicine, and were of high quality based on data were included in the study. Narrative reviews, opinion, editorials, and letters to the editor were excluded. Of the 1038 articles we reviewed, 23 met the criteria for inclusion. Tenure was associated with leadership, higher salaries, and comfort in the work environment. URMM faculty comprised the lowest percentage of tenured faculty in academic medicine, with the highest percentage pertaining to white men. More research needs to be done to determine whether tenure status can improve the number of URMM faculty in academic medicine. Tenure may provide URMM faculty the benefits that they need to progress in their careers and remain in academic medicine.

  19. Rating the YouTube Indian: Viewer Ratings of Native American Portrayals on a Viral Video Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Maria A.; Lawton, Bessie Lee

    2011-01-01

    Online outlets for user-generated content (UGC) like YouTube have created environments for alternative depictions of marginalized groups, as UGC can be contributed by anyone with basic technology access. Preliminary findings on UGC relating to Native Americans confirm some favorable departures from the distortions prevalent in the old media. The…

  20. English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN). Fast Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) Who Are American Indian and/or Alaska Native (AI/AN) include: (1) States With the Highest Percentage of ELs Who Were AI/AN:…

  1. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  2. Native American and Hispanic Students: Recruitment, Enrollment, Retention and Graduation Trends; Institutional Performance Measures and Targets; Institutional Action Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2005

    2005-01-01

    New Mexicans of Native American and Hispanic ancestry participate less often and less successfully in the higher education system than do other groups. This fact has been demonstrated repeatedly in various studies and is exacerbated by a cycle of poverty, inadequate academic and financial preparation for college, and other issues related to…

  3. Urban American Indian/Alaskan Natives Compared to Non-Indians in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Vernon B.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) children have been disproportionately represented in the foster care system. In this study, nationally representative child welfare data from October 1999 was used to compare urban AI/AN children to non-Indian children placed into out-of-home care. Compared to non-Indian children, urban AI/AN…

  4. Defining Economic Success as It Pertains to Native American Owned Businesses Located on/or Adjacent to North Dakota Reservations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Barbara Elise

    2013-01-01

    Successful economic development is essential in building and sustaining a healthy community. The purpose of this study was to identify indicators of successful economic development as it pertained to Native American owned businesses located on/or adjacent to North Dakota reservations. More specifically this study sought to explore specific…

  5. An Overview of the Labor Market Problems of Indians and Native Americans. Research Report No. 89-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Robert G.

    This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…

  6. Conceptualizing American Indian/Alaska Native College Student's Classroom Experiences: Negotiating Cultural Identity between Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Nanci M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. dominant culture's values and ways of knowing depicted in college curriculum assume that American Indian/Alaska Native college students will assimilate to dominant cultural beliefs and values in order to acquire a degree in higher education. Representative of this hegemonic pedagogical paradigm is the prescribed basic communication course…

  7. Native American gene continuity to the modern admixed population from the Colombian Andes: Implication for biomedical, population and forensic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criollo-Rayo, Angel A; Bohórquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Howarth, Kimberley; Culma, Cesar; Carracedo, Angel; Tomlinson, Ian; Echeverry de Polnaco, Maria M; Carvajal Carmona, Luis G

    2018-06-07

    Andean populations have variable degrees of Native American and European ancestry, representing an opportunity to study admixture dynamics in the populations from Latin America (also known as Hispanics). We characterized the genetic structure of two indigenous (Nasa and Pijao) and three admixed (Ibagué, Ortega and Planadas) groups from Tolima, in the Colombian Andes. DNA samples from 348 individuals were genotyped for six mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), seven non-recombining Y-chromosome (NRY) region and 100 autosomal ancestry informative markers. Nasa and Pijao had a predominant Native American ancestry at the autosomal (92%), maternal (97%) and paternal (70%) level. The admixed groups had a predominant Native American mtDNA ancestry (90%), a substantial frequency of European NRY haplotypes (72%) and similar autosomal contributions from Europeans (51%) and Amerindians (45%). Pijao and nearby Ortega were indistinguishable at the mtDNA and autosomal level, suggesting a genetic continuity between them. Comparisons with multiple Native American populations throughout the Americas revealed that Pijao, had close similarities with Carib-speakers from distant parts of the continent, suggesting an ancient correlation between language and genes. In summary, our study aimed to understand Hispanic patterns of migration, settlement and admixture, supporting an extensive contribution of local Amerindian women to the gene pool of admixed groups and consistent with previous reports of European-male driven admixture in Colombia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 77 FR 34194 - Advance Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Notification to Native American Tribes of Transportation of Certain Types of Nuclear Waste AGENCY: Nuclear... fuel and certain nuclear wastes for any shipment that passes within or across their reservations. The... irradiated reactor fuel and certain nuclear waste passing through or across the boundary of their States...

  9. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  10. Native American Women Leaders' Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Work-Life Balance (WLB) and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Crystal C.

    2013-01-01

    Native American women's leadership, information communication technologies (ICTs), work-life balance (WLB) and human capacity building (HCB) are grounded in social justice issues due to their long history of overall cultural decimation, inequitable access to technology, monetary resources, and social power (agency), and influence. Currently, there…

  11. A Cultural Approach to Conducting HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis C Virus Education among Native American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study tests the feasibility of using a Talking Circle approach and measures cultural values and beliefs within a HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevention program conducted among a Native American (Cherokee) youth population. A descriptive correlation design was used to examine the relationship between Cherokee self-reliance and…

  12. 75 FR 74056 - Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment on the Proposed Adoption of Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Program Policies and...) 690-7441. Comments will be available for inspection by members of the public at the Administration for...

  13. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  14. Influence of Remedial Education Policies: Experiences of Low-Income Native American Women at a Midwestern Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Armour, Carole Cristine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how policies regarding remedial education can influence the experiences of students who identify as low socioeconomic (SES) Native American women at a Midwestern community college. This study proposed to use interpretive policy analysis and phenomenological qualitative research to learn more about how low…

  15. Factor Structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-Fourth Edition among Referred Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Selena; Watkins, Marley W.

    2013-01-01

    The Native American population is severely underrepresented in empirical test validity research despite being overrepresented in special education programs and at increased risk for psychoeducational evaluation. The structural validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) was investigated with a sample of 176,…

  16. South American Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Herdy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this document, the Inter-American Committee of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, together with the South American Society of Cardiology, aimed to formulate strategies, measures, and actions for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (CVDPR. In the context of the implementation of a regional and national health policy in Latin American countries, the goal is to promote cardiovascular health and thereby decrease morbidity and mortality. The study group on Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Rehabilitation from the Department of Exercise, Ergometry, and Cardiovascular Rehabilitation of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology has created a committee of experts to review the Portuguese version of the guideline and adapt it to the national reality. The mission of this document is to help health professionals to adopt effective measures of CVDPR in the routine clinical practice. The publication of this document and its broad implementation will contribute to the goal of the World Health Organization (WHO, which is the reduction of worldwide cardiovascular mortality by 25% until 2025. The study group's priorities are the following: • Emphasize the important role of CVDPR as an instrument of secondary prevention with significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality; • Join efforts for the knowledge on CVDPR, its dissemination, and adoption in most cardiovascular centers and institutes in South America, prioritizing the adoption of cardiovascular prevention methods that are comprehensive, practical, simple and which have a good cost/benefit ratio; • Improve the education of health professionals and patients with education programs on the importance of CVDPR services, which are directly targeted at the health system, clinical staff, patients, and community leaders, with the aim of decreasing the barriers to CVDPR implementation.

  17. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  18. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  19. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-...

  20. Desi Women on the Forty Acres: Exploring Intergenerational Issues and Identity Development of South Asian American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Smita Sundaresan

    2011-01-01

    South Asian Americans are one of the fastest growing sub-groups within the Asian American population in the United States today. Between 1960 and 1990, the South Asian American population witnessed an increase of approximately 900% (Leonard, 1997). This increase in population also corresponds with the increase in South Asian American students…

  1. AIRSAR South American deployment: Operation plan, version 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobrick, M.

    1993-01-01

    The United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Brazilian Commission for Space Activities (COBAE) are undertaking a joint experiment involving NASA's DC-8 research aircraft and the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) system during late May and June 1993. The research areas motivating these activities are: (1) fundamental research in the role of soils, vegetation, and hydrology in the global carbon cycle; and (2) in cooperation with South American scientists, airborne remote sensing research for the upcoming NASA Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR)-C/X-SAR flights on the Space Shuttle. A flight schedule and plans for the deployment that were developed are included. Maps of the site locations and schematic indications of flight routes and dates, plots showing swath locations derived from the flight requests and generated by flight planning software, and, most importantly, a calendar showing which sites will be imaged each day are included.

  2. Prosopis pod production - comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e. P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest.

  3. Disparities in Smoking-Related Mortality Among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Paul D; Dube, Shanta R; Thorne, Stacy L; Garrett, Bridgette E; Homa, David M; Nez Henderson, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    Smoking-related disparities continue to be a public health problem among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population groups and data documenting the health burden of smoking in this population are sparse. The purpose of this study was to assess mortality attributable to cigarette smoking among AI/AN adults relative to non-Hispanic white adults (whites) by calculating and comparing smoking-attributable fractions and mortality. Smoking-attributable fractions and mortality among AI/ANs (n=1.63 million AI/ANs) and whites were calculated for people living in 637 Indian Health Service Contract Health Service Delivery Area counties in the U.S., from mortality data collected during 2001-2009. Differences in smoking-attributable mortality between AI/ANs and whites for five major causes of smoking-related deaths were examined. All data analyses were carried out in 2013-2014. Overall, from 2001 to 2009, age-adjusted death rates, smoking-attributable fractions, and smoking-attributable mortality for all-cause mortality were higher among AI/ANs than among whites for adult men and women aged ≥35 years. Smoking caused 21% of ischemic heart disease, 15% of other heart disease, and 17% of stroke deaths in AI/AN men, compared with 15%, 10%, and 9%, respectively, for white men. Among AI/AN women, smoking caused 18% of ischemic heart disease deaths, 13% of other heart diseases deaths, and 20% of stroke deaths, compared with 9%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, among white women. These findings underscore the need for comprehensive tobacco control and prevention efforts that can effectively reach and impact the AI/AN population to prevent and reduce smoking. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. U.S. Geological Survey activities related to American Indians and Alaska Natives: Fiscal years 2007 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    In the late 1800s, John Wesley Powell, the second director of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), followed his interest in the tribes of the Great Basin and Colorado Plateau and studied their cultures, languages, and surroundings. From that early time, the USGS has recognized the importance of Native knowledge and living in harmony with nature as complements to the USGS mission to better understand the Earth. Combining traditional ecological knowledge with empirical studies allows the USGS and Native American governments, organizations, and people to increase their mutual understanding and respect for this land. The USGS is the earth and natural science bureau within the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and is not responsible for regulations or land management. Climate change is a major current issue affecting Native lives and traditions throughout the United States. Climate projections for the coming century indicate an increasing probability for more frequent and more severe droughts in the Southwest, including the Navajo Nation. Erosion has claimed Native homes in Alaska. Fish have become inedible due to diseases that turn their flesh mushy. Native people who rely on or who are culturally sustained by hunting, fishing, and using local plants are living with climate change now. The traditional knowledge of Native peoples enriches and confirms the work of USGS scientists. The results are truly synergistic-greater than the sum of their parts. Traditional ecological knowledge is respected and increasingly used in USGS studies-when the holders of that knowledge choose to share it. The USGS respects the rights of Native people to maintain their patrimony of traditional ecological knowledge. The USGS studies can help Tribes, Native organizations, and natural resource professionals manage Native lands and resources with the best available unbiased data and information that can be added to their traditional knowledge. Wise Native leaders have noted that traditional

  5. The University of Minnesota Morris (UMM) STEP Program: an initiative to encourage the participation of Native Americans in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the UMM STEP program is to increase the number of graduates in STEM fields through innovative curricular, recruiting and mentoring strategies. A unique focus of the UMM STEP program is increasing the number of Native American science majors. The STEP program fosters a summer research environment where peer interaction and mentoring creates a web of support. To do so we will establish a supportive and fulfilling pipeline that: 1) Identifies Native American students and involves them in research while they are high school; 2) Mentors and prepares participants for university academics the summer before their freshman year; 3) Provides a complete tuition waiver, mentoring and a support network throughout their undergraduate career; and 4) Involves participants in an active and dynamic summer undergraduate research environment where under-represented individuals are in the majority. The third and fourth components of this pipeline are in very good shape. The Morris campus was originally established as an Indian School in 1887. When the federal government deeded the Indian school campus to the University of Minnesota a stipulation was that Native American students attend the college for free. At present, 196 Native Americans are enrolled at UMM (50 are STEM majors). The UMM STEP research experience provides the unique opportunity to interact with a scientific community that both breaks down a number of traditional barriers and aids in the maturation of these students as scientists. In Summer 2008, 4 students were involved in summer research and in 2009 seven Native American students participated. Early efforts of the UMM STEP program are encouraging. UMM Admissions staff used the UMM STEP program to recruit Native American students and the P.I. phoned “uncommitted admits”, visited reservations and hosted reservation student visits. The result was an increase in freshman Native American Science majors from 7 in Fall 2007, 15 in fall 2008 and 20 in fall

  6. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbell Alice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1 in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk. About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals.

  7. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (-25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.

  8. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Vicki; Thomas, Cheryll; Brayboy, Annie; Paisano, Roberta; Becker, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed cervical cancer incidence and mortality data in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races. Methods. We improved identification of AI/AN race, cervical cancer incidence, and mortality data using Indian Health Service (IHS) patient records; our analyses focused on residents of IHS Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties. Age-adjusted incidence and death rates were calculated for AI/AN and White women from 1999 to 2009. Results. AI/AN women in CHSDA counties had a death rate from cervical cancer of 4.2, which was nearly twice the rate in White women (2.0; rate ratio [RR] = 2.11). AI/AN women also had higher incidence rates of cervical cancer compared with White women (11.0 vs 7.1; RR = 1.55) and were more often diagnosed with later-stage disease (RR = 1.84 for regional stage and RR = 1.74 for distant stage). Death rates decreased for AI/AN women from 1990 to 1993 (−25.8%/year) and remained stable thereafter. Conclusions. Although rates decreased over time, AI/AN women had disproportionately higher cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The persistently higher rates among AI/AN women compared with White women require continued improvements in identifying and treating cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. PMID:24754650

  9. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p women reporting female sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Breast Cancer Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Arica; Richardson, Lisa C.; Li, Chunyu; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared breast cancer death rates and mortality trends among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) and White women using data for which racial misclassification was minimized. Methods. We used breast cancer deaths and cases linked to Indian Health Service (IHS) data to calculate age-adjusted rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by IHS-designated regions from 1990 to 2009 for AI/AN and White women; Hispanics were excluded. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIR) were calculated for 1999 to 2009 as a proxy for prognosis after diagnosis. Results. Overall, the breast cancer death rate was lower in AI/AN women (21.6 per 100 000) than in White women (26.5). However, rates in AI/ANs were higher than rates in Whites for ages 40 to 49 years in the Alaska region, and ages 65 years and older in the Southern Plains region. White death rates significantly decreased (annual percent change [APC] = −2.1; 95% CI = −2.3, −2.0), but regional and overall AI/AN rates were unchanged (APC = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.1, 1.7). AI/AN women had higher MIRs than White women. Conclusions. There has been no improvement in death rates among AI/AN women. Targeted screening and timely, high-quality treatment are needed to reduce mortality from breast cancer in AI/AN women. PMID:24754658

  11. Fertility change in the American Indian and Alaska Native population, 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cannon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1990, Vital Statistics reports show a dramatic decline in the total fertility rates (TFRs of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN women in the United States. Objective: We study whether the decrease in TFRs is due to a real change in fertility for a stable population; a compositional change in who identifies as AI/AN; or a methodological issue stemming from differences in identifying race across the data systems used to calculate fertility rates. Methods: We use data from the decennial US Census to study change in AI/AN fertility from 1980-2010. Results: We find declining TFRs when fertility is calculated within a single data system. Additionally, although TFRs are relatively stable within the subgroups of married and unmarried AI/AN women, the proportion of AI/AN women who are married has declined across birth cohorts. Conclusions: The decrease in TFRs for AI/AN women is a real change in fertility patterns and is not due to differences in racial identification across data systems. Contribution: We update knowledge of AI/AN fertility to include the decline in TFRs between 1980 and 2010.

  12. Traumatic Stress, Social Support, and Health Among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehee, Melissa; Buchwald, Dedra; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Omidpanah, Adam; Manson, Spero M; Goins, R Turner

    2017-01-03

    To estimate the prevalence of lifetime traumatic experiences, describe related symptoms of traumatic stress, and examine their association with perceived social support and physical and mental health among older American Indians. Analyses of existing interview data from the Native Elder Care Study, a random age-stratified sample of 505 tribal members ≥55 years of age conducted in partnership with a large Southeastern tribe. Interviews assessed trauma exposure, traumatic stress, measures of social support, and physical and mental health status. Overall, 31% of participants had experienced a traumatic event; of these, 43% reported traumatic stress at the time of the interview. Higher perceived social support was associated with a reduced prevalence of traumatic stress. Compared to their counterparts without traumatic stress, women participants reporting traumatic stress reported more symptoms of depression, and both symptomatic men and women had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and chronic pain. Traumatic stress was associated with less perceived social support and poorer health. Social support was not found to moderate the relationship between traumatic stress and physical and mental health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native Public Health: An Underexplored Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teufel-Shone, Nicolette I; Tippens, Julie A; McCrary, Hilary C; Ehiri, John E; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review to assess the conceptualization, application, and measurement of resilience in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) health promotion. We searched 9 literature databases to document how resilience is discussed, fostered, and evaluated in studies of AIAN health promotion in the United States. The article had to (1) be in English; (2) peer reviewed, published from January 1, 1980, to July 31, 2015; (3) identify the target population as predominantly AIANs in the United States; (4) describe a nonclinical intervention or original research that identified resilience as an outcome or resource; and (5) discuss resilience as related to cultural, social, and/or collective strengths. Sixty full texts were retrieved and assessed for inclusion by 3 reviewers. Data were extracted by 2 reviewers and verified for relevance to inclusion criteria by the third reviewer. Attributes of resilience that appeared repeatedly in the literature were identified. Findings were categorized across the lifespan (age group of participants), divided by attributes, and further defined by specific domains within each attribute. Nine articles (8 studies) met the criteria. Currently, resilience research in AIAN populations is limited to the identification of attributes and pilot interventions focused on individual resilience. Resilience models are not used to guide health promotion programming; collective resilience is not explored. Attributes of AIAN resilience should be considered in the development of health interventions. Attention to collective resilience is recommended to leverage existing assets in AIAN communities.

  14. Using Storytelling to Address Oral Health Knowledge in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Brenda; Gebel, Christina; Crawford, Andrew; Barker, Judith C; Henshaw, Michelle; Garcia, Raul I; Riedy, Christine; Wimsatt, Maureen A

    2018-05-24

    We conducted a qualitative analysis to evaluate the acceptability of using storytelling as a way to communicate oral health messages regarding early childhood caries (ECC) prevention in the American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) population. A traditional story was developed and pilot tested among AIAN mothers residing in 3 tribal locations in northern California. Evaluations of the story content and acceptability followed a multistep process consisting of initial feedback from 4 key informants, a focus group of 7 AIAN mothers, and feedback from the Community Advisory Board. Upon story approval, 9 additional focus group sessions (N = 53 participants) were held with AIAN mothers following an oral telling of the story. Participants reported that the story was culturally appropriate and used relatable characters. Messages about oral health were considered to be valuable. Concerns arose about the oral-only delivery of the story, story content, length, story messages that conflicted with normative community values, and the intent to target audiences. Feedback by focus group participants raised some doubts about the relevance and frequency of storytelling in AIAN communities today. AIAN communities value the need for oral health messaging for community members. However, the acceptability of storytelling as a method for the messaging raises concerns, because the influence of modern technology and digital communications may weaken the acceptability of the oral tradition. Careful attention must be made to the delivery mode, content, and targeting with continual iterative feedback from community members to make these messages engaging, appropriate, relatable, and inclusive.

  15. Obesity, Diabetes, and Birth Outcomes Among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G; Spicer, Paul; Peercy, Michael T

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between prepregnancy diabetes mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and prepregnancy body mass index, with several adverse birth outcomes: preterm delivery (PTB), low birthweight (LBW), and macrosomia, comparing American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN) with other race/ethnic groups. Methods The sample includes 5,193,386 singleton US first births from 2009-2013. Logistic regression is used to calculate adjusted odds ratios controlling for calendar year, maternal age, education, marital status, Kotelchuck prenatal care index, and child's sex. Results AI/AN have higher rates of diabetes than all other groups, and higher rates of overweight and obesity than whites or Hispanics. Neither overweight nor obesity predict PTB for AI/AN, in contrast to other groups, while diabetes predicts increased odds of PTB for all groups. Being overweight predicts reduced odds of LBW for all groups, but obesity is not predictive of LBW for AI/AN. Diabetes status also does not predict LBW for AI/AN; for other groups, LBW is more likely for women with DM or GDM. Overweight, obesity, DM, and GDM all predict higher odds of macrosomia for all race/ethnic groups. Conclusions for Practice Controlling diabetes in pregnancy, as well as prepregnancy weight gain, may help decrease preterm birth and macrosomia among AI/AN.

  16. Obesity and Overweight in American Indian and Alaska Native Children, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Ann; Sheff, Karen; Moore, Kelly; Manson, Spero

    2017-09-01

    To estimate obesity and overweight prevalence in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children across genders, ages, and geographic regions in the Indian Health Service active clinical population. We obtained data from the Indian Health Service National Data Warehouse. At least 184 000 AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years had body mass index data for each year studied, 2006 to 2015. We calculated body mass index percentiles with the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts. In 2015, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in AI/AN children aged 2 to 19 years was 18.5% and 29.7%, respectively. Boys had higher obesity prevalence than girls (31.5% vs 27.9%). Children aged 12 to 19 years had a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity than younger children. The AI/AN children in our study had a higher prevalence of obesity than US children overall in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results for 2006 through 2014 were similar. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among AI/AN children in this population may have stabilized, while remaining higher than prevalence for US children overall.

  17. The immigrant paradox: immigrants are less antisocial than native-born Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; DeLisi, Matt; Maynard, Brandy R

    2014-07-01

    Although recent research on crime and violence among immigrants suggests a paradox--where immigrants are more socially disadvantaged yet less likely to commit crime--previous research is limited by issues of generalizability and assessment of the full depth of antisocial behavior. We surmount these limitations using data from waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and compare immigrants (N = 7,320) from Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America to native-born Americans (N = 34,622) with respect to violent and nonviolent forms of antisocial behavior. After controlling for an extensive array of confounds, results indicate that immigrants are significantly less antisocial despite being more likely to have lower levels of income, less education, and reside in urban areas. These findings hold for immigrants from major regions of the world including Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America. This study confirms and extends prior research on crime and antisocial behavior, but suggests that it is premature however to think of immigrants as a policy intervention for treating high crime areas.

  18. Phytochemical Composition and Metabolic Performance Enhancing Activity of Dietary Berries Traditionally Used by Native North Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns Kraft, Tristan F.; Dey, Moul; Rogers, Randy B.; Ribnicky, David M.; Gipp, David M.; Cefalu, William T.; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Four wild berry species, Amelanchier alnifolia, Viburnum trilobum, Prunus virginiana, and Shepherdia argentea, all integral to the traditional subsistence diet of Native American tribal communities, were evaluated to elucidate phytochemical composition and bioactive properties related to performance and human health. Biological activity was screened using a range of bioassays that assessed the potential for these little-known dietary berries to affect diabetic microvascular complications, hyperglycemia, pro-inflammatory gene expression, and metabolic syndrome symptoms. Non-polar constituents from berries, including carotenoids, were potent inhibitors of aldose reductase (an enzyme involved in the etiology of diabetic microvascular complications) whereas the polar constituents, mainly phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins, were hypoglycemic agents and strong inhibitors of IL-1β and COX-2 gene expression. Berry samples also showed the ability to modulate lipid metabolism and energy expenditure in a manner consistent with improving metabolic syndrome. The results demonstrate that these berries traditionally consumed by tribal cultures contain a rich array of phytochemicals that have the capacity to promote health and protect against chronic diseases, such as diabetes. PMID:18211018

  19. Deviations in energy sensing predict long-term weight change in overweight Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basolo, Alessio; Votruba, Susanne B; Heinitz, Sascha; Krakoff, Jonathan; Piaggi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Energy expenditure (EE), as reflective of body energy demand, has been proposed to be the key driver of food intake, possibly influencing weight change in humans. Variation in this energy-sensing link (overeating relative to weight-maintaining energy requirements) may lead to weight gain over time. Sixty-one overweight otherwise healthy Native Americans (age: 34.0 ± 7.9 years, body fat: 39.7 ± 9.5%, 36 males) were admitted to our clinical research unit for measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and 24-h EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and weight stability. Following this, ad libitum food intake was assessed for three days using computerized vending machines. Body weight change under unrestricted free-living conditions was assessed at an outpatient follow-up visit (median follow-up time = 1.7 years). Total ad libitum food intake (3-day average) was positively associated with 24-h EE (r = 0.44, p energy requirements can be assessed and predicts long-term weight gain, suggesting that variation in energy sensing may influence appetite by favoring overeating thus promoting obesity development. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Survey of Self-Management and Intrusiveness of Illness in Native Americans with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Page, Evaren E; Norris, Ann I; Kim, Sue E; Thompson, David M; Roswell, Robert H

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has emerged as an important focus of national public health efforts because of the rapid increase in the burden of this disease. In particular, DM disproportionately affects Native Americans. Adequate management of DM requires that patients participate as active partners in their own care and much of patient activation and empowerment can be attributed to their experience with DM and self-care. That is, the degree to which the patient feels the disease intrudes on his or her daily life would impact the motivation for self-care. We conducted a study in collaboration with 2 tribal nations in Oklahoma, collecting data on survey questions regarding intrusiveness of illness and self-management behaviors from a sample of 159 members of the Chickasaw and Choctaw Nations. Previously validated variables measuring intrusiveness of illness and self-care were included in the survey. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses illustrated the distribution of these variables and identified possible tribal and gender differences. Our findings showed that our sample adjusted well to DM and in general exhibited high compliance to self-care. However, our findings also revealed striking gender differences where female respondents were better adjusted to their disease, whereas male respondents reported higher adherence to self-management. Findings from our study, particularly those that describe tribal differences and gender disparities, can inform strategies for case management and patient interactions with providers and the health care system.

  1. Evaluating Disparities in Inpatient Surgical Cancer Care Among American Indian/Alaska Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176

  2. Genetic relationships among native americans based on beta-globin gene cluster haplotype frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Mousinho-Ribeiro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of b-globin gene haplotypes was studied in 209 Amerindians from eight tribes of the Brazilian Amazon: Asurini from Xingú, Awá-Guajá, Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Zoé, Kayapó (Xikrin from the Bacajá village, Katuena, and Tiriyó. Nine different haplotypes were found, two of which (n. 11 and 13 had not been previously identified in Brazilian indigenous populations. Haplotype 2 (+ - - - - was the most common in all groups studied, with frequencies varying from 70% to 100%, followed by haplotype 6 (- + + - +, with frequencies between 7% and 18%. The frequency distribution of the b-globin gene haplotypes in the eighteen Brazilian Amerindian populations studied to date is characterized by a reduced number of haplotypes (average of 3.5 and low levels of heterozygosity and intrapopulational differentiation, with a single clearly predominant haplotype in most tribes (haplotype 2. The Parakanã, Urubú-Kaapór, Tiriyó and Xavante tribes constitute exceptions, presenting at least four haplotypes with relatively high frequencies. The closest genetic relationships were observed between the Brazilian and the Colombian Amerindians (Wayuu, Kamsa and Inga, and, to a lesser extent, with the Huichol of Mexico. North-American Amerindians are more differentiated and clearly separated from all other tribes, except the Xavante, from Brazil, and the Mapuche, from Argentina. A restricted pool of ancestral haplotypes may explain the low diversity observed among most present-day Brazilian and Colombian Amerindian groups, while interethnic admixture could be the most important factor to explain the high number of haplotypes and high levels of diversity observed in some South-American and most North-American tribes.

  3. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading August 14, 2013. It... securities of South American Minerals, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since it filed a...

  4. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  5. The Impact of China on South American Political and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2018-01-01

    The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development.......The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development....

  6. Contested Domains of Science and Science Learning in Contemporary Native American Communities: Three Case Studies from a National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Nancy Brossard

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of three informal science education partnerships that resulted from a 2003-2006 National Science Foundation grant titled, "Archaeology Pathways for Native Learners" (ESI-0307858), hosted by the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center. This dissertation is designed to contribute to understandings of learning processes that occur within and at the intersection of diverse worldviews and knowledge systems, by drawing upon experiences derived from three disparate contexts: 1) The Navajo Nation Museum in Window Rock, Arizona; 2) The A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center on the Zuni Reservation in Zuni, New Mexico; and 3) Science learning camps at the Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center for Native youth of southern New England. While informal science education is increasingly moving toward decolonizing and cross-cutting institutional boundaries of learning through critical thinking and real-world applications, the construction of "science" (even within diverse contexts) continues to be framed within a homogenous, predominantly Euro-American perspective. This study analyzes the language of Western science employed in these partnerships, with particular attention to the use of Western/Native binaries that shape perceptions of Native peoples and communities, real or imagined. Connections are drawn to broader nation-state interests in education, science, and the global economy. The role of educational evaluation in these case studies is also critically analyzed, by questioning the ways in which it is constructed, conducted, and evaluated for the purposes of informing future projects and subsequent funding. This study unpacks problems of the dominant language of "expert" knowledge embedded in Western science discourse, and highlights the possibilities of indigenous knowledge systems that can inform Western science frameworks of education and evaluation. Ultimately, this study suggests that research

  7. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popula...

  8. South Asian American Perspectives on Overweight, Obesity, and the Relationship Between Weight and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Joyce W.; Mason, Maryann; Kushner, Robert F.; Tirodkar, Manasi A.; Khurana, Neerja; Kandula, Namratha R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Compared with other racial groups, South Asian adults develop type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease at a lower body mass index (BMI). Perceptions of weight and the effect of weight on health can influence weight-loss attempts but are not well described in this population. The objective of this study was to examine perceptions of weight appropriateness and the effect of weight on health among South Asian Americans. Methods We recruited 75 South Asian American adults from a si...

  9. Factors affecting the quality of fish caught by Native Americans in the Zone 6 fishery 1991 through 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    A program to monitor the salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) fishery in the lower Columbia River (Zone 6 fishery) was initiated in 1991 to respond to questions and comments frequently made by Native Americans at public meetings. Native Americans were concerned that the quality of the Columbia River had deteriorated and that the poor environmental conditions had affected the health and quality of fish they relied on for subsistence, ceremonial, religious, and commercial purposes. They also feared that eating contaminated fish might endanger the health of their children and future generations. Operations at the Hanford Site were listed as one of many causes of the deteriorating environment. Fisheries pathologists concluded that most of the external symptoms on fish were related to bacterial infection of gill net abrasions and pre-spawning trauma, and were not caused by pollution or contamination of the Columbia River. The pathologists also stated that consumption of the fish posed no threat to human consumers.

  10. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Preston Matthew; Harcourt Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 n...

  11. Ectopic pregnancy among American Indian and Alaska Native women, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ravello, Lori; Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-04-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15-44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002-2009. We used 2002-2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15-44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15-19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35-39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1-2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002-2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women.

  12. Assessment of Mammography Experiences and Satisfaction among American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikum-Moffor, Florence M.; Braiuca, Stacy; Daley, Christine Makosky; Gajewski, Byron J.; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women have lower breast cancer (BCA) screening and 5-year survival rates than non-Hispanic Whites. Understanding reasons for low screening rates is important to combat later stage diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to assess mammography experiences and satisfaction among AI/AN women. METHODS Nine focus groups were held with rural (N=15) and urban (N=38) AI/AN women 40 years and older in Kansas and Kansas City, Missouri, living both near and far from Indian Health Service (IHS) and tribal facilities, to examine experiences and satisfaction with mammography. Transcripts were coded and themes identified using a community-based participatory research approach. FINDINGS Themes were classified under knowledge, communication, and awareness of breast cancer, barriers to mammography, mammogram facility size, impressions of mammogram technologist, motivations to getting a mammogram, and how to improve the mammogram experience. Participants had knowledge of prevention, but described cultural reasons for not discussing it and described better experiences in smaller facilities. Participants indicated having a mammogram technologist who was friendly, knowledgeable, respectful, competent, and explained the test was a determining factor in satisfaction. Other factors included family history, physician recommendation, and financial incentives. Barriers included transportation, cost, perceptions of prejudice, and time constraints. Participants on reservations or near IHS facilities preferred IHS over mainstream providers. Suggestions for improvement included caring technologists, better machines with less discomfort, and education. CONCLUSIONS Interventions to enhance the professionalism, empathy, and cultural awareness of mammogram technologists, reduce barriers, and provide positive expectations and incentives could improve satisfaction and compliance with screening mammography. PMID:24183414

  13. Ectopic Pregnancy Among American Indian and Alaska Native Women, 2002–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne; Tulloch, Scott; Taylor, Melanie; Reilley, Brigg; Hoover, Karen; Holman, Robert; Creanga, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    To examine rates of ectopic pregnancy (EP) among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women aged 15–44 years seeking care at Indian Health Service (IHS), Tribal, and urban Indian health facilities during 2002–2009. We used 2002–2009 inpatient and outpatient data from the IHS National Patient Information Reporting System to identify EP-associated visits and obtain the number of pregnancies among AI/AN women. Repeat visits for the same EP were determined by calculating the interval between visits; if more than 90 days between visits, the visit was considered related to a new EP. We identified 229,986 pregnancies among AI/AN women 15–44 years receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009. Of these, 2,406 (1.05 %) were coded as EPs, corresponding to an average annual rate of 10.5 per 1,000 pregnancies. The EP rate among AI/AN women was lowest in the 15–19 years age group (5.5 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies) and highest among 35–39 year olds (18.7 EPs per 1,000 pregnancies). EP rates varied by geographic region, ranging between 6.9 and 24.4 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Northern Plains East and the East region, respectively. The percentage of ectopic pregnancies found among AI/AN women is within the national 1–2 % range. We found relatively stable annual rates of EP among AI/AN women receiving care at IHS-affiliated facilities during 2002–2009, but considerable variation by age group and geographic region. Coupling timely diagnosis and management with public health interventions focused on tobacco use and sexually transmitted diseases may provide opportunities for reducing EP and EP-associated complications among AI/AN women. PMID:25023759

  14. Education, Income, and Employment and Prevalence of Chronic Disease Among American Indian/Alaska Native Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Collette; Schroeder, Shawnda; LeMire, Steven; Carter, Paula

    2018-03-22

    Chronic disease studies have omitted analyses of the American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) population, relied on small samples of AI/ANs, or focused on a single disease among AI/ANs. We measured the influence of income, employment status, and education level on the prevalence of chronic disease among 14,632 AI/AN elders from 2011 through 2014. We conducted a national survey of AI/AN elders (≥55 y) to identify health and social needs. Using these data, we computed cross-tabulations for each independent variable (annual personal income, employment status, education level), 2 covariates (age, sex), and presence of any chronic disease. We also compared differences in values and used a binary logistic regression model to control for age and sex. Most AI/AN elders (89.7%) had been diagnosed with at least one chronic disease. AI/AN elders were also more than twice as likely to have diabetes and more likely to have arthritis. AI/AN elders with middle-to-low income levels and who were unemployed were more likely to have a chronic disease than were high-income and employed AI/AN elders. Addressing disparities in chronic disease prevalence requires focus on more than access to and cost of health care. Economic development and job creation for all age cohorts in tribal communities may decrease the prevalence of long-term chronic diseases and may improve the financial status of the tribe. An opportunity exists to address health disparities through social and economic equity among tribal populations.

  15. Cultural Identity among Urban American Indian/Native Alaskan Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. Objectives This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. Results We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Conclusions Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions. PMID:27450682

  16. The role of culture in substance abuse treatment programs for American Indian and Alaska Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legha, Rupinder Kaur; Novins, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    Culture figures prominently in discussions regarding the etiology of alcohol and substance abuse in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities, and a substantial body of literature suggests that it is critical to developing meaningful treatment interventions. However, no study has characterized how programs integrate culture into their services. Furthermore, reports regarding the associated challenges are limited. Twenty key informant interviews with administrators and 15 focus groups with clinicians were conducted in 18 alcohol and substance abuse treatment programs serving AI/AN communities. Transcripts were coded to identify relevant themes. Substance abuse treatment programs for AI/AN communities are integrating culture into their services in two discrete ways: by implementing specific cultural practices and by adapting Western treatment models. More important, however, are the fundamental principles that shape these programs and their interactions with the people and communities they serve. These foundational beliefs and values, defined in this study as the core cultural constructs that validate and incorporate AI/AN experience and world view, include an emphasis on community and family, meaningful relationships with and respect for clients, a homelike atmosphere within the program setting, and an “open door” policy for clients. The primary challenges for integrating these cultural practices include AI/AN communities' cultural diversity and limited socioeconomic resources to design and implement these practices. The prominence of foundational beliefs and values is striking and suggests a broader definition of culture when designing services. This definition of foundational beliefs and values should help other diverse communities culturally adapt their substance abuse interventions in more meaningful ways.

  17. Developmental changes in anterior corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Sherrill, Duane; Messer, Dawn H; Dobson, Velma

    2013-04-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe change in corneal astigmatism in infants and children of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Longitudinal measurements of corneal astigmatism were obtained in 960 Tohono O'odham children aged 6 months to <8 years. Change in corneal astigmatism (magnitude (clinical notation), J0, J45) across age in children with high astigmatism (≥2 diopter (D) corneal astigmatism) or low/no astigmatism (<2 D corneal astigmatism) at their baseline measurement was assessed. Regression analyses indicated that early in development (6 months to <3 years), astigmatism magnitude decreased in the high astigmatism group (0.37 D/year) and remained stable in the low/no astigmatism group. In later development (3 to <8 years), astigmatism decreased in the high (0.11 D/year) and low/no astigmatism groups (0.03 D/year). In 52 children who had data at all three of the youngest ages (6 months to <1 year, 1 to <2 years, 2 to <3 years) astigmatism decreased after infancy in those with high astigmatism (p = 0.021), and then remained stable from age 1-2 years, whereas astigmatism was stable from infancy through age 1 year and increased from age 1-2 years in the low/no astigmatism group (p = 0.026). J0 results were similar, but results on J45 yielded no significant effects. The greatest change occurred in highly astigmatic infants and toddlers (0.37 D/year). By age 3 years, change was minimal and not clinically significant. Changes observed were due primarily to change in the J0 component of astigmatism.

  18. Astigmatism and myopia in Tohono O'odham Native American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, J Daniel; Miller, Joseph M; Sherrill, Duane L; Harvey, Erin M

    2013-11-01

    To describe change in spherical equivalent (M) in a longitudinal sample of Tohono O'odham students ages 3 to 18 years and to test the hypothesis that astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased change in M in the direction of increasing myopia and increased occurrence of myopia. Subjects were 777 Tohono O'odham Native American children on whom cycloplegic right eye autorefraction was measured on at least two study encounters between ages 3 and 18 years (first encounter prior to age 5.5 years, final encounter ≥3 years later). Regression lines were fit to individual subjects' longitudinal M data to estimate rate of change in M (regression slope, D/yr). Regression was also used to predict if a subject would be myopic (≤-0.75 D M) by age 18 years. Analysis of covariance was used to assess the relation between M slope and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Chi-square analyses were used to assess the relation between predicted myopia onset and magnitude of baseline M and astigmatism. Mean M slope was significantly more negative for hyperopes (M ≥ +2.00) than for myopes (M ≤ -0.75) or for subjects neither hyperopic nor myopic (NHM, M > -0.75 and < +2.00), but there was no significant difference between the myopic and NHM groups. Chi-square analysis indicated that final myopia status varied across level of baseline astigmatism. Subjects with high astigmatism were more likely to be predicted to have significant myopia by age 18 years. The association between greater shift in M towards myopia with age in subjects who were hyperopic at baseline is consistent with continued emmetropization in the school years. Results regarding predicted myopia development imply that degradation of image quality due to refractive astigmatism creates complex cues to emmetropization, resulting in increased occurrence of myopia.

  19. Prevalence of high astigmatism, eyeglass wear, and poor visual acuity among Native American grade school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of astigmatism and poor visual acuity and rate of eyeglass wear in grade school children who are members of a Native American tribe reported to have a high prevalence of large amounts of astigmatism. Vision screening was conducted on 1,327 first through eighth grade children attending school on the Tohono O'odham Reservation. Noncycloplegic autorefraction was conducted on the right and left eye of each child using the Nikon Retinomax K+ autorefractor, and monocular recognition acuity was tested using ETDRS logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) letter charts. Tohono O'odham children had a high prevalence of high astigmatism (42% had > or = 1.00 D in the right or left eye) and the axis of astigmatism was uniformly with-the-rule. However, only a small percentage of children arrived at the vision screening wearing glasses, and the prevalence of poor visual acuity (20/40 or worse in either eye) was high (35%). There was a significant relation between amount of astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity with each additional diopter of astigmatism resulting in an additional 1 logMAR line reduction in visual acuity. Uncorrected astigmatism and poor visual acuity are prevalent among Tohono O'odham children. The results highlight the importance of improving glasses-wearing compliance, determining barriers to receiving eye care, and initiating public education programs regarding the importance of early identification and correction of astigmatism in Tohono O'odham children.

  20. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  1. Cultural Identity Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth: Implications for Alcohol and Drug Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan A; Dickerson, Daniel L; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-10-01

    American Indian / Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth exhibit high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, which is often linked to the social and cultural upheaval experienced by AI/ANs during the colonization of North America. Urban AI/AN youth may face unique challenges, including increased acculturative stress due to lower concentrations of AI/AN populations in urban areas. Few existing studies have explored cultural identity among urban AI/AN youth and its association with AOD use. This study used systematic qualitative methods with AI/AN communities in two urban areas within California to shed light on how urban AI/AN youth construct cultural identity and how this relates to AOD use and risk behaviors. We conducted 10 focus groups with a total of 70 youth, parents, providers, and Community Advisory Board members and used team-based structured thematic analysis in the Dedoose software platform. We identified 12 themes: intergenerational stressors, cultural disconnection, AI/AN identity as protective, pan-tribal identity, mixed racial-ethnic identity, rural vs. urban environments, the importance of AI/AN institutions, stereotypes and harassment, cultural pride, developmental trajectories, risks of being AI/AN, and mainstream culture clash. Overall, youth voiced curiosity about their AI/AN roots and expressed interest in deepening their involvement in cultural activities. Adults described the myriad ways in which involvement in cultural activities provides therapeutic benefits for AI/AN youth. Interventions that provide urban AI/AN youth with an opportunity to engage in cultural activities and connect with positive and healthy constructs in AI/AN culture may provide added impact to existing interventions.

  2. Disparities in Infectious Disease Hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Robert C.; Folkema, Arianne M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Redd, John T.; Christensen, Krista Y.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Cheek, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey. Results The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory--tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%). Conclusions Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities. PMID:21800745

  3. Treatment eligibility in Alaska Native and American Indian persons with hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin may prevent progression of liver disease among patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection (HCV. Treatment initiation is based on published clinical eligibility criteria, patients’ willingness to undergo treatment and likelihood of success. We examined treatment eligibility in a cohort of Alaska Native and American Indian persons with chronic HCV infection. Study design. Retrospective cohort study. Methods. Medical records of all treatment naïve HCV RNA positive patients given an appointment by hepatology specialty clinic staff in 2003 and 2007 were evaluated by a hepatology provider to investigate documented reasons for treatment deferral. Results. Treatment was initiated in 4 of 94 patients (4% in 2003 and 14 of 146 patients (10% in 2007. Major reasons for treatment deferral in 2003 versus 2007 included inconsistent appointment attendance (36% of deferrals vs. 18%, active substance abuse (17% vs. 22%, patient decision (17% vs. 27%, liver biopsy without fibrosis or normal ALT (8% vs. 3%, uncontrolled psychiatric condition (7% vs. 7% and concurrent medical condition (6% vs. 9%. There was significant improvement in proportion of appointments attended in 2007 versus 2003 (76% vs. 67%, p = 0.04 and the percentage of patients attending at least 1 appointment (84% vs. 66%, p = 0.002. Conclusions. Multiple reasons for treatment deferral were documented. Despite a significant improvement in hepatology clinic attendance and an increase in the number of patients started on treatment in 2007 compared to 2003, the overall percentage of those treated remained low.

  4. Prospects for the development of the South American methanol industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motilal, R.

    1995-01-01

    The industry entered 1994 with positive market conditions and became increasingly robust as consumers mobilized for the anticipated needs of the second phase of the Clean Air Act. These conditions were reinforced by structural changes taking place in the industry the prime result being the emergence of a single marketer as the dominant force in world trade. In 1995 however, the drawdown of stockpiles of MTBE and methanol accumulated earlier, created conditions of excess as the industry continued to run at nearly full capacity and as opt outs from the reformulated gasoline program dampened the rate of MTBE consumption. The historical forces that attend market cycles on its way up by exerting stickiness upward also contrived to accelerate prices on their way down. Market pricing in the methanol industry, as in other commodities is set largely by the incremental molecules entering the market place. Accordingly, the terms and conditions of the transactions covering traded volumes represent a major influence on market pricing. The major portion of traded volumes are sourced from offshore locations where the domestic market is small in comparison to the production capacities. The South American region is one such strategic offshore location on which increasing emphasis must be placed, if any realistic prognosis of the future direction of the industry is to be made. It is in this context, that this paper attempts to review the underlying factors which led to the rapid growth of the major methanol producing countries in South America and to emphasize the potential for continued development of this region and its strategic importance to the global methanol industry both as a major source of production and as a significant force in the world methanol trade

  5. Premature mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mathew; Kightlinger, Lon

    2013-05-01

    American Indians in South Dakota have the highest mortality rates in the nation compared to other racial and ethnic groups and American Indians in other states. Cause-related and age-specific mortality patterns among American Indians in South Dakota are identified to guide prevention planning and policy efforts designed to reduce mortality within this population, in both South Dakota and other parts of the U.S. Death certificate data from South Dakota (2000-2010), on 5738 American Indians and 70,580 whites, were used to calculate age-specific mortality rates and rate ratios. These values were examined in order to identify patterns among the leading causes of death. Analyses were completed in 2011 and 2012. Within the South Dakota population, 70% of American Indians died before reaching age 70 years, compared to 25% of whites. Fatal injuries and chronic diseases were the leading causes of premature mortality. Nine leading causes of death showed consistent patterns of mortality disparity between American Indians and whites, with American Indians having significantly higher rates of mortality at lower ages. Premature mortality among American Indians in South Dakota is a serious public health problem. Unified efforts at the federal, tribal, state, and local levels are needed to reduce premature death within this population. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of variants from the innate immune system genes in tuberculosis and skin test response in a Native American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenau, Juliana D; Salzano, Francisco M; Hurtado, Ana M; Hill, Kim R; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-10-01

    Native American populations show higher tuberculosis (TB) mortality and infectivity rates than non-Native populations. Variants in the innate immune system seem to have an important role on TB susceptibility. The role of some innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility and/or skin test response (PPD) were investigated in the Aché, a Native American population. Complement receptor 1 and toll like receptor 9 variants were associated with anergy to PPD and protection to TB, respectively. These findings demonstrate an important role of the innate immune system variants in TB susceptibility. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conservation Implications of the Prevalence and Representation of Locally Extinct Mammals in the Folklore of Native Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many rationales for wildlife conservation have been suggested. One rationale not often mentioned is the impact of extinctions on the traditions of local people, and conservationists′ subsequent need to strongly consider culturally based reasons for conservation. As a first step in strengthening the case for this rationale, we quantitatively examined the presence and representation of eight potentially extinct mammals in folklore of 48 Native American tribes that live/lived near to 11 national parks in the United States. We aimed to confirm if these extinct animals were traditionally important species for Native Americans. At least one-third of the tribes included the extinct mammals in their folklore (N=45 of 124 and about half of these accounts featured the extinct species with positive and respectful attitudes, especially the carnivores. This research has shown that mammals that might have gone locally extinct have been prevalent and important in Native American traditions. Research is now needed to investigate if there indeed has been or might be any effects on traditions due to these extinctions. Regardless, due to even the possibility that the traditions of local people might be adversely affected by the loss of species, conservationists might need to consider not only all the biological reasons to conserve, but also cultural ones.

  8. Resveratrol, phenolic antioxidants, and saccharides in South American red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osorio-Macías DE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel E Osorio-Macías,1,2 Pamela Vásquez,3 Cristhian Carrasco,3 Bjorn Bergenstahl,1 J Mauricio Peñarrieta2 1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering LTH, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2School of Chemistry, Faculty of Pure and Natural Sciences, 3Institute of Research and Development of Chemical Processes, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés (UMSA, La Paz, Bolivia Abstract: Wine is an important beverage with a long tradition, and its moderate consumption may be considered beneficial for human health. Although there are many studies regarding phenolic compounds in wines, there is a lack of information about antioxidants and phenolic content in South American wines. In this study, 35 South American red wines from four different countries, vintages 2004–2013, purchased at retail stores in La Paz, Bolivia, were studied. Resveratrol content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzotiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP methods, total phenolic content (TPH, total flavonoids (TF, and main saccharides were assessed using the well-established spectrophotometric and high-performance liquid chromatography methods. The results ranged from 4 to 24 mmol/L for TAC determined by ABTS method and 14 to 43 mmol/L for TAC determined by FRAP method, 1600 to 3500 mg gallic acid equivalents/L for TPH, and 2 to 6 mmol catechin equivalents /L for TF. The resveratrol content ranged from 0.1 to 8 mg/L. Saccharides, glucose, and fructose content ranged from 0.4 to 10 g/L, 1.4 to 8.6 g/L, and 0.2 to 12 g/L, respectively. There was a high correlation among the different methods. The results showed that some wines growing at high altitude (>1500 meters above the sea level have higher amounts of TAC and phenolic content, including resveratrol, while non-varietal wines showed the lowest values. It was also observed that the saccharose

  9. The tectonic setting of the Caribbean region and the K/T turnover of the South American land-mammal fauna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Jaureguizar, E.; Pascual, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to the fossil record, a biotic interchange of land vertebrates (e.g. booid snakes, dinosaurs and mammals) occurred between the Americas during the Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeocene. The arrival of North American immigrants (particularly marsupials and placental) during the latest Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene had a profound influence on the composition of the South American mammal communities. During the Late Cretaceous these communities were dominated by native groups of Pangeic lineages, which represented more than 95% of the known genera, but during the Early Palaeocene 70% of South American mammals were derived from North American immigrants that had arrived during the Late Cretaceous-earliest Palaeocene, and by the Late Palaeocene all the South American mammals (with the possible exception of the xenarthrans) were descendants of these North American immigrants. In spite of the fact that no geological evidence is currently available to support the existence of a continuous land connection between the Americas during the Late Cretaceousearly Palaeocene, the fossil record is substantial enough to point to a temporary inter-American connection that permitted the beginning of a land-mammal exchange by the end of the Cretaceous. This interpretation is supported by recent geographic reconstructions of the Caribbean region. (Author)

  10. On the use of the South-American neutron monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordaro, E. G. [Santiago de Chile Univ., Santiago de Chile (Chile). Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Dept. de Fisica, Lewis Research Center; Storini, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Rome (Italy); Rome Univ. Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica, Raggi Cosmici

    2001-10-01

    Cosmic ray scientific community deserves special attention to the Chacaltaya site for its over 5 km altitude. In this site, a neutron monitor of the IGY type operated from 1960 to 1969, and the one of the NM-64 type since 1966 (16.31{sup 0}S, 291.85{sup 0}E, height: about 5200 m a.s.l.). It was discussed the relevance of such kind of detector when it is integrated with the other South-American neutron monitors: a) LARC (62.20{sup 0}S, 301.04{sup 0}E, height: 40 m a.s.l., King George Island, Antarctica; operating since 1991); b) Los Cerrillos (33.45{sup 0}S, 289.40{sup 0}E, height: 570 m a. s. l., Santiago, Chile; to be installed in the near future); c) Huancayo (12.03{sup 0}S, 284.67{sup 0}E, height: 3400 m a.s.l., Huancayo, Peru; hoping to recover its acquired data).

  11. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  12. South Asian high and Asian-Pacific-American climate teleconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peiqun; Song, Yang; Kousky, Vernon E.

    2005-11-01

    Growing evidence indicates that the Asian monsoon plays an important role in affecting the weather and climate outside of Asia. However, this active role of the monsoon has not been demonstrated as thoroughly as has the variability of the monsoon caused by various impacting factors such as sea surface temperature and land surface. This study investigates the relationship between the Asian monsoon and the climate anomalies in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) sector. A hypothesis is tested that the variability of the upper-tropospheric South Asian high (SAH), which is closely associated with the overall heating of the large-scale Asian monsoon, is linked to changes in the subtropical western Pacific high (SWPH), the mid-Pacific trough, and the Mexican high. The changes in these circulation systems cause variability in surface temperature and precipitation in the APA region. A stronger SAH is accompanied by a stronger and more extensive SWPH. The enlargement of the SWPH weakens the mid-Pacific trough. As a result, the southern portion of the Mexican high becomes stronger. These changes are associated with changes in atmospheric teleconnections, precipitation, and surface temperature throughout the APA region. When the SAH is stronger, precipitation increases in southern Asia, decreases over the Pacific Ocean, and increases over the Central America. Precipitation also increases over Australia and central Africa and decreases in the Mediterranean region. While the signals in surface temperature are weak over the tropical land portion, they are apparent in the mid latitudes and over the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  13. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Schneider

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo, the kodkod (Leopardus guigna, and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi. To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species, achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  14. Recurrent evolution of melanism in South American felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Alexsandra; Henegar, Corneliu; Day, Kenneth; Absher, Devin; Napolitano, Constanza; Silveira, Leandro; David, Victor A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; Barsh, Gregory S; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    Morphological variation in natural populations is a genomic test bed for studying the interface between molecular evolution and population genetics, but some of the most interesting questions involve non-model organisms that lack well annotated reference genomes. Many felid species exhibit polymorphism for melanism but the relative roles played by genetic drift, natural selection, and interspecies hybridization remain uncertain. We identify mutations of Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) or the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) as independent causes of melanism in three closely related South American species: the pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), the kodkod (Leopardus guigna), and Geoffroy's cat (Leopardus geoffroyi). To assess population level variation in the regions surrounding the causative mutations we apply genomic resources from the domestic cat to carry out clone-based capture and targeted resequencing of 299 kb and 251 kb segments that contain ASIP and MC1R, respectively, from 54 individuals (13-21 per species), achieving enrichment of ~500-2500-fold and ~150x coverage. Our analysis points to unique evolutionary histories for each of the three species, with a strong selective sweep in the pampas cat, a distinctive but short melanism-specific haplotype in the Geoffroy's cat, and reduced nucleotide diversity for both ancestral and melanism-bearing chromosomes in the kodkod. These results reveal an important role for natural selection in a trait of longstanding interest to ecologists, geneticists, and the lay community, and provide a platform for comparative studies of morphological variation in other natural populations.

  15. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antiviral activity of some South American medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, M J; Bermejo, P; Sanchez Palomino, S; Chiriboga, X; Carrasco, L

    1999-03-01

    Folk medicinal plants are potential sources of useful therapeutic compounds including some with antiviral activities. Extracts prepared from 10 South American medicinal plants (Baccharis trinervis, Baccharis teindalensis, Eupatorium articulatum, Eupatorium glutinosum, Tagetes pusilla, Neurolaena lobata, Conyza floribunda, Phytolacca bogotensis, Phytolacca rivinoides and Heisteria acuminata) were screened for in vitro antiviral activity against herpes simplex type I (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and poliovirus type 1. The most potent inhibition was observed with an aqueous extract of B. trinervis, which inhibited HSV-1 replication by 100% at 50-200 micrograms/mL, without showing cytotoxic effects. Good activities were also found with the ethanol extract of H. acuminata and the aqueous extract of E. articulatum, which exhibited antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses (HSV-1 and VSV, respectively) at 125-250 micrograms/mL. The aqueous extracts of T. pusilla (100-250 micrograms/mL), B. teindalensis (50-125 micrograms/mL) and E. glutinosum (50-125 micrograms/mL) also inhibited the replication of VSV, but none of the extracts tested had any effect on poliovirus replication.

  17. Prosopis pod production: comparison of North American, South American, Hawaiin, and African germplasm in young plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Cannell, G.H.

    Prosopis pod production was compared in 3 field trials in southern California, i.e., a typical orchard planting, an irrigation trial, and a heat/drought stress trial. Thirteen species representing North American, South American, Hawaiian, and African germplasm were evaluated. Hawaiian and African accessions were eliminated from the irrigation trial by a minus 5/sup 0/C temperature. The most productive pod producers were P. velutina accessions from southern Arizona. In the fifth season, 5 trees of the most productive accession, i.e., P. velutina 32 had a mean pod production of 7.2 kg/tree with a range of 3.2-12.2 kg/tree. P. chilensis and P. alba trees of the same age were much larger but had less pod production. Trees in the driest irrigation treatment had the greatest pod production. Pod production estimates of 3000-4000 kg/ha were obtained in the dry irrigation treatment by P. velutina 20 which received 370 mm rainfall in the year preceding harvest. 32 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  18. 3. South American symposium on isotope geology. Extended abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This publication include papers in the fields on Methodology, thermochronology, and geochronology; Evolution of cratonic South America; Magmatic processes; Environmental geology, hydrogeology, isotopic stratigraphy and paleoclimatology; Economic Geology and Evolution of the Andean margin of South America

  19. Herbivore preference for native vs. exotic plants: generalist herbivores from multiple continents prefer exotic plants that are evolutionarily naïve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy E Morrison

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Enemy release and biotic resistance are competing, but not mutually exclusive, hypotheses addressing the success or failure of non-native plants entering a new region. Enemy release predicts that exotic plants become invasive by escaping their co-adapted herbivores and by being unrecognized or unpalatable to native herbivores that have not been selected to consume them. In contrast, biotic resistance predicts that native generalist herbivores will suppress exotic plants that will not have been selected to deter these herbivores. We tested these hypotheses using five generalist herbivores from North or South America and nine confamilial pairs of native and exotic aquatic plants. Four of five herbivores showed 2.4-17.3 fold preferences for exotic over native plants. Three species of South American apple snails (Pomacea sp. preferred North American over South American macrophytes, while a North American crayfish Procambarus spiculifer preferred South American, Asian, and Australian macrophytes over North American relatives. Apple snails have their center of diversity in South America, but a single species (Pomacea paludosa occurs in North America. This species, with a South American lineage but a North American distribution, did not differentiate between South American and North American plants. Its preferences correlated with preferences of its South American relatives rather than with preferences of the North American crayfish, consistent with evolutionary inertia due to its South American lineage. Tests of plant traits indicated that the crayfish responded primarily to plant structure, the apple snails primarily to plant chemistry, and that plant protein concentration played no detectable role. Generalist herbivores preferred non-native plants, suggesting that intact guilds of native, generalist herbivores may provide biotic resistance to plant invasions. Past invasions may have been facilitated by removal of native herbivores, introduction of

  20. The Incidence of Molluscum contagiosum among American Indians and Alaska Natives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary G Reynolds

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Molluscum contagiosum (MC in the United States is largely unknown, despite the fact that the virus is directly communicable and large outbreaks occur. This study provides population-based estimates to describe the epidemiology of MC in the United States among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN persons. This population was selected because of the comprehensiveness and quality of available data describing utilization of out-patient services.Outpatient visits listing MC as a diagnosis in the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System during 2001-2005 were analyzed to assess patient characteristics, visit frequency and concurrent skin conditions. Outpatient visit rates and incidence rates were calculated based on known population denominators (retrospective cohort. Overall outpatient visit rates were also calculated for the general US population using national data. The average annual rate of MC-associated outpatient visits was 20.15/10,000 AI/AN persons for 2001-2005 (13,711 total visits, which was similar to the rate for the general US population (22.0/10,000 [95% CI: 16.9-27.1]. The incidence of MC-associated visits was 15.34/10,000. AI/AN children 1-4 years old had the highest incidence (77.12, more than twice that for children 5-14 years old (30.79; the incidence for infants (<1 year was higher than that for adults. AI/AN persons living in the West region had the highest incidence, followed by those in the East and Alaska regions (26.96, 22.88 and 21.38, respectively. There were age-specific associations between MC and concurrent skin conditions (e.g., atopic dermatitis, eczema.This study highlights the need for periodic population-based measurements to assess trends in incidence and healthcare utilization for MC in the United States. High rates of MC were found among AI/AN persons, especially among children <15 years old. The AI/AN population would benefit from greater availability of

  1. Guideline-Concordant Cancer Care and Survival Among American Indian/Alaskan Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javid, Sara H.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Morris, Arden M.; Porter, Michael P.; He, Hao; Buchwald, Dedra; Flum, David R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND American Indians/Alaskan Natives (AI/ANs) have the worst 5-year cancer survival of all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Causes for this disparity are unknown. The authors of this report examined the receipt of cancer treatment among AI/AN patients compared with white patients. METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study of 338,204 patients who were diagnosed at age ≥65 years with breast, colon, lung, or prostate cancer between 1996 and 2005 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database. Nationally accepted guidelines for surgical and adjuvant therapy and surveillance were selected as metrics of optimal, guideline-concordant care. Treatment analyses compared AI/ANs with matched whites. RESULTS Across cancer types, AI/ANs were less likely to receive optimal cancer treatment and were less likely to undergo surgery (P ≤ .025 for all cancers). Adjuvant therapy rates were significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P <.001) and colon cancer (P = .001). Rates of post-treatment surveillance also were lower among AI/ANs and were statistically significantly lower for AI/AN patients with breast cancer (P = .002) and prostate cancer (P <.001). Nonreceipt of optimal cancer treatment was associated with significantly worse survival across cancer types. Disease-specific survival for those who did not undergo surgery was significantly lower for patients with breast cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.62), colon cancer (HR, 0.74), prostate cancer (HR, 0.52), and lung cancer (HR, 0.36). Survival rates also were significantly lower for those patients who did not receive adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (HR, 0.56), colon cancer (HR, 0.59), or prostate cancer (HR, 0.81; all 95% confidence intervals were <1.0). CONCLUSIONS Fewer AI/AN patients than white patients received guideline-concordant cancer treatment across the 4 most common cancers. Efforts to explain these differences are critical to improving cancer care and

  2. War, religion, and white supremacy in comparative perspective: South Africa and the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M�ller

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern states of the United States of America and South Africa share a number of analogous historical realities. One of these, which is the main subject of� this article,� is� the way in which the memory of a lost war had fused cultural mythology and religious symbolism to provide a foundation for the formation and maintenance of attitudes of white supremacy in both contexts.� This article seeks to achieve a historical� understanding of the complex interrelationship between the development of cultural identity and Protestant Christianity by� focusing on these issues in the histories of the Afrikaner and the white American Southerner in comparative perspective.�

  3. Antarctica: Arena for South American Cooperation or Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Jack

    A number of converging circumstances suggest that Antarctica may be a major object of geopolitical attention in South America in the decade to come. The Malvinas/Falklands crisis focused geopolitical attention on the South Atlantic and the chain of Southern (Austral) Islands which link the southern tip of South America to the Antarctic Peninsula.…

  4. Alteration of uraniferous and native copper concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Kemp, S.J. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2002-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual concretions containing sheets of native copper, and uranium-vanadium mineralised concretions, in mudstones and siltstones of the Pennian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The main objectives of the study were: 1. To investigate the corrosion characteristics of the native copper as a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study developed from an earlier pilot study, which demonstrated that the alteration of the native copper in the concretions from Littleham Cove was mineralogically and chemically complex. 2. To investigate the alteration and oxidation of minerals containing reduced species (e.g. ferrous iron) within the uranium-rich concretions as a natural analogue for the potential effects of oxidation induced by alpha-radiolysis of water in a HLW repository environment. Native copper-bearing concretions in the Littleham Mudstone Formation are very rare. They occur, as thin lenticular disks developed largely along bedding lamina and thin low-angle fractures cutting the bedding laminae the upper part of the formation, about 10 m below the top of the formation. This part of the sequence comprises laterally discontinuous, fine-grained sheet-flood and channel sandstones and siltstones. Some of these sandstones, are more extensively-cemented by copper sulphides (mainly chalcocite), copper arsenides, cobalt-nickel arsenides, and uranium silicate. The thin permeable sandstones and siltstones, and fractures zones around small faults appear to have acted as the conduits for the movement of mineralising fluids through the mudstones. The native copper sheets all show a similar pattern of corrosion and alteration. However, the intensity of alteration is

  5. Alteration of uraniferous and native copper concretions in the Permian mudrocks of south Devon, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milodowski, A.E.; Styles, M.T.; Horstwood, M.S.A.; Kemp, S.J.

    2002-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the mineralogy and alteration characteristics of unusual concretions containing sheets of native copper, and uranium-vanadium mineralised concretions, in mudstones and siltstones of the Pennian Littleham Mudstone Formation, at Littleham Cove, south Devon, England. The main objectives of the study were: 1. To investigate the corrosion characteristics of the native copper as a natural analogue for the long-term behaviour of copper canisters, sealed in a compacted clay (bentonite) backfill, that will be used for the deep geological disposal of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This study developed from an earlier pilot study, which demonstrated that the alteration of the native copper in the concretions from Littleham Cove was mineralogically and chemically complex. 2. To investigate the alteration and oxidation of minerals containing reduced species (e.g. ferrous iron) within the uranium-rich concretions as a natural analogue for the potential effects of oxidation induced by alpha-radiolysis of water in a HLW repository environment. Native copper-bearing concretions in the Littleham Mudstone Formation are very rare. They occur, as thin lenticular disks developed largely along bedding lamina and thin low-angle fractures cutting the bedding laminae the upper part of the formation, about 10 m below the top of the formation. This part of the sequence comprises laterally discontinuous, fine-grained sheet-flood and channel sandstones and siltstones. Some of these sandstones, are more extensively-cemented by copper sulphides (mainly chalcocite), copper arsenides, cobalt-nickel arsenides, and uranium silicate. The thin permeable sandstones and siltstones, and fractures zones around small faults appear to have acted as the conduits for the movement of mineralising fluids through the mudstones. The native copper sheets all show a similar pattern of corrosion and alteration. However, the intensity of alteration is

  6. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  7. Fieldwork Methodology in South American Maritime Archaeology: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Amaru; Ciarlo, Nicolás C.

    2017-12-01

    In archaeology, data obtained from the analysis of material evidence (i.e., the archaeological record) from extensive excavations have been a significant means for the ultimate development of interpretations about human life in the past. Therefore, the methodological procedures and tools employed during fieldwork are of crucial importance due to their effect on the information likely to be recovered. In the case of maritime archaeology, the development of rigorous methods and techniques allowed for reaching outcomes as solid as those from the work performed on land. These improvements constituted one of the principal supports—if not, the most important pillar—for its acceptance as a scientific field of study. Over time, the growing diversity of sites under study (e.g., shipwrecks, ports, dockyards, and prehistoric settlements) and the underwater environments encountered made it clear that there was a need for the application of specific methodological criteria, in accordance with the particularities of the sites and of each study (e.g., the research aims and the available resources). This article presents some ideas concerning the methodologies used in South American investigations that have exhibited a strong emphasis on the analysis of historical shipwrecks (the sixteenth to twentieth centuries). Based on a state-of-the-knowledge review of these research projects, in particular where excavations were conducted, the article focuses on the details of the main strategies adopted and results achieved. The ideas proposed in this article can be useful as a starting point for future activities of surveying, recording, and excavating shipwrecks.

  8. Phylogenetic relationships of the South American Doradoidea (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. O. Birindelli

    Full Text Available A phylogenetic analysis based on 311 morphological characters is presented for most species of the Doradidae, all genera of the Auchenipteridae, and representatives of 16 other catfish families. The hypothesis that was derived from the six most parsimonious trees support the monophyly of the South American Doradoidea (Doradidae plus Auchenipteridae, as well as the monophyly of the clade Doradoidea plus the African Mochokidae. In addition, the clade with Sisoroidea plus Aspredinidae was considered sister to Doradoidea plus Mochokidae. Within the Auchenipteridae, the results support the monophyly of the Centromochlinae and Auchenipterinae. The latter is composed of Tocantinsia, and four monophyletic units, two small with Asterophysusand Liosomadoras, and Pseudotatiaand Pseudauchenipterus, respectively, and two large ones with the remaining genera. Within the Doradidae, parsimony analysis recovered Wertheimeriaas sister to Kalyptodoras, composing a clade sister to all remaining doradids, which include Franciscodorasand two monophyletic groups: Astrodoradinae (plus Acanthodorasand Agamyxis and Doradinae (new arrangement. Wertheimerinae, new subfamily, is described for Kalyptodoras and Wertheimeria. Doradinae is corroborated as monophyletic and composed of four groups, one including Centrochirand Platydoras, the other with the large-size species of doradids (except Oxydoras, another with Orinocodoras, Rhinodoras, and Rhynchodoras, and another with Oxydorasplus all the fimbriate-barbel doradids. Based on the results, the species of Opsodoras are included in Hemidoras; and Tenellus, new genus, is described to include Nemadoras trimaculatus, N. leporhinusand Nemadoras ternetzi. Due to conflicting hypotheses of the phylogenetic position of Acanthodoras, Agamyxis, and Franciscodoras, these are considered as incertae sedisin Doradidae. All suprageneric taxa of the Doradoidea are diagnosed based on synapomorphic morphological characteristics.

  9. Excerpt from The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cox

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from James H. Cox, The Red Land to the South: American Indian Writers and Indigenous Mexico (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from University of Minnesota Press.

  10. The Labor Market Status of Native Born Filipino\\a Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Linus Yamane

    2001-01-01

    This paper finds that Filipino Americans face significant discrimination in the labor market. Filipino Americans face both wage discrimination and occupational discrimination. But the amount of discrimination faced by Filipino Americans depends on combinations of gender, region of residence, and level of education.

  11. Anthropozoonotic Endoparasites in Free-Ranging ?Urban? South American Sea Lions (Otaria flavescens)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M. R.; Navarro, Mauricio; Taubert, Anja

    2016-01-01

    The present study represents the first report on the gastrointestinal endoparasite fauna of a free-ranging “urban” colony of South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens) living within the city of Valdivia, Chile. A total of 40 individual faecal samples of South American sea lions were collected during the year 2012 within their natural habitat along the river Calle-Calle and in the local fish market of Valdivia. Coprological analyses applying sodium acetate acetic formalin methanol (SAF) tech...

  12. Gender, Family, and Community Correlates of Mental Health in South Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities. PMID:19594255

  13. Gender, family, and community correlates of mental health in South Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Nausheen; Okazaki, Sumie; Takeuchi, David T

    2009-07-01

    Nationally representative data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (Alegría et al., 2004) was used to examine both disorder prevalence rates and correlates of distress for the South Asian American subgroup (n = 164). South Asian Americans generally appeared to have lower or comparable rates of lifetime and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders when compared with the overall Asian American sample. A multiple-regression model fitted to predict recent psychological distress, with 12-month diagnosis as a covariate, found gender differences. For women, lack of extended family support was related to higher levels of distress, whereas for men, greater conflict with family culture, and a lower community social position (but higher U.S. social position) predicted higher distress scores. Findings suggest that mental health services consider a broad framework of psychological functioning for South Asian Americans that reflect their gendered, familial, and sociopolitical realities.

  14. Ecogeographical Variation in Skull Shape of South-American Canids: Abiotic or Biotic Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura Bubadué, Jamile; Cáceres, Nilton; Dos Santos Carvalho, Renan; Meloro, Carlo

    Species morphological changes can be mutually influenced by environmental or biotic factors, such as competition. South American canids represent a quite recent radiation of taxa that evolved forms very disparate in phenotype, ecology and behaviour. Today, in the central part of South America there is one dominant large species (the maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus ) that directly influence sympatric smaller taxa via interspecific killing. Further south, three species of similar sized foxes ( Lycalopex spp.) share the same habitats. Such unique combination of taxa and geographic distribution makes South American dogs an ideal group to test for the simultaneous impact of climate and competition on phenotypic variation. Using geometric morphometrics, we quantified skull size and shape of 431 specimens belonging to the eight extant South American canid species: Atelocynus microtis , Cerdocyon thous , Ch. brachyurus , Lycalopex culpaeus , L. griseus , L. gymnocercus , L. vetulus and Speothos venaticus . South American canids are significantly different in both skull size and shape. The hypercarnivorous bush dog is mostly distinct in shape from all the other taxa while a degree of overlap in shape-but not size-occurs between species of the genus Lycalopex . Both climate and competition impacts interspecific morphological variation. We identified climatic adaptations as the main driving force of diversification for the South American canids. Competition has a lower degree of impact on their skull morphology although it might have played a role in the past, when canid community was richer in morphotypes.

  15. English or Perish: How Contemporary South Korea Received, Accommodated, and Internalized English and American Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JongHwa; Han, Min Wha; McKerrow, Raymie E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the positionality of English in South Korea as a form of symbolic capital that represents the discursive power of Americanism and East Asian Social Darwinism. By employing Bourdieu's and Foucault's theoretical orientations, this paper traces how South Korean linguistic policies to incorporate English loan words coincide with…

  16. Forensic performance of Investigator DIPplex indels genotyping kit in native, immigrant, and admixed populations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefke, Gwynneth; Davison, Sean; D'Amato, Maria Eugenia

    2015-12-01

    The utilization of binary markers in human individual identification is gaining ground in forensic genetics. We analyzed the polymorphisms from the first commercial indel kit Investigator DIPplex (Qiagen) in 512 individuals from Afrikaner, Indian, admixed Cape Colored, and the native Bantu Xhosa and Zulu origin in South Africa and evaluated forensic and population genetics parameters for their forensic application in South Africa. The levels of genetic diversity in population and forensic parameters in South Africa are similar to other published data, with lower diversity values for the native Bantu. Departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were observed in HLD97 in Indians, Admixed and Bantus, along with 6.83% null homozygotes in the Bantu populations. Sequencing of the flanking regions showed a previously reported transition G>A in rs17245568. Strong population structure was detected with Fst, AMOVA, and the Bayesian unsupervised clustering method in STRUCTURE. Therefore we evaluated the efficiency of individual assignments to population groups using the ancestral membership proportions from STRUCTURE and the Bayesian classification algorithm in Snipper App Suite. Both methods showed low cross-assignment error (0-4%) between Bantus and either Afrikaners or Indians. The differentiation between populations seems to be driven by four loci under positive selection pressure. Based on these results, we draw recommendations for the application of this kit in SA. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Speaking out about physical harms from tobacco use: response to graphic warning labels among American Indian/Alaska Native communities

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Tovar, Molly; Thompson, Kellie; Ishcomer, Jamie; Kreuter, Matthew W; Caburnay, Charlene; Boyum, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study is the first to explore the impact of graphic cigarette labels with physical harm images on members of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. The aim of this article is to investigate how AI/AN respond to particular graphic warning labels. Methods The parent study recruited smokers, at-risk smokers and non-smokers from three different age groups (youths aged 13?17?years, young adults aged 18?24?years and adults aged 25+ years) and five population subgroups wit...

  18. An Evaluation of Native-speaker Judgements of Foreign-accented British and American English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, W.Z. van den

    2006-01-01

    This study is the first ever to employ a large-scale Internet survey to investigate priorities in English pronunciation training. Well over 500 native speakers from throughout the English-speaking world, including North America, the British Isles, Australia and New Zealand, were asked to detect and

  19. The influence of inoculated and native ectomycorrhizal fungi on morphology, physiology and survival of American chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenise M. Bauman; Carolyn H. Keiffer; Shiv. Hiremath

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five different species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on root colonization of native fungi on putatively blight resistant chestnut hybrids (Castanea dentata x C. mollissima) in a reclaimed mine site in central Ohio. The five species were Hebeloma crustuliniforme, Laccaria bicolor,...

  20. The burden of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes in Native Hawaiian and Asian American hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Sentell

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Hospitalized Native Hawaiians (41% and Asian subgroups had significantly higher overall diabetes burdens compared to Whites (23%. Potentially undiagnosed diabetes was associated with poor outcomes. Hospitalized patients, irrespective of race/ethnicity, may require more effective inpatient identification and management of previously undiagnosed diabetes to improve clinical outcomes.

  1. 78 FR 48441 - Office of Urban Indian Health Programs Proposed Single Source Grant With Native American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ AN) residing in the Boston metropolitan area. This program is authorized.... Emergency Response: We have learned from the past and are better prepared for the future. There is an ethic...) those recognized now or in the future by the State in which they reside; or (b) Is a descendant, in the...

  2. 75 FR 13140 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee: Nomination Solicitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... that Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization, or (ii) Exercising a leadership role in an Indian... signature and daytime telephone number. The nominator must indicate how he or she meets the definition of... of an advisory board. c. how the nominee meets the definition of traditional religious leader found...

  3. 77 FR 59990 - Workforce Investment Act; Native American Employment and Training Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...

  4. 78 FR 69879 - Workforce Investment Act: Native American Employment and Training Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Committee Act (FACA) (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, and Section 166(h)(4) of the Workforce Investment Act... written statements to Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, Designated Federal Official (DFO), U.S. Department of... Recommendations. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mrs. Evangeline M. Campbell, DFO, Division of Indian and Native...

  5. Afrikaans, American and British models for South African English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the treatment of racial labels in monolingual English dictionaries of South Africa. Considering past controversies regarding racist language in Afrikaans dictionaries and considering the changing role of English in democratic South Africa, we can expect that English dictionaries will be more carefully ...

  6. Network companies: a new phenomenon in South American farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clasadonte, L.; Vries, de E.; Trienekens, J.H.; Arbeletche, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – South America is an important agricultural producer. Farming is characterized by the availability of vast areas of land, a reasonable climate and low cost. These conditions have led South America to be an important supplier of agricultural goods on the world market. Traditionally farmers

  7. The water economy of South American desert rodents: from integrative to molecular physiological ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Gallardo, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Rodents from arid and semi-arid habitats live under conditions where the spatial and temporal availability of free water is limited, or scarce, thus forcing these rodents to deal with the problem of water conservation. The response of rodents to unproductive desert environments and water deficits has been intensively investigated in many deserts of the world. However, current understanding of the cellular, systemic and organismal physiology of water economy relies heavily on short-term, laboratory-oriented experiments, which usually focus on responses at isolated levels of biological organization. In addition, studies in small South American mammals are scarce. Indeed xeric habitats have existed in South America for a long time and it is intriguing why present day South American desert rodents do not show the wide array of adaptive traits to desert life observed for rodents on other continents. Several authors have pointed out that South American desert rodents lack physiological and energetic specialization for energy and water conservation, hypothesizing that their success is based more on behavioral and ecological strategies. We review phenotypic flexibility and physiological diversity in water flux rate, urine osmolality, and expression of water channels in South American desert-dwelling rodents. As far as we know, this is the first review of integrative studies at cellular, systemic and organismal levels. Our main conclusion is that South American desert rodents possess structural as well as physiological systems for water conservation, which are as remarkable as those found in "classical" rodents inhabiting other desert areas of the world.

  8. Attitudes toward Science (ATS): An Examination of Scientists' and Native Americans' Cultural Values and ATS and Their Effect on Action Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Adam T.

    Science has been identified as a crucial element in the competitiveness and sustainability of America in the global economy. American citizens, especially minority populations, however, are not pursuing science education or careers. Past research has implicated ‘attitudes toward science’ as an important factor in the public’s participation in science. I applied Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior to attitudes toward science to predict science-related sustainability-action intentions and evaluated whether scientists and Native Americans differed in their general attitudes toward science, cultural values, and specific beliefs about science. Analyses revealed that positive attitude toward science and the cultural value of individualism predicted intentions to engage with science-related sustainability actions. Unexpectedly, scientists and Native Americans did not differ in their cultural values or positive attitude toward science. However, Natives Americans held significantly more negative attitude toward science than scientists. Implications for science education and attitudes towards science theory and application are discussed.

  9. African American Medical Culture in the Antebellum South: As Remembered in the WPA Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This project examines the oral accounts of former slaves, as recorded in the WPA narratives in the 1930s, to study the development of African American medical culture in the Antebellum South. Through an examination of these transcribed memories, my research investigates how African American praxes with medicinal flora, healing techniques, and spiritual harmony, reflected their ethnomedical and cosmological ideologies. The duality of these ideologies represents an African American medical iden...

  10. The Construction, Negotiation, and Transformation of Racial Identity in American Football: A Study of Native and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gems, Gerald R.

    1998-01-01

    Traces and compares the histories of Black and American-Indian participation in collegiate and professional football. Discusses athletic participation by minority groups as a challenge to segregation and notions of White superiority; as a challenge to the persistence of racist stereotypes in media coverage; and as a foundation for the…

  11. The Policing of Native Bodies and Minds: Perspectives on Schooling from American Indian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada Cerecer, Patricia D.

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that high school campus climates are contentious for students of color, particularly as they negotiate institutional and personal racism. Unfortunately, minimal research centers on the experiences of American Indian youth. In response, this qualitative study explores American Indian responses to hostile campus climates. Using a…

  12. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children 6 months to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H

    2011-06-21

    To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non-Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  13. A cost comparison of travel models and behavioural telemedicine for rural, Native American populations in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Brady P; Barragan, Gary N; Fore, Chis; Bonham, Caroline A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to model the cost of delivering behavioural health services to rural Native American populations using telecommunications and compare these costs with the travel costs associated with providing equivalent care. Behavioural telehealth costs were modelled using equipment, transmission, administrative and IT costs from an established telecommunications centre. Two types of travel models were estimated: a patient travel model and a physician travel model. These costs were modelled using the New Mexico resource geographic information system program (RGIS) and ArcGIS software and unit costs (e.g. fuel prices, vehicle depreciation, lodging, physician wages, and patient wages) that were obtained from the literature and US government agencies. The average per-patient cost of providing behavioural healthcare via telehealth was US$138.34, and the average per-patient travel cost was US$169.76 for physicians and US$333.52 for patients. Sensitivity analysis found these results to be rather robust to changes in imputed parameters and preliminary evidence of economies of scale was found. Besides the obvious benefits of increased access to healthcare and reduced health disparities, providing behavioural telehealth for rural Native American populations was estimated to be less costly than modelled equivalent care provided by travelling. Additionally, as administrative and coordination costs are a major component of telehealth costs, as programmes grow to serve more patients, the relative costs of these initial infrastructure as well as overall per-patient costs should decrease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Through the Lens of TEK - Building GeoScience Pathways for American Indian/Alaska Native Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W. J.; van Cooten, S.; Wrege, B.; Wildcat, D.

    2017-12-01

    Native American or American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) students come from diverse communities with indigenous knowledges, perspectives and worldviews. These communities and the students they send into our nation's education systems have cultural connectivity to oral histories, documents, and artwork that details climate cycles and weather events prior to colonization through eras of forced relocation and assimilation. Today, these students are the trailblazers as tribal governments exercise their ownership rights to natural resources and the welfare of their citizens as sovereign nations. In universities, especially tribal colleges, our nation's indigenous students are bridge builders. Through the lens of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK), these students have a unique yet overlooked perspective to merge mainstream research with indigenous knowledge systems to develop practical sustainable solutions for local, regional and international resource management issues. The panel will discuss barriers, such as underdeveloped geophysical science curricula at tribal colleges, that limit the pool of indigenous geoscience graduates and examine possible strategies such as entry point opportunities and partnerships, mentoring, and community relevant research experiences, to eliminate barriers that limit the influx of TEK in resiliency planning.

  15. Work Disability Among Native-born and Foreign-born Americans: On Origins, Health, and Social Safety Nets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Michal; Kestenbaum, Bert M; Zuelsdorff, Megan L; Mehta, Neil K; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2017-12-01

    Public debates about both immigration policy and social safety net programs are increasingly contentious. However, little research has explored differences in health within America's diverse population of foreign-born workers, and the effect of these workers on public benefit programs is not well understood. We investigate differences in work disability by nativity and origins and describe the mix of health problems associated with receiving Social Security Disability Insurance benefits. Our analysis draws on two large national data sources-the American Community Survey and comprehensive administrative records from the Social Security Administration-to determine the prevalence and incidence of work disability between 2001 and 2010. In sharp contrast to prior research, we find that foreign-born adults are substantially less likely than native-born Americans to report work disability, to be insured for work disability benefits, and to apply for those benefits. Overall and across origins, the foreign-born also have a lower incidence of disability benefit award. Persons from Africa, Northern Europe, Canada, and parts of Asia have the lowest work disability benefit prevalence rates among the foreign-born; persons from Southern Europe, Western Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the Caribbean have the highest rates.

  16. Exploring opportunities and challenges for establishing a South American Space Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne P.; Aguilar, Andrés D.; Sarli, Bruno V.; Pardo Spiess, Monika Johanna; Sorice, Andreia F.; Genaro, Gino; Ojeda, Oscar I.

    2018-06-01

    The idea of establishing a South American Space Agency (SASA) is not new. There have been many discussions about this topic for a couple of decades, including an agreement by the Union of South American Nations to create such a space agency. Roughly 10 years ago, Argentina was the first to propose this collaboration with a military orientation. As the ideas progressed, Brazil was proposed to host its headquarters. However, not much support from the South American region has been given, either financially or logistically. To this day, a South American Space Agency or a similar concept has not yet been established in the region. The Space Generation Advisory Council (SGAC) hosted the first South American Space Generation Workshop in Argentina in 2015, where one of the working groups was tasked to further investigate the feasibility, advantages and challenges of implementing SASA. This paper presents an extension of the main findings from this working group where South American students and young professionals study and present a rationale in favor of SASA, outlining possible solutions and a structure that could be taken into account for its implementation. This paper pays particular attention to the question: Is it possible for countries in South America to establish the kind of cooperation necessary to stimulate the development and application of capabilities in the space sector, which would then enable undertaking missions far beyond the scope of what any single country in South America could do on its own? The existence of SASA would allow access to a common representative agency, which would lower costs, be accessible to all participating countries, and allow engagement with other emerging and established space agencies around the world.

  17. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Agumanu McOliver

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Science to Achieve Results (STAR tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research.

  18. Community-Based Research as a Mechanism to Reduce Environmental Health Disparities in American Indian and Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOliver, Cynthia Agumanu; Camper, Anne K.; Doyle, John T.; Eggers, Margaret J.; Ford, Tim E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Berner, James; Campbell, Larry; Donatuto, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Racial and ethnic minority communities, including American Indian and Alaska Natives, have been disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution and contamination. This includes siting and location of point sources of pollution, legacies of contamination of drinking and recreational water, and mining, military and agricultural impacts. As a result, both quantity and quality of culturally important subsistence resources are diminished, contributing to poor nutrition and obesity, and overall reductions in quality of life and life expectancy. Climate change is adding to these impacts on Native American communities, variably causing drought, increased flooding and forced relocation affecting tribal water resources, traditional foods, forests and forest resources, and tribal health. This article will highlight several extramural research projects supported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science to Achieve Results (STAR) tribal environmental research grants as a mechanism to address the environmental health inequities and disparities faced by tribal communities. The tribal research portfolio has focused on addressing tribal environmental health risks through community based participatory research. Specifically, the STAR research program was developed under the premise that tribal populations may be at an increased risk for environmentally-induced diseases as a result of unique subsistence and traditional practices of the tribes and Alaska Native villages, community activities, occupations and customs, and/or environmental releases that significantly and disproportionately impact tribal lands. Through a series of case studies, this article will demonstrate how grantees—tribal community leaders and members and academic collaborators—have been addressing these complex environmental concerns by developing capacity, expertise and tools through community-engaged research. PMID:25872019

  19. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hong, Young P

    2008-01-01

    .... To accomplish this, three areas will be researched. First, the transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic government in the 1990s has provided previously unheard of democratic freedom in South Korean society...

  20. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    Studies on violence in the workplace and on bullying in. South Africa are .... famatory, constituting bullying, harassment or discrimination ..... bullying effectively, and do not guide educators on ... Prevention and Management of Sexual Violence.

  1. Temporary and space dynamics of the fragmentation of the native forest in the south of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montenegro Calderon, Leyla M

    2001-01-01

    The degree of fragmentation of the remainders of native vegetation is evaluated in the hydro graphical basin of the River Damas, through the time. The native forests are had among the ecosystems bigger degree of fragmentation in the world environment. The fragmentation has been defined as the transformation of an originally continuous forest, in smaller varieties, generally anthropics that are hostile for they; These fragments behave as islands virtual immerses in an anthropic ocean and frequently they are analyzed in the context of the theory of the isolation bio geographic. The result of the fragmentation is a landscape in which they mix managed areas and transformed by the man with fragments of native vegetation, that is to say patches of different sizes and forms

  2. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo Lorenzo Bermejo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26. By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27. Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  3. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Boekstegers, Felix; González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Müller, Bettina; Ferreccio, Catterina; Koshiol, Jill; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Fuentes Guajardo, Macarena; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  4. Wild and native plants and mushrooms sold in the open-air markets of south-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper-Pakosz, Renata; Pietras, Marcin; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2016-10-07

    The study of plants and fungi sold in open-air markets is an important part of ethnobotanical enquiry. Only few such studies were carried out in Europe. Four of the largest open-air markets of south-eastern Poland were visited regularly, and the plants sold in them were recorded between 2013 and 2015. The aim of the study was to record native and/or wild species sold in the markets. All the plants sold in the markets were photographed regularly. In each market, 25 sellers were interviewed. Voucher specimens were collected and fungi were identified using DNA barcoding. Altogether, 468 species of plants were recorded, 117 of them native to south-eastern Poland - 19 only collected from the wild and 11 both wild and cultivated. Seventeen of the species are under legal protection. Most protected plants were sold from cultivation, although proper authorization procedures had not been performed. Thirty-two species of fungi were sold (including two cultivated species), all of them for culinary purposes. Two species (Lactarius quieticolor, Leccinum schistophilum) are new to the mycobiota of Poland. Ornamental plants constituted a large section of the market, and they dominated the group of native species. Food plants dominated among wild-collected plants and were sold mainly as fruits for jams, juices and alcoholic drinks, or as culinary herbs. Very few medicinal or green vegetable plants were sold. An interesting feature of the markets was the sale of Ledum palustre as an insect repellent. Finding two species of fungi which are new to Poland highlights the importance of DNA barcoding in ethnomycological studies. Most items in the markets are ornamental plants, or edible fruits and mushrooms. Very few medicinal plants and green vegetables are sold, which differentiates the markets from southern European ones. Such a pattern is probably the model for most central European markets.

  5. “Liting it up”: Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Ilango Thangaraj

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available South Asian American participants of a co-ethnic basketball league, known as Indo-Pak Basketball, utilized urban basketball vernacular through the phrase “liting it up” to identify individuals scoring points in great numbers. The person “liting it up” becomes visible and receives recognition. Accordingly, I want to “lite up” the scholarship on South Asian America whereby situating South Asian American religious sites and cultural centers as key arenas for “Americanization” through US popular culture. I situate sport as a key element of popular culture through which South Asian American communities work out, struggle through, and contest notions of self. Informed by an Anthropology of Sport, ethnography of South Asian American communities in Atlanta takes place alongside an examination of the North American Indo-Pak Basketball circuit. Accordingly, my findings indicate that such community formation has also taken shape at the intersections of institutions, gender, and sexuality whereby excluding queers, women, and other communities of color.

  6. Use of Media Technologies by Native American Teens and Young Adults: Evaluating Their Utility for Designing Culturally-Appropriate Sexual Health Interventions Targeting Native Youth in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Rushing, Stephanie Nicole

    2010-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth are disproportionally burdened by high rates of sexually transmitted infections and teen pregnancy, heightening their need for sexual health interventions that are aligned to their unique culture and social context. Media technologies, including the Internet, cell phones, and video games, offer new…

  7. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural ba...

  8. Teaching a Growing a Population of Non-Native English-Speaking Students in American Universities: Cultural and Linguistic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Fava

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of non-native English speaking students in American universities, mostly from Asian countries, presents unprecedented challenges and calls for an in-depth study on how we teach western art music history. This essay challenges some aspects of liberal multiculturalism and proposes the creation of channels of communication that allow non-native English speaking students to understand the premises of a Eurocentric system of knowledge without undermining their own cultural backgrounds.

  9. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  10. Native forest generation in pine and eucalypt plantation in Northern Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available the Eastern escarpment, and Entabeni on Soutpansberg Mountains. The area receives 1200 to 1900 mm rain per annum, mainly during summer. Two hypotheses were tested: under storey colonisation by native plant species is strongly influenced by the overhead...

  11. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  12. Studying Legacy Uranium Contamination On Navajo, Laguna, and Isleta Lands In Collaboration With Native American Undergraduate Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, D. D.; Frey, B.; Chee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Personally relevant research experiences at key points in a student's education are potentially powerful influences on their long-term career path. With this in mind, New Mexico EPSCoR created the STEM Advancement Program (STEMAP) to provide a summer research experience for students from the non-graduate-degree granting institutions in New Mexico. Recruitment focused on underrepresented minorities, primarily Native American and Hispanic students, who applied to work with one of six research components. Our research component focused on understanding the fate and transport of environmental uranium in the Four Corners region. The geosciences are especially amenable to providing meaningful research experiences, particularly for groups that have a strong cultural connection with the land. Uranium mining activities were extensive on several reservations in the 1950s to 1980s, and many of the sites have not been remediated. The impact of mining likely contributed to the high interest among Native American (especially Navajo) STEMAP applicants in this research topic. In four years of summer research we mentored four Native American students (two male and two female) and one white non-Hispanic female. Following their work in our research group, one student extended her research, three graduated, and one transferred to a research institution. This success likely reflects a combination of recruitment efforts, which built on community connections, as well as efforts to provide personal mentoring and to create an inclusive environment. The work of these students has advanced our understanding of fluvial transport of uranium from inactive mining districts, an important pathway given the role of these streams in providing water for agriculture and aggregate for construction. Findings demonstrate an affinity of uranium to sorb to fine-grained sediment, meaning standing water in stock ponds is of particular concern. The students also studied uranium-bearing dust generated from

  13. Cyberbullying in South African and American schools: A legal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    stressed (Burton & Mutongwizo, 2009); the educational institution should ... especially in South Africa, where this has claimed the lives of both learners and ... Studies on violence in the workplace and on bullying in ... tives, and to balance the rights of the various parties in a school environment. ...... School social workers'.

  14. Radioactive mineral potential of carbonatites in western parts of the South American shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premoli, C.; Kroonenberg, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    During the last eight years at least six carbonatites or clusters of carbonatites have been discovered in the western parts of the South American cratons. In contrast to the carbonatites of the eastern part of the South American shields, which have been well studied and placed in a tectonic context together with the West African carbonatite provinces, those of the western part of the South American cratons have received litte attention. This paper is a compilation of published and original data on these occurrences, their geology, geochemistry, structural setting and radioactive mineral potential. An exploration strategy is devised based on experiences in this rainforest-clad area and the peculiar genetic aspect of carbonatites. Some details of a possibly new uranium mineral encountered in Cerro Cora carbonatite are given. (author)

  15. Integrating geoscience and Native American experiences through a multi-state geoscience field trip for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, P. R.; Brown, L. M.; Spencer, M.; Sabatine, S.; Goetz, E. R.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Superior State University (LSSU) developed the GRANITE (Geological Reasoning And Natives Investigating The Earth) to engage high school students in the geosciences. The GRANITE program's target audience is Native American high school students and other populations underrepresented in the geosciences. Through the GRANITE program students undertake a variety of field and laboratory geosciences activities that culminates in a two week summer geoscience field experience during which they travel from Michigan to Wyoming. The sites students visit were selected because of their interesting and diverse geologic features and because in many cases they have special significance to Native American communities. Examples of the processes and localities studied by GRANITE students include igneous processes at Bear Butte, SD (Mato Paha) and Devil's Tower, WY (Mato Tipila); sedimentary processes in the Badlands, SD (Mako Sica) and Black Hills, SD (Paha Sapa); karst processes at Wind Cave, SD (Wasun Niye) and Vore Buffalo Jump; structural processes at Van Hise rock, WI and Dillon normal fault Badlands, SD; hydrologic and laucustrine processes along the Great Lakes and at the Fond du Lac Reservation, MN; fluvial processes along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers; geologic resources at the Homestake Mine, SD and Champion Mine, MI; and metamorphic processes at Pipestone, MN and Baraboo, WI. Through the GRANITE experience students develop an understanding of how geoscience is an important part of their lives, their communities and the world around them. The GRANITE program also promotes each student's growth and confidence to attend college and stresses the importance of taking challenging math and science courses in high school. Geoscience career opportunities are discussed at specific geologic localities and through general discussions. GRANITE students learn geosciences concepts and their application to Native communities and society in general through activities and

  16. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  17. Carl Gawboy, Ojibwe Regional Painter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for the elementary grades of Carl Gawboy (Ojibwe), an American Indian painter, includes photographs of the artist and some of his work. A teacher's guide following the bibilography contains information on watercolor painting and the Ojibwe people, learning objectives and study questions, instructions for doing a watercolor painting and…

  18. Infectivity and sporulation potential of Phytophthora kernoviae to select North American native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. J. Fichtner; D. M. Rizzo; S. A. Kirk; J. F. Webber

    2011-01-01

    Phytophthora kernoviae exhibits comparable epidemiology to Phytophthora ramorum in invaded UK woodlands. Because both pathogens have an overlapping geographic range in the UK and often concurrently invade the same site, it is speculated that P. kernoviae may also invade North American (NA) forests...

  19. Enacting Red Power: The Consummatory Function in Native American Protest Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the American Indian Movement (AIM) with respect to (1) the role of tradition in AIM demands; (2) militant Indian rhetoric as a form of ritual self-address; (3) how Indian religious/cultural beliefs restrict the ability of language to persuade Whites; and (4) how militant Indian rhetoric fulfills its function. (PD)

  20. American Native Oral Tradition: Legal Safeguards and Public Domain--A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    Demonstrating the fact that the United States recognizes tribal groups (American Indians, Eskimos, and/or Aleuts) as sovereign bodies and conducts business and civil affairs with them accordingly, this paper examines an area in U.S. Law that is either unclear or entirely lacking--the treatment of tribal right to ownership or control of the…

  1. 77 FR 74875 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... to convene the parties to a dispute relating to the identity and return of cultural items, and to... American Graves Protection and Repatriation Review Committee Findings Related to the Identity and Return of Cultural Items in the Possession of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

  2. Tom Beaver, Creek Television Reporter. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students presents an account of an American Indian television reporter, Tom Beaver (Creek), and includes a map of Oklahoma showing the location of Indian tribes. A teacher's guide following the biography contains information about the Creek tribe and the history of television, learning objectives and directions…

  3. Investigation of Factors Contributing to Diabetes Risk in American Indian/Alaska Native Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam-Zwart, Kayleen; Cawston, Alvina

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family history, sedentary behaviors, and childhood risk for type 2 diabetes. Participants were 480 students attending schools on or near an American Indian reservation. Data were collected through survey and BMI measurement. Children who frequently watched television or played video games did not…

  4. The Issue of Compatibility between Cultural Integrity and Economic Development among Native American Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean Howard

    1994-01-01

    Argues that economic development on American Indian reservations can strengthen a tribe's ability to maintain its culture if all development plans are formulated with consideration for their total societal impact. Discusses holistic approaches to development and business management, spiritual concerns, implications for higher education, and…

  5. Balancing Culture and Professional Education: American Indians/Alaska Natives and the Helping Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Hilary N.

    2000-01-01

    Surveys of 132 American Indian social workers, nurses, psychologists, and college students in those fields examined their experiences of professional education. Themes included extent of cultural content within professional training; types of support for indigenous identities; and struggles with stereotypes, institutional and faculty insensitivity…

  6. Differing Cognitive Trajectories of Mexican American Toddlers: The Role of Class, Nativity, and Maternal Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Bein, Edward; Kim, Yoonjeon; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies reveal early and wide gaps in cognitive and oral language skills--whether gauged in English or Spanish--among Latino children relative to White peers. Yet, other work reports robust child health and social development, even among children of Mexican American immigrants raised in poor households, the so-called "immigrant…

  7. The fossil record of South American short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Mariano; Tonni, Eduardo Pedro; Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor

    2005-01-01

    The present study includes a review of the geographic and stratigraphic distribution of short-faced bears (Ursidae, Tremarctinae) in South America. In addition, the authors discuss biogeographic hypotheses regarding the origin of South American tremarctines. The Tremarctinae subfamily is distributed exclusively in America, from Alaska to southern Patagonia. Its biochron comprises the temporal lapse between Late Miocene and recent times; the first record of Tremarctinae in North America corres...

  8. Indian boarding school experience, substance use, and mental health among urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Campbell, Christopher D

    2012-09-01

    Systematic efforts of assimilation removed many Native children from their tribal communities and placed in non-Indian-run residential schools. To explore substance use and mental health concerns among a community-based sample of 447 urban two-spirit American Indian/Alaska Native adults who had attended boarding school as children and/or who were raised by someone who attended boarding school. Eighty-two respondents who had attended Indian boarding school as children were compared to respondents with no history of boarding school with respect to mental health and substance use. Former boarding school attendees reported higher rates of current illicit drug use and living with alcohol use disorder, and were significantly more likely to have attempted suicide and experienced suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to non-attendees. About 39% of the sample had been raised by someone who attended boarding school. People raised by boarding school attendees were significantly more likely to have a general anxiety disorder, experience posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and have suicidal thoughts in their lifetime compared to others.

  9. Wayfinding as a concept for understanding success among Native Americans in STEM: " learning how to map through life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Reeves, Janet; Marin, Ananda; Moffett, Maurice; DeerInWater, Kathy; Medin, Douglas

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses findings from 40 ethnographically inspired interviews with 21 Native science professionals conducted in two iterative phases (21 in Phase I and 19 in Phase II), and a structured dialogue workgroup session with a six-member subset of the interviewees. Interview and group questions were open-ended to allow the participants to drive the conversation. We approached our interpretation of the data as an opportunity for deriving insights into the nature and meanings of participant narratives and experiences, why they present their stories in a particular way, and what this can tell us about the research questions we are exploring. We identify how the way they view themselves and the way they engage with the world has been transformed through their experience in obtaining a STEM degree at historically white institutions and working as a STEM professional. We argue that these changes allow for repurposing of STEM content knowledge to (re)connect with culturally defined values and goals. We discuss this transformative process as involving wayfinding and the accumulation of what we call experiential wisdom. We contend that the dimensions of this process are not sufficiently captured in concepts widely used to discuss situations of intercultural encounter. Our research builds on research of indigenous scholars who have provided a new way of thinking about Native Americans and science education.

  10. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  11. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  12. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, C.S. [Cultural Resources Consultants Ltd., Reno, NV (United States)

    1991-10-15

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada`s Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona.

  13. Miami's Tequesta Site: Could It Be a Native American Study Site For Natural Periodicities Associated With Tornados, Hurricanes, or Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Dougall, Jean S.; Mc Leod, David M.; Mc Leod, Roger D.

    2002-10-01

    Florida invested in preserving the Tequesta Indians' "Stonehenge-like" site along the Miami River. Direct observation, and telecast reports, show that a strong association exists between this area and Native American place names, hurricanes, tornados, a waterspout, and other nearby phenomena. Electromagnetic stimulation of human nervous systems in areas like these, discernable by appropriately sensitive individuals when these types of events occur, could plausibly account for some correct "predictions" of events like earthquakes. Various sensory modalities may be activated there. It may be important to understand other historic aspects associated with cultural artifacts like Miami's Tequesta remains. If it also generates instrumentally detectable signals that correlate with visual, "auditory," or nerve ending "tinglings" like those cited by the psychiatrist Arthur Guirdham in books like his Obsessions, applied physicists could partly vindicate the investment and also provide a net return. Society and comparative religious study may benefit.

  14. Academic Achievement of American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Does Social Emotional Competence Reduce the Impact of Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chain, Jennifer; Shapiro, Valerie B; LeBuffe, Paul A; Bryson, Ann McKay

    2017-01-01

    Social-emotional competence may be a protective factor for academic achievement among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. This study used Fisher's r to Z transformations to test for group differences in the magnitude of relationships between social-emotional competence and achievement. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the variance in academic achievement explained by student race, poverty, and social-emotional competence, and the schoolwide percentage of students by race. Data are from 335 students across 6 schools. This study suggests that promoting social-emotional competence among AI/AN students could be a strategy for reducing disparities in academic achievement and the consequences of these disparities.

  15. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  16. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth.

  17. Stac3 is a component of the excitation-contraction coupling machinery and mutated in Native American myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstick, Eric J.; Linsley, Jeremy W.; Dowling, James J.; Hauser, Michael A.; McDonald, Kristin K.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Saint-Amant, Louis; Satish, Akhila; Cui, Wilson W.; Zhou, Weibin; Sprague, Shawn M.; Stamm, Demetra S.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Speer, Marcy C.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara; Hirata, Hiromi; Kuwada, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Excitation-contraction coupling, the process that regulates contractions by skeletal muscles, transduces changes in membrane voltage by activating release of Ca2+ from internal stores to initiate muscle contraction. Defects in EC coupling are associated with muscle diseases. Here we identify Stac3 as a novel component of the EC coupling machinery. Using a zebrafish genetic screen, we generate a locomotor mutation that is mapped to stac3. We provide electrophysiological, Ca2+ imaging, immunocytochemical and biochemical evidence that Stac3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling in muscles. Furthermore, we reveal that a mutation in human STAC3 as the genetic basis of the debilitating Native American myopathy (NAM). Analysis of NAM stac3 in zebrafish shows that the NAM mutation decreases excitation-contraction coupling. These findings enhance our understanding of both excitation-contraction coupling and the pathology of myopathies. PMID:23736855

  18. Native Americans and Yucca Mountain: A revised and updated summary report on research undertaken between 1987 and 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    This report consists of Yucca Mountain Project bibliographies. It is the appendix to a report that summarizes data collected between September 1986 and September 1988 relative to Native American concerns involving the potential siting of a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The data were collected from Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute people upon whose aboriginal lands the repository potentially is to be located. Western Shoshone people involved in the study were those resident or affiliated with reservation communities at Yomba and Duckwater, Nevada, and Death Valley, California. Southern Paiute people were at reservation communities at Moapa and Las Vegas. Additional persons of Western Shoshone and Southern Paiute descent were interviewed at Beatty, Tonopah, Caliente, Pahrump, and Las Vegas, Nevada. The work was part of a larger project of socioeconomic studies for the State of Nevada's Nuclear Waste Projects office, conducted by Mountain West of Phoenix, Arizona

  19. Spatial Epidemiology of Alcohol- and Drug-Related Health Problems Among Northern Plains American Indians: Nebraska and South Dakota, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponicki, William R; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Gaidus, Andrew; Gruenewald, Paul J; Lee, Juliet P; Moore, Roland S; Davids, Sharice; Tilsen, Nick

    2018-03-01

    Despite high abstinence rates, American Indians experience elevated rates of many alcohol and other drug problems. American Indians also predominantly reside in poor and rural areas, which may explain some observed health disparities. We investigated whether geographic areas including reservations or large American Indian populations exhibited greater incidence of alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations. We obtained inpatient hospitalization records for 2 Northern Plain states (Nebraska and South Dakota) for the years 2007 to 2012. We constructed zip code counts for 10 categories of hospitalization with diagnoses or injury causation commonly associated with alcohol or drug use. We related these to community sociodemographic characteristics using Bayesian Poisson space-time regression models and examined associations with and without controls for whether each zip code was located within an American Indian reservation. Controlling for other demographic and economic characteristics, zip codes with greater percentage of American Indians exhibited greater incidence for all 10 substance abuse-related health outcomes (9 of 10 well supported); zip code areas within American Indian reservations had greater incidence of self-inflicted injury and drug dependence and abuse, and reduced incidence of alcohol cirrhosis and prescription opioid poisoning. However, the analyses generally demonstrated no well-supported differences in incidence associated with local residence percentages of American Indian versus African American. In our analyses, ethnicity or heredity alone did not account for alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations among Native populations. Aspects of social, economic, and political dimensions of Native lives must be considered in the etiology of alcohol- and drug-related problems for rural-dwelling indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. American Indian/Alaska Native Elders: A Growing Demographic that Is Changing How We View Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jordan P

    2016-01-01

    Today, AIAN Elders are more actively engaged in their families and communities, encouraging the development of intergenerational programs, language and cultural revitalization, being stewards in research conducted in their communities, as well passing on their knowledge and experiences on how to live as healthy Native people. Elders have traditionally been quiet and observant of their environment, but the current and future cohorts of Elders are advocates, leaders, and culture bearers for their families and communities and they are now in positions of leadership. Western society acknowledges the value of traditional knowledge and AIAN Elders are viewed as exemplars of healthy aging and their lessons and experiences can be attributed to our own lives. This commentary highlights the paradigm shift in how society views older adults, specifically AIAN Elders and their role in health and wellbeing.