Large numbers of tourists visit South Africa every year. Travelers to urban areas are at little risk of contracting an infectious disease, however the adventure traveler is at increased risk. Yellow fever is not known to occur in South Africa. Malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga and KwaZula-Natal. Schistosomiasis is endemic in large parts of the country. Although rabies is found throughout the country, only a small number of human cases is reported. High risk areas are KwaZulu-Natal, the eastern Cape and Mpumalanga provinces. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high and counseling regarding sexually transmitted diseases is important. Sanitation of water is excellent in most large cities and towns; however travelers to rural areas should exercise caution. Arbovirus infections do occur but relatively few cases are reported. The hiker is at risk for tick bite fever and should be counseled. Since the abolition of apartheid, South Africa has been seen as an inexpensive, high quality destination by many tourists. In 1997, a total of 5,436,848 travelers from many different countries visited the country. Areas most frequently visited include Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, the Garden Route, Kruger National Park, KwaZulu-Natal and Pretoria. The most common reason for visiting the country was holiday (44%), followed by visiting friends and relatives (23%), business travel (27%) other (6%).1 Travelers, to the larger cities such as Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban are at little risk of acquiring an infectious disease. The adventure traveler however is at greater risk as parts of the country are endemic for malaria, schistosomiasis, rabies, food and waterborne diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and arbovirus infections. Accidental deaths due to motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence are important health risks in South Africa. Travelers visiting popular attractions are at significantly lower risk. However this has never been
Sean M. Marr
Full Text Available Background: South Africa, as a signatory of the Convention on Biological Diversity, has an obligation to identify, prioritise and manage invasive species and their introduction pathways. However, this requires knowledge of the introduction pathways, factors influencing establishment success, invasive potential, current distributions and ecological impacts. Objectives: To evaluate the Fish Invasiveness Screening Kit (FISK to predict the invasion risk posed by fish species proposed for introduction into South Africa. Method: FISK assessments were compiled for species whose invasion status in South Africa was known. A Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was conducted to calibrate the FISK for South Africa. The calibrated FISK was used to evaluate the risk that three species recently proposed for importation for aquaculture could become invasive in South Africa. Results: A FISK score of 14 was identified as the threshold to delineate between species that could become invasive in South Africa and those that are unlikely to become invasive. Of the three species evaluated, Silurus glanis had a high risk of becoming invasive in South Africa, Lates calcarifer was likely to be invasive and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was unlikely to be invasive in South Africa. Conclusion: FISK was demonstrated to be a useful risk assessment tool to evaluate the invasion risk posed by species proposed for use in aquaculture. For the large number of fish imported for the pet trade, a rapid screening assessment to flag potentially high risk species was recommended prior to a full FISK assessment for flagged species.
A comparative risk assessment for South Africa in 2000: Towards promoting health and preventing disease. R Norman, D Bradshaw, M Schneider, J Joubert, P Groenewald, S Lewin, K Steyn, T Vos, R Laubscher, N Nannan, B Nojilana, D Pieterse, South African Comparitive Risk Assessment Collaboration Grou ...
Factors significantly associated with these risk behaviours occur at the individual and structural levels and include issues of race, gender, poverty and susceptibility to peer pressure. The paper concludes by recommending that future HIV-prevention interventions in South Africa should aim at building resilience among ...
SOUTH AFRICA. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South ...
Rudzani A. Makhado
Full Text Available This study reports about disaster risk assessment undertaken at Roburnia Plantation, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were followed to collect data. A total of eight experienced foresters and fire fighters were purposively sampled for interview at Roburnia Plantation. A questionnaire survey was also used to collect the data. Risk levels were quantified using the risks equations of Wisner et al. (2004 and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR 2002. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, single factor was also applied. This study found that Roburnia Plantation is highly exposed to fire risks. The mean (± s.d. output from the Wisner risk equation shows that fire is the highest risk at 7.7 ± 0.3, followed by harsh weather conditions at 5.6 ± 0.4 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 2.3 ± 0.2. Similarly, the mean (± s.d. output from the UNISDR risk equation also shows that fire is the highest risk at 2.9 ± 0.2, followed by harsh weather conditions at 2.2 ± 0.3 and least by tree diseases, pests and pathogens at 1.3 ± 0.2. There was no significant deference in the risk analysis outputs (p = 0.13. This study also found that the number of fire incidents were low during summer, but increased during winter and spring. This variation is mainly due to a converse relationship with rainfall, because the availability of rain moistens the area as well as the fuel. When the area and fuel is moist, fire incidents are reduced, but they increase with a decrease in fuel moisture.
Jan 5, 2011 ... Recent land and water reforms aim to transfer at least 30 per cent of South Africa's agricultural land and water to people defined as “previously disadvantaged” ... With input from stakeholders, the research team will use an integrated modelling approach – one that combines climate change scenarios, ...
Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn
This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....
The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239.
Muzindutsi, Paul-Francois; Manaliyo, Jean Claude
Although political risk has an impact on all types of businesses, political risk affects tourism business performance in terms of tourist arrivals and tourism revenue because tourists are very sensitive to political risk in host countries. This study analysed the effect of political risk on revenue from the tourism industry in South Africa. The sample period of 108 months from January 2007 to December 2015 was used based on the availability of data. The political risk were measured by the cou...
This paper investigates the sovereign risk premium as an indicator of sovereign risk. An attempt was made to capture evidence that best explains bond yield spreads for the 21-year period after the inception of democracy in South Africa in 1994. Conventional unit root testing techniques were applied, and the results ...
Full Text Available wildfires (i.e. unwanted veldfires) that cause damage to assets, and, second, the risk arising from ecologically inappropriate fire regimes in environments where fire plays an ecological role. South Africa has adopted the National Veld and Forest Fire Act...
For that purpose it was decided to use ex-ante estimates of expected returns. This led to bias in the observed mean returns, which negates the rational expectations hypothesis. In the light of the literature on the subject, this is considered acceptable for these purposes. KEYWORDS Market portfolio, risk aversion, South Africa ...
Kritzinger, Fiona E.; den Boon, Saskia; Verver, Suzanne; Enarson, Donald A.; Lombard, Carl J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Gie, Robert P.; Beyers, Nulda
To estimate the change in annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in two neighbouring urban communities of Cape Town, South Africa with an HIV prevalence of approximately 2%, and to compare ARTI with notification rates and treatment outcomes in the tuberculosis (TB) programme. In 1998-1999 and
Full Text Available Political risk factors are of prime importance to business operations around the world, as they may impact negatively on the financial performance thereof and may even lead to the financial failure of enterprises and industries. As political risk factors are often abundant in developing countries with emerging market economies, this study is undertaken in South Africa which is classified accordingly. The objective of this research focuses on the improvement of financial decision-making concerning the sources, analysis and insurance flexibility of political risk factors. To achieve the objective of the paper, a literature study and an empirical survey, involving the agents of political risk insurance in South Africa, were undertaken. Due attention is paid to identifying the most important sources of political risk factors, as well as the analysis of the political risk factors by the underwriters concerned. The importance of flexibility concerning the various aspects of political risk insurance is also addressed. The perceptions of the agents of political risk insurance in South Africa provide a valuable contribution to the empirical results and conclusions of this paper.
Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn
Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...
Full Text Available The detrimental effects of excess personal solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure include wrinkles, immunosuppression and skin cancer. Approximately 1 000 South Africans die each year from melanoma skin cancer and 30% of all histologically...
conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ..... Africa and Africans as indigenous to South Africa is erroneous .… The history books show us that the original inhabitants of South Africa are the Khoi and San people, ..... IOL News 2007 White Teen Joins Friend for Xhosa Ritual.
It considers members\\' perceptions of the risks faced by the burial societies themselves. It explores the ways in which burial societies develop community and establish trust. It investigates the procedures that have been developed by burial societies, on the basis of the trust so established, for the management of their risks.
Full Text Available Internationally, there are efforts to develop standardised toxicity testing and risk assessmentmethods for engineered nanomaterials (ENMs. To this end, health risk assessments need tobe conducted on ENMs synthesised in South Africa. Country-specific risk characterisationrequires specific exposure assessments for those ENMs for which the likelihood exists foroccupational and environmental exposure in that country. A challenge in hazard identificationand risk assessment related to ENMs, regardless of country of origin, is that data on toxicity,carcinogenicity, pharmacokinetics, and occupational or environmental exposure are generallynot available for most ENMs. Although the mechanisms previously identified as importantin the toxicity and carcinogenicity of particles and fibres may be applicable, the possibilityexists that the unusual physicochemical properties of ENMs may give rise to unique, andas yet unidentified, adverse effects. Moreover, generalised exposure scenarios that considerthe life cycle of the agent have not been developed and are needed for the complete riskcharacterisation of ENMs. As health risk assessment is both resource and labour intensive, it isimperative to identify the aims of such an exercise prior to embarking on large-scale projects,to ensure that the data most useful for public health decision-making is provided. Identifyingpriorities in South Africa, in coordination with international efforts, can facilitate the effectiveuse of research efforts for risk assessment and risk management decision-making.
Full Text Available Political risk factors often impact negatively on the financial results of an enterprise, industry, geographical region or an entire country. In severe cases they may even lead to financial disasters. Previous research (by Essel identified 10 specific political risk factors which are common to emerging market economies. As South Africa is a developing country with an emerging market economy, these 10 political risk factors should also be present in this country. This paper focuses on the importance of the impact of political risk factors on an agent’s total annual claims amount when underwriting political risk insurance in South Africa. The objective of this research paper embodies the improvement of financial decision-making by a particular enterprise, industry, geographical region or country operating in an emerging market economy, pertaining to the importance of the impact of political risk factors. A literature study as well as an empirical survey was done to achieve the study’s objective. The conclusions of this research should also be valuable to other enterprises, industries, geographical regions or countries which operate in an emerging market economy.
Charles Bitamazire Businge
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.
Full Text Available In 2005 the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction introduced the ‘Hyogo Framework for Action’ (HFA aimed at mainstreaming disaster risk reduction. Subsequently, the ‘Global Network for Disaster Reduction’ (GNDR was formed to support the implementation of the HFA. The GNDR initiated a country-based, international research project called ‘Views from the Frontline’ (VFL in order to measure progress at local level in terms of compliance with the HFA. The VFL 2011 project focused on local risk governance, which is critical for effective implementation of policy and provision of resources at grassroots level. This article provides insight into the findings for South Africa. The project made use of quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was gathered by means of a survey and/or questionnaire consisting of 20 questions on ‘indicators’ which assessed progress toward the goals of the HFA. The surveys also provided for qualitative commentary. The target population for this research consisted of local government officials and community representatives. Based on the quantitative scores for all the different indicators, the research showed that South Africa could still improve significantly in terms of compliance with the HFA. More attention must be given to operationalise the HFA at local level, a culture of safety must be fostered, local actors and communities must be involved directly and consulted, indigenous knowledge must be recognised, and significant capacity development for disaster risk reduction is necessary.
Appunni, Sathiya Susuman; Blignaut, Renette; Lougue, Siaka
The level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB) as well as the co-infection TB/HIV in South Africa is among the highest in the world. TB is curable while HIV is not, yet the combination of both is a growing feature in the world. This study examined TB and HIV affecting people living in South Africa. Analyses have been undertaken based on data from the General Household Survey of South Africa in 2006. The study focused on respondents aged 15-49 years, corresponding to a total of 55,384 people composed of 25,859 males and 29,525 females. Among this population, 5935 people suffered from illness/injury, including 2469 (41.6%) males and 3466 (58.4%) females. Weighted multivariate logistic regression is performed on TB and/or HIV in association with the province, background characteristics of the target population, and selected socioeconomic and demographic variables included in the survey. In this study we focus on variables of health status and whether subjects suffered from TB and/or HIV. Findings of this investigation show that TB is the second most common cause of illness in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal (KN) (9.1%), North West (5.4%) and Limpopo (4.2%). People who are married have a 50% lower risk compared to those currently not married to suffer from TB and/or HIV. Those with living spouses have a 5% lower risk to suffer from TB and/or HIV than those whose partners are not alive. This study concluded that rapid action is needed to curb the spread of TB and/or HIV to produce a healthy population. Therefore, follow-up care and special preventative measures are urgently needed in provinces with higher reported rates of TB and/or HIV such as KN.
Full Text Available Worldwide, there has been a rapid growth in the use of pipelines to transport energy products. Due to the strategic nature of energy products that are transported by pipelines, the importance of risk awareness, assessment and management cannot be over-emphasised. With the risk of pipeline disruptions increasing globally, energy pipeline organisations are compelled to incorporate measures that should help to identify and address areas that can lead to energy pipeline disruptions. The incorporation of such measures for any organisation is premised on an understanding and appreciation of the risks involved. Given the strategic importance of energy pipelines, the main purpose of this paper is to establish whether the South African energy pipeline sector and the public at large appreciate the risks associated with energy pipelines. Thus, the paper seeks to ascertain awareness of the risks associated with the energy pipeline's physical environment, not only from the energy pipeline operators, but also from communities who are exposed to such risks. Data for the study was collected from energy pipeline operators and from a selected residential area in Johannesburg using both structured and unstructured questionnaires. The findings show that the corporate energy sector in South Africa is aware of risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains while the general public's awareness is very low.
Van den Honert, Andrew Francis
Full Text Available This study contributes to the on-going efforts to improve occupational safety in the mining industry by creating a model capable of predicting the continuous risk of occupational accidents occurring. Contributing factors were identified and their sensitivity quantified. The approach included using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN to identify patterns between the input attributes and to predict the continuous risk of accidents occurring. The predictive Artificial Neural Network (ANN model used in this research was created, trained, and validated in the form of a case study with data from a platinum mine near Rustenburg in South Africa. This resulted in meaningful correlation between the predicted continuous risk and actual accidents.
Tibbits, Melissa K; Smith, Edward A; Caldwell, Linda L; Flisher, Alan J
This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the HealthWise South Africa HIV and substance abuse prevention program at impacting adolescents' polydrug use and sexual risk behaviors. HealthWise is a school-based intervention designed to promote social-emotional skills, increase knowledge and refusal skills relevant to substance use and sexual behaviors, and encourage healthy free time activities. Four intervention schools in one township near Cape Town, South Africa were matched to five comparison schools (N = 4040). The sample included equal numbers of male and female participants (Mean age = 14.0). Multiple regression was used to assess the impact of HealthWise on the outcomes of interest. Findings suggest that among virgins at baseline (beginning of eighth grade) who had sex by Wave 5 (beginning of 10th grade), HealthWise youth were less likely than comparison youth to engage in two or more risk behaviors at last sex. Additionally, HealthWise was effective at slowing the onset of frequent polydrug use among non-users at baseline and slowing the increase in this outcome among all participants. Program effects were not found for lifetime sexual activity, condomless sex refusal and past-month polydrug use. These findings suggest that HealthWise is a promising approach to HIV and substance abuse prevention.
Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.
54,100. Source: African Renaissance Fund Annual Report: 2004-2005. The ARF 2005-2006 report noted the following beneficiaries and amounts: African Renaissance Fund Grants – 2005-2006. Grant. Value (R'000). Africa Institute of South Africa, Terrorism Commission. 1,700. Liberian disarmament and elections. 25,750.
Cluver, Lucie; Bowes, Lucy; Gardner, Frances
Objectives: To examine whether bullying is a risk factor for psychological distress among children in poor, urban South Africa. To determine risk and protective factors for bullying victimization. Method: One thousand and fifty children were interviewed in deprived neighborhoods, including orphans, AIDS-affected children, street children, and…
Evan S Sergeant
Full Text Available African horse sickness (AHS is a severe, often fatal, arbovirus infection of horses, transmitted by Culicoides spp. midges. AHS occurs in most of sub-Saharan Africa and is a significant impediment to export of live horses from infected countries, such as South Africa. A stochastic risk model was developed to estimate the probability of exporting an undetected AHS-infected horse through a vector protected pre-export quarantine facility, in accordance with OIE recommendations for trade from an infected country. The model also allows for additional risk management measures, including multiple PCR tests prior to and during pre-export quarantine and optionally during post-arrival quarantine, as well as for comparison of risk associated with exports from a demonstrated low-risk area for AHS and an area where AHS is endemic. If 1 million horses were exported from the low-risk area with no post-arrival quarantine we estimate the median number of infected horses to be 5.4 (95% prediction interval 0.5 to 41. This equates to an annual probability of 0.0016 (95% PI: 0.00015 to 0.012 assuming 300 horses exported per year. An additional PCR test while in vector-protected post-arrival quarantine reduced these probabilities by approximately 12-fold. Probabilities for horses exported from an area where AHS is endemic were approximately 15 to 17 times higher than for horses exported from the low-risk area under comparable scenarios. The probability of undetected AHS infection in horses exported from an infected country can be minimised by appropriate risk management measures. The final choice of risk management measures depends on the level of risk acceptable to the importing country.
Norman, Rosana; Schneider, Michelle; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abrahams, Naeemah; Matzopoulos, Richard; Vos, Theo
Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5%) in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring the disease burden from interpersonal violence as a risk factor
Full Text Available Abstract Background Burden of disease estimates for South Africa have highlighted the particularly high rates of injuries related to interpersonal violence compared with other regions of the world, but these figures tell only part of the story. In addition to direct physical injury, violence survivors are at an increased risk of a wide range of psychological and behavioral problems. This study aimed to comprehensively quantify the excess disease burden attributable to exposure to interpersonal violence as a risk factor for disease and injury in South Africa. Methods The World Health Organization framework of interpersonal violence was adapted. Physical injury mortality and disability were categorically attributed to interpersonal violence. In addition, exposure to child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence, subcategories of interpersonal violence, were treated as risk factors for disease and injury using counterfactual estimation and comparative risk assessment methods. Adjustments were made to account for the combined exposure state of having experienced both child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence. Results Of the 17 risk factors included in the South African Comparative Risk Assessment study, interpersonal violence was the second leading cause of healthy years of life lost, after unsafe sex, accounting for 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs or 10.5% of all DALYs (95% uncertainty interval: 8.5%-12.5% in 2000. In women, intimate partner violence accounted for 50% and child sexual abuse for 32% of the total attributable DALYs. Conclusions The implications of our findings are that estimates that include only the direct injury burden seriously underrepresent the full health impact of interpersonal violence. Violence is an important direct and indirect cause of health loss and should be recognized as a priority health problem as well as a human rights and social issue. This study highlights the difficulties in measuring
Full Text Available In South Africa social and behavioural communication interventions are a critical component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and numerous communication campaigns have been implemented intensively across the country through government initiatives and nongovernmental organisations over the past decade. The aim of this paper is to assess the reach of HIV and AIDS communication campaigns in conjunction with contributions to knowledge, attitudes, and HIV risk behaviours in the general population in South Africa. The sample included in this nationally representative cross-sectional survey was 13234 people aged 15–55 years. Overall, the study found that there was high exposure to 18 different HIV communication programmes (median 6 programmes and 14 programmes more than 30% across different age groups. Most programmes were more often seen or heard by young people aged between 15 and 24 years. In multivariate analysis, greater exposure to HIV mass communication programmes was associated with greater HIV knowledge, condom use at last sex, having tested for HIV in the past 12 months, and less stigmatizing attitude toward PLWHA.
Full Text Available Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as “krimpsiekte”, cotyledonosis or “nenta”. “Krimpsiekte” is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo. The toxicosis is caused by cumulative bufadienolides which have neurotoxic properties. Four types of cumulative neurotoxic bufadienolides, namely cotyledoside, and the tyledosides, orbicusides and lanceotoxins, have been isolated. Based on the structure activity relationships and certain toxicokinetic parameters possible reasons for their accumulation are presented. Consumption of edible tissues from animals that have ingested these plants poses a potential risk to humans.
Full Text Available Melinda Hergert,1 Kevin le Roux,2 Louis H Nel3,4 1Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, 2KwaZulu-Natal Department of Environment, Agriculture and Rural Development, Government Veterinary Services, Pietermaritzburg, 3Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Canine rabies has been enzootic in the dog population of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa since the mid-1970s and has been associated with high rates of human exposures and frequent transmissions to other domestic animal species. Several decades of control efforts, consisting primarily of mass vaccination programs, failed to sufficiently curb rabies in this province. For meaningful progression toward better control and elimination, the factors contributing to the persistence of this disease need to be elucidated and addressed. This paper reports evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding owned canine populations in this South African province. We used logistic regression modeling to predict variables associated with risk of nonvaccination of rabies in owned dogs. The study indicated that husbandry practices, rabies knowledge, geographical area/location, and the ages of dogs were important factors associated with the risk of nonvaccination. High population turnover, together with large free roaming dog populations, compromised the levels of vaccination achieved and contributed to the persistence of dog rabies in the province. Dog owners in this study also reported that they were more likely to present their dogs for vaccination when the vaccines were free of charge (52% and less than a kilometer from their homes (91%. It has been suggested that effective dog rabies control
McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Mooney, Carmel T; Thompson, Peter N; Schoeman, Johan P
Objectives Hyperthyroidism is a disorder of older cats that may have a geographical variation in prevalence. Prevalence studies have not yet been performed in South Africa, a geographical area where hyperthyroidism in cats has recently been observed and where, reportedly, the incidence appears to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa and to identify any potential risk factors. Further information on the worldwide prevalence and possible causative factors would increase our understanding of the aetiology of this disease and help identify any preventive measures. Methods Serum total thyroxine (tT4) and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) were measured in 302 cats aged 9 years and older that were presented at various veterinary clinics throughout South Africa. In cats with equivocal tT4 and undetectable cTSH values, serum free thyroxine (fT4) was also measured. At the time of blood sampling a questionnaire was completed regarding vaccination history, internal and external parasite control, diet and environment. Results Prevalence of hyperthyroidism (tT4 >50 nmol/l or tT4 between 30 and 50 nmol/l with TSH 50 pmol/l) was 7% (95% confidence interval 4.4-10.4), with no significant difference between healthy (5%) and sick (8%) cats. Cats ⩾12 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 4.3, P = 0.02) and cats eating canned food (OR 2.1, P = 0.1) were more likely to be diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. No significant relationship between vaccinations, parasite control or indoor environment and hyperthyroidism was observed. Hyperthyroid cats were more likely to present with weight loss (OR 3.2, P = 0.01) and with a heart rate ⩾200 beats per min (OR 5, P = 0.01) than cats without the disease. Conclusions and relevance Hyperthyroidism does not appear to be uncommon in the South African cat population. Risk factors for hyperthyroidism, specifically older age and eating canned food, were present in this as in
Evan, Meredith; Risher, Kathryn; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Shisana, Olive; Moyo, Sizulu; Celentano, David D; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Rehle, Thomas M
Age-disparate sex has long been considered a factor that increases HIV risk for young women in South Africa. However, recent studies from specific regions in South Africa have found conflicting evidence. Few studies have assessed the association between age-disparate partnerships (those involving an age gap of 5 years or more) and HIV risk at the national level. This study investigates the relationship between age-disparate sex and HIV status among young women aged 15-24 in South Africa. Nationally representative weighted data from the 2002, 2005, 2008, and 2012 South African National HIV Surveys were analysed for young women aged 15-24 years using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions. After conducting multiple logistic regression analyses and controlling for confounders, young women with age-disparate partners had greater odds of being HIV positive in every survey year: 2002 (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI: 0.81-3.76, p = 0.16); 2005 (aOR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.22-3.66, p South Africa at a national level. These results may reflect variation in HIV risk at the national level compared to the differing results from recent studies in a demographic surveillance system and trial contexts. In light of recent contradictory study results, further research is required on the relationship between age-disparate sex and HIV for a more nuanced understanding of young women's HIV risk.
Kamndaya, Mphatso; Thomas, Liz; Vearey, Jo; Sartorius, Benn; Kazembe, Lawrence
Young people in urban slums adopt HIV risk behaviors influenced by their neighborhood factors. Three critical factors in urban slums of Southern and Eastern Africa--the region most affected by the HIV epidemic in the world--are unmet needs of housing, food, and health care, which are associated with HIV sexual risks. Yet, there has been limited attention on how the combination of unmet needs of housing, food, and health care--i.e., material deprivation-relates to sexual risk behavior among young people in urban slums. Cross-sectional data were extracted from the LoveLife survey in South African four provinces--KwaZulu Natal, Mpumalanga, Eastern Cape, and Gauteng, to examine the association between material deprivation and sexual risk behavior among young people aged 18-23 years (263 males, 267 females) in urban slums. Adjusted logistic regression models showed that material deprivation was significantly associated with increased odds of high sexual risk taking for young men (adjusted OR = 1.20; 95 % CI = 1.10, 5.58) and young women (adjusted OR = 1.43; 95 % CI = 1.35, 3.28). Financial difficulty--a proxy for other deprivations--was the most salient influence on young women's high sexual risk taking (adjusted OR = 2.11; 95 % CI = 1.66, 2.70). Localized behavioral HIV prevention interventions should target young people in deprived households.
N. P. Zungu
Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC has recently been implemented as a strategy for reducing the risk of heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, there is some concern that VMMC may lead to low risk perception and more risky sexual behavior. This study investigated HIV risk perception and risk behaviors among men who have undergone either VMMC or traditional male circumcision (TMC compared to those that had not been circumcised. Methods Data collected from the 2012 South African national population-based household survey for males aged 15 years and older were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate multinomial logistic regression, and relative risk ratios (RRRs with 95 % confidence interval (CI were used to assess factors associated with each type of circumcision relative no circumcision. Results Of the 11,086 males that indicated that they were circumcised or not, 19.5 % (95 % CI: 17.9–21.4 were medically circumcised, 27.2 % (95 % CI: 24.7–29.8 were traditionally circumcised and 53.3 % (95 % CI: 50.9–55.6 were not circumcised. In the final multivariate models, relative to uncircumcised males, males who reported VMMC were significantly more likely to have had more than two sexual partners (RRR = 1.67, p = 0.009, and males who reported TMC were significantly less likely to be low risk alcohol users (RRR = 0.72, p < 0.001. Conclusion There is a need to strengthen and improve the quality of the counselling component of VMMC with the focus on education about the real and present risk for HIV infection associated with multiple sexual partners and alcohol abuse following circumcision.
Objectives: The study utilised the King III report on corporate governance in South Africa as a framework to investigate the role of records management in identifying risks in the public sector, with a view to entrench the synergy between records management and risk management. Method: Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires distributed to records managers, risk managers and auditors in governmental bodies in South Africa. Provisions of the King III report, guided the research objectives. Results: Even though the study established that there is a reciprocal relationship between risk identification and records management, most governmental bodies in South Africa lack records management and risk-mitigating frameworks or strategy. Furthermore, records management did not feature in most governmental bodies’ risk registers. It has been established that most governmental bodies have established risk committees that do not include records management practitioners. In most governmental bodies, risk management resides within internal audit functions. Conclusion: The study concludes by arguing that a strong records management regime can be one of an organisation’s primary tools in identifying risks and implementing proper risk management. Therefore, records management should be integrated with risk management processes for organisations to benefit from the synergy.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.
Cluver, Lucie; Boyes, Mark; Orkin, Mark; Sherr, Lorraine
Identifying children at the highest risk of negative health effects is a prerequisite to effective public health policies in Southern Africa. A central ongoing debate is whether poverty, orphanhood or parental AIDS most reliably indicates child health risks. Attempts to address this key question have been constrained by a lack of data allowing distinction of AIDS-specific parental death or morbidity from other causes of orphanhood and chronic illness. To examine whether household poverty, orphanhood and parental illness (by AIDS or other causes) independently or interactively predict child health, developmental and HIV-infection risks. We interviewed 6 002 children aged 10 - 17 years in 2009 - 2011, using stratified random sampling in six urban and rural sites across three South African provinces. Outcomes were child mental health risks, educational risks and HIV-infection risks. Regression models that controlled for socio-demographic co-factors tested potential impacts and interactions of poverty, AIDS-specific and other orphanhood and parental illness status. Household poverty independently predicted child mental health and educational risks, AIDS orphanhood independently predicted mental health risks and parental AIDS illness independently predicted mental health, educational and HIV-infection risks. Interaction effects of poverty with AIDS orphanhood and parental AIDS illness were found across all outcomes. No effects, or interactions with poverty, were shown by AIDS-unrelated orphanhood or parental illness. The identification of children at highest risk requires recognition and measurement of both poverty and parental AIDS. This study shows negative impacts of poverty and AIDS-specific vulnerabilities distinct from orphanhood and adult illness more generally. Additionally, effects of interaction between family AIDS and poverty suggest that, where these co-exist, children are at highest risk of all.
Full Text Available We made use of groundwater flow and mass transport equations to investigate the crucial potential risk of water pollution from hydraulic fracturing especially in the case of the Karoo system in South Africa. This paper shows that the upward migration of fluids will depend on the apertures of the cement cracks and fractures in the rock formation. The greater the apertures, the quicker the movement of the fluid. We presented a novel sampling method, which is the combination of the Monte Carlo and the Latin hypercube sampling. The method was used for uncertainties analysis of the apertures in the groundwater and mass transport equations. The study reveals that, in the case of the Karoo, fracking will only be successful if and only if the upward methane and fracking fluid migration can be controlled, for example, by plugging the entire fracked reservoir with cement.
Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A
This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree
AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to HIV testing has not been examined within the context of high at risk environments such as drinking venues. Of particular importance is whether AIDS-related stigma is associated with HIV transmission risks among people who have never been tested for HIV. We examined: (1) AIDS-related stigma as a barrier to testing, controlling for other potential barriers, and (2) whether stigma is associated with HIV risks among HIV-untested individuals. We surveyed 2,572 individuals attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess HIV testing status, AIDS-related stigma endorsement, and HIV transmission sexual risk behavior. Endorsement of AIDS-related stigma was negatively associated with HIV lifetime testing. In addition, stigma endorsement was associated with higher HIV transmission risks. AIDS-related stigma must be addressed in HIV prevention campaigns across South Africa. Antistigma messages should be integrated with risk reduction counseling and testing.
Gray, Claudia L
Whilst food allergy seems to have increased significantly in many developed countries in the past few decades, quality data on the burden of food allergy in many developing countries is scanty. Until recently, South Africa had a dearth of robustly designed food allergy studies. This article summarizes some of the recent research and observations regarding food allergy from the South African setting. South Africa has recently seen two important food allergy prevalence studies in selected and unselected populations. Both show allergy rates in keeping with those in several westernized countries. The major difference between sensitization and allergy rates in these studies emphasizes the vital role of the food challenge in differentiating true food allergy from asymptomatic sensitisation in equivocal cases. Eczema, young age and living in an urban population are important risk factors for food allergy in South Africa. Egg and peanut allergy are the most common food allergies in both selected and unselected populations in South Africa. In peanut allergy, Ara h 2 is the most useful component in differentiating true allergy from tolerance in peanut-sensitized patients. Use of internationally derived 95% positive predictive values for peanut and egg allergy produced many false positives in South African studies. Studies in South Africa show a trend towards more conservative introduction of peanut in eczema patients, which needs to be addressed in the light of recent studies showing a protective effect of earlier introduction of peanut. "Novel" allergies such as galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose allergy, food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome and eosinophilic oesophagitis are being described with increasing frequency in South Africa. The surprisingly high prevalence of food allergy in South Africa points towards possible involvement of South Africa in the so-called "food allergy epidemic". This has major implications on the planning of health services in the allergy sector
Delobelle, Peter; Sanders, David; Puoane, Thandi; Freudenberg, Nicholas
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) impose a growing burden on the health, economy, and development of South Africa. According to the World Health Organization, four risk factors, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diets, and physical inactivity, account for a significant proportion of major NCDs. We analyze the role of tobacco, alcohol, and…
This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.
demographic conditions and more pressing health priorities in South Africa. This particular screening programme was discontinued in 1986. The results and conclusions are presented here.for the record. S Atr Med J 1995; 85: 33-36. Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a well-known, inherited metabolic disease. It has attained a high ...
The typology of countries, namely those with innovation-driven, efficiency-driven and factor-/resource-driven ... Switzerland, Norway, Australia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan, Qatar, Puerto Rico,. Tobago and Trinidad ... of the cultures and values of two countries, namely South Africa and Poland, on entrepreneurial intentions ...
Full Text Available -power systems in the ultrashort-pulse (mode-locked) and mid-infrared domains. One potential application is the use of such systems in lunar and satellite laser ranging, where South Africa hopes to combine an existing space geodesy programme with short...
Wandai, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Day, C; Sartorius, B; Hofman, K J
Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV) and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature mortality owing to exposure to risk factors arising from obesity that include physical inactivity and accessible, cheap but unhealthy diets. The National Strategic Plan for the Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2013 - 17 developed by the SA National Department of Health outlines targets and monitoring priorities. To assess data sources relevant for monitoring NCDs and their risk factors by identifying the strengths and weaknesses, including usability and availability, of surveys and routine systems focusing at national and certain sub-national levels. Publicly available survey and routine data sources were assessed for variables collected, their characteristics, frequency of data collection, geographical coverage and data availability. Survey data sources were found to be quite different in the way data variables are collected, their geographical coverage and also availability, while the main weakness of routine data sources was poor quality of data. To provide a sound basis for monitoring progress of NCDs and related risk factors, we recommend harmonising and strengthening available SA data sources in terms of data quality, definitions, categories used, timeliness, disease coverage and biomarker measurement.
Adeola, A M; Botai, O J; Olwoch, J M; Rautenbach, C J de W; Adisa, O M; Taiwo, O J; Kalumba, A M
Nkomazi local municipality of South Africa is a high-risk malaria region with an incidence rate of about 500 cases per 100 000. We examined the influence of environmental factors on population (age group) at risk of malaria. r software was used to statistically analyse data. Using remote sensing technology, a Landsat 8 image of 4th October 2015 was classified using object-based classification and a 5-m resolution. Spot height data were used to generate a digital elevation model of the area. A total of 60 718 malaria cases were notified across 48 health facilities in Nkomazi municipality between January 1997 and August 2015. Malaria incidence was highly associated with irrigated land (P = 0.001), water body (P = 0.011) and altitude ≤400 m (P = 0.001). The multivariate model showed that with 10% increase in the extent of irrigated areas, malaria risk increased by almost 39% in the entire study area and by almost 44% in the 2-km buffer zone of selected villages. Malaria incidence is more pronounced in the economically active population aged 15-64 and in males. Both incidence and case fatality rate drastically declined over the study period. A predictive model based on environmental factors would be useful in the effort towards malaria elimination by fostering appropriate targeting of control measures and allocating of resources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gray, G E; Metch, B; Churchyard, G; Mlisana, K; Nchabeleng, M; Allen, M; Moodie, Z; Kublin, J; Bekker, L-G
Increased sexual risk behaviour in participants enrolled in HIV prevention trials has been a concern. The HVTN 503/Phambili study, a phase 2B study of the Merck Ad-5 multiclade HIV vaccine in South Africa, suspended enrollment and vaccinations following the results of the Step study. Participants were notified of their treatment allocation and continue to be followed. We investigated changes in risk behaviour over time and assessed the impact of study unblinding. 801 participants were enrolled. Risk behaviours were assessed with an interviewer-administered questionnaire at 6-month intervals. We assessed change from enrolment to the first 6-month assessment pre-unblinding and between enrolment and at least 6 months post-unblinding on all participants with comparable data. A one-time unblinding risk perception questionnaire was administered post-unblinding. A decrease in participants reporting unprotected sex was observed in both measured time periods for men and women, with no differences by treatment arm. At 6 months (pre-unblinding), 29.6% of men and 35.8% of women reported changing from unprotected to protected sex (p<0.0001 for each). Men (22%) were more likely than women (14%) to report behaviour change after unblinding (p=0.009). Post-enrolment, 142 (45%) of 313 previously uncircumcised men underwent medical circumcision. 663 participants completed the unblinding questionnaire. More vaccine (24.6%) as compared to placebo recipients (12.0%) agreed that they were more likely to get HIV than most people (p<0.0001), and attributed this to receiving the vaccine. We did not find evidence of risk compensation during this clinical trial. Some risk behaviour reductions including male circumcision were noted irrespective of treatment allocation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Muller, E.; Diab, R. D.; Binedell, M.; Hounsome, R.
In Durban, South Africa studies have shown that more than seven out of ten households in low-income metropolitan areas rely on kerosene for domestic purposes, leading to widespread problems of poor indoor air quality. In light of the known health effects of kerosene usage, this study aimed to quantify the health risk for people living in a densely populated informal settlement known as Cato Crest within the Durban metropolitan area. The pollutants investigated included nitrogen dioxide, benzene and toluene. Nitrogen dioxide is known to affect both respiratory and immune systems, benzene is carcinogenic while toluene has a neurological health end point. All three pollutants are harmful when inhaled. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) health risk assessment (HRA) framework was applied. Information on the exposure patterns of residents in Cato Crest were acquired through questionnaires in which data on fuel use, building structure, cooking habits and time-activity patterns were collected. Air quality monitoring of nitrogen dioxide and volatile organic compounds was also conducted in the households. The time-activity pattern survey revealed that the exposure periods of individuals in Cato Crest were far greater than the default exposure periods used by the US EPA. The results of the HRA showed that the residents of Cato Crest may experience significant health risks as a result of kerosene usage in their homes. Exposure to 1-h nitrogen dioxide concentration is not likely to produce adverse health effects, whereas exposure over a 24-h period indicates a potential health risk to sensitive individuals in two of the households when US EPA exposure values are used and in all of the households when locally derived exposure values are used. Benzene poses a health risk to sensitive individuals in 50% of the households when local exposure parameters are used, whereas there is no health risk associated with exposure to toluene.
Waals, van der J.E.; Steyn, J.M.; Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.
Growers' surveys took place in all sixteen potato growing regions of South Africa in 2013 and 2014. The agro-ecological climate of these regions is diverse and potato is produced in rainy or dry seasons, in winter or summer seasons, or year round. Growers were asked how often in ten years crops
Wandai, M.; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens; Day, C.
Background. Health information systems for monitoring chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) are relatively less advanced than those for infectious diseases (particularly tuberculosis and HIV) and for maternal and child health. NCDs are now the largest cause of premature...
Pronyk, Paul M; Harpham, Trudy; Morison, Linda A; Hargreaves, James R; Kim, Julia C; Phetla, Godfrey; Watts, Charlotte H; Porter, John D
The role of social capital in promoting health is now widely debated within international public health. In relation to HIV, the results of previous observational and cross-sectional studies have been mixed. In some settings it has been suggested that high levels of social capital and community cohesion might be protective and facilitate more effective collective responses to the epidemic. In others, group membership has been a risk factor for HIV infection. There have been few attempts to strengthen social capital, particularly in developing countries, and examine its effect on vulnerability to HIV. Employing data from an intervention study, we examined associations between social capital and HIV risk among 1063 14 to 35-year-old male and female residents of 750 poor households from 8 villages in rural Limpopo province, South Africa. We assessed cognitive social capital (CSC) and structural social capital (SSC) separately, and examined associations with numerous aspects of HIV-related psycho-social attributes, risk behavior, prevalence and incidence. Among males, after adjusting for potential confounders, residing in households with greater levels of CSC was linked to lower HIV prevalence and higher levels of condom use. Among females, similar patterns of relationships with CSC were observed. However, while greater SSC was associated with protective psychosocial attributes and risk behavior, it was also associated with higher rates of HIV infection. This work underscores the complex and nuanced relationship between social capital and HIV risk in a rural African context. We suggest that not all social capital is protective or health promotive, and that getting the balance right is critical to informing HIV prevention efforts.
Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess and identify social vulnerability of communal farmers to drought in the O.R. Tambo district in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa using a survey data and social vulnerability index (SoVI. Eleven social vulnerability indicators were identified using Bogardi, Birkman and Cardona conceptual framework. The result found that an SoVI estimated for O.R. Tambo district was very high with a Likert scale of 5 for cultural values and practices, security or safety, social networks, social dependence, preparedness strategies and psychological stress attributed for the high value of social vulnerability to drought. Indigenous knowledge and education had an SoVI value of 2, which was of low vulnerability, contributing positively to resilience to drought. The study also found that government involvement in drought risk reduction is limited; as a result, the study recommends that a national, provincial and district municipalities policy on drought risk reduction and mitigation should be developed.
Rohr, Julia K; Ive, Prudence; Horsburgh, C Robert; Berhanu, Rebecca; Shearer, Kate; Maskew, Mhairi; Long, Lawrence; Sanne, Ian; Bassett, Jean; Ebrahim, Osman; Fox, Matthew P
A substantial number of patients with HIV in South Africa have failed first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although individual predictors of first-line ART failure have been identified, few studies in resource-limited settings have been large enough for predictive modelling. Understanding the absolute risk of first-line failure is useful for patient monitoring and for effectively targeting limited resources for second-line ART. We developed a predictive model to identify patients at the greatest risk of virologic failure on first-line ART, and to estimate the proportion of patients needing second-line ART over five years on treatment. A cohort of patients aged ≥18 years from nine South African HIV clinics on first-line ART for at least six months were included. Viral load measurements and baseline predictors were obtained from medical records. We used stepwise selection of predictors in accelerated failure-time models to predict virologic failure on first-line ART (two consecutive viral load levels >1000 copies/mL). Multiple imputations were used to assign missing baseline variables. The final model was selected using internal-external cross-validation maximizing model calibration at five years on ART, and model discrimination, measured using Harrell's C-statistic. Model covariates were used to create a predictive score for risk group of ART failure. A total of 72,181 patients were included in the analysis, with an average of 21.5 months (IQR: 8.8-41.5) of follow-up time on first-line ART. The final predictive model had a Weibull distribution and the final predictors of virologic failure were men of all ages, young women, nevirapine use in first-line regimen, low baseline CD4 count, high mean corpuscular volume, low haemoglobin, history of TB and missed visits during the first six months on ART. About 24.4% of patients in the highest quintile and 9.4% of patients in the lowest quintile of risk were predicted to experience treatment failure over five years on
Full Text Available We examine the pricing of currency risk and market integration in the equity markets of Nigeria and South Africa. Using the Generalized Method of Moments with a multi-beta asset pricing model and firm-level data, we find that currency risk is partly unconditionally priced in South Africa's stock market, with this market being largely integrated with the world equity markets. Conversely, currency risk is not priced in Nigeria's equity market, which also shows no evidence of integration with the world equity markets. Interestingly, a portfolio analysis of firms reveals a size based return sensitivity to both world equity markets and exchange rate volatility across the two countries. Therefore, while general results suggest that Nigeria, rather than South Africa, would provide greater diversification benefits to international investors with little or no worry about hedging unconditional exchange rate risk, that view must be nuanced when considering large size firms which are consistently sensitive to the two factors across both countries.
The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.
Full Text Available Objective. To identify factors associated with HIV in tuberculosis (TB patients in a public primary healthcare (PHC setting in South Africa (SA.Method. Among 4 900 consecutively selected TB patients (54.5% men; women 45.5% from 42 public PHC clinics in 3 districts in SA, a cross-sectional survey was performed to assess new TB and new TB retreatment patients within one month of anti-TB treatment.Results. The sample comprised 76.6% new TB patients and 23.4% TB retreatment patients. Of those who had tested for HIV, 59.9% were HIV-positive; 9.6% had never tested for HIV. In multivariate analysis, older age (odds ratio (OR 5.86; confidence interval (CI 4.07 - 8.44, female gender (OR 0.47; CI 0.37 - 0.59, residing in an informal settlement (OR 1.55; CI 1.13 - 2.12, being a TB retreatment patient (OR 0.55; CI 0.42 - 0.72, occasions of sexual intercourse with condom use (OR 1.07; CI 1.02 - 1.13 and having a sexual partner receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART (OR 7.09, CI 4.35 - 11.57 were associated with an HIV-positive status in TB patients.Conclusion. This study revealed high HIV risk behaviour (e.g. unprotected last sexual intercourse and alcohol and drug use in the context of sexual intercourse among TB patients in SA. Various factors were associated with HIV risk behaviour. Condom use and substance use risk reduction need to be considered as HIV-prevention measures when planning such strategies for TB patients.
Chokotho, L C; Matzopoulos, R; Myers, J E
Current driver mortality estimates do not consider the great differences in exposure across the population, giving a false impression that driver deaths are lowest in the youngest age group. Interventions to reduce risk among the younger age group include graduated driver licensing (GDL) - a three-phase licensing system for novice drivers consisting of a learner's permit, a provisional license, and a full license. We calculated driver fatality rates per 10 000 registered drivers in each age group and assessed the need for stricter licensing conditions for novice and younger drivers. Age-specific driver mortality rates were calculated using Western Cape Province 2008 mortuary data. The total number of licensed drivers in each age group served as the denominator. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using the age group of 65 - 79 years as the reference. Chi-square test of trend on incidence rate ratios for the age groups was done. Statistical significance was set as p<0.05. There were 339 driver deaths; mean age was 39.4±13.8 years, and males accounted for 80% of the deaths. Age-specific driver mortality rates were highest in the youngest age group (15 - 19 years). There was a significant progressive decrease (except for the age group 45 - 49 years) in the risk of death from road traffic injuries with increasing age compared with the age group ≥ 65 years (chi2 for trend p<0.0001). CONCLUSION; This study showed a relationship between driver's mortality risk and younger age, and underscores the need for introduction of a GDL programme in South Africa.
Dahms, S; Baker, N J; Greenfield, R
This study aimed to determine the ecological risk posed by metals, in sediments from the Nyl River system in Limpopo, South Africa. Metals were extracted from sediment samples by aqua regia microwave digestion and were analysed using standard ICP-OES techniques. The ecological risk indices applied to the data included Contamination Factor, Pollution Load Index, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor. The results showed that the levels of Ni at STW and NYL in the HF period exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines by a factor of 1.36 and 1.83 respectively whereas NYL and MDD had 2.57 and 1.32 times the allowed limit of Ni in the LF period. During the HF period, the GC site exceeded the allowed limit of Zn by a factor of 1.04 and NYL had 1.21 times the allowed Zn in the LF period. The levels of metals are generally low near the origin of the river and increase moving downstream. The levels of metals in the Nyl River floodplain, a Ramsar accredited wetland, were high with CF scores ranging between 0.905 and 5.82, Igeo values with a range of -0.541 to 2.441 and EF scores ranging from 0.959 to 6.171. and posed a greater risk than the other sites. This indicated that the wetland is performing its ecological function by trapping and removing toxins from the water body. The Pollution Load Index determined that the Golf Course (PLI=4.586) and STW (PLI=2.617) sites were polluted only in the low flow period whereas the Nyl River floodplain (HF PLI=79.845; LF PLI=30378.768) and Moorddrift Dam (HF PLI=1.903; LF PLI=9.256) sites were polluted in high flow and low flow periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P; Harel, Ofer; Simbayi, Leickness C; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mwaba, Kelvin
Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. Women (N = 1333) residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens) completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.
Eileen V Pitpitan
Full Text Available Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection.To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women.Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV.Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex.For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.
Full Text Available This article compares the intelligence systems of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. Three questions drive the research: How are the national intelligence systems organized? How is power distributed among organizations in each country? What are the organizational risks? By employing Network Analysis to publicly-available data on intelligence agencies, collegiate bodies, and supervising organizations, authority relations and information flows were mapped. Regarding organizational configuration, similarities were found between India and Russia, as well as between China and South Africa. Brazil differs from the four countries. As for the power distribution, in Russia, Brazil, and India intelligence is subordinated to the government, and shows more centrality in the cases of China and South Africa. Finally, Russia runs the highest risk of having an intelligence system less able to adapt to strategic circumstances, at the same time being the most resilient among the five countries. Likewise, China has the highest risk of a single actor being able to retain information, acting as a gatekeeper. Network Analysis has proved to be a useful approach to promote a comparative research program in the Intelligence Studies field.
This paper examines trends in risk behaviour among South African gold miners, a population with an estimated HIV prevalence of 10-20%. The study is based on a 1995 and 1997 survey of a random sample gold miners in the town of Welkom, South Africa. The results show that the percentage of miners who perceived they were likely to contract HIV increased from 33% in 1995 to 35% in 1997 (Ppast year decreased from 25% to 13% (P marketing campaign targeted at miners and commercial sex workers in the mining community.
Tomita, Andrew; Vandormael, Alain M; Cuadros, Diego; Slotow, Rob; Tanser, Frank; Burns, Jonathan K
Proximity to primary healthcare facilities may be a serious barrier to accessing mental health services in resource-limited settings. In this study, we examined whether the distance to the primary healthcare clinic (PHCC) was associated with risk of depression in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Depressive symptoms and household coordinates data were accessed from the nationally representative South African National Income Dynamics Study. Distances between households and their nearest PHCCs were calculated and mixed-effects logistic regression models fitted to the data. Participants residing technology could improve mental health.
Alfers, L; Rogan, M
The association between work and health has not been well explored in the context of economically developing countries, largely due to inadequate data. The objective of this study was to identify the association between informal wage work and health in South Africa using a newly available data set that includes detailed information on both employment and health. To explore the relationship between formality, work, and health in South Africa, data from the first (2008) wave of the National Income Dynamic Study (NIDS) were analyzed. We constructed a "formality index" which represents work arrangements on a continuum of formality to informality allowing for a more nuanced analysis of the association between wage work and health. We found that formality of employment was significantly associated with health in South Africa, but that the protective effect of formality in employment on health was largely derived from the higher levels of income earned through more formal types of employment. Nevertheless, we did find that the association between informality and poor health was significantly greater for women in wage employment than for males.
Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H
The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural South Africa (SA is undergoing a rapid health transition characterized by increases in non-communicable diseases; stroke in particular. Knowledge of the relative contribution of modifiable risk factors on disease occurrence is needed for public health prevention efforts and community-oriented health promotion. Our aim was to estimate the burden of stroke in rural SA that is attributable to high blood pressure, excess weight and high blood glucose using World Health Organization’s comparative risk assessment (CRA framework. Methods We estimated current exposure distributions of the risk factors in rural SA using 2010 data from the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS. Relative risks of stroke per unit of exposure were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. We used data from the Agincourt HDSS to estimate age-, sex-, and stroke specific deaths and disability adjusted life years (DALYs. We estimated the proportion of the years of life lost (YLL and DALY loss attributable to the risk factors and incorporate uncertainty intervals into these estimates. Results Overall, 38 % of the documented stroke burden was due to high blood pressure (12 % males; 26 % females. This translated to 520 YLL per year (95 % CI: 325-678 and 540 DALYs (CI: 343-717. Excess Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated as responsible for 20 % of the stroke burden (3.5 % males; 16 % females. This translated to 260 YLLs (CI: 199-330 and 277 DALYs (CI: 211-350. Burden was disproportionately higher in young females when BMI was assessed. Conclusions High blood pressure and excess weight, which both have effective interventions, are responsible for a significant proportion of the stroke burden in rural SA; the burden varies across age and sex sub-groups. The most effective way forward to reduce the stroke burden requires both population wide policies that have an impact across the age spectra and targeted (health
Kalichman, Seth C; Watt, Melissa; Sikkema, Kathleen; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree
HIV/AIDS is concentrated in impoverished communities. Two critical aspects of poverty are food insufficiency and substance abuse, and both are associated with sexual risks for HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. The current study is the first to examine both hunger and substance use in relation to sexual risks for HIV infection in South African alcohol serving establishments. Anonymous venue-based intercept surveys were completed by men (n = 388) and women (n = 407) patrons of six informal drinking places (e.g., shebeens) in Cape Town, South Africa. Food insufficiency and its more extreme form hunger were common in the sample, with 24 % of men and 53 % of women experiencing hunger in the previous 4 months. Multiple regression analyses showed that quantity of alcohol use was related to higher rates of unprotected sex for men and women. Trading sex to meet survival needs was related to food insufficiency and methamphetamine use among men but not women. Food insufficiency and substance use may both contribute to HIV risks in South African shebeens. However, the influence of hunger and substance use on sexual risks varies for men and women. Interventions to reduce HIV transmission risks may be bolstered by reducing both food insufficiency and substance use.
M.Com. (Economics) Combating poverty is at the frontier of analyses in South Africa today. The study to combat poverty in South Africa is six-fold. After setting the nature of the study to be pursued in Chapter 1, the dissertation analyses the theories of poverty in Chapter 2. The record of poverty in South Africa is analysed in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the methods to combat poverty in South Africa. Chapter 5 is a summary of the main findings of the study. A proposed structure plan ...
De Wet, N
Despite efforts to reduce self-harm mortality, death rates remain high, with almost 12% of all youth deaths in South Africa (SA) attributed to this cause. There are gendered differences in causes of death among youth, but little is known about the sex-specific risk factors. To identify the levels and sex-specific determinants of self-harm mortality among youth in SA. This was a cross-sectional study of SA death notification forms from 2006 to 2014. Descriptive and analytical statistical techniques were used, including cause-specific mortality rates, proportional mortality ratios and logistic regression models. A total of 1 122 youth (15 - 24 years of age) deaths due to self-harm causes were reported over the study period, during which rates of self-harm mortality increased. More deaths of males (n=818) than females (n=304) were reported. Almost 60% of deaths (p<0.05) were of 20 - 24-year-olds, and 46.4% (p<0.05) of those who died had a secondary education. Almost 10% of females (p<0.05) were pregnant at the time of death. Hanging was the most common type of self-harm mortality among males (79.2%) and females (49.3%). While 11.0% (n=90) of self-harm deaths of males were due to poisoning, more females used this method (39.8%, n=121). The probability of self-harm mortality for males increased according to certain provinces of residence. For females the odds were higher for those who were pregnant (odds ratio (OR) 1.3; p<0.05) and non-South African (OR 1.7; p<0.05) and had secondary education (OR 1.4; p<0.05). The study showed gender differentials in the determinants of self-harm mortality among youth in SA. For this reason, uniform approaches to awareness campaigns need to be altered to address the specific needs of youth. While males have higher rates than females, the prevalence of self-harm mortality in pregnant females is of concern and needs to be addressed specifically, as it relates not only to suicidal ideation and behaviour but also to youth sexual and
Lygizos, Melissa; Shenoi, Sheela V; Brooks, Ralph P; Bhushan, Ambika; Brust, James C M; Zelterman, Daniel; Deng, Yanhong; Northrup, Veronika; Moll, Anthony P; Friedland, Gerald H
Transmission of drug susceptible and drug resistant TB occurs in health care facilities, and community and households settings, particularly in highly prevalent TB and HIV areas. There is a paucity of data regarding factors that may affect TB transmission risk in household settings. We evaluated air exchange and the impact of natural ventilation on estimated TB transmission risk in traditional Zulu homes in rural South Africa. We utilized a carbon dioxide decay technique to measure ventilation in air changes per hour (ACH). We evaluated predominant home types to determine factors affecting ACH and used the Wells-Riley equation to estimate TB transmission risk. Two hundred eighteen ventilation measurements were taken in 24 traditional homes. All had low ventilation at baseline when windows were closed (mean ACH = 3, SD = 3.0), with estimated TB transmission risk of 55.4% over a ten hour period of exposure to an infectious TB patient. There was significant improvement with opening windows and door, reaching a mean ACH of 20 (SD = 13.1, p ventilation conditions (windows/doors open) and window to volume ratio. Expanding ventilation increased the odds of achieving ≥12 ACH by 60-fold. There is high estimated risk of TB transmission in traditional homes of infectious TB patients in rural South Africa. Improving natural ventilation may decrease household TB transmission risk and, combined with other strategies, may enhance TB control efforts.
Ntim, Collins G.; Lindop, Sarah; Thomas, Dennis A.
The 2007/2008 global financial crisis has reignited the debate regarding the need for effective corporate governance (CG) through sound risk management and reporting practices. This paper, therefore, examines the crucial policy question of whether the quality of firm-level CG has any effect on the quality and extent of corporate risk disclosures (CRD) in South Africa (SA) with particular focus on the pre- and post-2007/2008 global financial crisis period. Using one of the largest datasets to-...
Full Text Available CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 23: 51–64 (2013) A QUALITATIVE ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE INVASIVE NILE TILAPIA, OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS IN A SUB- TROPICAL AFRICAN RIVER SYSTEM (LIMPOPO RIVER... Hatfield, Pretoria, 0028 South Africa b Department of Ichthyology and Fisheries Science, Rhodes University, PO Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140 South Africa c Natural Resources and the Environment Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), PO Box...
Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen
Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.
Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian
This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used
Maleke, Kabelo; Makhakhe, Nosipho; Peters, Remco Ph; Jobson, Geoffrey; De Swardt, Glenn; Daniels, Joseph; Lane, Timothy; McIntyre, James A; Imrie, John; Struthers, Helen
Rural South African men who have sex with men (MSM) are likely to be underserved in terms of access to relevant healthcare and HIV prevention services. While research in urban and peri-urban MSM populations has identified a range of factors affecting HIV risk in South African MSM, very little research is available that examines HIV risk and prevention in rural MSM populations. This exploratory study begins to address this lack by assessing perceptions of HIV risk among MSM in rural Limpopo province. Using thematic analysis of interview and discussion data, two overarching global themes that encapsulated participants' understandings of HIV risk and the HIV risk environment in their communities were developed. In the first theme, "community experience and the rural social environment", factors affecting HIV risk within the broad risk environment were discussed. These included perceptions of traditional value systems and communities as homophobic; jealousy and competition between MSM; and the role of social media as a means of meeting other MSM. The second global theme, "HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk and experience", focused on factors more immediately affecting HIV transmission risk. These included: high levels of knowledge of heterosexual HIV risk, but limited knowledge of MSM-specific risk; inconsistent condom and lubricant use; difficulties in negotiating condom and lubricant use due to uneven power dynamics in relationships; competition for sexual partners; multiple concurrent sexual partnerships; and transactional sex. These exploratory results suggest that rural South African MSM, like their urban and peri-urban counterparts, are at high risk of contracting HIV, and that there is a need for more in-depth research into the interactions between the rural context and the specific HIV risk knowledge and behaviours that affect HIV risk in this population.
Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie Dale; Orkin, Frederick Mark; Kuo, Caroline; Sharma, Amogh Dhar; Hensels, Imca Sifra; Sherr, Lorraine
Adolescent health is a major concern in low- and middle-income countries, but little is known about its predictors. Family disadvantage and abusive parenting may be important factors associated with adolescent psychological, behavioral, and physical health outcomes. This study, based in South Africa, aimed to develop an empirically based theoretical model of relationships between family factors such as deprivation, illness, parenting, and adolescent health outcomes. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2010 from 2,477 adolescents (aged 10-17) and their caregivers using stratified random sampling in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Participants reported on sociodemographics, psychological symptoms, parenting, and physical health. Multivariate regressions were conducted, confirmatory factor analysis employed to identify measurement models, and a structural equation model developed. The final model demonstrated that family disadvantage (caregiver AIDS illness and poverty) was associated with increased abusive parenting. Abusive parenting was in turn associated with higher adolescent health risks. Additionally, family disadvantage was directly associated with caregiver mental health distress which increased adolescent health risks. There was no direct effect of family disadvantage on adolescent health risks but indirect effects through caregiver mental health distress and abusive parenting were found. Reducing family disadvantage and abusive parenting is essential in improving adolescent health in South Africa. Combination interventions could include poverty and violence reduction, access to health care, mental health services for caregivers and adolescents, and positive parenting support. Such combination packages can improve caregiver and child outcomes by reducing disadvantage and mitigating negative pathways from disadvantage among highly vulnerable families. Copyright Â© 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights
Samuel T. Ntuli
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas.Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa.Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status.Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.
Carey Kate B
Full Text Available Abstract Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts.
Background The most efficient sexual behavior for HIV transmission is unprotected receptive anal intercourse. However, it is unclear what role heterosexual unprotected anal sex is playing in the world's worst HIV epidemics of southern Africa. The objective is to examine the prevalence of heterosexual unprotected anal intercourse among men and women who drink at informal alcohol serving establishments (shebeens) in South Africa. Methods Cross-sectional surveys were collected from a convenience sample of 5037 patrons of 10 shebeens in a peri-urban township of Cape Town, South Africa. Analyses concentrated on establishing the rates of unprotected anal intercourse practiced by men and women as well as the factors associated with practicing anal intercourse. Results We found that 15% of men and 11% of women reported anal intercourse in the previous month, with 8% of men and 7% of women practicing any unprotected anal intercourse. Multiple logistic regression showed that younger age, having primary and casual sex partners, and meeting sex partners at shebeens were independently associated with engaging in anal intercourse. Mathematical modeling showed that individual risks are significantly impacted by anal intercourse but probably not to the degree needed to drive a generalized HIV epidemic. Conclusions Anal intercourse likely plays a significant role in HIV infections among a small minority of South Africans who patronize alcohol serving establishments. Heterosexual anal intercourse, the most risky sexual behavior for HIV transmission, should not be ignored in HIV prevention for South African heterosexuals. However, this relatively infrequent behavior should not become the focus of prevention efforts. PMID:21999574
Bornman, Juan; Nelson Bryen, Diane; Kershaw, Priscilla; Ledwaba, Gloria
People who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) know that silence is not always golden. Persons with disabilities and in particular those with complex communication needs, have a heightened risk of becoming victims of crime, abuse, and neglect. This study looked at the vocabulary needed to disclose or report crime or abuse in South Africa, and also focussed on the development of communication boards for this purpose, in four of the 11 official South African languages (Afrikaans, English, Sepedi, and isiZulu). Thirty-six participants in four language-based focus groups (English, Afrikaans, Sepedi, and isiZulu) were asked to generate a list of possible words they deemed important when wanting to disclose a crime, abuse or neglect. Participants then prioritized the top 55 words. A total of 56 words appeared on two or more of the lists from the four language groups. The board was developed using Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), the most frequently used symbol set in South Africa, according to an electronic mail survey. A discrepancy analysis revealed that these 56 words could be represented by 219 symbols. Symbols were developed for two words (swear, threaten) for which no PCS symbols existed. The process of developing the communication boards described in this paper may be useful to AAC communities in other countries, and the boards can serve as templates for other languages.
ct Dis cand virus of uman. 991; us ion in une tes in. 1-179. a- eral infants g el is of om. ; 9: l acute us. Meconium aspiration in. South Africa. M. Adhikari, E. Gouws. This retrospective study of 569 cases of meconium aspiration from 11 institutions in South Africa reveals a high incidence varying from 4 to 11/1 000 and a ...
Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.
Full Text Available Even though the significance of indigenous knowledge in agriculture is internationally recognised, the role thereof in disaster risk reduction in South Africa is not well documented. This article determined the influence of indigenous knowledge in drought risk reduction in O.R. Tambo district of the Eastern Cape province (South Africa. Primary data were collected from 87 communal farmers through purposive sampling using a structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held with the target group (farmers and extension officers to gain more information and clarification on indigenous knowledge. The finding indicated that the majority of respondents (64.4% relied on indigenous knowledge in their farming practice and drought risk reduction. Two-thirds (66.7% of the respondents revealed that indigenous knowledge contributed to the resilience of farmers towards drought. The respondents unanimously agreed that indigenous knowledge is losing its significance in farming and drought risk reduction, because the younger generation did not value it anymore. Lack of documentation and deterioration of its application by the younger generation were found to be the main challenge for most respondents. The study concluded that indigenous knowledge was still an integral part of agricultural practices, applied drought risk reduction strategies and contributed to resilience against disasters. Based on the findings, the study recommends that indigenous knowledge be compiled, documented and published so that all farmers can learn of effective farming practices, passed on from generation to generation. Community holders of such information are encouraged to make younger generations aware of the benefits of indigenous knowledge to promote its usage.
Truter, Sharon; Mazabow, Menachem; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Rivera, Diego; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos
This survey forms part of an international research study conducted in 39 countries and is the first to describe the characteristics of individuals engaged in the practice of neuropsychology in South Africa (SA). The purpose was to analyze the characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures, rehabilitation techniques, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. Ninety-five professionals working in neuropsychology completed an online survey between July and November 2015. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 46.97 years. The majority of professions working in neuropsychology have a background in psychology, with additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice and are on average satisfied with their work. Participants identified as clinicians primarily work with TBI and ADHD individuals. The main limitation for the use of neuropsychological instruments is the lack of normative data in SA and the main barrier to the field is the lack of academic training programs. There is a need to improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally relevant instruments.
Liebenberg, Keagen; Smit, Ansie; Coetzee, Serena; Kijko, Andrzej
The majority of seismic activity in South Africa is related to extensive mining operations, usually in close proximity to densely populated areas where a relatively weak seismic event could cause damage. Despite a significant decrease in mining operations in the Witwatersrand area, the number of seismic events appears to be increasing and is attributed to the acid mine drainage problem. The increased seismicity is raising concern amongst disaster management centres and in the insurance industry. A better understanding is required of the vulnerability and the size of the potential loss of people and infrastructure in densely populated Johannesburg and its surrounding areas. Results of a deterministic seismic risk, vulnerability, and loss assessment are presented by making use of a geographic information system (GIS). The results illustrate the benefits of using GIS and contribute to a better understanding of the risk, which can assist in improving disaster preparedness.
Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark
Research shows that AIDS-orphaned children are more likely to experience clinical-range psychological problems. Little is known about possible interactions between factors mediating these high distress levels. We assessed how food insecurity, bullying, and AIDS-related stigma interacted with each other and with likelihood of experiencing clinical-range disorder. In South Africa, 1025 adolescents completed standardised measures of depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress. 52 potential mediators were measured, including AIDS-orphanhood status. Logistic regressions and hierarchical log-linear modelling were used to identify interactions among significant risk factors. Food insecurity, stigma and bullying all independently increased likelihood of disorder. Poverty and stigma were found to interact strongly, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 19% to 83%. Similarly, bullying interacted with AIDS-orphanhood status, and with both present, likelihood of disorder rose from 12% to 76%. Approaches to alleviating psychological distress amongst AIDS-affected children must address cumulative risk effects.
Stephenson, Rob; de Voux, Alex; Sullivan, Patrick S
A growing body of literature suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) represent a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Africa, but are often overlooked in the development of HIV interventions and programming. Little attention has been paid to the presence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among MSM in African settings. This paper examines reporting of IPV among a sample of predominantly white, gay internet-recruited MSM in South Africa and examines associations between IPV and sexual risk-taking. Internet-using MSM were recruited through selective placement of banner advertisements on Facebook.com. Eligibility criteria were over 18-years-old, residence in South Africa and self-reporting of recent male-male sexual behavior. There were 777 eligible respondents, of which 521 MSM with complete data are included in the final analysis. Ninety percent of the sample reported a White/ European race, and 96% self-identified as gay. The prevalence of IPV, both experienced and perpetrated, was relatively high, with 8% of men reporting having experienced recent physical IPV and 4.5% of men reporting recent experiences of sexual IPV. Approximately 4.5% of MSM reported recently perpetrating physical IPV, while the reporting of perpetration of recent sexual IPV was much lower at 0.45%. Reporting of experiencing and perpetration of physical IPV was significantly associated with race, level of education and reporting recent unprotected anal sex. Reporting of experiencing recent sexual IPV was significantly associated with reported experiences of homophobia. There is a limited amount of data on IPV within same-sex relationships in South Africa, and the results presented here suggest that the prevalence of IPV within this White/European and gay population is cause for concern. Collection of IPV data through surveys administered via social networking sites is feasible and represents a way of reaching otherwise marginalized population groups in IPV
Objective: Tobacco and alcohol use by adolescents are major public health concerns in South Africa. However, the extent to which key psychosocial risk factors for tobacco use and alcohol use by adolescents in South Africa are shared or unshared is unclear. This study sought to examine the shared and unshared risk ...
Integrated Intervention for Diabetes Risk After Gestational Diabetes in South Africa. Project. Women who have had gestational diabetes mellitus, a temporary diabetes that develops during pregnancy, are at a high risk of getting type 2 diabetes sometime after their pregnancy. Topic: SOUTH AFRICA, DIABETES, MATERNAL ...
Brian C Zanoni
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify demographic and clinical risk factors associated with mortality after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART in a cohort of human immunodeficiency (HIV infected children in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 537 children initiating antiretroviral therapy at McCord Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were extracted from electronic medical records and risk factors associated with mortality were assessed using Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: Overall there were 47 deaths from the cohort of 537 children initiating ART with over 991 child-years of follow-up (median 22 months on ART, yielding a mortality rate of 4.7 deaths per 100 child years on ART. Univariate analysis indicated that mortality was significantly associated with lower weight-for-age Z-score (p<0.0001, chronic diarrhea (p = 0.0002, lower hemoglobin (p = 0.002, age <3 years (p = 0.003, and CD4% <10% (p = 0.005. The final multivariable Cox proportional hazards mortality model found age less than 3 years (p = 0.004, CD4 <10% (p = 0.01, chronic diarrhea (p = 0.03, weight-for-age Z-score (<0.0001 and female gender as a covariate varying with time (p = 0.03 all significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: In addition to recognized risk factors such as young age and advanced immunosuppression, we found female gender to be significantly associated with mortality in this pediatric ART cohort. Future studies are needed to determine whether intrinsic biologic differences or socio-cultural factors place female children with HIV at increased risk of death following initiation of ART.
Tomita, Andrew; Vandormael, Alain M; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Tanser, Frank
Few population-based multilevel studies have quantified the risks that social context poses in rural communities with high HIV incidence across South Africa. We investigated the individual, social, and community challenges to HIV acquisition risk in areas with high and low incidence of HIV infection (hotspots/coldspots). The cohort (N = 17,376) included all HIV-negative adults enrolled in a population-based HIV surveillance study from 2004 to 2015 in a rural South African community with large labor migrancy. Multilevel survival models were fitted to examine the social determinants (ie, neighborhood migration intensity), community traits (ie, HIV prevalence), and individual determinants of HIV acquisition risk in identified hotspots/coldspots. The HIV acquisition risk (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.09) was greater in hotspots with higher neighborhood migration intensity among men. In women, higher neighborhood migration intensity (aHR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.02) was associated with a greater HIV acquisition risk, irrespective of whether they lived in hotspot/coldspot communities. HIV acquisition risk was greater in communities with a higher prevalence of HIV in both men (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.12) and women (aHR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.05), irrespective of hotspot/coldspot locations. HIV acquisition risk was strongly influenced by gender (ie, young women), behavior (ie, sexual debut, contraception, circumcision), and social determinants. Certain challenges (ie, community disease prevalence) for HIV acquisition risk impacted both sexes, regardless of residence in hotspot/coldspot communities, whereas social determinants (ie, neighborhood migration intensity) were pronounced in hotspots among men. Future intervention scale-up requires addressing the social context that contributes to HIV acquisition risk in rural areas with high migration.
Myer, L; Phillips, T K; McIntyre, J A; Hsiao, N-Y; Petro, G; Zerbe, A; Ramjith, J; Bekker, L-G; Abrams, E J
Maternal HIV viral load (VL) drives mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT) risk but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa, where most MTCT occurs. We investigated VL changes during pregnancy and MTCT following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in Cape Town, South Africa. We conducted a prospective study of HIV-infected women initiating ART within routine antenatal services in a primary care setting. VL measurements were taken before ART initiation and up to three more times within 7 days postpartum. Analyses examined VL changes over time, viral suppression (VS) at delivery, and early MTCT based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing up to 8 weeks of age. A total of 620 ART-eligible HIV-infected pregnant women initiated ART, with 2425 VL measurements by delivery (median gestation at initiation, 20 weeks; median pre-ART VL, 4.0 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL; median time on ART before delivery, 118 days). At delivery, 91% and 73% of women had VL ≤ 1000 and ≤ 50 copies/mL, respectively. VS was strongly predicted by time on therapy and pre-ART VL. The risk of early MTCT was strongly associated with delivery VL, with risks of 0.25, 2.0 and 8.5% among women with VL 1000 copies/mL at delivery, respectively (P pregnancy and with high VL appear substantially less likely to achieve VS and require targeted research and programmatic attention. © 2016 British HIV Association.
Morojele, Neo K; Brook, Judith S; Kachieng'a, Millicent A
The study examined South African adolescents' beliefs and attitudes regarding drug use, sexual risk behaviour and relationships between the two behaviours. Eleven single-gender focus groups were held among male and female Grade 8 and 11 students from three schools in Cape Town. The adolescents' opined that drugs' reinforcing effects were the main factor underlying their use, and that sexual risk behaviours resulted from girls' limited power in sexual relationships and boys' perceived invulnerability to HIV infection and the positive status associated with having multiple partners. Drug use was considered to exacerbate underlying vulnerabilities to risky sexual behaviour mainly due to drugs' effects on adolescents' inhibitions, rational thinking, and safer sex negotiation skills. The findings suggest that adolescent HIV intervention programmes should address the risks posed by drug use on sexual behaviour.
Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.
Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature
through a regular supply of crude wine as part of their wages. Alcohol has also been used to exert control over labour ... an integral part of the South African economy, and the wine and brewing industries have made South Africa an ..... marketing and increased alcohol counter~advertising. August 2007, Vol. 97, No. 8 SAM].
Christofides, Nicola J; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa Jama; Sterk, Claire
Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger) increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15-26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs) estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger); later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years); and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50-6.09) for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64-1.84). Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a biological explanation of hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles
The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.
Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles
The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261
Longinetti, Elisa; Santacatterina, Michele; El-Khatib, Ziad
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART) recipients in South Africa. A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73%) with median age of 39 years. Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05)). Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07) than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17) than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (pworkplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.
R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman
textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross
Christine L Heidebrecht
Full Text Available KwaZulu-Natal (KZN has the highest burden of notified multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR TB cases in South Africa. A better understanding of spatial heterogeneity in the risk of drug-resistance may help to prioritize local responses.Between July 2012 and June 2013, we conducted a two-way Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS study to classify the burden of rifampicin (RIF-resistant TB among incident TB cases notified within the catchment areas of seven laboratories in two northern and one southern district of KZN. Decision rules for classification of areas as having either a high- or low-risk of RIF resistant TB (based on proportion of RIF resistance among all TB cases were based on consultation with local policy makers.We classified five areas as high-risk and two as low-risk. High-risk areas were identified in both Southern and Northern districts, with the greatest proportion of RIF resistance observed in the northernmost area, the Manguzi community situated on the Mozambique border.Our study revealed heterogeneity in the risk of RIF resistant disease among incident TB cases in KZN. This study demonstrates the potential for LQAS to detect geographic heterogeneity in areas where access to drug susceptibility testing is limited.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Garcia, Randi L; Cain, Demetria; Eaton, Lisa A; Simbayi, Leickness C
Theory-based sexual risk reduction interventions are often demonstrated effective, but few studies have examined the mechanisms that mediate their behavior changes. In addition, critical contextual factors, such as alcohol use, are often not accounted for by social cognitive theories and may add to the explanatory value of intervention effects. The purpose of this study is to examine the underlying mechanisms driving condom use following a brief sexual risk reduction intervention grounded in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of behavior change. We examined IMB theoretical constructs and alcohol-related contextual factors as potential mediators in separate models. Patients (n = 617) from an STI clinic in Cape Town, South Africa were randomly assigned to either a brief risk reduction intervention or an education-only control condition. We assessed IMB, and alcohol-related variables at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months and modeled IMB constructs and alcohol-related factors as mediators of behavior change. Results of growth-curve mediational modeling showed that 1 year after counseling, the intervention indirectly affected sexual risk behavior through alcohol-related constructs, but not IMB constructs. Alcohol use and related factors play critical roles in explaining HIV and STI risk reduction intervention effects. Interventions that directly address alcohol use as a factor in sexual risk behavior and behavior change should be the focus of future research.
Onoya, D; Mohlabane, N; Maduna, V; van Zyl, J; Sewpaul, R; Naidoo, Y
To examine the association between testing in the 2010 HIV Testing and Counselling (HCT) campaign with HIV risk behaviours and enrolment on ART. Data for this study were collected as part of a nationally representative cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2012 in South Africa. Consenting participants completed a structured questionnaire and provided a dry blood spot specimen which was tested for HIV antibodies and antiretroviral drugs. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between HIV testing history and explanatory variables of interest. There was no association between testing in the 2010 HCT campaign and condom use at last sex, number of sexual partnerships or HIV knowledge. Individuals who tested in the HCT campaign were more likely to disclose their status (COR 2.6, 95% CI: 1.71-3.8) and those who tested HIV positive in the campaign were more likely to be receiving ART (COR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9). Testing in the HCT campaign was associated with having received both pretest and post-test counselling while testing before the campaign was associated with having received HIV results with no counselling (COR 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2-3.8). We highlight the success of the 2010 HCT campaign in improving HIV status disclosure and enrolment on ART as well as shortcomings on HIV risk behaviours and HIV knowledge. These may be related to issues of quality assurance in the counselling process. Our results further highlight possible HCT counselling inconsistencies across sectors requiring stronger public-private partnership in the delivery of HCT in South Africa. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peltzer, Karl; Tabane, Cily; Matseke, Gladys; Simbayi, Leickness
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, fidelity, and effect of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk reduction intervention delivered to HIV-infected patients by lay counsellors during routine HIV counselling and testing (HCT) public service in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods: A total of 488 HIV-infected patients, aged 18 years and older,…
Jones, Heidi E.; Allan, Bruce R.; van de Wijgert, Janneke H. H. M.; Altini, Lydia; Taylor, Sylvia M.; de Kock, Alana; Coetzee, Nicol; Williamson, Anna-Lise
We assessed the agreement in detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), as well as specific HPV types, between self- and clinician-obtained specimens for 450 women over 18 years of age attending a community health center in Gugulethu, South Africa. Both self-collected swabs and tampons had
Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; COLLINSON, MARK A.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tollman, Stephen M.
Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for promoting equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in rural South Africa (the Agincourt sub-district), to assess temporal changes in child mortality pa...
Benn Sartorius; Kathleen Kahn; COLLINSON, MARK A.; Penelope Vounatsou; Tollman, Stephen M.
Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns w...
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study to investigate the challenges faced by people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The primary goal of the study was to gather data to inform the adaptation of a group risk reduction intervention to the South African context. Qualitative methods were used to examine the experiences of PLWHA. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with 83 HIV-positive participants and 14 key informants (KIs involved in work with PLWHA were interviewed. Findings revealed that AIDS-related stigma was still pervasive in local communities. This was associated with the difficulty of disclosure of their status for fear of rejection. Also notable was the role of risky behaviours such as lack of condom use and that PLWHA considered their HIV/AIDS status as secondary to daily life stressors like poverty, unemployment, and gender-based violence. These findings have implications for the adaptation or development of behavioural risk reduction interventions for PLWHA.
attributable fractions were calculated and applied to revised burden of disease estimates for the relevant disease categories for South Africa in 2000. Monte Carlo simulation- modelling techniques were used for uncertainty analysis. Setting. South Africa.
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg
The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....
Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Meade, Christina S; Ranby, Krista W; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree
Alcohol-serving venues in South Africa provide a location for HIV prevention interventions due to risk factors of patrons in these establishments. Understanding the association between mental health and risk behaviors in these settings may inform interventions that address alcohol use and HIV prevention. Participants (n = 738) were surveyed in 6 alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town to assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms, traumatic experiences, sexual behavior, and substance use. Logistic regression models examined whether traumatic experiences predicted PTSD and depression. Generalized linear models examined whether substance use, PTSD, and depressive symptoms predicted unprotected sexual intercourse. Men and women were analyzed separately. Participants exhibited high rates of traumatic experiences, PTSD, depression, alcohol consumption, and HIV risk behaviors. For men, PTSD was associated with being hit by a sex partner, physical child abuse, sexual child abuse and HIV diagnosis; depression was associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex and physical child abuse. For women, both PTSD and depression were associated with being hit by a sex partner, forced sex, and physical child abuse. Unprotected sexual intercourse was associated with age, frequency and quantity of alcohol use, drug use, and PTSD for men and frequency and quantity of alcohol use, depression, and PTSD for women. Mental health in this setting was poor and was associated with sexual risk behavior. Treating mental health and substance-use problems may aid in reducing HIV infection. Sexual assault prevention and treatment after sexual assault may strengthen HIV prevention efforts.
Alcohol use is a major risk factor for premature deaths and disabilities in low and middle-income countries. Topic: ALCOHOL, SOCIAL PROBLEMS, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA. Region: New Zealand, South Africa. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 547,730.00. Amnesties for Peace in the Niger ...
In South Africa, a history of apartheid policies, concentrated poverty, social deprivation, and other risk factors related to violence within particular areas have created conditions that exacerbate exclusion, inequality, and poverty, especially among youth. Region: South Africa. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: ...
South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...
Full Text Available South Africa is currently facing several political dilemmas that influence the entire social organization of the country. Thus, the historicity of the political processes that permeate South African society today, the power plays of the country's elites, as well as the external influences that act internally through the political parties of South Africa, and the presence of important African nation within the scope of the BRICS, are essential elements for understanding the South African policy context. Through of experiences in loco, this article establishes a comprehensive analysis of the situation, not only pointing out the political agents which actively intervene in this game, but also constructing possible scenarios for the unfolding of the events.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV status disclosure has been shown to provide several benefits, both at the individual and societal levels. AIM: To determine risk factors associated with disclosing HIV status among antiretroviral therapy (ART recipients in South Africa. SETTING: A cross-sectional study on risk factors for viremia and drug resistance took place at two outpatient HIV clinics in 2008, at a large hospital located in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis on socio-economic characteristics and HIV status disclosure to anyone, focusing on gender differences. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to model the associations between risk factors and HIV status disclosure. Additionally, descriptive analysis was conducted to describe gender differences of HIV status disclosure to partner, parents, parents in law, partner, child, family, employer, and other. PATIENTS: A total of 883 patients were interviewed. The majority were women (73% with median age of 39 years. RESULTS: Employed patients were less likely to disclose than unemployed (odds ratio (OR 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.1-1.0; p = 0.05. Women with higher income were more likely to disclose (OR 3.25; 95% CI 0.90-11.7; p = 0.07 than women with lower income, while men with higher income were less likely (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.02-1.99; p = 0.17 than men with lower income. Men were more likely than women to disclose to their partner (p<0.01, and to partner and family (p<0.01, women were more likely than men to disclose to child and family (p<0.01, to child, family and others (p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Being employed imposed a risk factor for HIV status disclosure, additionally we found an interaction effect of gender and income on disclosure. Interventions designed to reduce workplace discrimination and gender-sensitive interventions promoting disclosure are strongly recommended.
Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bello, Braimoh; Kinross, Peter; Oliff, Monique; Chersich, Matthew; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen
We estimated the prevalence of HIV and assessed correlates of HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa. Between October 2003 and July 2004, 1900 long-distance truck drivers aged ≥18 years consented to interview and for testing for HIV. Participants were selected from a 10% stratified random sample of registered truck depots. A proximate-determinants framework was used to assess the hierarchical relationship between risk factors and HIV infection using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was 26% (95% confidence interval 24% to 28%). In multivariate analyses, HIV infection was associated with spending 2-4 weeks on the road (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). There was modest evidence of a dose-response relationship between time on the road and HIV risk. Mobility increased risk by creating conditions for unsafe sex and reducing access to health services. Targeted HIV interventions for long-distance truck drivers are needed.
Full Text Available The CSIR celebrated its 60th anniversary in 2006 by taking a long, hard look at its continuing role in South Africa. This paper was written by the CSIR Fellows, at the invitation of the Department of Science and Technology, to capture some...
Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…
Regarding 'Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in. South Africa1 we thank the authors for publishing their research thereby giving us documentary proof of what we know to be widespread practice. Sedation has, for many years, been poorly documented and not subject to the standards in respect of monitoring ...
The NFP, on the other hand, raised questions about whether the judgment was correct, pointing out that Mthembu had been receiving threats at the time when he was killed.3. ESTABLISHING THE FACTS ABOUT. POLITICAL KILLINGS. There is no established system for collecting data on political killings in South Africa ...
Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS to ...
intermediate host of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc 2003;74(4):117-122. 10. Ajona R, Riancho JA, Aguado JM, Salesa R, Gonzalez-Macias J. Fascioliasis in developed countries: A review of classic and aberrant forms of the disease. Medicine 1995;74(1):13-23. Accepted 11 July 2013.
report cost advantages or cost neutrality for these new agents. However, considerable differences in health care service pro- vision make it difficult to generalise these findings to South. Africa. Method. We compared the direct costs (private and public sector) of treating schizophrenia with an atypical antipsychotic quetiapine ...
OECD Publishing, 2017
This report identifies effective strategies to tackle skills imbalances in South Africa. It provides an assessment of practices and policies in the following areas: the collection and use of information on skill needs to foster a better alignment of skills acquisitions with labour market needs; education and training policies targeting skills…
Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa
Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…
Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac
This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…
South Africa: some ethical issues. Trefor Jenkins. Blood transfusion has become an essential component of modern medical practice. However, worldwide epidemics of viral diseases — in particular, HIV/ AIDS — have made the practice of blood transfusion therapy hazardous, motivating scientists to devise techniques and ...
The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)
Full Text Available Patients with prevalent or incident tuberculosis (TB in antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have high mortality risk. However, published data are contradictory as to whether TB is a risk factor for mortality that is independent of CD4 cell counts and other patient characteristics.This observational ART cohort study was based in Cape Town, South Africa. Deaths from all causes were ascertained among patients receiving ART for up to 8 years. TB diagnoses and 4-monthly CD4 cell counts were recorded. Mortality rates were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR and identify risk factors for mortality. Of 1544 patients starting ART, 464 patients had prevalent TB at baseline and 424 developed incident TB during a median of 5.0 years follow-up. Most TB diagnoses (73.6% were culture-confirmed. A total of 208 (13.5% patients died during ART and mortality rates were 8.84 deaths/100 person-years during the first year of ART and decreased to 1.14 deaths/100 person-years after 5 years. In multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline and time-updated risk factors, both prevalent and incident TB were independent risk factors for mortality (IRR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and 2.7 [95% CI, 1.9-3.8], respectively. Adjusted mortality risks were higher in the first 6 months of ART for those with prevalent TB at baseline (IRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5 and within the 6 months following diagnoses of incident TB (IRR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6-5.7.Prevalent TB at baseline and incident TB during ART were strongly associated with increased mortality risk. This effect was time-dependent, suggesting that TB and mortality are likely to be causally related and that TB is not simply an epiphenomenon among highly immunocompromised patients. Strategies to rapidly diagnose, treat and prevent TB prior to and during ART urgently need to be implemented.
Nicola J Christofides
Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a
Harrington, John C.
My belief is that it is in the best short-term as well as long-term economic interests of U.S. corporations to disengage from South Africa. South African corporations are no longer profitable in most cases and there is an immediate risk that product imports, capital investment or sales will be lost or adversely affected by continued military and police action, domestic or foreign embar goes or government expropriation. This is in addition to normal risks of currency fluctuation and unstable ...
US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...
E S Nwauche
Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.
Full Text Available In 2005, the South African Weather Service installed a state-of-the-art cloud-to-ground lightning detection network across the country. The data recorded by this network in 2006 was utilised in the development of an initial lightning climatology of South Africa. Until 2010, this climatology was based on data from a single year. This paper updates this climatology with the lightning data for the 2006–2010 period, which is the first actual lightning climatology by the South African Weather Service based on data covering 5 years. A number of different maps were created from these lightning data. These were lightning ground flash density, median peak kiloampere, percentage positive and average flash multiplicity maps. These four maps were in turn used to develop lightning intensity risk, positive lightning risk and total lightning risk maps. Analysis of the maps showed that the highest concentrations of lightning are found over the central to northern interior of the country, with areas along the northern parts of the eastern escarpment experiencing the highest flash densities and falling within the extreme risk category. Both the positive and total lightning risks are severe for almost the entire country. Only towards the west of the country does the lightning risk decrease. This lightning climatology can now be used throughout South Africa for various disciplines. It will be especially useful for setting lightning safety standards and identifying priority areas for installing lightning conductors and conducting public awareness campaigns.
Full Text Available Urban spatial change trends manifest most noticeably in Gauteng. This not only confirms perceptions about metros as increasingly being the spaces where the future of South Africa's youth will be determined, but also once again rings the alarm bells...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current study aims to investigate how the ability to accurately gauge risk factors associated with contracting HIV while taking into consideration various individual and community level socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., race and poverty predicts the nature of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with HIV. METHODS: Data from a sample of 1,347 Cape Town area youth who participated in the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS Wave 2a were used. Latent Class Analysis was conducted to ascertain whether response patterns regarding knowledge of HIV contraction suggest the presence of subgroups within the sample. RESULTS: Findings indicate that there are four latent classes representing unique response pattern profiles regarding knowledge of HIV contraction. Additionally, our results suggest that those in South Africa who are classified as "white," live in more affluent communities, and have more phobic perceptions of HIV risk are also more likely to have the most stigmatizing attitudes toward those who are HIV positive. CONCLUSION: Implications of these findings include extending HIV knowledge, education, and awareness programs to those who are not traditionally targeted in an attempt to increase levels of knowledge about HIV and, consequently, decrease stigma.
Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Craven, Krista
The current study aims to investigate how the ability to accurately gauge risk factors associated with contracting HIV while taking into consideration various individual and community level socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., race and poverty) predicts the nature of stigmatizing attitudes toward persons with HIV. Data from a sample of 1,347 Cape Town area youth who participated in the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS) Wave 2a were used. Latent Class Analysis was conducted to ascertain whether response patterns regarding knowledge of HIV contraction suggest the presence of subgroups within the sample. Findings indicate that there are four latent classes representing unique response pattern profiles regarding knowledge of HIV contraction. Additionally, our results suggest that those in South Africa who are classified as "white," live in more affluent communities, and have more phobic perceptions of HIV risk are also more likely to have the most stigmatizing attitudes toward those who are HIV positive. Implications of these findings include extending HIV knowledge, education, and awareness programs to those who are not traditionally targeted in an attempt to increase levels of knowledge about HIV and, consequently, decrease stigma.
Cloete, Thomas E; Nel, Louis H; Theron, Jacques
Since adopting the National Biotechnology Strategy in 2001, the South African government has established several regional innovation centres and has put in place initiatives to encourage international partnerships that can spur internal development of life science ventures. This strategy seeks to capitalize on the high quality of research carried out in public research institutions and universities but is hampered, somewhat, by the lack of entrepreneurial culture among South African researchers due to, among other reasons, the expenses involved in registering foreign patents. Although private sector development is still relatively embryonic, start-ups are spinning out of universities and pre-existing companies. These represent a vital source of innovations for commercialization in the future, provided that the challenges facing the emerging South African biotechnology industry can be overcome.
Jaars, Kerneels; Vestenius, Mika; van Zyl, Pieter G.; Beukes, Johan P.; Hellén, Heidi; Vakkari, Ville; Venter, Marcell; Josipovic, Miroslav; Hakola, Hannele
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can have significant impacts on climate and human health. Certain VOCs are proven to be carcinogenic and toxic, which can affect human health directly and indirectly. In order to develop climate change reduction strategies and to assess the impacts of VOCs on human health, it is crucial to determine the sources of VOCs, which can be emitted from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The aim of this study was to perform source apportionment using positive matrix factorisation (PMF) analysis on VOC data collected at a regional background location affected by the major sources in the interior of South Africa, which include the western- and eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex, the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation, the Vaal Triangle, the Mpumalanga Highveld and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. In addition, a risk assessment study was also performed in view of the major source regions affecting Welgegund in order to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic VOCs measured at Welgegund on human health. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station located on a commercial farm approximately 100 km west of Johannesburg for a period of more than two years. PMF analysis revealed ten meaningful factor solutions, of which five factors were associated with biogenic emissions and five with anthropogenic sources. Three of the biogenic factors were characterised by a specific biogenic species, i.e. isoprene, limonene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO), while the other two biogenic factors comprised mixtures of biogenic species with different tracer species. The temporal factor contribution for the isoprene, limonene and MBO factors correlated relatively well with the seasonal wet pattern. One anthropogenic factor was associated with emissions from a densely populated anthropogenic source region to the east of Welgegund with a large number of industrial activities, while
South African concert parties have given shows in canteens and palaces, in magnificent opera houses and in assembly workshops; on open-air stages, on lorries and in fields and hangars. Tarpaulins have been spread on the desert sands, and tap dancers have gone into action on table tops or any available flat sur- face.
Qekwana, Nenene Daniel; Oguttu, James Wabwire
The South African Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries estimated in 2012 that there were 2.033 million goats in the country. Of these animals, less than 0.5% are slaughtered at registered abattoirs. Although informal and traditional slaughter of goats for home consumption is permitted under the South African Meat Safety Act 40 of 2000, the responsibility for ensuring that products are safe is left to the traditional or ritual slaughter practitioners. The objective of the present study was to assess whether preslaughter activities associated with traditional or ritual slaughter promote or reduce food-associated risks and to recommend mitigation strategies for potential food safety hazards. Structured interviews were conducted with 105 selected respondents (in and around Tshwane, South Africa) who had been involved in traditional goat slaughter. Approximately 70% of goats slaughtered were obtained from sources that could be traced to ascertain the origin of the goats. None of the respondents were aware of the need for a health declaration for slaughter stock. Some slaughter practitioners (21%) perform prepurchase inspection of stock to ascertain their health status. However, this percentage is very small, and the approach is based on indigenous knowledge systems. The majority of respondents (67.6%) travelled 1 to 11 km to obtain a goat for traditional slaughter. Although approximately 70% of slaughter goats were transported by vehicles, the vehicles used did not meet the legal standard. More than two-thirds of goats were tied to a tree while waiting to be slaughtered, and the rest were held in a kraal. The holding period ranged from 1 to 72 h, but more than 70% of the animals were slaughtered within 36 h. This study revealed that traditional and ritual slaughter involves some preslaughter activities with potential to mitigate the risk of slaughtering animals that are not fit for human consumption. Such activities include prepurchase inspection, obtaining
Context As life expectancy improves among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients, renal and cardiovascular diseases are increasingly prevalent in this population. Renal and cardiovascular disease are mutual risk factors and are characterized by albuminuria. Understanding the interactions between HIV, cardiovascular risk factors and renal disease is the first step in tackling this new therapeutic frontier in HIV. Methods In a rural primary health care centre, 903 HIV-infected adult patients were randomly selected and data on HIV-infection and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated. Albuminuria was defined as an Albumin-Creatinine-Ratio above 30 mg/g. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse albuminuria and demographic, clinical and HIV-associated variables. Results The study population consisted of 903 HIV-infected patients, with a median age of 40 years (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) 34–48 years), and included 625 (69%) women. The median duration since HIV diagnosis was 26 months (IQR 12–58 months) and 787 (87%) received antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-six (4%) of the subjects were shown to have diabetes and 205 (23%) hypertension. In the cohort, 21% had albuminuria and 2% an eGFR Albuminuria was associated with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–2.41; palbuminuria was common amongst HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa. Both cardiovascular and HIV-specific variables were associated with albuminuria. Improved cardiovascular risk prevention as well as adequate virus suppression might be the key to escape the vicious circle of renal failure and cardiovascular disease and improve the long-term prognosis of HIV-infected patients. PMID:26309226
Wensink, G Emerens; Schoffelen, Annelot F; Tempelman, Hugo A; Rookmaaker, Maarten B; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Barth, Roos E
As life expectancy improves among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients, renal and cardiovascular diseases are increasingly prevalent in this population. Renal and cardiovascular disease are mutual risk factors and are characterized by albuminuria. Understanding the interactions between HIV, cardiovascular risk factors and renal disease is the first step in tackling this new therapeutic frontier in HIV. In a rural primary health care centre, 903 HIV-infected adult patients were randomly selected and data on HIV-infection and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated. Albuminuria was defined as an Albumin-Creatinine-Ratio above 30 mg/g. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse albuminuria and demographic, clinical and HIV-associated variables. The study population consisted of 903 HIV-infected patients, with a median age of 40 years (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR) 34-48 years), and included 625 (69%) women. The median duration since HIV diagnosis was 26 months (IQR 12-58 months) and 787 (87%) received antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-six (4%) of the subjects were shown to have diabetes and 205 (23%) hypertension. In the cohort, 21% had albuminuria and 2% an eGFR Albuminuria was associated with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.41; palbuminuria was common amongst HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa. Both cardiovascular and HIV-specific variables were associated with albuminuria. Improved cardiovascular risk prevention as well as adequate virus suppression might be the key to escape the vicious circle of renal failure and cardiovascular disease and improve the long-term prognosis of HIV-infected patients.
Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.
The intensifying nature and extent of disasters together with the associated devastation and astronomical costs required to manage the rippling effects of disasters, enunciates the national and international focus on disaster risk reduction. Further the ever evolving and complex dynamics of risk as the decisive contributor to disasters has heightened the urgency to pursue effective disaster risk assessment as a prerequisite to inform the disaster risk management planning and disaster risk red...
Gaffoor, Zakir; Wand, Handan; Daniels, Brodie; Ramjee, Gita
Studies show Gender Based Violence (GBV) to be significantly associated with risky sexual behaviour. In South Africa the incidence of GBV is reportedly high, and there is a strong argument for GBV to be a driver of HIV infection rates. This study describes the prevalence of Forced Sex (FS) experiences of women who enrolled into an HIV biomedical intervention study, and its association with risky sexual behaviour. In this study, sociodemographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in the Carraguard™ trial, were assessed in relation to FS using logistic regression. The results indicated that 193/1485 (13%) of women reported ever experiencing FS at the screening visit. Women who were 30 years and older; reported having sex for cash; multiple partners; changing partners during the trial; inconsistent condom use during the trial; and 3 or more sex acts in the 2 weeks prior to screening, were significantly more likely to have experienced forced sex. The results of this study are broadly consistent with those found in other studies and are similar in profile to women at higher risk for HIV acquisition in our setting. This study indicates a need for GBV prevention to be integrated with HIV prevention programmes.
Gottert, Ann; Barrington, Clare; McNaughton-Reyes, Heath Luz; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Lippman, Sheri A; Kahn, Kathleen; Twine, Rhian; Pettifor, Audrey
Men's gender role conflict and stress (GRC/S), the psychological strain they experience around fulfilling expectations of themselves as men, has been largely unexplored in HIV prevention research. We examined associations between both men's gender norms and GRC/S and three HIV risk behaviors using data from a population-based survey of 579 18-35 year-old men in rural northeast South Africa. Prevalence of sexual partner concurrency and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in the last 12 months were 38.0 and 13.4%, respectively; 19.9% abused alcohol. More inequitable gender norms and higher GRC/S were each significantly associated with an increased odds of concurrency (p = 0.01; p GRC/S sub-dimension subordination to women; IPV perpetration and restrictive emotionality; and alcohol abuse and success, power, competition. Programs to transform gender norms should be coupled with effective strategies to prevent and reduce men's GRC/S.
In this paper, descriptive models of real returns on the South African market portfolio are developed and analysed. The 'market portfolio' is taken to comprise listed equity and government bonds, aggregated in proportion to their market capitalisation from time to time. The models have the attributes that, conditionally on ...
Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian
To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGdiabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Vetrimurugan Elumalai; K. Brindha; Elango Lakshmanan
Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese ex...
serious in children. The outstanding feature in children was an extreme form ofresdessness char- acterised by excessive neuromuscular activity. Victims of scorpion sting, particularly in high- risk localities ... with difficulty in breathing or respiratory distress (Table. I). Four of ..... On examination, the adult patient is anxious and.
Reducing child mortality is a high priority in sub-Saharan Africa, and swift, appropriate triage can make an important contribution to this goal. There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this, in many parts of South Africa no formal system for ...
Full Text Available and African albinos, and people spending extended unprotected periods outdoors are at risk of sunburn, a risk factor for skin cancer. Sunburn becomes increasingly likely during the high solar UV radiation hours around midday, and previous studies have shown...
Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.
Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…
In South Africa the distribution has shrunk from covering the whole country with the exception of forest to a narrow band along the Northern border from Kgalagadi to Kruger. In addition, 38 fenced reserves have successfully reintroduced the cheetah. The main threats in South Africa are direct persecution, loss of prey base ...
Full Text Available Despite many international and local initiatives on disaster risk management and advances in scientific knowledge, the social and economic impact of natural disasters in emerging and developing countries is still increasing. Various activities...
Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa A Monograph by MAJOR Timothy M. Bairstow United States Marine Corps School of...SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT Amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) are typically regarded as a post-conflict processes. In South Africa AR2 occurred before
Jacques Ophoff; Alastair Irons
This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cy-bercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digi-tal forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration...
Full Text Available Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area. The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1 was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 (238U, thorium-232 (232Th, and potassium-40 (40K for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10−5 at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10−6 to 10−4. Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards.
Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth's surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling program (version 3.1) was then used to estimate the radiation doses and the cancer morbidity risk of uranium-238 ((238)U), thorium-232 ((232)Th), and potassium-40 ((40)K) for a hypothetical resident scenario. According to RESRAD prediction, the maximum total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) during 100 years was found to be 0.0315 mSv/year at year 30, while the maximum total excess cancer morbidity risk for all the pathways was 3.04 × 10(-5) at year 15. The US Environmental Protection Agency considers acceptable for regulatory purposes a cancer risk in the range of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Therefore, results obtained from RESRAD OFFSITE code has shown that the health risk from gold mine tailings is within acceptable levels according to international standards.
The 15th South African Psychology Congress of the Psychological Society of South. Africa (PsySSA) was hosted at the International Convention Centre in Cape Town (CTICC),. South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken ...
Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.
G Emerens Wensink
Full Text Available As life expectancy improves among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV patients, renal and cardiovascular diseases are increasingly prevalent in this population. Renal and cardiovascular disease are mutual risk factors and are characterized by albuminuria. Understanding the interactions between HIV, cardiovascular risk factors and renal disease is the first step in tackling this new therapeutic frontier in HIV.In a rural primary health care centre, 903 HIV-infected adult patients were randomly selected and data on HIV-infection and cardiovascular risk factors were collected. Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was estimated. Albuminuria was defined as an Albumin-Creatinine-Ratio above 30 mg/g. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to analyse albuminuria and demographic, clinical and HIV-associated variables.The study population consisted of 903 HIV-infected patients, with a median age of 40 years (Inter-Quartile Range (IQR 34-48 years, and included 625 (69% women. The median duration since HIV diagnosis was 26 months (IQR 12-58 months and 787 (87% received antiretroviral therapy. Thirty-six (4% of the subjects were shown to have diabetes and 205 (23% hypertension. In the cohort, 21% had albuminuria and 2% an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2. Albuminuria was associated with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05-2.41; p<0.05, total cholesterol (aOR 1.31; 95% CI 1.11-1.54; p<0.05, eGFR (aOR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97-0.99; p<0.001 and detectable viral load (aOR 2.74; 95% CI 1.56-4.79; p<0.001. Hypertension was undertreated: 78% were not receiving treatment, while another 11% were inadequately treated. No patients were receiving lipid-lowering medication.Glomerular filtration rate was well conserved, while albuminuria was common amongst HIV-infected patients in rural South Africa. Both cardiovascular and HIV-specific variables were associated with albuminuria. Improved cardiovascular risk prevention as well as adequate
Conclusions: HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months, indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy.
Full Text Available of seismic monitoring and to ensure continuity, especially as mines change hands. The Klerksdorp and Free State gold mining districts are incorporating the risks of seismicity in their disaster management plans, and Johannesburg is urged to do likewise. Some...
Full Text Available The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As, Lead (Pb, Mercury (Hg, Cadmium (Cd, Chromium (Cr, Cobalt (Co, Nickel (Ni, Copper (Cu and Zinc (Zn using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >>1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10−4 implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10−4. These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.
Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan
The study evaluates the health risk caused by heavy metals to the inhabitants of a gold mining area. In this study, 56 soil samples from five mine tailings and 17 from two mine villages were collected and analyzed for Asernic (As), Lead (Pb), Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu) and Zinc (Zn) using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations of these heavy metals were then used to calculate the health risk for adults and children. Their concentrations were such that Cr > Ni > As > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd, with As, Cr and Ni higher than permissible levels. For the adult population, the Hazard Index value for all pathways was found to be 2.13, making non-carcinogenic effects significant to the adult population. For children, the Hazard Index value was 43.80, a value >1, which poses serious non-carcinogenic effect to children living in the gold mining area. The carcinogenic risk was found to be 1.7 × 10(-4) implying that 1 person in every 5882 adults may be affected. In addition, for children, in every 2725 individuals, 1 child may be affected (3.67 × 10(-4)). These carcinogenic risk values were both higher than acceptable values.
Clark, Samuel J.; Gomez-Olive, F. Xavier; Houle, Brian; Thorogood, Margaret; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Angotti, Nicole; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa; Williams, Jill; Menken, Jane; Tollman, Stephen
Background: To inform health care and training, resource and research priorities, it is essential to establish how non-communicable disease risk factors vary by HIV-status in high HIV burden areas; and whether long-term anti-retroviral therapy (ART) plays a modifying role. Methods: As part of a
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Rajulton, Fernando
Various studies have underscored the relevance of community-level factors to sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Africa. However, there is a paucity of research and theorizing in this area compared to the preponderance of prevention models that focus solely on individual-level factors. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey and hierarchical linear models, this study examines the effects of a combination of individual-level factors and community-level poverty on sexual behaviors. Male and female respondents who perceived themselves to be at great risk of HIV infection were less likely to indulge in risky sexual behaviors. For females, race and community-level poverty were confounded such that race mediated the effects of community-level poverty. Results from this study indicate that multiple rationalities affect sexual behaviors in Cape Town, South Africa and that there is a need to consider both the social embeddedness of sexual behaviors and the rational components of decision making when designing HIV/AIDS prevention programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et ... Sujet: Social Policy, SOCIAL WELFARE, SOCIAL SECURITY, HOUSEHOLD INCOME, YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT. Région: Africa, South Africa, South of ...
Schlebusch, L; Vawda, N
The aim of this study was to examine variables associated with recently diagnosed HIV-infection as a self-reported attempted suicide risk factor. The study cohort consisted of 112 general hospital in-patients who attempted suicide because of HIV-infection. All the patients were subject to a comprehensive mental state examination and administration of a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain biographical, sociodemographic and other relevant information. Pearson uncorrected Chi-square (X(2)) or Fisher's Exact Probability Test were used to analyze data utilising Epicalc 2000, version 1.02. Most patients expressed a heterosexual preference. The average age was 34.9 years. Females predominated and in both genders depression and substance abuse (mainly alcohol-related) accounted for the most common psychiatric diagnoses. Less than half of the patients were married. Partner relational problems was a statistically significant variable. The most prevalent co-morbid stressors were poor social support, fear of disclosure/stigmatization and socio-economic pressures. Cognitive deficits included problems with cognitive flexibility, concentration and memory. Based on estimated national suicidal behaviour prevalence rates, a descriptive HIV-related attempted suicide rate of 67.2 per 100 000 and an increased risk for attempted suicide of 13.33% to 18.87% were calculated. HIV-infection can be an underestimated suicide risk factor. Effective management and prevention programmes should include as imperatives early diagnosis of HIV-related suicidal behaviour, recognition of underlying psychopathology, neurocognitive deficits, associated stressors, the dynamics of partner relationship problems, as well as cultural awareness and sensitivity. Potential neurocognitive complications that can act as additional risk factors require further research.
Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Sadeghi, Rokhsanna; Meiring, Tracy; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Persistence of infection with high-risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) increases the risk of incident and progressive precancerous lesions of the cervix. Rates of HR-HPV persistence have been shown to be increased among HIV-infected adult women, however there is a paucity of literature addressing HPV persistence in the young HIV-infected population. We compared rates of HR-HPV persistence between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young women. We obtained self-collected vaginal swabs at six-month intervals from 50 HIV-uninfected and 33 HIV-infected young women recruited through a community youth center (age 17-21 years) and compared rates of HR-HPV persistence. HR-HPV testing was conducted using the Roche's Linear Array® HPV Test. Eighty-three prevalent (upon baseline testing) and incident (upon subsequent testing) individual HR-HPV infections were identified among 43 members of the cohort (23 HIV-uninfected and 20 HIV-infected). At twelve months, 19% of baseline HR-HPV infections continued to be present with a statistically significant difference between HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected participants (4% versus 31%; p=0.01). HIV-infected young women in our cohort had a seven-fold increased rate of persistence of HR-HPV overall at 12 months, indicating an increased risk for incident and progressive precancerous lesions. Identification of persistent infection with HR-HPV may complement cytological findings in determining the need for colposcopy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Mathuthu, Manny; Kamunda, Caspah; Madhuku, Morgan
Mining is one of the major causes of elevation of naturally-occurring radionuclide material (NORM) concentrations on the Earth’s surface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the human risk associated with exposure to NORMs in soils from mine tailings around a gold mine. A broad-energy germanium detector was used to measure activity concentrations of these NORMs in 66 soil samples (56 from five mine tailings and 10 from the control area). The RESidual RADioactivity (RESRAD) OFFSITE modeling ...
Full Text Available Abstract Research shows that gender power inequity in relationships and intimate partner violence places women at enhanced risk of HIV infection. Men who have been violent towards their partners are more likely to have HIV. Men's behaviours show a clustering of violent and risky sexual practices, suggesting important connections. This paper draws on Raewyn Connell's notion of hegemonic masculinity and reflections on emphasized femininities to argue that these sexual, and male violent, practices are rooted in and flow from cultural ideals of gender identities. The latter enables us to understand why men and women behave as they do, and the emotional and material context within which sexual behaviours are enacted. In South Africa, while gender identities show diversity, the dominant ideal of black African manhood emphasizes toughness, strength and expression of prodigious sexual success. It is a masculinity women desire; yet it is sexually risky and a barrier to men engaging with HIV treatment. Hegemonically masculine men are expected to be in control of women, and violence may be used to establish this control. Instead of resisting this, the dominant ideal of femininity embraces compliance and tolerance of violent and hurtful behaviour, including infidelity. The women partners of hegemonically masculine men are at risk of HIV because they lack control of the circumstances of sex during particularly risky encounters. They often present their acquiescence to their partners' behaviour as a trade off made to secure social or material rewards, for this ideal of femininity is upheld, not by violence per se, by a cultural system of sanctions and rewards. Thus, men and women who adopt these gender identities are following ideals with deep roots in social and cultural processes, and thus, they are models of behaviour that may be hard for individuals to critique and in which to exercise choice. Women who are materially and emotionally vulnerable are least
Topic: SOUTH AFRICA, Mining, Economic and social development, CANADA, UNIVERSITIES, RESEARCH, TRAINING. Region: South Africa, Canada. Program: ... Region: Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, China, Kenya, Sierra Leone, Turkey, Zambia, Republic of Congo, South Africa. Program: Governance and ...
Plüddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Carney, Tara; Lombard, Carl
This study investigated involvement in substance use and sexual activities among adolescents in Cape Town, and specifically the associations between methamphetamine use and sexual risk behaviours. Data were collected from 15 randomly selected and 15 matched schools in Cape Town via quantitative questionnaires. Students used hand-held computers (PDAs) to answer the questions. A total of 4605 grade 9 students were sampled. Male and female students were almost equally likely to have used methamphetamine at least once (13% versus 12%). Students who had used methamphetamine in the past 30 days were significantly more likely to have had vaginal, anal or oral sex than students who had never used it, to have been pregnant/been responsible for a pregnancy and to have been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection. Logistic regression analysis indicated significant associations between methamphetamine use in the past 12 months and engaging in vaginal and anal sex. Drug abuse and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention services should incorporate the link between drugs and STI into their prevention and education strategies, especially those aimed at school-going adolescents.
Du Plessis, Pierre; Conley, Lloyd
Poverty is one of the major threats to the realization of children's rights worldwide and in South Africa. Currently, 66% of South African children live in severe poverty. This places all other rights at risk; the rights guaranteed by the South African Constitution and by the UN Convention. Poverty and inequality in South Africa continue to…
Full Text Available of South Africa (AFASA). References Anderson, D.M., Chisholm, S.W., Watras, C.J., 1983. Importance of life cycle events in the population dynamics of Gonyaulax tamarensis. Mar. Biol. 76, 179?189. Anderson, D.M., Fukuyo, Y., Matsuoka, K., 1995. Cyst methodol... dinoflagellates are known to form resting cysts as part of their life history (Head, 1996). These life history stages form an important component of the ecology and biogeography of these dinoflagellates (Wall et al., 1977; Dale, 1983; Ellegaard et al., 1994...
Thelmah X. Maluleke
Purposive sampling was used to select the four villages that participated in the study and simple,random sampling was used to select the respondents. A total of 400 respondents participated in the study, 227 of which were female and 173 were male. The following sexual risk behaviour indicators were identified (1 early sexual debut, (2 teenage pregnancy and (3 early marriage. It was found that young people expose themselves to sexual intercourse without condoms, and that they are likely to have sexual intercourse without a condom in return for reward, and to have sexual intercourse with a famous person. Approximately 20% of the sexually active respondents had used substances before sexual intercourse. Alcohol and marijuana (‘dagga’ were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming Die studie was ’n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die Vhembe-distrik van die Limpopo-provinsie uitgevoer is. Die doel van die navorsing was om vas te stel watter aanwysers van risikogedrag ten opsigte van seksuele gesondheid onder die jongmense voorkom wat moontlik tot die verspreiding van MIV en vigs in hierdie distrik bydra. Die doelstellings van hierdie studie was om (1 seksuele risikogedrag te identifiseer, (2 die voorkoms van middelgebruik voor seksuele omgang te bepaal, (3 die voorkoms van gedwonge seksuele omgang en (4 die voorkoms van geforseerde seksuele omgang onder jongmense in die Vhembedistrik te bepaal. Doelgerigte steekproefneming is gebruik om die vier dorpies wat aan die studie deelgeneem het, te selekteer en eenvoudige ewekansige steekproefneming is gebruik om die respondente te selekteer.’n Totaal van 400 respondente het aan die studie deelgeneem, waarvan 227 vroulik en 173 manlik was. Die volgende aanwysers van seksuele risikogedrag is geïdentifiseer (1 vroeë seksuele debuut,(2
Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...
Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.
This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla
The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....
Towards a “language of probability” for environmental education in South Africa. Lesley Le Grange. Department of Didactics, Faculty of Education, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa llg@.sun.ac.za. In the current phase of our history, crises abound in many spheres of life — political, ...
Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...
Full Text Available dependent on rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PET) in 4 climatically different regions of South Africa. Average ET in South Africa (2000–2012) was estimated to be 303 mm·a-1 or 481.4 x 109 m3·a1 (14% of PET and 67% of rainfall), mainly in the form...
waterborne. South Africa. Canoeists and diseases in. C. c. APPLETON, I. W. BAILEY. Summary. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium) in canoeists in South Africa was estimated from examinations of urine samples taken from participants in the 1988 and 1989 Duzi Canoe Marathons on the ...
1ARC-Animal Production Institute, Private Bag X2, Irene, 0062, South Africa. 2Department of Animal Science, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. 3Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich Loeffler Institut, Höltystr.10, 31535 Neustadt-Mariensee, Germany. 4Department of Livestock and ...
Objective. This study was conceptualised following pub- lication of two editorials by Professor Mike Lambert, in which he proposed a model for achieving sporting excel- lence in South Africa. A questionnaire based on the assumptions of the model was administered to the first 45 ranked swimmers in South Africa.
Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South Africa.
5 University of Pretoria – Division of Human Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, PO Box 667, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. 6 University of Pretoria ... communities of South Africa and to present information on the local nomenclature .... transform the leafy vegetables into dry products that have long shelf lives (Vorster et al., ...
Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the
Obesity, a major risk factor for NCDs, is a growing problem in South Africa. Reducing rates of over- weight and obesity in the population is therefore a health priority. The South African health system's efforts can be bolstered by actions and collaboration from other sectors, which have the potential to achieve important health.
Background Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Methods Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in governmental schools in the nine provinces of SA (N = 10,699 in 2002 and 10,270 in 2008). Key outcome measures were suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Results Of the total sample, 18% of the students in 2002 and 19% in 2008 reported to have seriously considered and/or made a plan to commit suicide during the past six months (Suicide ideation), whereas 18.5% of students in 2002 and 21.8% in 2008 reported that they had attempted suicide at least 1 time during the past six months. On both suicide measures girls have higher prevalence scores than boys, and older school learners score higher than younger learners. In addition, 32% of the learners reported feelings of sadness or hopelessness. These feelings contributed significantly to the explanation of suicide ideation and suicide attempt next to being the victim or actor in violent acts and illegal substance use. Conclusion The prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among South African adolescents is high and seems to be influenced by a wide spectrum of factors at the demographic, psychological and behavioural level. Hence, more research is needed to determine the behavioural and psychological determinants of suicide among youngsters in order to develop comprehensive intervention strategies for suicide prevention and care. PMID:24093214
Strijdom, Hans; De Boever, Patrick; Walzl, Gerhard; Essop, M Faadiel; Nawrot, Tim S; Webster, Ingrid; Westcott, Corli; Mashele, Nyiko; Everson, Frans; Malherbe, Stephanus T; Stanley, Kim; Kessler, Harald H; Stelzl, Evelyn; Goswami, Nandu
There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) being regarded as the epicentre of the global HIV epidemic, very little is known about the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and precursors of vascular disease in HIV-infected populations in this region. The knowledge gap is further widened by the paucity of data from prospective studies. We present the rationale, objectives and key methodological features of the EndoAfrica study, which aims to determine whether HIV-infection and ART are associated with altered cardiovascular risk and changes in vascular endothelial structure and function in adults living in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. In this longitudinal study, comprehensive cardiovascular assessments of HIV-negative and HIV-positive (with and without ART) study participants are performed by clinical and biochemical screening for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers of CVD. Vascular and endothelial function is determined by brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), carotid-intima-thickness (IMT) measurements and quantitative retinal blood vessel analyses, complemented by vascular endothelial biomarker assays. Finally, we aim to statistically determine whether HIV-infection and/or ART are associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular endothelial dysfunction, and determine whether there is progression/regression in these endpoints 18 months after the baseline assessments. The EndoAfrica study provides a unique opportunity to recruit a cohort of HIV-infected patients and HIV
D. Van Loggerenberg
Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.
Lavin, T; Pattinson, R C
To explore stillbirth risk across gestation in three provinces of South Africa with different antenatal care schedules. Retrospective audit of perinatal death data using South Africa's Perinatal Problem Identification Programme. In 2008, the Basic Antenatal Care Programme was introduced in Limpopo and Mpumalanga provinces, reducing appointments to five visits at booking, 20, 26, 32, 38 weeks and 41 weeks if required. In the Western Cape province seven appointments remained at booking, 20, 26, 32, 34, 36, 38 and 41 weeks if required. All audited stillbirths (n = 4211) between October 2013 to August 2015 in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and Western Cape. Stillbirth risk (26-42 weeks of gestation, >1000 g) across gestation was calculated using Yudkin's method. Stillbirth risk was compared between provinces and relative risks were calculated between Limpopo/ Mpumalanga and Western Cape. Stillbirth risk across gestation. Stillbirth risk peaked at 38 weeks of gestation in Limpopo (relative risk [RR] 3.11, 95% CI 2.40-4.03, P < 0.001)and Mpumalanga (RR 3.09, 95% CI 2.37-4.02, P < 0.001) compared with Western Cape, where no peak was observed. Stillbirth risk at 38 weeks gestation in Limpopo and Mpumalanga were statistically greater than both the 37 and 39 weeks gestation within provinces (P < 0.001). As expected, a peak at 41 weeks of gestation was observed in all provinces. The increased period of stillbirth risk occurs after a 6-week absence of antenatal care. This calls for a refocus on the impact of reduced antenatal care visits during the third trimester. Reduced antenatal care in the third trimester may increase stillbirth risk. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Steyn, K; Fourie, J; Bradshaw, D
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of chronic diseases of lifestyle on the mortality pattern of South Africans and to estimate the number of South Africans affected by major risk factors for these diseases. The proportion of deaths due to chronic diseases of lifestyle was calculated from the deaths reported to the Central Statistical Services. This group of diseases was responsible for 24.5% of deaths of all South Africans and 28.5% of those aged 35-64 years whose deaths were reported in 1988. The major causes of death contributing to these figures were cerebrovascular diseases (7.2% of all deaths and 7.9% of deaths of persons aged 35-64 years) and ischaemic heart disease (8.7% of all deaths and 9.6% of deaths of persons aged 35-64 years). The age-standardised prevalence rates for the major risk factors reported in five cross-sectional studies in different areas and groups are compared. Estimates from the reported prevalence rates, based on the size of the South African population recorded in the 1985 census figures, were calculated for the major risk factors. Overall 4.88 million South Africans smoked, the largest group of smokers being black males (2.6 million). for hypertension 5.5 million South Africans had blood pressures above 140/90 mmHg; again the largest groups were blacks (3.0 million). For hypercholesterolaemia and raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, 4.8 million and 3.1 million South Africans respectively had an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease, blacks having the lowest levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In a comparative study of 37 participating countries on an analysis of Small Medium Enterprises (GEM, 2002) it was found that South Africa ranked the lowest of all developing countries, with only 3.3% of the adult population being involved in pursuing exploitable opportunities in various industries. Since 1994 South Africa ...
The purpose of this review is to synthesise cannabis use data from surveys, specialised alcohol and drug treatment centres, cannabis-related trauma unit admissions and arrestee studies over the past 12 years in South Africa. Results indicate that cannabis is the most common illicit substance used in South Africa, with ...
Mehta, U; Dheda, M; Steel, G; Blockman, M; Ntilivamunda, A; Maartens, G; Pillay, Y; Cohen, K
This report outlines findings and recommendations of a national pharmacovigilance workshop held in August 2012 in South Africa (SA). A survey of current pharmacovigilance activities, conducted in preparation for the meeting, identified multiple programmes collecting drug safety data in SA, with limited co-ordination at national level. The meeting resolved that existing pharmacovigilance programmes need to be strengthened and consolidated to ensure that important local safety issues are addressed, data can be pooled and compared and outputs shared more widely. Pharmacovigilance activities should inform treatment guidelines with the goal of improving patient care. A variety of pharmaco-epidemiological approaches should be employed, including nesting drug safety studies within existing sentinel cohorts and the creation of a pregnancy exposure registry. The attendees agreed on key principles that will inform a national pharmacovigilance plan and compiled a list of priority pharmacovigilance issues facing public health programmes in SA.
Full Text Available The authors investigate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, HIV infection among women in an urban South African setting. A random sample of 834 women was recruited into a community-based cross-sectional study. HIV prevalence was 37...
Full Text Available The South African educational system is in a state of transformation as the Government embarks on a process of grappling with legacies of the past, whilst balancing risks and opportunities for the future. Accordingly, a new school curriculum with outcomes-based education as the fundamental building block was introduced along a sliding scale, starting in 1997. This curriculum, with a vast statistics content, has the potential to change the face of statistics education in South Africa, as statistics had previously been virtually absent from the school syllabus. This article highlights the challenges to and opportunities for optimising the teaching of statistics across all education levels in South Africa.
Hofmeyr, George Justus; Mancotywa, Thozeka; Silwana-Kwadjo, Nomvula; Mgudlwa, Batembu; Lawrie, Theresa A; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin
South Africa's health system is based on the primary care model in which low-risk maternity care is provided at community health centres and clinics, and 'high-risk' care is provided at secondary/tertiary hospitals. This model has the disadvantage of delays in the management of unexpected intrapartum complications in otherwise low-risk pregnancies, therefore, there is a need to re-evaluate the models of birth care in South Africa. To date, two primary care onsite midwife-led birth units (OMBUs) have been established in the Eastern Cape. OMBUs are similar to alongside midwifery units but have been adapted to the South African health system in that they are staffed, administered and funded by the primary care service. They allow women considered to be at 'low risk' to choose between birth in a community health centre and birth in the OMBU. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the impact of establishing an OMBU at Frere Maternity Hospital in East London, South Africa, on maternity services. We conducted an audit of routinely collected data from Frere Maternity Hospital over two 12 month periods, before and after the OMBU opened. Retrospectively retrieved data included the number of births, maternal and perinatal deaths, and mode of delivery. After the OMBU opened at Frere Maternity Hospital, the total number of births on the hospital premises increased by 16%. The total number of births in the hospital obstetric unit (OU) dropped by 9.3%, with 1611 births out of 7375 (22%) occurring in the new OMBU. The number of maternal and perinatal deaths was lower in the post-OMBU period compared with the pre-OMBU period. These improvements cannot be assumed to be the result of the intervention as observational studies are prone to bias. The mortality data should be interpreted with caution as other factors such as change in risk profile may have contributed to the death reductions. There are many additional advantages for women, hospital staff and primary care staff with
Cluver, Lucie; Boyes, Mark; Orkin, Mark; Pantelic, Marija; Molwena, Thembela; Sherr, Lorraine
Effective and scalable HIV prevention for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Cash transfers can reduce HIV incidence through reducing risk behaviours. However, questions remain about their effectiveness within national poverty-alleviation programmes, and their effects on different behaviours in boys and girls. In this case-control study, we interviewed South African adolescents (aged 10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. We randomly selected census areas in two urban and two rural districts in two provinces in South Africa, including all homes with a resident adolescent. We assessed household receipt of state-provided child-focused cash transfers, incidence in the past year and prevalence of transactional sex, age-disparate sex, unprotected sex, multiple partners, and sex while drunk or after taking drugs. We used logistic regression after propensity score matching to assess the effect of cash transfers on these risky sexual behaviours. We interviewed 3515 participants (one per household) at baseline, and interviewed 3401 at follow-up. For adolescent girls (n=1926), receipt of a cash transfer was associated with reduced incidence of transactional sex (odds ratio [OR] 0·49, 95% CI 0·26-0·93; p=0·028), and age-disparate sex (OR 0·29, 95% CI 0·13-0·67; p=0·004), with similar associations for prevalence (for transactional sex, OR 0·47, 95% CI 0·26-0·86; p=0·015; for age-disparate sex, OR 0·37, 95% CI 0·18-0·77; p=0·003). No significant effects were shown for other risk behaviours. For boys (n=1475), no consistent effects were shown for any of the behaviours. National, child-focused cash transfers to alleviate poverty for households in sub-Saharan Africa can substantially reduce unsafe partner selection by adolescent girls. Child-focused cash transfers are of potential importance for effective combination strategies for prevention of HIV. UK Economic and Social Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, Health Economics and
Selikow, Terry-Ann; Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J; Mathews, Catherine; Mukoma, Wanjiru
Young people in South Africa are susceptible to HIV infection. They are vulnerable to peer pressure to have sex, but little is known about how peer pressure operates. The aim of the study was to understand how negative peer pressure increases high risk sexual behaviour among young adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. Qualitative research methods were used. Eight focus groups were conducted with young people between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Peer pressure among both boys and girls undermines healthy social norms and HIV prevention messages to abstain, be faithful, use a condom and delay sexual debut. HIV prevention projects need to engage with peer pressure with the aim of changing harmful social norms into healthy norms. Increased communication with adults about sex is one way to decrease the impact of negative peer pressure. Peer education is a further mechanism by which trained peers can role model healthy social norms and challenge a peer culture that promotes high risk sexual behaviour. Successful HIV prevention interventions need to engage with the disconnect between educational messages and social messages and to exploit the gaps between awareness, decision making, norms, intentions and actions as spaces for positive interventions.
- perature, must be received at NICD before 14h00 same day as col- lection. Yellow-top ... Caps: 250 mg (84),. 500 mg (90). No generics cur- rently available in. South Africa. Initiation phase. Maintenance phase. Induction phase: intravenous.
Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...
Full Text Available will be used for the Second National Communication to the UNFCCC. Furthermore, the GHG inventory will be a critical source of information for air quality management and climate change mitigation in South Africa...
Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...
Lysko, Albert A
Full Text Available South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) has developed and certified a geolocation spectrum database, with the country moving towards making its spectrum management more dynamic....
Full Text Available In this paper, the authors illustrate the need for standardized addresses in South Africa by describing scenarios where standardized addresses are required, or where standardized addresses would improve the current situation. They present the eleven...
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia
The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....
Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.
Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger
In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...
Amy L Corneli
Full Text Available Introduction: Risk perception is a core construct in many behaviour change theories in public health. Individuals who believe they are at risk of acquiring an illness may be more likely to engage in behaviours to reduce that risk; those who do not feel at risk may be unlikely to engage in risk reduction behaviours. Among participants who seroconverted in two FEM-PrEP sites – Bondo, Kenya, and Pretoria, South Africa – we explored perceived HIV risk and worry about acquiring HIV prior to HIV infection. Methods: FEM-PrEP was a phase III clinical trial of once-daily, oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate for HIV prevention among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We asked all participants about their perceived HIV risk in the next four weeks, prior to HIV testing, during a quantitative face-to-face interview at enrolment and at quarterly follow-up visits. Among participants who seroconverted, we calculated the frequencies of their responses from the visit conducted closest to, but before, HIV acquisition. Also among women who seroconverted, we conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews (SSIs at weeks 1, 4 and 8 after participants’ HIV diagnosis visit to retrospectively explore feelings of HIV worry. Applied thematic analysis was used to analyse the SSI data. Results: Among participants who seroconverted in Bondo and Pretoria, 52% reported in the quantitative interview that they had no chance of acquiring HIV in the next four weeks. We identified four processes of risk rationalization from the SSI narratives. In “protective behaviour,” participants described at least one risk reduction behaviour they used to reduce their HIV risk; these actions made them feel not vulnerable to HIV, and therefore they did not worry about acquiring the virus. In “protective reasoning,” participants considered their HIV risk but rationalized, based on certain events or beliefs, that they were not vulnerable and therefore did not worry about
Background. The criminal use of firearms in South Africa is widespread and a major factor in the country having the thirdhighest homicide rate in the world. Violence is a common feature of South African society. A firearm in the home is a risk factor in intimate partner violence, but this has not been readily demonstrated in ...
Steven L. Chown
Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.
Onoya, Dorina; Nattey, Cornelius; Budgell, Eric; van den Berg, Liudmyla; Maskew, Mhairi; Evans, Denise; Hirasen, Kamban; Long, Lawrence C; Fox, Matthew P
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line). Variables included a social instability index, ART adherence, self-reported as well as diagnosed adverse drug reactions (ADRs), HIV disclosure, depression, and factors affecting access to HIV clinics. Overall 60.0% of cases and 54.0% of controls were female. Mean ages of cases and controls were 41.8 ± 9.6 and 43.3 ± 8.0, respectively. Virologic failure was predicted by ART adherence third-line regimens.
Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl
Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking
Mar 31, 2014 ... civil purchases (e.g. passenger aircraft).3 As a result of the biggest defence transaction in. South Africa, the Strategic Defence Package. (SDP) of December 1999, incurred R15 billion worth of DIP obligations. This article. Scientia Militaria, South African. Journal of Military Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2016, pp.
Sep 1, 1993 ... of the Muscular Dystrophy Foundation of South Africa. This study was funded by grants from the South African Medical. Research Council, the Mauerberger Foundation, the Harry. Crossley Foundation and the University of Cape Town Staff. Research Fund. REFERENCES. 1. Maser H. Duchenne muscular ...
Mar 13, 1971 ... Leishmaniasis was first reported from South West. Africa in 1970.' All 4 cases had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis, and all 4 occurred in White women. These cases appeared over a period of 3 years. Before this the nearest recorded case of leishmaniasis was from south- western Angola.' Cahill' has ...
gain world power. The Soviet Union is striving to subject South Africa to a communist regime which would enable it to gain access to the country's geostrategic facilities ... 20. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, Vol 16, Nr 2, 1986. http://scientiamilitaria.journals.ac.za ... Battalion, the French regiments.
While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…
Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...
Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...
Full Text Available South African greenhouse gas emissions contributed about 1.2% to the global increase in the greenhouse effect in 1988. South Africa generated trace gases with a radiation absorption potential over a 20-year period equivalent to 534 million tons...
Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.
Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.
Chikanda, Abel; Crush, Jonathan
This paper explores intra-regional South-South cross-border patient travel within the context of Southern Africa. South Africa, in particular, has been widely touted as one of the emerging destinations of high-end patients from the Global North alongside other destinations such as Brazil, India, Costa Rica and Thailand. Using South Africa as a case study, the paper demonstrates that South-South cross-border patient travel is far more significant than North-South patient travel both in numerical and financial terms. Every year, thousands of patients from neighbouring countries travel to South Africa in search of medical treatment for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. Despite its size and importance, the South-South flow of patients in Southern Africa is not fully understood and requires further scholarly research.
Full Text Available Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.
'racial' and ethnic groUps.l2.S--I In reality, 'racial' and ethnic differences in disease are more likely to be the consequence of racism and ethnic discrimination.9.1. 0 Indeed, South Africa provides the clearest example of how discrimination resutts in differential exposure to environmental risks and differential access to health ...
3 Department of Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Community and Health Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. 4 Bennett ... To identify (i) the prevalence of methamphetamine use in Western Cape youth and (ii) the association between use and known risk factors ... having a same-sex partner.
Like other sub-Saharan countries, South Africa today faces an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases.1 Obesity is an important risk factor for the development of hypertension,2 coronary heart disease,3 diabetes mellitus4 and certain cancers.5 The reported prevalence of obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 ...
In recognition of the importance of safe drinking water to public health, DWAF initiated a project to draft a Drinking Water Quality Framework for South Africa to enable effective management of drinking water quality and the protection of public health. The Framework is based on a preventative risk management approach, ...
Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies in the West. A large body of research is investigating the risk factors for disease and perforation. As South Africa has a social environment, health system structure, and population demography unique from developed nations, the findings may ...
Jul 4, 2012 ... The estimation of design floods is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures and to quantify the risk of failure of the structures. Most of the methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa were developed in the late 1960s and early. 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of ...
The estimation of design floods is necessary for the design of hydraulic structures and to quantify the risk of failure of the structures. Most of the methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa were developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ...
Goliger, Adam M
Full Text Available This paper summarises the initial stage of development of a wind damage/disaster risk model for South Africa. The aim is to identify the generic zones of various types of strong wind events. The extent of these zones will form the basis...
Objectives: To describe antenatal booking visits, haemoglobin levels and to estimate the prevalence of Anaemia in pregnancy based on the criteria set by South Africa (National) and World Health organization and to identify the risk factors. Study-Design, Setting and Subjects: A retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study ...
burden of Disease Research Unit, Medical Research Council of South Africa,. Iygerberg, Cape Town. Rosana Norman, PhD ... key risk factor for diarrhoeal and other diseases. Worldwide, unsafe WSH has been estimated ..... also contribute to reducing disease spread within households and the likelihood of further episodes ...
Mar 5, 2009 ... Conclusion: In a district hospital in South Africa, the mode of delivery for breech presentations is usually a planned Caesarean section. ..... Van Iddekinge B. Risk management: Planned vaginal breech delivery – should this be the mode of choice? The Obstetrician and Gynaecologist 2007;9:171–6. 6.
Our results indicate that producing a product mix rather than a single product improves aggregated financial returns and lowers investment risk over multiple rotation periods. The optimum mixture depended on past timber price correlations for pulpwood and sawn timber in South Africa between 1980 and 2011. This ideal ...
Schrag, Stephanie J; Cutland, Clare L; Zell, Elizabeth R; Kuwanda, Locadiah; Buchmann, Eckhart J; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Groome, Michelle J; Madhi, Shabir A
Factors associated with neonatal sepsis, an important cause of child mortality, are poorly described in Africa. We characterized factors associated with early-onset (days 0-2 of life) and late-onset (days 3-28) -sepsis and perinatal death among infants enrolled in the Prevention of Perinatal Sepsis Trial (NCT00136370 at ClinicalTrials.gov), Soweto, South Africa. Secondary analysis of 8011 enrolled mothers and their neonates. Prenatal and labor records were abstracted and neonatal wards were monitored for hospitalized Prevention of Perinatal Sepsis-enrolled neonates. Endpoint definitions required clinical and laboratory signs. All univariate factors associated with endpoints at P perinatal period. Factors associated with early-onset sepsis included preterm delivery [adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 2.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-4.8]; low birth weight (perinatal death and culture-confirmed sepsis. MSAF (aRR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1-5.0) was associated with late-onset sepsis. Preterm and low birth weight were important sepsis risk factors. MSAF and first birth were also associated with sepsis and death, warranting further exploration. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis did not protect against all-cause sepsis or death, underscoring the need for alternate prevention strategies.
Semi - arid Area in Africa, South of the Sahara,” WMO 86, 210 (1967). 20. Patrick Benoit, “The Start of the Growing Season in Northern Nigeria...North African cities of Casablanca and Alexandria experience arid climate conditions and are more exposed to the hazard of drought, and Johannesburg...Report: Climate Change, State Stability, and Political Risk in Africa The program on Climate Change, State Stability, and Political Risk in Africa (also
Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse is a key factor underlying the remarkable vulnerability to HIV infection among men and women in sub-Saharan Africa, especially within urban settings. Its effects, however, vary by type of drinking, population group and are modified by socio-cultural co-factors. Methods We interviewed a random sample of 1465 men living in single-sex hostels and 1008 women in adjacent informal settlements in inner-city, Johannesburg, South Africa. Being drunk in the past week was used as an indicator of heavy episodic drinking, and frequency of drinking and number of alcohol units/week used as measures of volume. Associations between dimensions of alcohol use (current drinking, volume of alcohol consumed and heavy episodic drinking patterns and sexual behaviours were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Results Most participants were internal migrants from KwaZulu Natal province. About half of men were current drinkers, as were 13% of women. Of current male drinkers, 18% drank daily and 23% were drunk in the past week (women: 14% and 29% respectively. Among men, associations between heavy episodic drinking and sexual behaviour were especially pronounced. Compared with non-drinkers, episodic ones were 2.6 fold more likely to have transactional sex (95%CI = 1.7–4.1 and 2.2 fold more likely to have a concurrent partner (95%CI = 1.5–3.2. Alcohol use in men, regardless of measure, was strongly associated with having used physical force to have sex. Overall effects of alcohol on sexual behaviour were larger in women than men, and associations were detected between all alcohol measures in women, and concurrency, transactional sex and having been forced to have sex. Conclusions Alcohol use and sexual behaviours are strongly linked among male and female migrant populations in inner-city Johannesburg. More rigorous interventions at both local and macro level are needed to alleviate alcohol harms and mitigate the alcohol
It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact. Present threats to its academic stature and praxiological impact can only be overcome by taking appropriate and timely research management action. South African Journal of Education Vol.24(3) 2004: 233-238 ...
Although some 657 members of the South African Union Defence Forces served in North West Europe between D-Day on 6 June 1944 and VE-Day on 8 May 1945, it would seem that relatively few of them were present on D-Day. South Africa's main contributions to the war effort were made in Ethiopia, Madagascar, the ...
Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...
Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... The journal publishes relevant book reviews and invited perspectives that contribute to the development of range and forage science in Africa. Letters to the editor that debate issues raised in the journal are acceptable. Publication of the journal is supported by the Grassland Society of Southern Africa.
Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority
Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority
Moodley, Selvarani; Storbeck, Claudine
With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the two provinces currently showing growth.
Rohner, Eliane; Sengayi, Mazvita; Goeieman, Bridgette; Michelow, Pamela; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Maskew, Mhairi; Bohlius, Julia
Data on invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence in HIV-positive women and the effect of cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We estimated i) ICC incidence rates in women (≥18 years) who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the Themba Lethu Clinic (TLC) in Johannesburg, South Africa, between 2004 and 2011 and ii) the effect of a Pap-based screening program. We included 10,640 women; median age at ART initiation: 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 30-42], median CD4 count at ART initiation: 113 cells/µL (IQR 46-184). During 27,257 person-years (pys), 138 women were diagnosed with ICC; overall incidence rate: 506/100,000 pys [95% confidence interval (CI) 428-598]. The ICC incidence rate was highest (615/100,000 pys) in women who initiated ART before cervical cancer screening became available in 04/2005 and was lowest (260/100,000 pys) in women who initiated ART from 01/2009 onward when the cervical cancer screening program and access to treatment of cervical lesions was expanded [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.42, 95% CI 0.20-0.87]. Advanced HIV/AIDS stage (4 versus 1, aHR 1.95, 95% CI 1.17-3.24) and middle age at ART initiation (36-45 versus 18-25 years, aHR 2.51, 95% CI 1.07-5.88) were risk factors for ICC. The ICC incidence rate substantially decreased with the implementation of a Pap-based screening program and improved access to treatment of cervical lesions. However, the risk of developing ICC after ART initiation remained high. To inform and improve ICC prevention and care for HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa, implementation and monitoring of cervical cancer screening programs are essential. © 2017 UICC.
African National Defence Force (SANDF) has played a critical and until now relatively unnoticed role in South Africa’s transition from international isolation as a “pariah” state and a source of instability to “peacemaker”. This will be explored by means of a comparative qualitative case-based analysis...... in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South......Preface Today, you, South Africans, are for the world, for Africa, for France, a model. A model for harmony between communities with such different roots. A model for good governance. A model for cultural diversity…. (Dominique De Villepin, 2003) This book attempts to demonstrate that the South...
Mar 29, 2017 ... management of the invisible hand of Adam Smith. Résumé ... d'Adam Smith. Introduction. This article is a critical reflection of the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia,. India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its .... and 'there is no such thing as a free lunch' (Smith 2009, pp. 2-3). Things ...
Cheetahs should be conserved as drivers of biodiversity conservation and as instruments of nature based tourism development. Only 7 500 cheetahs remain worldwide and their numbers continue to decrease. The species is currently listed as vulnerable, but is close to re-listing as endangered. In South Africa the ...
Full Text Available commercialised GM crops. With South Africa being an early adopter of GM technology, the economic benefits for some of the crop technologies can be readily demonstrated, particularly in commercial crop production. Seventy five percent of agricultural output comes...
Shirinde, Joyce; Wichmann, Janine; Voyi, Kuku
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between eczema ever (EE) and current eczema symptoms (ES) in relation to exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. 16 schools were randomly selected from two neighbourhoods situated in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. From a total population of 3764 school children aged 12-14 years, 3468 completed the questionnaire (92% response rate). A total of 3424 questionnaires were included in the final data analysis. The prevalence of EE and current ES was the primary outcome in this study. Data were analysed using Multilevel Logistic Regression Analysis (MLRA). The likelihood of EE was increased by exposure to ETS at home (OR 1.30 95% CI 1.01 to 1.67) and at school (OR 1.26 95% CI 1.00 to 1.60). The likelihood of EE was lower for males (OR 0.66 95% CI 0.51 to 0.84). The likelihood of ES was increased by ETS at home (OR 1.93 95% CI 1.43 to 2.59) and school (1.44 95% CI 1.09 to 1.90). The likelihood of ES was again lower for males (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Smoking by mother/female guardian increased the likelihood of EE and ES, however, this was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Symptoms of eczema were positively associated with exposure to ETS at home and school. The results support the hypothesis that ETS is an important factor in understanding the occurrence of eczema. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Raymond G. Mabaso
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR, a common cause of visual impairment (VI and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness.Aim: To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years.Setting: The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.Methods: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined.Results: Participants (N = 225 included 161 women and 64 men aged 40–90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years; 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8% and DR (7.1% were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity.Conclusion: Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.
Adrian D. van Breda
Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Persons who default from tuberculosis treatment are at risk for clinical deterioration and complications including worsening drug resistance and death. Our objective was to identify risk factors associated with tuberculosis (TB treatment default in South Africa. Methods We conducted a national retrospective case control study to identify factors associated with treatment default using program data from 2002 and a standardized patient questionnaire. We defined default as interrupting TB treatment for two or more consecutive months during treatment. Cases were a sample of registered TB patients receiving treatment under DOTS that defaulted from treatment. Controls were those who began therapy and were cured, completed or failed treatment. Two respective multivariable models were constructed, stratified by history of TB treatment (new and re-treatment patients, to identify independent risk factors associated with default. Results The sample included 3165 TB patients from 8 provinces; 1164 were traceable and interviewed (232 cases and 932 controls. Significant risk factors associated with default among both groups included poor health care worker attitude (new: AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.4; re-treatment: AOR 12, 95% CI 2.2-66.0 and changing residence during TB treatment (new: AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7; re-treatment: AOR 3.4, 95% CI 1.1-9.9. Among new patients, cases were more likely than controls to report having no formal education (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, feeling ashamed to have TB (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.0, not receiving adequate counseling about their treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, drinking any alcohol during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0, and seeing a traditional healer during TB treatment (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.4. Among re-treatment patients, risk factors included stopping TB treatment because they felt better (AOR 21, 95% CI 5.2-84, having a previous history of TB treatment default (AOR 6.4, 95% CI 2.9-14, and
Velloza, Jennifer; Watt, Melissa H; Abler, Laurie; Skinner, Donald; Kalichman, Seth C; Dennis, Alexis C; Sikkema, Kathleen J
Alcohol use is associated with increased HIV-risk behaviors, including unprotected sex and number of sex partners. Alcohol-serving venues can be places to engage in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, but are also important sites of social support for patrons, which may mitigate risks. We sought to examine the relationship between alcohol-serving venue attendance, social support, and HIV-related sexual risk behavior, by gender, in South Africa. Adult patrons (n = 496) were recruited from six alcohol-serving venues and completed surveys assessing frequency of venue attendance, venue-based social support, and recent sexual behaviors. Generalized estimating equations tested associations between daily venue attendance, social support, and sexual behaviors, separately by gender. Interaction effects between daily attendance and social support were assessed. Models were adjusted for venue, age, education, and ethnicity. Daily attendance at venues was similar across genders and was associated with HIV-related risk behaviors, but the strength and direction of associations differed by gender. Among women, daily attendance was associated with greater number of partners and higher proportion of unprotected sex. Social support was a significant moderator, with more support decreasing the strength of the relationship between attendance and risk. Among men, daily attendance was associated with a lower proportion of unprotected sex; no interaction effects were found for attendance and social support. Frequent venue attendance is associated with additional HIV-related risks for women, but this risk is mitigated by social support in venues. These results were not seen for men. Successful HIV interventions in alcohol-serving venues should address the gendered context of social support and sexual risk behavior.
Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S
Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that
Full Text Available Africa while providing practical interventions underpinned by effective research, in order to meaningfully inform educational policy and practice. This intervention aims to confront the challenges in education in our country while fostering creativity...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic
Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Chatterji, Somnath; Zheng, Yang; Naidoo, Nirmala; Jiang, Yong; Biritwum, Richard; Yawson, Alfred; Minicuci, Nadia; Salinas-Rodriguez, Aaron; Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Maximova, Tamara; Peltzer, Karl; Phaswanamafuya, Nancy; Snodgrass, James J; Thiele, Elizabeth; Ng, Nawi; Kowal, Paul
Behavioral risk factors such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity and the harmful use of alcohol are known and modifiable contributors to a number of NCDs and health mediators. The purpose of this paper is to describe the distribution of main risk factors for NCDs by socioeconomic status (SES) among adults aged 50 years and older within a country and compare these risk factors across six lower- and upper-middle income countries. The study population in this paper draw from SAGE Wave 1 and consisted of adults aged 50-plus from China (N=13,157), Ghana (N=4,305), India (N=6,560), Mexico (N=2,318), the Russian Federation (N=3,938) and South Africa (N=3,836). Seven main common risk factors for NCDs were identified: daily tobacco use, frequent heavy drinking, low level physical activity, insufficient vegetable and fruit intake, high risk waist-hip ratio, obesity and hypertension. Multiple risk factors were also calculated by summing all these risk factors. The prevalence of daily tobacco use ranged from 7.7% (Ghana) to 46.9% (India), frequent heavy drinker was the highest in China (6.3%) and lowest in India (0.2%), and the highest prevalence of low physical activity was in South Africa (59.7%). The highest prevalence of respondents with high waist-to-hip ratio risk was 84.5% in Mexico, and the prevalence of self-reported hypertension ranging from 33% (India) to 78% (South Africa). Obesity was more common in South Africa, the Russia Federation and Mexico (45.2%, 36% and 28.6%, respectively) compared with China, India and Ghana (15.3%, 9.7% and 6.4%, respectively). China, Ghana and India had a higher prevalence of respondents with multiple risk factors than Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. The occurrence of three and four risk factors was more prevalent in Mexico, the Russia Federation and South Africa. There were substantial variations across countries and settings, even between upper-middle income countries and lower-middle income
NEW ZEALAND. 0.9. –1.9. 0.5. 1.7. –1.3. 1.5. OECD. 2.8. 0.5. 0.7. 4.1. 1.4. 1.4. SOUTH AFRICA a. NA. –0.2. –0.1. NA. 1.9. 1.7. SOUTH AFRICA b. 1.2. 0.2. –0.5. 3.2 ...... its authorisations under the heading 'general industrial financing'—as opposed to 'natural resource beneficiation' and 'tourism'—declined dramatically from ...
Singh, Jerome Amir
It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.
Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.
Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.
. Since then, South Africa has .... South Africa did not itself experience food shortages in the 2001/2 season. The regional debate that was .... NGOs' interventionist work in emergency food, refugee shelter and rehabilitation and in community ...
Full Text Available This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics and discourses of race. The brief narrative, which will also allude to situations in Apartheid South Africa, is meant to aid understanding...
Full Text Available This paper briefly summarises the geological and geomorphological history of South Africa. This history is then related to various problems affecting the construction of roads in South Africa. These problems need to be identified early...
www.sajournalofeducation.co.za. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa. Dana Donohue and Juan Bornman. Centre for Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Juan.
Sujet: Climate change, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, WEATHER FORECASTS, FORECASTING TECHNIQUES, WATER MANAGEMENT, WATER CONSERVATION. Région: Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 999,749.00. Trade and Industrial Policy ...
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a barometer of poverty, determined by racial classification, in both town and countryside in the Republic of South Africa. Despite the fact that whites with the disease stand a greater chance of being diagnosed than their black counterparts, because they have very much better access to health care, the risks of TB for people classified by the state as black and colored are 27 and 16 times, respectively, the risk for whites. Black gold miners, the nutritional elite of the workforce, have also experienced an increase in TB rates. Tuberculosis accounts for 50 percent of all black compensation cases and some 2.5 percent of white cases. The risks of TB have increased over recent years among colored and blacks. Rates of tuberculous meningitis have also increased over the past decade, and show the dramatically worse health care available to people classified as black and colored. Although about 60,000 new TB cases are reported in the country each year, there have been cutbacks in the resources available for TB control and treatment.
Verster, Carina; Minnaar, Karin; Bouwman, Hindrik
South Africa has a vibrant plastics manufacturing industry, but recycling is limited and insufficient with a notable proportion of the unmanaged waste entering the environment. South Africa is a developing country with microplastics research in its inception. Very little is known about freshwater microplastics, and studies on South African marine microplastics are limited but actively being pursued. In a water-scarce country, protection of freshwater resources remains a priority, but in the face of other socioeconomic issues (poverty, unemployment, and HIV/AIDS), it receives insufficiently effective attention. The full impact and risks of microplastics pollution in water is yet to be discovered. The risks may be enhanced in a developing country where many communities remain largely dependent on the land and natural waters. With South Africa being a water-scarce country, the quality of its aquatic resources is at an even greater risk with an assumed increasing background of microplastics, emphasizing the need for further research. A South African Water Research Commission-funded project is being undertaken to derive research priorities, but there is an immediate need for improved recycling and waste management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:533-535. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.
Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira
Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jenkins, Andrew R; Reid, Tim; du Plessis, Johan; Colyn, Robin; Benn, Grant; Millikin, Rhonda
Pre-construction assessments of bird collision risk at proposed wind farms are often confounded by insufficient or poor quality data describing avian flight paths through the development area. These limitations can compromise the practical value of wind farm impact studies. We used radar- and observer-based methods to quantify great white pelican flights in the vicinity of a planned wind farm on the Cape west coast, South Africa, and modelled turbine collision risk under various scenarios. Model outputs were combined with pre-existing demographic data to evaluate the possible influence of the wind farm on the pelican population, and to examine impact mitigation options. We recorded high volumes of great white pelican movement through the wind farm area, coincident with the breeding cycle of the nearby colony and associated with flights to feeding areas located about 50 km away. Pelicans were exposed to collision risk at a mean rate of 2.02 High Risk flights.h-1. Risk was confined to daylight hours, highest during the middle of the day and in conditions of strong north-westerly winds, and 82% of High Risk flights were focused on only five of the proposed 35 turbine placements. Predicted mean mortality rates (22 fatalities.yr-1, 95% Cl, 16-29, with average bird and blade speeds and 95% avoidance rates) were not sustainable, resulting in a negative population growth rate (λ = 0.991). Models suggested that removal of the five highest risk turbines from the project, or institution of a curtailment regimen that shuts down at least these turbines at peak traffic times, could theoretically reduce impacts to manageable levels. However, in spite of the large quantities of high quality data used in our analyses, our collision risk model remains compromised by untested assumptions about pelican avoidance rates and uncertainties about the existing dynamics of the pelican population, and our findings are probably not reliable enough to ensure sustainable development.
Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina
Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...
Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)
Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.
Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...
This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...
Laher, Fatima; Hornschuh, Stefanie; Nkala, Busisiwe; Chimoyi, Lucy; Otwombe, Kennedy; Kaida, Angela; Gray, Glenda Elisabeth; Miller, Cari
Background Internet access via mobile phones and computers facilitates interaction and potential health communication among individuals through social networking. Many South African adolescents own mobile phones and can access social networks via apps. Objective We investigated sociodemographic factors and HIV risk behaviors of adolescent social networking users in Soweto, South Africa. Methods We conducted an interviewer-administered, cross-sectional survey of adolescents aged 14-19 years. Independent covariates of social networking were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of 830 adolescents, 57% (475/830) were females and the median age was found to be 18 years (interquartile range 17-18). Social networking was used by 60% of adolescents (494/830); more than half, that is, 87% (396/494) accessed social networks through mobile phones and 56% (275/494) spent more than 4 hours per day using their mobile phones. Social networking was independently associated with mobile usage 2-4 hours (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.06, CI: 1.69-5.51) and more than 4 hours per day (AOR: 6.16, CI: 3.46-10.9) and one (AOR: 3.35, CI: 1.79-6.27) or more sexual partner(s) (AOR: 2.58, CI: 1.05-6.36). Conclusions Mobile phone–based social networking is prevalent among sexually active adolescents living in Soweto and may be used as an entry point for health promotion and initiation of low-cost adolescent health interventions. PMID:27683173
Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...
Doctors in South Africa are esteemed for the high ... Only 50% of the respondents said that better schooling opportunities for their children played a role in their decision to leave the .... “brain drain” as a one-way movement of highly skilled people from ... the depletion or loss of intellectual and technical human capacity by.
chip-and-pin technology has so far proved successful in countries such as the United. Kingdom, where total counterfeit card fraud decreased by 32% in the past two years.51 In South. Africa not all cards will have the chip-and-pin feature because not all merchants have the systems installed to support chip-and-pin cards.
1Department of Psychiatry, University of the Free State , Bloemfontein, South Africa. 2Department of Psychology, University of the Free ... population of Cape Town and black patients from Windhoek. Variations in symptoms of .... such as the USA, the Czech Republic and Japan21, while it is in strong contrast with findings in ...
The central role of surveys in social science research has long been recognised. Surveys have provided rich data about the extent of inequality in places such as. South Africa and Brazil. Surveys have also expanded our knowledge about demographic, social and economic and other variables, and have provided crit-.
POT ENTIAL FOR CASSAVA PRODUCTION IN THE BATHURST RÉGION OF. THE EASTERN CAPE ... Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest .... Hardened tissue culture plants were used to establish this trial due to ...
Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation plans have been developed for South Africa. These 4 plans reflect different but broadly advancing approaches to conservation planning. We provide an overview of 3 historical plans and a more detailed discussion of the most ...
of both fibrosis and cancer.[2,3]. The Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA) has one of the highest recorded incidences of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in the world, and also carries a high burden of smoking-related diseases including lung cancer. However, the potential association between pulmonary scarring and ...
CONTINUING MEDICAL EDUCATION. 152. February 2015, Vol. 105, No. 2. Liquefied ... transit errors, preventing a carboxyhaemoglobin level from being obtained. However, after consulting the ... 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Victoria Hospital, Wynberg, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: L Sampson ...
South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus, Bandung Consensus, or Peoples' Consensus? WG Martin. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/asr.v12i1.43533 · AJOL African Journals ...
INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY IN SOUTH AFRICA'S TRANSITION statute. had proved to be controversial. Many trade unionists saw in work- place forums a threat to trade union organisation at local level. Many employers saw them as a threat to managerial prerogative. The Act ad- dresses trade union fears by the extensive ...
job satisfaction, lack of future prospects (further education and career development), poor working conditions, HIV/AIDS, lack of quality of life, high levels of crime and violence, civil conflict and political instability,12–15 and a decline in the quality of the school education system.12. The HIV/AIDS situation in South Africa (in ...
Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony
This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…
South Africa's post-apartheid foreign policy reveals that transformational global governance considerations have occupied a central place on the Republic's international radar screen. The Mandela, Mbeki, Motlanthe and Zuma governments have all ambitiously set out to help transform global order from its western-bias and ...
Prozac or Freud. - ' tre “$555 . tee a ﬁfiygiﬁiekieg tiartat ttateere. Researched Globally, ' . 7;. Developed in South Africa. ﬂat of (FREE; ...find Calm in Your Palm it has clinically shown to stop the effects of: ' Physical stress: heart conditions, back pain, perspiration, eczema, sleeping problems, headaches, muscular and.
mum electron energy capacity greater than 10 MEV. Nine machines have a maximum photon energy capa- city below 10 MEV (Table I). A cyclotron-based 66. MEV neutron therapy machine used as a national faci- lity is based in the Cape. TABLE I. Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron.
Cassava (Manihot escrtlenta) is a minor crop in South Africa that has had periodic rises in interest since it was first cultivated in the country. Interest in the crop has waned over the years, but thc crop is now being used as a source ofhigh quality starch, which has again stimulated interest in its use as a commercial crop.
This special issue on the theme of language, gender and sexuality in South Africa does not emerge in an academic vacuum. .... highlights the extent to which fixed binary systems inform gender practices” (Msibi and Rudwick, this issue). Using a ... non-normative genders and sexualities on university campus. “If one were to ...
Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total
Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...
two major causes of monogenic primary hyper- cholesterolaemia. In this review, FH and FDB are defined in relation to normal lipoprotein metabolism. In South Africa FH affects about 1% of Afrikaners,jews and Indians, while FDB is probably a much rarer disorder. In Afrikaners, three 'founder' mutations are responsible for.
Violence as a form of communication: Making sense of violence in South Africa. Hugo van der Merwe*. Abstract. This article explores the meaning of violence in ... Merwe** and Sue Williams in an article in 1987 – understanding violence as a ..... transition), the ideas of masculinity are clearly linked to power and physical ...
language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa. Keywords: plain language, definition, readability, text processing, language policy. 1. Introduction. Defining the concept of 'plain language' ...
Mar 31, 2014 ... One is the DIP, managed exclusively by Armscor, South Africa's acquisition agency. DIP favours pursuing ..... and NIP (the DTI) custodians. DIP directly caused a substantial number of mergers between prominent .... “Defence acquisitions – Unpacking the package deals”. ISS occasional paper no. 29.
This paper discusses the creation of a coastal vulnerability map for South Africa. The criteria used included elevation to chart datum, beach width, tidal range, wave height, geology, geomorphology, anthropogenic activities, distance to 20m isobaths and relative sea level change. The values of these parameters were divided ...
Apr 16, 1983 ... Granuloma inguinale is a chronic specific infection of the genitalia of both sexes. It is endemic in many parts of the world, including the Caribbean, the southern USA, India, New Guinea and tropical and. sUbtropical Africa. Apart from a single patient diag- nosed clinically, no cases of the disease have pre-.
Ngidi, Ndumiso Daluxolo; Moyo, Sibusiso; Zulu, Thobile; Adam, Jamila Khatoon; Krishna, Suresh Babu Naidu
The incidence of HIV and AIDS continues to be a source of great concern within universities in South Africa. Furthermore, university students constitute an important community in the intervention against the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Students in the age group of 15-24 years are at a greater risk of HIV infection than any other group in the country; yet, little is known about why they continue to engage in risky sexual practices. This study was designed to explore the sexual behaviour of students in a metropolitan Durban University of Technology in KwaZulu-Natal to understand the social factors underlying their risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study that used cluster sampling where the population was stratified by campus and faculty. The study population was selected using a standard randomization technique. This was a part of a multi-phased research project aimed at providing a sero-prevalence baseline and an analysis of risk-taking behaviour at a Durban University of Technology in the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality area. The study highlights peer pressure among students as an influence in promoting high-risk sexual behaviour. Within this context, the findings revealed that university students lack the ability to negotiate risk-aware decisions especially regarding sexual relationships. This study draws attention to the perspectives of African university students regarding their risk-taking sexual practices and selected factors which influence such behaviour. The findings are not exhaustive in exploring contextual antecedents that shape students' sexual practices. However, they provide an important basis in understanding key factors which expose students to HIV infections. The study provides insights into opportunities for further studies as well as preventative implications.
In 2005, the South African Weather Service installed a state-of-the-art cloud-to-ground lightning detection network across the country. The data recorded by this network in 2006 was utilised in the development of an initial lightning climatology of South Africa. Until 2010, this climatology was based on data from a single year. This paper updates this climatology with the lightning data for the 2006–2010 period, which is the first actual lightning climatology by the South African Weather Serv...
Sartorius, Benn; Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Vounatsou, Penelope; Tollman, Stephen M
Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years) mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns within the study site between 1992 and 2007, and to produce all-cause and cause-specific mortality maps to identify high risk areas. Demographic, maternal, paternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to health care facility and socio-economic status were among the examined risk factors. The analysis was carried out by fitting a Bayesian discrete time Bernoulli survival geostatistical model using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Bayesian kriging was used to produce mortality risk maps. Significant temporal increase in child mortality was observed due to the HIV epidemic. A distinct spatial risk pattern was observed with higher risk areas being concentrated in poorer settlements on the eastern part of the study area, largely inhabited by former Mozambican refugees. The major risk factors for childhood mortality, following multivariate adjustment, were mother's death (especially when due to HIV and tuberculosis), greater number of children under 5 years living in the same household and winter season. This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for accurately quantifying risk factors and producing maps of child mortality risk in a health and demographic surveillance system. According to the space-time analysis, the southeast and upper central regions of the site appear to have the highest mortality risk. The results inform policies to address health inequalities in the Agincourt sub-district and to improve access to
Full Text Available Targeting of health interventions to poor children at highest risk of mortality are promising approaches for enhancing equity. Methods have emerged to accurately quantify excess risk and identify space-time disparities. This provides useful and detailed information for guiding policy. A spatio-temporal analysis was performed to identify risk factors associated with child (1-4 years mortality in the Agincourt sub-district, South Africa, to assess temporal changes in child mortality patterns within the study site between 1992 and 2007, and to produce all-cause and cause-specific mortality maps to identify high risk areas. Demographic, maternal, paternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to health care facility and socio-economic status were among the examined risk factors. The analysis was carried out by fitting a Bayesian discrete time Bernoulli survival geostatistical model using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Bayesian kriging was used to produce mortality risk maps. Significant temporal increase in child mortality was observed due to the HIV epidemic. A distinct spatial risk pattern was observed with higher risk areas being concentrated in poorer settlements on the eastern part of the study area, largely inhabited by former Mozambican refugees. The major risk factors for childhood mortality, following multivariate adjustment, were mother’s death (especially when due to HIV and tuberculosis, greater number of children under 5 years living in the same household and winter season. This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models for accurately quantifying risk factors and producing maps of child mortality risk in a health and demographic surveillance system. According to the space-time analysis, the southeast and upper central regions of the site appear to have the highest mortality risk. The results inform policies to address health inequalities in the Agincourt sub-district and to
Tara J. Pirie
Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.
Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.
Full Text Available Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programmes. The aims of this study were i to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa ii describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N in South Africa and iii review the development of these programmes with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.Method: a literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health. Despite initial attempts by the National Department of Health there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 hours of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.Conclusions: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource
Oberholster, Paul J
Full Text Available become necessary to assess and develop additional methods that are rapid, yet realistic and cheap for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water of rural conventional water treatment plants in South Africa. A well-known cyanobacterial...
Levitt, Naomi S; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A
We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment.
Levitt, Naomi S.; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A.; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A.
Background We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:25854780
Naomi S. Levitt
Full Text Available Background: We have found that community health workers (CHWs with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design: Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results: Thirty-seven percent (96/263 of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69% were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4% were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions: The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment.
Pettifor, Audrey; Lippman, Sheri A; Selin, Amanda M; Peacock, Dean; Gottert, Ann; Maman, Suzanne; Rebombo, Dumisani; Suchindran, Chirayath M; Twine, Rhian; Lancaster, Kathryn; Daniel, Tamu; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Kahn, Kathleen; MacPhail, Catherine
Community mobilization (CM) interventions show promise in changing gender norms and preventing HIV, but few have been based on a defined mobilization model or rigorously evaluated. The purpose of this paper is to describe the intervention design and implementation and present baseline findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) of a two-year, theory-based CM intervention that aimed to change gender norms and reduce HIV risk in rural Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Community Mobilizers and volunteer Community Action Teams (CATs) implemented two-day workshops, a range of outreach activities, and leadership engagement meetings. All activities were mapped onto six theorized mobilization domains. The intervention is being evaluated by a randomized design in 22 communities (11 receive intervention). Cross-sectional, population-based surveys were conducted with approximately 1,200 adults ages 18-35 years at baseline and endline about two years later. This is among the first community RCTs to evaluate a gender transformative intervention to change norms and HIV risk using a theory-based, defined mobilization model, which should increase the potential for impact on desired outcomes and be useful for future scale-up if proven effective. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02129530.
Townsend, Loraine; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Catherine; Johnston, Lisa Grazina; Flisher, Alan J; Zembe, Yanga; Chopra, Mickey
HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence (IPV) are growing public health concerns in South Africa. Knowledge about adult men's perpetration of IPV and links between HIV risk behaviours and IPV is limited. Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit men who have multiple concurrent female sexual partners. Forty-one percent of the 428 recruited men had perpetrated IPV. Inconsistent condom use was associated with physical IPV; experiencing a symptom of a sexually transmitted infection and engaging in transactional sex were associated with physical and sexual IPV; problem alcohol use was associated with physical, and any IPV, but not sexual IPV; having five or more partners was associated with sexual IPV; perceptions of partners' infidelity were associated with physical and any IPV. HIV risk reduction interventions among men, especially those with multiple female sex partners, should incorporate strategies to change the underlying construction of masculinity that combines the anti-social and risky behaviours of IPV perpetration, inconsistent condom use, transactional sex and heavy alcohol consumption.
Burns, Jonathan K; Tomita, Andrew; Lund, Crick
Income inequality (II) and poverty are major challenges in South Africa (SA) yet little is known about their interaction on population mental health. We explored relationships between district II, household income (HHI) and depressive symptoms in national panel data. We used 3 waves (2008, 2010, 2012) of the SA National Income Dynamics Study (n=25936) in adjusted mixed effects logistic regression to assess if the relationship between HHI and depressive symptoms is dependent on level of II. Depressive symptoms were assessed with Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale, and District inequality ratios (P10P90) derived from HHI distributions in 53 districts. Lower HHI and increasing II were associated with depressive symptoms. The interaction term between HHI and II on depressive symptoms was significant (β=0.01, 95% CI: <0.01-0.01); with increasing II and decreasing HHI, depression risk increased. II widens income-related disparities in depression risk in SA, with policy implications for understanding socioeconomic determinants of mental health and informing global efforts to reduce disparities in high poverty and inequality contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...
Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus.
This paper describes the theoretical framework underlying the four-funds basis for taxing life insurance in South Africa and records the historical steps in the development of the basis from inception to its current form. It goes on to evaluate the basis in its current form and to propose possible changes that should be ...
Background. The association between lung scarring and the subsequent development of cancer remains controversial. South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis in the world, and resultant scarring may predispose to malignancy. The country also carries a very high burden of smoking and ...
An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...
South Africa. The congress, under the theme Psychology: Past, Present and Future, took place from 11 to 14 August 2009. The first day was taken up by workshops that focused on, amongst other topics, forensic and neuropsychology, early interventions of alcohol, and ethics. The authors feel that the theme of the congress ...
Objectives. To investigate the magnitude and the time course of the HIV epidemic in the provinces of South Africa from the antenatal clinic HIV surveys. Design. We analysed the data on the provincial prevalences of HIV infection from 1990 to 1996 using maximum likelihood methods to determine the intrinsic growth rate and ...
Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant mortality is an important indicator of population health in a country. It is associated with several health determinants, such as maternal health, access to high-quality health care, socioeconomic conditions, and public health policy and practices. Methods A spatial-temporal analysis was performed to assess changes in infant mortality patterns between 1992-2007 and to identify factors associated with infant mortality risk in the Agincourt sub-district, rural northeast South Africa. Period, sex, refugee status, maternal and fertility-related factors, household mortality experience, distance to nearest primary health care facility, and socio-economic status were examined as possible risk factors. All-cause and cause-specific mortality maps were developed to identify high risk areas within the study site. The analysis was carried out by fitting Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical negative binomial autoregressive models using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Simulation-based Bayesian kriging was used to produce maps of all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Results Infant mortality increased significantly over the study period, largely due to the impact of the HIV epidemic. There was a high burden of neonatal mortality (especially perinatal with several hot spots observed in close proximity to health facilities. Significant risk factors for all-cause infant mortality were mother's death in first year (most commonly due to HIV, death of previous sibling and increasing number of household deaths. Being born to a Mozambican mother posed a significant risk for infectious and parasitic deaths, particularly acute diarrhoea and malnutrition. Conclusions This study demonstrates the use of Bayesian geostatistical models in assessing risk factors and producing smooth maps of infant mortality risk in a health and socio-demographic surveillance system. Results showed marked geographical differences in mortality risk across
Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...
Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...
Topic: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, ...
Topic: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Region: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...
Sujet: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR POLICY, LABOUR LAW, MINIMUM WAGE, FORMAL SECTOR, INFORMAL SECTOR, UNEMPLOYMENT, UNDEREMPLOYMENT. Région: Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Emploi et croissance.
Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...
Reviews trends in language instruction and the use of language laboratories in South African higher education from 1962 to 1990, paying particular attention to racial differences and the movement from an audio-lingual method to a communicative language technique. Questions the wisdom of equipping institutions with sophisticated hardware without…
published study questioned whether, in relation to otolaryngology specialist training, South African universities provide equivalent training. The findings were that they do not. The authors cited a lack of oversight by the HPCSA.3 If there is a national exit exam, there must be equivalent training across all academic platforms ...
Van Heerden, R
Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...
Abrahams, Naeemah; Jewkes, Rachel; Mathews, Shanaaz
The criminal use of firearms in South Africa is widespread and a major factor in the country having the third-highest homicide rate in the world. Violence is a common feature of South African society. A firearm in the home is a risk factor in intimate partner violence, but this has not been readily demonstrated in South Africa because of a lack of data. We drew on several South African studies including national homicide studies, intimate partner studies, studies with male participants and studies from the justice sector, to discuss the role of gun ownership on gender-based violence. Guns play a significant role in violence against women in South Africa, most notably in the killing of intimate partners. Although the overall homicide data suggest that death by shooting is decreasing, data for intimate partner violence are not readily available. We have no idea if the overall decrease in gunshot homicides applies to women in relationships, and therefore gun control should remain high on the legislative agenda.
Dong, Krista L; Moodley, Amber; Kwon, Douglas S; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Dong, Mary; Ismail, Nasreen; Ndhlovu, Zaza M; Mabuka, Jenniffer M; Muema, Daniel M; Pretorius, Karyn; Lin, Nina; Walker, Bruce D; Ndung'u, Thumbi
HIV incidence among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high and their inclusion in vaccine and cure efforts is crucial. We aimed to establish a cohort of young women detected during Fiebig stage I acute HIV infection in whom treatment was initiated immediately after diagnosis to advance research in this high-risk group. 945 women aged 18-23 years in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, who were HIV uninfected and sexually active consented to HIV-1 RNA testing twice a week and biological sampling and risk assessment every 3 months during participation in a 48-96 week life-skills and job-readiness programme. We analysed the effect of immediate combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) on viraemia and immune responses, sexual risk behaviour, and the effect of the socioeconomic intervention. 42 women were diagnosed with acute HIV infection between Dec 1, 2012, and June 30, 2016, (incidence 8·2 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 5·9-11·1), of whom 36 (86%) were diagnosed in Fiebig stage I infection with a median initial viral load of 2·97 log10 copies per mL (IQR 2·42-3·85). 23 of these 36 women started ART at a median of 1 day (1-1) after detection, which limited the median peak viral load to 4·22 log10 copies per mL (3·27-4·83) and the CD4 nadir to 685 cells per μL (561-802). ART also suppressed viral load (to women, prevented seroconversion, as shown with western blotting. 385 women completed the 48 week socioeconomic intervention, of whom 231 were followed up for 1 year. 202 (87%) of these 231 women were placed in jobs, returned to school, or started a business. Frequent HIV screening combined with a socioeconomic intervention facilitated sampling and risk assessment before and after infection. In addition to detection of acute infection and immediate treatment, we established a cohort optimised for prevention and cure research. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Wellcome
Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C L; de Visser, I; P. Burton
Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group. Offenders aged 12 to 25 years (N = 395) were selected from eight different correctional facilities in four provinces of South Africa. Latent class analysis identified 164 offenders (41.5%) with distinc...
M.Sc. Lightning data are used in various applications from risk management to weather forecasting providing valuable insight to everyday operations. In South Africa, the South African Weather Services (SAWS) commissioned a new lightning detection network in February 2006. The nineteen-sensor network spread across South Africa overcomes previous disadvantages to lightning detection by providing wider coverage, higher detection efficiencies and better spatial resolution. This study investiga...
Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa
Zembe, Yanga Z.; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna
INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16-24 reporting more than one partner in the past three...... months in a peri-urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. Recent estimates suggest that every six hours a woman is killed by an intimate partner in South Africa, making IPV a leading public health problem in the country. While there is mounting evidence that levels of IPV are high in peri...... and individual interviews were conducted among young women and men to understand the underlying factors informing their risk behaviours and experiences of violence. FINDINGS: 86% of the young women experienced IPV in the past 12 months. Sexual IPV was significantly correlated with sex with a man who was 5 years...
Dawid H. van der Vyver
Full Text Available This article highlights some of the most pressing educational and language communication needs in the Republic of South Africa and emphasizes the urgency for accelerated programmes for teaching and learning. It further outlines and explains specific initiatives that have been started with in response to the needs described and it suggests an approach for the possible wider application of SALT in South Africa. Hierdie artikel belig 'n aantal van die dringendste opvoedkundige en kommunikatiewe behoeftes in die Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Die noodsaaklikheid van versnellingsprogramme vir die onderwys word beklemtoon. Verder omlyn en verduidelik dit spesifieke inisiatiewe waarmee begin is as antwoord op die bestaande behoeftes. Ten slotte word gesuggereer dat SALT in Suid-Afrika nog veel verder uitgebrei kan word.
Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development Nexus: The Development Impact for sub-Saharan Africa. ... With its relatively advanced infrastructure, as well as the new opportunities made available by the process of globalisation, democratic South Africa has become increasingly attractive to ...
Non-communicable diseases, which contribute significantly to South Africa's disease burden, are largely driven by obesity and associated illnesses. Region: South Africa. Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 1,022,900.00. Advancing women's financial inclusion in francophone Africa: Cameroon, ...
Full Text Available Silicosis is a problem in South African foundries; the problem has been exacerbated by inadequate dust control and neglect of occupational health in foundry industries. Because of the extent of the problem, the Department of Labour revised its...
Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.
Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum concentrations of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR have a strong independent association with HIV-1-related mortality. The practical utility of plasma suPAR in assessing short-term all-cause mortality risk was evaluated in patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in South Africa. Methods An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure plasma concentrations of suPAR in patients at the time of enrolment to the ART programme. The association between plasma suPAR concentrations, baseline patient characteristics and cohort outcomes after 4 months of ART were determined. Results Patients (n = 293, 70% female had a median age of 33 years and were followed up for a median of 5 months from enrolment. The median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/μl (IQR = 22–72 and 38% of patients had WHO stage 4 disease. 218 (74% patients remained alive after 4 months of ART; 39 (13% died and 36 (12% were lost to the programme for other reasons. Patients who died had significantly higher plasma suPAR concentrations compared to those who either survived (P 10 suPAR concentrations were significantly associated with lower CD4 cell counts, WHO clinical stage 4 disease and male sex. In multivariate analysis to identify factors associated with death, log10 suPAR concentration was the most strongly associated variable (P Conclusion Plasma suPAR concentration was the strongest independent predictor of short-term mortality risk among patients with advanced immunodeficiency enrolling in this ART programme. However, lack of a discriminatory threshold did not permit this marker to be used to triage patients according to short-term mortality risk.
Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W; Grace, Delia
This study assessed the occupational health and food safety risks associated with the traditional slaughter of goats and the consumption of such meat in Tshwane, South Africa. A convenience sample of 105 respondents agreed to be interviewed using structured questionnaires. A high proportion (62.64%) of practitioners admitted to not wearing protective clothing during slaughter. Slaughtering was mainly carried out by males (99%) with experience (62.2%). Forty-four percent of practitioners only changed the clothes they wore while slaughtering when they got home. During the actual slaughter, up to seven people may be involved. The majority (58.9%) of slaughters occurred early in the morning and none of the goats were stunned first. In 77.5% of cases, the health status of the persons who performed the slaughtering was not known. The majority (57.3%) of the slaughters were performed on a corrugated iron roof sheet (zinc plate). In 83.3% of the cases, the carcass was hung up to facilitate bleeding, flaying, and evisceration. Meat inspection was not practiced by any of the respondents. Throughout the slaughter process, the majority used the same knife (84.3) and 84.7% only cleaned the knife when it became soiled. A total of 52.0% of the respondents processed the carcass and cooked the meat immediately. The majority (80.0%) consumed the meat within 30 min of cooking. Men are at a higher risk of occupational health hazards associated with traditional slaughter, which can be transferred to their households. Unhygienic methods of processing and the lack of any form of post-mortem examination increase the risk of food-borne illness following the consumption of such meat.
Du Preez, W
Full Text Available Sector Initiatives for Growth and Impact Aerospace Automotive Health Energy Micro-manufacturingBuildings Materials Science & Manufacturing ? CSIR 2010 Slide 4 www.csir.co.za Overview of Materials Research in South Africa Dr Willie du Preez Manager...&D Facilities: CSIR, UCT, UP, US, NMMU, CUT, NLC, Mintek, Necsa Physical Metallurgy: UCT, UP Primary Metal Production CSIR UP Necsa Mintek Powder Processing CSIR US ULim NIMS Wits, Mintek Investment Casting CSIR UCT US Aerosud Welding...
Whitelock, Patricia Ann
Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.
The article raises the need for a better understanding of the unique problems facing sport coaches in Africa. Sport coaches in Africa and in particular South Africa, are facing challenges arising from diversity arising from constitutional issues. The coach in Africa cannot always coach in the lines of their western counterparts ...
Topic: BIOLOGY, BIODIVERSITY, ECOLOGY. Region: Americas, Argentina, South America, Costa Rica, North and Central America, Africa, Kenya, South of Sahara, Peru, South Africa. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 2,158,187.00. Vulnerability, Coping and Adaptation in the context of Climate ...
This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.
Sep 3, 2012 ... inequalities, race, health in South Africa, health systems, socio-economic determinants of health and livelihoods in South ... in child/adult mortality. Keywords: Health inequality, race, child mortality, socio-economic conditions, South Africa. Résumé ...... die: Circular labour migratio n and mortality in S outh.
Vincent, C.J.; Hicks, N.; Arenstein, G.; Tippmann, R.; Van Der Spuy, D.; Viljoen, J.; Davids, S.; Roos, M.; Cloete, M.; Beck, B.; Nell, L.; Arts, R.; Holloway, S.; Surridge, T.; Pearce, J.
The South-Africa Europe Cooperation in Carbon capture and Storage (SAfECCS) project was initiated in 2011. The aim of the project is to support the South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage (SACCCS) Roadmap for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in South Africa through assessing the
The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i) the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii) a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii) ICT infrastructure, ...
The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...
Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul
South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…
Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cain, Demetria; Jooste, Sean
This study examined the differential patterns of alcohol outcome expectancies in relation to drinking before sex and having sex partners who drink before sex among men (N = 614) and women (N = 158) sexually transmitted infections clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa. Hierarchical regressions, controlling for age, education, and alcohol use showed that men’s sexual enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with drinking before sex and having sex partners who drank before sex. Behav...
Patrick J. O’Farrell
Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.
Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.
De Beer, Morris
Full Text Available This report contains a set of practical course notes on the Rehabilitation Design of flexible pavements in southern Africa based on extensive research by various researchers and / or practitioners in South Africa. The course is intended...
AIDS on agriculture and food production in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Start Date: ... In 2002, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe signed an agreement establishing the enlarged Greater Limpopo Trans Frontier Conservation Area. Start Date: ...
Thompson, L A; Ikenaka, Y; Yohannes, Y B; van Vuren, J J; Wepener, V; Smit, N J; Darwish, W S; Nakayama, S M M; Mizukawa, H; Ishizuka, M
Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11), were collected and analysed. Of the free-range chicken meat samples, 94% (45/48) contained DDTs (ΣDDTs median 6.1 ng/g wet weight [ww], maximum 79.1 ng/g ww). Chicken egg contents were also contaminated (ΣDDTs in free-range eggs median 9544 ng/g ww, maximum 96.666 ng/g ww; and in commercial eggs median 1.3 ng/g ww, maximum 4.6 ng/g ww). The predominant DDT congener detected was p,p'-DDE in both free-range meat (>63%) and eggs (>66%), followed by p,p'-DDT and then p,p'-DDD. Based on estimated daily intake values, calculated human risk ratio (carcinogenic) values were >1 for DDTs detected in both free-range chicken products. Consumption of free-range eggs poses a particularly high health risk.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.
Mngoma, N; Fergus, S; Jeeves, A; Jolly, R
Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the highest in the world. In societies where social ideals of masculinity encourage male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to male perpetration and women's vulnerability. The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap and interact in multiple and complex ways. Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate interdependently at a number of levels; at the individual level, these include chronic anxiety and depression, which have been shown to lead to risky sexual behaviours. (i) To examine psychosocial risk factors (symptoms of anxiety and depression) as well as protective factors (social support and self-esteem) as self-reported by a cohort of males in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, SA; and (ii) to determine whether there are differences in anxiety, depression, social support and self-esteem between perpetrators and non-perpetrators. A cross-sectional study using quasi-probability cluster sampling of 13 of 28 wards in Harry Gwala District, KZN. Participants were then randomly chosen from each ward proportionate to size. The participants were relatively young (median age 22 years); over half were schoolgoers, and 91.3% had never married. Over 43% of the sample reported clinical levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms on the Brief Symptom Inventory. Rates of GBV perpetration were 60.9%, 23.6% and 10.0% for psychological abuse, non-sexual physical violence and sexual violence, respectively. GBV perpetration was associated with higher depression, higher anxiety, lower self-esteem and lower social support. Interventions to address GBV need to take modifiable individual-level factors into account.
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is an infection of warm-blooded vertebrates caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. It is one of the most common parasitic diseases of humans, infecting approximately one-third of the world’s population. In persons with advanced HIV, toxoplasmosis represents a major opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Approximately two-thirds of all people living with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. In areas such as this, toxoplasmosis could theoretically pose a huge threat. There is little known about T. gondii prevalence in humans in Africa. Geographically, prevalences vary widely on this continent, as observed in other parts of the world. There is limited historical information about the disease in South Africa. More knowledge is needed at a regional level about the risk of toxoplasmosis, diagnostic issues, and measures to reduce the risk to susceptible persons. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in selected populations, namely HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, and a more general sample biased towards pregnant women, was therefore investigated and found to be 9.8% (37/376, 12.8% (48/376 and 6.4% (32/497 respectively. Compared with historical data from South Africa, the prevalence has decreased substantially; however, the incidence of clinical disease is unknown, despite the very high burden of HIV and AIDS cases (5.9 million and 0.7 million, respectively in 2009. This study provided information relating to the diagnosis and current seroprevalence of T. gondii in South Africa. Many questions still remain to be answered however, to fully understand the impact of this parasite on the country’s population.
Wensink, G. Emerens; Schoffelen, Annelot F.; Tempelman, Hugo A.; Rookmaaker, Maarten B.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Barth, Roos E.
Context As life expectancy improves among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients, renal and cardiovascular diseases are increasingly prevalent in this population. Renal and cardiovascular disease are mutual risk factors and are characterized by albuminuria. Understanding the interactions
1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4
Daniel N. Qekwana
Full Text Available In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65 interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63 of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5 of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages.
Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W
In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65) interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63) of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5) of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages.
Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.
Vandormael, Alain; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till; Tanser, Frank
Summary Background Studies of HIV-serodiscordant couples in stable sexual relationships have provided convincing evidence that antiretroviral therapy can prevent the transmission of HIV. We aimed to quantify the preventive effect of a public-sector HIV treatment and care programme based in a community with poor knowledge and disclosure of HIV status, frequent migration, late marriage, and multiple partnerships. Specifically, we assessed whether an individual's hazard of HIV acquisition was associated with antiretroviral therapy coverage among household members of the opposite sex. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we linked patients' records from a public-sector HIV treatment programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, with population-based HIV surveillance data collected between 2004 and 2012. We used information about coresidence to construct estimates of HIV prevalence and antiretroviral therapy coverage for each household. We then regressed the time to HIV seroconversion for 14 505 individuals, who were HIV-uninfected at baseline and individually followed up over time regarding their HIV status, on opposite-sex household antiretroviral therapy coverage, controlling for household HIV prevalence and a range of other potential confounders. Findings 2037 individual HIV seroconversions were recorded during 54 845 person-years of follow-up. For each increase of ten percentage points in opposite-sex household antiretroviral therapy coverage, the HIV acquisition hazard was reduced by 6% (95% CI 2–9), after controlling for other factors. This effect size translates into large reductions in HIV acquisition hazards when household antiretroviral therapy coverage is substantially increased. For example, an increase of 50 percentage points in household antiretroviral therapy coverage (eg, from 20% to 70%) reduced the hazard of HIV acquisition by 26% (95% CI 9–39). Interpretation Our findings provide further evidence that antiretroviral therapy
Tara J. Pirie
Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.
An assessment of community health workers' ability to screen for cardiovascular disease risk with a simple, non-invasive risk assessment instrument in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa: an observational study.
Gaziano, Thomas A; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Denman, Catalina A; Montano, Carlos Mendoza; Khanam, Masuma; Puoane, Thandi; Levitt, Naomi S
Cardiovascular disease contributes substantially to the non-communicable disease (NCD) burden in low-income and middle-income countries, which also often have substantial health personnel shortages. In this observational study we investigated whether community health workers could do community-based screenings to predict cardiovascular disease risk as effectively as could physicians or nurses, with a simple, non-invasive risk prediction indicator in low-income and middle-income countries. This observation study was done in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. Each site recruited at least ten to 15 community health workers based on usual site-specific norms for required levels of education and language competency. Community health workers had to reside in the community where the screenings were done and had to be fluent in that community's predominant language. These workers were trained to calculate an absolute cardiovascular disease risk score with a previously validated simple, non-invasive screening indicator. Community health workers who successfully finished the training screened community residents aged 35-74 years without a previous diagnosis of hypertension, diabetes, or heart disease. Health professionals independently generated a second risk score with the same instrument and the two sets of scores were compared for agreement. The primary endpoint of this study was the level of direct agreement between risk scores assigned by the community health workers and the health professionals. Of 68 community health worker trainees recruited between June 4, 2012, and Feb 8, 2013, 42 were deemed qualified to do fieldwork (15 in Bangladesh, eight in Guatemala, nine in Mexico, and ten in South Africa). Across all sites, 4383 community members were approached for participation and 4049 completed screening. The mean level of agreement between the two sets of risk scores was 96·8% (weighted κ=0·948, 95% CI 0·936-0·961) and community health workers showed
Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.
The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Full Text Available The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed ‘gender’ differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Eijsackers, H.J.P.; Swartjes, F.A.; Rensburg, van L.; Maboeta, M.S.
Worldwide, soils are under threat of deterioration and contamination due to anthropogenic activities. Whilst risk assessment of soils in Europe has been well studied, the same cannot be said of soils in Southern Africa. Soil screening values exist in SA, which enables soil quality assessment, but
Kachelhoffer, P. M.
Discusses social change and educational realities in South Africa, noting the relatively poor qualifications of black teachers. The paper also examines South African teacher training models and presents teacher training models suitable for developing countries. (SM)
Sujet: WATER SHORTAGE, WATER MANAGEMENT, CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION TO CHANGE, SOCIAL PARTICIPATION, COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION, VULNERABLE GROUPS. Région: Kenya, Mozambique, South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Climate Change. Financement total : CA$ 499,396.00.
, FORECASTING TECHNIQUES, WATER MANAGEMENT, WATER CONSERVATION. Région: South Africa, South of Sahara. Programme: Changements climatiques. Financement total : CA$ 999,749.00. Collaboration Sud-Sud en innovation ...
Topic: COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION, COMMUNAL LAND, LAND MANAGEMENT, LAND USE, SCENARIOS. Region: Mozambique, South Africa, Zimbabwe, South of Sahara. Program: Agriculture and Food Security. Total Funding: CA$ 697,800.00. Foreign Direct Investment Behaviour in Low and Middle Income Countries.
With the increased emphasis on the importance of early identification of paediatric hearing loss within developing countries such as South Africa and Nigeria there has been a recognition of the ethical obligation to ensure access to timely diagnostic and intervention services for children identified with hearing loss; regardless of their geographic or socioeconomic status. There are limited studies on diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in a developing world context. The objective of this study was to determine processes used for diagnosis of paediatric hearing loss in South Africa, across the private and public healthcare sectors, and to profile the age of testing for each component of the diagnostic test battery. Diagnostic audiology testing data of 230 children enrolled in an early intervention programme was analysed to profile the reporting of diagnostic audiology testing as well as diagnostic audiology procedures employed. Results were analysed according to province as well as healthcare sector to compare diagnostic services across regions as well as healthcare sectors. The differences in audiology practice and tests employed with paediatric clients across the regions of Gauteng, Kwazulu Natal and Western Cape indicates that services across regions and across the public and private sector are not equitable. Each region is equally unlikely to complete a full, comprehensive diagnostic evaluation on paediatric clients. The age of testing highlights the increased age of diagnosis of hearing loss. Paediatric diagnostic audiology is a section of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention services that requires attention in terms of the appropriateness of procedures as well as equity of services. Further studies on diagnostic practice and resources in South Africa will provide information on factors that are preventing adherence to international best practice guidelines for paediatric diagnostic audiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available on Emerging nanotechnologies (PEn) (2010) Woodrow Wilson International centre for Scholars. Available at http://www.nanotechproject.org. 2. liu j-f, Zhao Z-S, jiang G-b. coating Fe3o4 Magnetic nanoparticles with Humic Acid for High Efficient removal... (2008) 233–239. 7. blaser, SA, Scheringer, M, Macleod, M, Hungerbühler, K., 2008. Estimation of cumulative aquatic exposure and risk due to silver: contribution of nano-functionalized plastics and textiles. Science of the total Environment 2008; 390...
de Villiers, C; Weskamp, K; Bryer, A
A survey was conducted on 30 unaffected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant late onset spinocerebellar ataxia in South Africa. The psychological impact of the disorder on individual lives, risk awareness, attitudes towards affected kin and reproduction were evaluated. Respondents employed various psychological strategies to deal with the threat of developing the disorder. In a comparison of "assigned" risk with "perceived" risk, 80% of unaffected persons reported incorrect perceptions of personal risk status. The disorder had little impact on attitudes concerning reproduction; the majority of individuals at risk wanted more children. These issues need to be addressed in the genetic and predictive testing service for familial ataxia in South Africa.
Sealey, A. (Rand Mines Ltd. (South Africa))
After presenting a brief history of development of coal mining in South Africa together with a table of coal sales since 1885 the country's coal reserves are discussed. Brief description is given of the mining methods used viz: bord and pillar, opencast, longwalling and pillar extraction or stooping. Figures are given for the size of major production fields, employment in the mines and distribution of coal trade (for export, transport, electricity etc.). Other aspects of the industry discussed and safety (with comparison of fatalities with other coal producing countries); environmental management, manpower and administrative and commercial aspects. 18 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.
M.Comm. The demand for products which are distributed through pipelines has increased worldwide over the last decade. These increases in demand have irrevocably impacted upon top management’s perceptions of risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains. Even in South Africa, the increase in demand for products such as diesel, jet fuel and petrol, which are supplied through the energy pipeline supply chains have increased the risks associated with energy pipeline supply chains. This s...
Edokpayi Joshua N.
Full Text Available Surface water is often used as alternative source of drinking water in many regions of the world where the potable water supply is erratic or not present. The concentration of heavy metals was assessed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES. The impact of temporary seasonal variation on the contamination level was also assessed. Contamination factor (CF and Hakanson’s potential ecological risk (Er and RI indices were used to evaluate the toxicity levels of the metals in the sediments of the river. Higher concentrations of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the dry season in the river water whereas in the sediments higher levels were recorded for Al, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu and Zn in the wet season. The average CF values for all the metals showed a low contamination level in the sediment, except for Cu and Cd which had moderate and considerable contamination levels, respectively. Similarly, Cu showed a moderate ecological risk level (Er = 62.90 only in March 2014, for other months Cu and the other metals investigated had Er values Fe>Mn>u>Zn>Cr>Pb>Cd.
Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Maughan-Brown, Brendan
Poverty may influence HIV risk by increasing vulnerability to economic shocks and thereby preventing key health investments. We explored this possibility by examining the relationship between household shocks and the timing of traditional male circumcision, a practice associated with considerable expense and whose HIV-prevention benefits are larger when done earlier, even within young adulthood. Using unique data on a sample of Xhosa men, a group that almost universally practices traditional circumcision, we found that respondents in the poorest households delayed circumcision by 2 years if a household member experienced loss of income or death and/or illness. The impact of these shocks declined with increasing household income. Our findings suggest that interventions that work to mitigate the impact of shocks among the poor may be useful in HIV prevention efforts. More generally, they illustrate that the relationship between HIV and wealth may be more nuanced than assumed in previous work.
Vogt, Samantha L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Martinson, Neil A.; Hoffmann, Jennifer; D’Souza, Gypsyamber
Objective: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in South Africa. However, little is known about oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence settings. Method: Thirty-four adult heterosexual couples attending an HIV testing center in Soweto, South Africa were enrolled. Each participant provided an oral rinse sample and genital swab, which were tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and completed a risk behavior survey. Res...
Full Text Available The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not free of scepticism. Many a time when crime and criminal activity are rife, sceptics would lament the absence of ubuntu in society and attribute this absence to what they view as the permissiveness which is said to have been brought about by the Constitution with its entrenched Bill of Rights.Firstly, I would like to take this opportunity and (attempt to demonstrate the irony that the absence of the values of ubuntu in society that people often lament about and attribute to the existence of the Constitution with its demands for respect for human rights when crime becomes rife, are the very same values that the Constitution in general and the Bill of Rights in particular aim to inculcate in our society.Secondly, against the background of the call for an African renaissance that has now become topical globally, I would like to demonstrate the potential that traditional African values of ubuntu have for influencing the development of a new South African law and jurisprudence.The concept ubuntu, like many African concepts, is not easily definable. In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a world-view of African societies and a determining factor in the formation of perceptions which influence social conduct. It has also been described as a philosophy of life.Much as South Africa is a multicultural society, indigenous law has not featured in the mainstream of South African jurisprudence. Without a doubt, some aspects or values of ubuntu are universally inherent to South Africa’s multi cultures.The values of ubuntu are therefore an integral part of that value system which had been established by the Interim Constitution.The founding values of the democracy established by this new Constitution arguably coincide with some key values of ubuntu(ism.Ubuntu(-ism, which is central to age-old African custom and tradition however, abounds
Koma, Mabaile Pauline; Lebelo, Sogolo Lucky
The study investigated the prevalence of hypertension and identified risk factors in the Bapedi women of Sekhukhune area. Fifty (50) women diagnosed with hypertension and receiving treatment from local clinics were recruited. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used. Most participants were at the average age of 50.50 ± 7.93 years and weight of 81.17 ± 9.96 kg. Blood pressure measurements recorded were systolic blood pressure (SBP) 163 ± 22.41 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 91 ± 5.41 mmHg. An insignificant number of participants had smoking or drinking habits (0% and 2%, respectively). The largest group of women (46%) had primary level of education, 14% completed junior secondary education, 6% completed matric, and 2% had basic education. All women consumed cereal; a large number of women (50%) consumed oils and fats; 44% flesh meats; 30% fruits and vegetables; 26% tubers and roots; 22% organ meats; 10% fish, 10% eggs, and 8% milk. Results showed a high prevalence of hypertension in the Bapedi women in the Sekhukhune area. Changes in diet and lifestyle could significantly improve the health of most women in the area.
Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...
Lennard, Chris; Hahman, Andrea; Prinsloo, Eric; Mabile, Eugene; Kruger, Andries
The generation of the first verified Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) has been a joint undertaking between South African and Danish scientists to provide stakeholders with the best possible information about the wind climate over South Africa. The project is funded by the Royal Danish Embassy, the United Nations Development Programme, the South African Wind Energy Programme and the South African National Energy Development Institute. The project has focused on the western and southern regions of the country and includes a number of activities: 1. An observation campaign during which ten 65 metre masts were erected at selected sites with instruments at 4 levels that have recorded 2 years of data so far, this is ongoing. 2. Mesoscale and micro-scale modelling that consists of two phases. The first phase is complete and used the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM) run at 5 km with the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP) to generate a wind atlas for the western and southern parts of South Africa. This is a statistical-dynamical method that assumes there is a robust relationship between meteorological situations at the large-scale and meteorological situations at the small-scale. The second phase, to be completed by the end of 2013, will develop a numerical wind atlas using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to develop the mesoscale wind climate (4 km resolution) with a continuous 30 year integration from 1980 to 2010. This is a fully dynamical method. The WAsP model will again be used to develop the micro-scale wind climate. 3. An extreme wind climate assessment has identified extreme wind producing synoptic systems, their seasonal and spatial characteristics as well as regions in South Africa particularly prone to extreme wind conditions. 4. New wind climate assessment techniques have been developed in the production of the wind atlas and new techniques to produce the numerical wind atlas will be formulated. 5. Dissemination of
Full Text Available This paper employs a combined 'soft-hard' OR approach to aid decision making in the area of allocation at a not-for-profit organization, Foodbank South Africa (FBSA, that represents the largest hunger-relief network in South Africa. Two problem-structuring tools, causal mapping and root definitions (RDs are utilized. Causal mapping is used to identify areas for useful research within FBSA, and gain a greater understanding of the organization in terms of its goals and consequently a good appreciation of the context in which decisions are made. Root definitions are employed to acquire a better understanding of the 'decision-issues' within the allocation system at the Cape Town warehouse. A simulation model is developed to imitate daily allocation decisions, with the end-objective of assisting decision-making by developing a range of allocation policies. A decision support system (DSS is developed to help FBSA manage their agency database, automate some of the daily allocation decisions and simulate allocation policies.
iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere. iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...
South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...
Urban food systems governance for NCD prevention in Africa. Project. There is a rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) across Africa, driven in part by the increasing consumption of unhealthy diets (including ultra-processed and fast foods). Region: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa. Program: Food, Environment ...
Obstacles to success – Doctoral student attrition in South Africa. C Herman. Abstract. The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral ...
This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...
Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...
Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South. Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's ...
In 2000, Rita Thom published a systematic review of mental health services research in ... the efficacy of sustainable models of service delivery in line with ... Inclusion criteria were ... in South Africa, as well as future mental health services research ..... Lund et al.27,31-35 have done extensive work in South Africa calculating.
The importance of animals in human schistosomiasis in South Africa. ... following exposureto animal or bird bilharzia are considered. it is concluded that, as regards animal schistosomes, at present only S. mattheei and a hybrid of S. mattheei and S. haematobium pose a potential threat to human health in South Africa.
Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.
Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine
The South Africa-Canada Program on Governance (PoG) was born in anticipation of this historic transition. It was conceived during Nelson Mandela's 1992 visit to Canada, when he asked the Canadian government to assist the people of South Africa in their preparations for democracy. In 1993, the Canadian International ...
However, the situation in urban South Africa is considerably complicated by the legacy of apartheid. This system has a long history in South Africa, reaching an apogee with the group areas legislation of the 1950s and 1960s, according to which racial groups were consigned strictly to delimited areas. Under it, both urban ...
Sehoole, Chika Trevor
This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility elsewhere, which are…
Assessing urban water sustainability in South Africa. – not just performance measurement. K Carden* and NP Armitage. Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7700, South Africa. ABSTRACT. Urban water management – and the impacts that rapid population growth, ...
This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...
Jul 3, 2005 ... Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water- ... Keywords: water value, residual value, marginal value, subsidy, commercial forestry, South Africa. Background .... residential, agricultural, industrial, and recreational and aes- thetics ...
Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.
Feb 4, 2011 ... The root cause of violence in South Africa has not changed much since the apartheid era. According to the Johannesburg-based Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), South Africa's current high rate of violent crime is just as related to economic and social marginalization as it was ...
Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...
Violent protest at local government level in South Africa: Revolutionary potential? M Hough. Abstract. In this article, a broad overview of the main causes and theories of revolution is presented. The objective is to obtain, by analysing recent events in South Africa pertaining to the ongoing protest actions over service delivery ...
Existing data on the epidemiology of stroke in South Africa are limited, particularly among the black population, for whom basic demographic data are scanty and death certificate diagnoses l.II1reliable. This is clearly articulated in an editorial by Fritz' on stroke mcidence in South Africa. Despite their limitations she quotes ...
This report assesses the corporate governance practices of listed companies in South Africa, within the broader context of the institutional capacity needed to ensure compliance and enforcement. The diagnostic reflects the corporate governance framework as of December 2001. South Africa has a well developed equity market with a market capitalization of 154 percent of GDP. Listed companies ...
Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...
Book cover Building a New South Africa Volume 3: Science and Technology Policy ... 1992 symposium on the role of research in transforming South Africa, the democratic movement requested that IDRC support a mission on science and technology (S&T) policy. ... Volume 4: Environment, Reconstruction, and Development ...
Book cover Building a New South Africa Volume 4 : Environment, Reconstruction, and Development ... Backed by South Africa's democratic movement, and with the support of IDRC , the International Mission on Environmental Policy focuses on the critical role that environmental ... Volume 3: Science and Technology Policy ...
In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...
Aug 29, 2006 ... Abstract. In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from post- apartheid South Africa's three general elections which ...
Roro, Kittessa T
Full Text Available for South Africa (2x) Solar irradiation in South Africa ... ... as compared to Germany, where solar PV is now close to cost competitiveness with new coal and gas Source: Joint Research Center of the European Commission, PVGIS, BCG analysis 10 More sun makes...
In South Africa, stereotypic reproduction represents the past in the present within the context of nation-building and contradictions of “African Renaissance.” Despite the leading roles Nigeria and South Africa are playing in African politics and business, the xenophobia against African immigrants undermines the prospect of ...
Worth, S. H.
Sufficient changes have occurred in both the agricultural and educational sectors of South Africa to warrant a careful scrutiny of the agricultural education offerings in South Africa. Agricultural extension is identified as an important part of the intended transformation of the agricultural sector. Further, agricultural extension is essentially…
de Villiers, Rian; Weda, Zenzele
Zimbabwean teachers constitute the largest group of migrant teachers in South Africa (Department of Higher Education & Training (DHET), 2013). The main reason South Africa welcomes migrant teachers is to ease the country's own teacher shortage. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore Zimbabwean teachers' motives for migration to…
dependent populations was also demonstrated in the USA,5 suggesting that this vulnerable population may require focused interventions for smoking cessation. Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa.
The study broadly focused on examining the trade and investment relationship between South Africa and the BRIC, using both descriptive and vector autoregressive estimation approaches. Specifically, the key objective is to investigate the impact of trade shocks between South Africa and the individual countries of the BRIC ...
blind or severely visually impaired children and 4% of blind adults in. South Africa ... 2 Department of Ophthalmology, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding ... The data collection templates were designed to capture information.
This article provides an analysis of the role of the South African state in Southern African regional integration as viewed by the Zimbabwean state, capital and civil society. Their view is that South Africa should forge and sustain better and more equitable relations with the rest of Southern Africa so as to create and sustain a ...
Oct 21, 1998 ... Yet these developments are of great interest from a South African foreign policy and security point of ... Norway, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands, and developing countries such as India, Cuba and ... responsibilities, the prioritisation afforded to Africa in South African foreign policy makes Africa the.
Standardised testing in South Africa: the annual national assessments under the microscope. ... Governments worldwide use standardized tests to address educational deficiencies and improve public accountably and quality of education in their countries. In South Africa the Department of Basic Education resorted to ...
Spreen, Carol Anne; Vally, Salim
In this article we explore education policy changes in South Africa through a rights-based framework. We situate our analysis in the context of deepening poverty and inequality arguing that progress (or the lack thereof) in schools cannot be divorced from poverty and its consequences. We show that education reform in South Africa has been situated…
in South Africa, it is important to take stock of our mental health services. This is necessary for four reasons. First, the burden of mental illness in South Africa is substantial, and is likely to increase with ... providers who work in the health and mental health sector. ... hour emergency management and observation in general.
Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John
Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…
A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 μg ...
The Sedikong sa Lerato Cooperate in Limpopo Province of South Africa is applying this philosophy in addressing the challenges of unemployment, poverty, inequality, health and other problems that are threatening South Africa's democracy. Using a qualitative approach, this article investigates how the philosophy is being ...
Addison's disease, compared with other disciplines. Addison's disease is designated as a medical condition that enjoys the prescribed minimum benefit, and it is a statutory requirement in South Africa that patients belonging to a. Exploring Rare Diseases in South Africa, a Personal. Journey: Time for Electronic Record‑ ...
The article concludes that consciously framed policies as well as constructive and positive media reporting are required to mitigate the possibly devastating effects of xenophobia on South Africa's soft power within its region and globally. Keywords: hegemony, regional hegemony, foreigners, soft power, South Africa, ...
FOOD OF CANIS MESOMELAS IN SOUTH AFRICA. J. DU P. BOTHMA. Transvaal Division of Nature Conservation-. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal is probably the most important problem animal in the sheep-farming areas of South Africa and especially in the Transvaal. To detennine the extent of damage.
Jan 12, 2018 ... 130. Analysis of water use by gated communities in South Africa. Jacques Jl du Plessis1 and Heinz e Jacobs1*. Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. ABSTRACT. Gated communities (hereafter GCs) are popular in many countries, including ...
This paper examines tensions and links between children's informal and formal participation, and looks at how participation is constituted in and by different social spaces in South Africa. Some of the ways in which children have participated in public matters prior to and following the advent of democracy in South Africa are ...
This article contextualises the need to study the vulnerabilities of informal workers in South Africa, both in the current literature and the general discourse, and to identify those issues that must head a refocused research agenda on the broader informal sector in South Africa. Prominent agenda items ought to include: the ...
Video laryngoscopy in paediatric anaesthesia in South Africa. LN Nienaber. Abstract. This article provides a summary of the types of video laryngoscopes available in South Africa, and highlights some interesting paediatric cases in which video laryngoscopes were used at the Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Pretoria.
South Africa's heritage of producing opera singers of international repute can arguably be traced back to Pauline Bredelli. Bredelli is viewed by many as South Africa's first ... Her 'Bredelli: School of Voice and Culture of Song' further attests to her prominence as a vocal pedagogue. This investigation into the life of Pauline ...
Various challenges face intensive care nursing in South Africa. This article describes the health care system of South Africa, with particular attention to intensive care nursing. It also describes the current state of intensive care and the challenges facing this sub-specialty of critical care.
island in the world. It is roughly half the size of South Africa, which covers a surface area of 1 219 090 square kilometers. The topographi- cal characteristics of Madagascar also pose definite similarities with the coastal provinces of South Africa, such as Mpumalanga and Kwa-. Zulu Natal. Therefore, education provisioning ...
Jul 31, 2014 ... herd model for pasture-based and concentrate-fed systems in South Africa was used to calculate economic values by ... Alternative payment systems were used from four major milk buyers in South Africa. ... Calculation of economic values is a crucial step in the development of breeding objectives. The.
The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…
Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...
Feb 28, 2014 ... 11Resource Protection, Western Cape Department of Water Affairs, Private Bag X16, Sanlamhof, Cape Town, 7532, South Africa. 12Breede Overberg Catchment Management Agency, 51 Baring Street, Worcester, 6849, South Africa. 14Independent Research for Water, Climate and Environmental Justice, ...
Abstract. A total of 896 maize grain samples were obtained from all the maize silos throughout South Africa. (231 silos) and analysed for selenium (Se) content. This information was used to compile a regional distribution map of the Se content of maize grain in South Africa. Of the samples analysed, 94% contained below 50 ...
Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda
Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…
Concerns about corruption in South Africa and China have intensified in recent years. Improved public administration, greater efficiency, transparency, and integrity in public institutions, are recognised as some of the emerging challenges for South Africa's post-1994 transformation process, and China's economic and social ...
Rees, D; Myers, J E; Goodman, K; Fourie, E; Blignaut, C; Chapman, R; Bachmann, M O
South Africa has, uniquely, mined, transported, and used crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile. A multicenter case-control study was done in South Africa to examine the details of asbestos exposure in cases and controls, and to calculate relative risks for level of certainty of asbestos exposure, nature of exposure (e.g., environmental, occupational) and fiber type. Cases and controls (one cancer and one medical per case) were collected by six study centers from referral hospitals, and exposure information was collected by interviewing cases and controls in life. One hundred and twenty-three cases were accepted into the study. None had purely chrysotile exposure. Twenty-three cases had mined Cape crocidolite; three had mined amosite; and three Transvaal crocidolite plus amosite. A minimum of 22 of the cases had exclusively environmental exposure, 20 were from the NW Cape crocidolite mining area. The relative risks associated with environmental exposure in the NW Cape (crocidolite) were larger than for environmental exposure in the NE Transvaal (amosite and crocidolite): 21.9 vs. 7.1 and 50.9 vs. 12.0 for the cancer control and medical control datasets, respectively. The results confirm the importance of environmental exposure in the Cape crocidolite mining area, the relative paucity of cases linked to amosite, the rarity of chrysotile cases and are consistent with a fiber gradient in mesotheliomagenic potential for South African asbestos with crocidolite > amosite > chrysotile.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to model and forecast tourism to South Africa from the country's main intercontinental tourism markets. These include Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands, the United States of America and France. Problem investigated: Tourism to South Africa has grown substantially since the first democratic elections in 1994. It is currently the third largest industry in the country and a vital source of foreign exchange earnings. Tourist arrivals continue to grow annually, and have shown some resilience to a number of emerging market crises, including the terrorist attacks in the USA. Business success, marketing decisions, government's investment policy as well as macroeconomic policy are influenced by the accuracy of tourism forecasts, since the tourism product comprises a number of services that cannot be accumulated. Accurate forecasts of tourism demand are paramount to ensure the availability of such services when demanded. In addition, the seasonal nature of tourism leads to a pattern of excess capacity followed by shortage in capacity. Method: Since univariate time series modelling has proved to be a very successful method for forecasting tourist arrivals, it is also the method employed in this paper. The naïve model is tested against a standard ARIMA model, as well as the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing and seasonal-non-seasonal ARIMA models. Forecasting accuracy is assessed using the mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error and Theill's U of the various models. Monthly tourist arrivals from 1994 to 2006 are used in the analysis, and arrivals are forecasted for 2007. Findings: The results show that seasonal ARIMA models deliver the most accurate predictions of arrivals over three time horizons, namely three months, six months and 12 months. Value: This paper is the first tourist arrivals forecast using South African data for the country as a whole, and therefore it forms an interesting case study
Souverein, F.A.; Ward, C.L.; Visser, I.; Burton, P.
Life-course persistent offending contributes greatly to violent offending in any country. South Africa has high rates of violence; this study investigated what proportion of young South African offenders might be identified as life-course persistent, and what risk factors identified this group.
Intimate Partner Violence, Relationship Power Inequity and the Role of Sexual and Social Risk Factors in the Production of Violence among Young Women Who Have Multiple Sexual Partners in a Peri-Urban Setting in South Africa.
Zembe, Yanga Z; Townsend, Loraine; Thorson, Anna; Silberschmidt, Margrethe; Ekstrom, Anna Mia
This paper aims to assess the extent and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV), explore relationship power inequity and the role of sexual and social risk factors in the production of violence among young women aged 16-24 reporting more than one partner in the past three months in a peri-urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa. Recent estimates suggest that every six hours a woman is killed by an intimate partner in South Africa, making IPV a leading public health problem in the country. While there is mounting evidence that levels of IPV are high in peri-urban settings in South Africa, not much is known about how it manifests among women who engage in concomitantly high HIV risk behaviours such as multiple sexual partnering, transactional sex and age mixing. We know even less about how such women negotiate power and control if exposed to violence in such sexual networks. Two hundred and fifty nine women with multiple sexual partners, residing in a predominantly Black peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa, were recruited into a bio-behavioural survey using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). After the survey, focus group discussions and individual interviews were conducted among young women and men to understand the underlying factors informing their risk behaviours and experiences of violence. 86% of the young women experienced IPV in the past 12 months. Sexual IPV was significantly correlated with sex with a man who was 5 years or older than the index female partner (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.2) and transactional sex with most recent casual partner (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-3.8). Predictably, women experienced high levels of relationship power inequity. However, they also identified areas in their controlling relationships where they shared decision making power. Levels of IPV among young women with multiple sexual partners were much higher than what is reported among women in the general population and shown to be associated with sexual risk
Full Text Available As organisations find themselves in an increasingly dynamic and competitive world they are seeking new strategies to ensure their competitive advantage and profitability. Logistics presents an area in which these organisations can improve customer service and reduce costs, and strategies in support thereof such as the outsourcing of logistics activities, should be considered. However, it is critical that logistics outsourcing is done diligently to avoid potential problems for the organisation and to achieve the best possible benefits. In South Africa little research has been done regarding current outsourcing practices of local manufacturers. In this article literature on international logistics outsourcing as well as research on some of the logistics outsourcing practices of South African manufacturers is discussed. The findings of a questionnaire survey of South African manufacturers provided information on their logistics outsourcing practices and problems. Prominent issues seem to include inadequate managerial involvement in the logistics outsourcing process, as well as insufficient time spent on many of the important aspects of the outsourcing agreement, the transitioning of resources and ongoing management of the outsourced relationship. It is concluded that a thorough outsourcing process should be followed in order to achieve the benefits of logistics outsourcing.
Azwifaneli Innocentia (Mulaudzi Nemushu
Full Text Available The floating exchange rate regime, coupled with a more open trade policy and the growth in imports, leaves South Africa vulnerable to the effects of exchange rate behaviour on import, producer and consumer prices, which all contribute to inflation. Given the central role that inflation targeting occupies in South Africa’s monetary policy, this paper examines the effect of exchange rate shocks on consumer prices using monthly data covering the period January 1994 to December 2013. Consistent with developing countries story, results show a modest exchange rate pass-through to inflation, although inflation is mainly driven by own shocks. The variance decompositions also reveal that foreign exchange rate shocks (REER contribute relatively more to inflation than money supply shocks (M3. This suggests that South African inflation process is not basically influenced by money supply changes. The practical implication is that that the volatility of the rand is not a serious threat to inflation. The SARB should therefore focus on price stability and not be unduly worried about the volatility of the rand.
Archer van Garderen, Emma RM
Full Text Available 25 Map 5.4 Balance of mean annual groundwater use vs recharge (%) 25 CASE STUDY - Climate change and water resources: Altered water availability 26 and increased societal risks 6 Agriculture 28 Map 6.1 Accumulated heat units (degree... Regional scenarios of future climate change over southern Africa 6 Map 3.1 Dynamically downscaled projected summer, autumn, winter, spring future 9 temperature over South Africa for the period 2070?2100 vs 1975-2005 Map 3.2 Dynamically downscaled...
Xenophobic Attacks On Black Non-South Africans In South Africa: The Communication Imperatives. ... He also goes on to propound a refinement of the definition of xenophobia in such a way as to include its specific target, because, as he rightly observes: in South Africa, not all foreigners are uniformly victimised. Rather ...
Adedayo T. Ajidahun
Full Text Available Background: Musicians who play string instruments are affected more by musculoskeletal injuries when compared to other instrument playing groups. Musculoskeletal problems are commonly found in the upper extremities and trunk. Several risk factors such as gender, practice hours and instrument played are associated with the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, severity and risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Method: A cross-sectional study design using both online and paper-based questionnaires were used to collect data from string instrumentalists playing in both amateur and professional orchestras in South Africa. Results: A total of 114 string instrumentalists participated in the study, of which 86 (77% reported problems in one or more anatomic regions while 39 (35% were currently experiencing musculoskeletal problems that affected their performance. The trunk and both shoulders were the most commonly affected body regions. The majority of the participants reported the severity of the complaints as mild to moderate with aching, soreness, tingling and fatigue being the most commonly used descriptors of the symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems that affect performance is high among string instrumentalists in South Africa. An evaluation of associated risk factors with the aim of reducing injuries may be important in improving performance.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to
The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…
Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji
Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination.Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism.Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education.Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region.Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting
Weyer, Jacqueline; Thomas, Juno; Leman, Patricia A; Grobbelaar, Antoinette A; Kemp, Alan; Paweska, Janusz T
Wesselsbron disease is a neglected, mosquito-borne zoonotic infection reported from Africa. The disease primarily affects sheep and other ruminants with incidental spillover to humans. As for other arboviral diseases in Africa, little or no active surveillance is conducted, and the public and veterinary health burden of this disease remains unclear. We report on the clinical histories of 2 human cases of Wesselsbron disease that were laboratory confirmed during the 2010-2011 Rift Valley fever outbreak investigation in South Africa. This report describes the first confirmed human cases of Wesselsbron disease since 1996. Molecular sequencing and analysis of the partial NS5 gene of the Wesselsbron genome was used to identify 2 circulating clades of the virus in southern Africa. Clade I included isolates collected from South Africa and Zimbabwe, whereas clade II only included isolates from the KwaZulu Natal Province of South Africa.
Han, Wonyong; Byun, Yong-Ik; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Kang, Yong-Woo; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sunyoup; Bae, Young-Ho; Yu, Sung Yeol
The joint Near Earth Object (NEO) project team of Korea Astronomy Observatory (KAO) and Yonsei University Observatory (YUO) has recently installed a 0.5-meter robotic telescope at the Sutherland Observatory in South Africa. This telescope with 2-degree FOV is operated in fully automated mode making daily reports on discoveries NEOs and other significant luminosity variability via internet. The KAO-YUO joint team plans to install similar facility in Australia and Chile soon making a network of survey telescopes for southern hemisphere. In spite of its small aperture size this network will be an important tool in identifying southern NEOs especially those in the form of comets. This paper summarizes the observatory system data handling and our parallel efforts to characterize NEOs with follow-up light curve investigation. The joint project is funded by the National Research Laboratory Program of Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (KAO) and by the Korean Research Foundation.
de Villiers, M. P.; van Heerden, J.
Clear air turbulence (CAT) at high altitude remains a hazard to aviation which can result in passenger injury and aircraft damage. Two limited surveys of CAT events over South Africa, 1993-1995 (inclusive) and 1998, are used to illustrate the most likely synoptic conditions under which CAT can be expected. A case study of CAT associated with an upper-air trough and a mountain wave is presented. The study also evaluates the effectiveness of the Ellrod Turbulence Index (ETI) derived from model data provided by the UK Met. Office. A forecast of ETI derived from the Global Spectral Model of the United States National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is also reviewed.
Elda Storck-van Reenen
Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.
Bahta Yonas T.
Full Text Available The effect of trade policy on the South African soybean industry is analyzed by using 4 digits Standard International Trade Classification of soybean (1201 data of 1996–2011. The Revealed comparative advantage (RCA, Hirschman index, Major export category, Effective rate of protection (ERP and Nominal rate of protection (NRP were calculated. The RCA of the soybean industry in South Africa has shown a revealed comparative disadvantage from 1996–2011. Hirschman index indicates that the soybean industry shows lower concentration throughout 16 years. Lower concentration reduces the impact of international trade risk due to the possibility of price fluctuation of the soybean product. MEC measurement also indicates that South Africa does not rely its international trade from the soybean industry. ERP and NRP were also calculated, using an enterprise budget for soybean production. The result shows that the ERP is negative, which indicates that the weighted input tariffs on soybean inputs amount are more than the output tariffs; that is an indication producers of soybean would be better off, everything else being equal, by not being protected through tariffs. The NRP is higher than the ERP which implies that the tariff applied on the output is higher than the tariff applied on inputs. The structure of the tariff schedule may have an important bearing on efficiency. Thus, the study recommended that an extremely dispersed and ill-chosen tariff structure implies that protection remains uneven and gains from openness may still be confined.
Full Text Available conference proceeding ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH IN SOUTHERN AFRICA AND INDIAN OCEAN : A SOUTH AFRICA – FRANCE BILATERAL COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMME V. Sivakumar1,2 and R. Delmas3 1 South Africa Coordinator, Department of Geography, Geoinformatics..., Universite de la Reunion, Saint Denis, La Reunion, France. firstname.lastname@example.org 1. INTRODUCTION In the present context of global changes, atmospheric and climatic research should be more organized in the framework of international...
Schneider, Michelle; Bradshaw, Debbie; Steyn, Krisela; Norman, Rosana; Laubscher, Ria
High levels of wealth inequality with improved health statistics in South Africa (SA) provide an important opportunity to investigate non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among the poor. This paper uses two distinct national data sets to contrast patterns of mortality in rich and poor areas and explore the associations between poverty, risk factors, health care and selected NCDs diseases in South African adults. Causes of premature mortality in 1996 experienced in the poorest magisterial districts are compared with those in the richest, using average household wealth to classify districts. Logistic and multinomial regression are used to investigate the association of a household asset index and selected chronic conditions, related risk factors and healthcare indicators using data from the 1998 South African Demographic and Health Survey. NCDs accounted for 39% and 33% of premature mortality in rich and poor districts respectively. The household survey data showed that the risk factors hypertension and obesity increased with increasing wealth, while most of the lifestyle factors, such as light smoking, domestic exposure to ;;smoky'' fuels and alcohol dependence were associated with poverty. Treatment status for hypertension and asthma was worse for poor people than for rich people. The study suggests that NCDs and lifestyle-related risk factors are prevalent among the poor in SA and treatment for chronic diseases is lacking for poor people. The observed increase in hypertension and obesity with wealth suggests that unless comprehensive health promotion strategies are implemented, there will be an unmanageable chronic disease epidemic with future socioeconomic development in SA.
Much have been said and written about the rising powers of the BRICS and the implications for the current global order. However, the BRICS are not a harmonious group, and discrepancies between the different BRICS states can be found both in terms of actual size, regional role and power, but also...... in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...
de Selincourt, K
Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.
Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.
Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)
The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)
Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L
The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.
The political and economic rise of women has marked the 20th century. Topic: DIVISION OF LABOUR, WOMEN WORKERS, WORK AT HOME, GENDER ANALYSIS, WOMEN'S PARTICIPATION. Region: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, North and Central America, South America, India, Mexico, South Africa. Program: ...
This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…
On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...
Feb 5, 1995 ... overall conservation status of South African anurans, this paper aims 0) to identify centres of amphibian species rich- ness, endemism and Red Data Book (RDB) richness in South. Africa; (ii) to compare the locality of identified 'hot-spots' within South African biomes and protected areas; (iii) to assess the ...