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Sample records for south africa resulted

  1. Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in South Africa: Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Data on tobacco use have informed the effectiveness of South Africa (SA)'s tobacco control strategies over the past 20 years. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in the adult SA population according to certain demographic variables, and identify the factors influencing cessation attempts ...

  2. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  3. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  4. Management of anterior vaginal prolapse in South Africaresults of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. A national survey of the management of anterior vaginal prolapse by gynaecologists and urologists in South Africa. Methods. 822 questionnaires were sent by post to all registered gynaecologists and urologists in South Africa. Results. 47 questionnaires were returned undelivered, and 234 (30.2%) were returned ...

  5. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  6. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  7. Indicators of corporate financial success: Similar studies in South Africa and the USA, different results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHvH de Wet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to test whether findings by Johnson and Soenen (2003 regarding indicators of successful companies in the USA also apply to South African JSE-listed companies. Problem investigated: To date, no South African study has tried to determine the indicators of the financial success of local companies specifically along the lines of Johnson and Soenen's (2003 study. Determining whether the indicators found to be most highly significant in the US study also apply in South Africa would constitute valuable information in the South African context. Approach: The study tested the significance of the linear relationships between possible indicators of financial success and three measures of financial success for South African companies and compared them to the results of the US study. Findings: The findings revealed that the relationships are far less significant for South African companies. Value of research: The study highlighted the fact that indicators of financial success for US companies are not necessarily contributors to the success of South African listed companies and that models developed in different environments should therefore be used with caution when applied in South Africa. Conclusion: Further studies need to be undertaken in order to identify the most significant South African indicators of corporate financial success.

  8. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  9. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  10. The effects of obesity on doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in Africa: empirical results from Senegal and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay

    2006-01-01

    While inadequate food and communicable infectious diseases have been a concern of researchers and policy makers in Africa, little attention has been given to obesity and chronic, non-communicable diseases. Africa is not usually associated with obesity and chronic diseases. Yet there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases, a major public health problem in many countries. The paper examines the impact of obesity on the prevalence of four doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in Senegal and South Africa. The results reveal that obese respondents were 4.7, 2.8, and 4.8% more likely to face the risks of arthritis, diabetes, and heart diseases in South Africa and 6.5 and 7.4% more likely to face the risks of heart disease and asthma in Senegal than their lean counterparts. Obesity imposes a real and substantial danger, affecting the prevalence of chronic diseases. Unchecked it can be a major public health problem, impose a serious challenge to the health sector, and can jeopardize future developments.

  11. AgMIP: New Results from Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Regional Integrated Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.

    2014-12-01

    AgMIP conducted the first set of comprehensive regional integrated assessments of climate change impacts on smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia led by researchers from the regions themselves. The project developed new methods integrating climate, crop, livestock and economic models to conduct climate change impact assessments that characterize impacts on smallholder groups. AgMIP projections of climate change impacts on agriculture are more realistic than previous assessments because they take agricultural development into account. Using the best available data and models, the assessments directly evaluated yield, income, and poverty outcomes including the effects of adaptation packages and development pathways. Results show that even with agricultural development, climate change generally will exert negative pressure on yields of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Without adaptation, climate change leads to increased poverty in some locations in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia compared to a future in which climate change does not occur. Adaptation can significantly improve smallholder farmer responses to climate change. AgMIP expert teams identified improved varieties, sowing practices, fertilizer application, and irrigation applications as prioritized adaptation strategies. These targeted adaptation packages were able to overcome a portion of detrimental impacts but could not compensate completely in many locations. Even in cases where average impact is near zero, vulnerability (i.e., those at risk of loss) can be substantial even when mean impacts are positive.

  12. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 assistance from the National Olympic Committee of South. Africa (NOCSA), while an overwhelming proportion (89%) received no financial support. Of the 45 swimmers surveyed,. 8 respondents were financially supported by Swimming South. Africa, whilst 8 indicated that they were sponsored privately. Twenty-one of the ...

  13. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges remain. ... such issues as environmental preserva- tion, new ... women's access to land. ... Youth in South Africa face many hurdles, ... works like family and friends to overcome chal- ... representatives, local businesses, and gov-.

  16. Provisional results from accelerated testing of ultra thin-layer reinforced concrete in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR Built-Environment, in conjunction with the University of Pretoria and the Cement and Concrete Institute of South Africa, developed a low cost option for the upgrading of unsurfaced (gravel) roads. The proposed solution is the placing of a...

  17. Estimating water losses as a result of food waste in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally there are sufficient land and water resources to produce food over the next 50 years, but only if water for agriculture is better managed (Molden, 2007). Water is a critical and strategic natural resource in South Africa. It is essential...

  18. South Africa comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1993-01-01

    South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article

  19. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  20. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  1. Laboratory test result interpretation for primary care doctors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naadira Vanker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Challenges and uncertainties with test result interpretation can lead to diagnostic errors. Primary care doctors are at a higher risk than specialists of making these errors, due to the range in complexity and severity of conditions that they encounter. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the challenges that primary care doctors face with test result interpretation, and to identify potential countermeasures to address these. Methods: A survey was sent out to 7800 primary care doctors in South Africa. Questionnaire themes included doctors’ uncertainty with interpreting test results, mechanisms used to overcome this uncertainty, challenges with appropriate result interpretation, and perceived solutions for interpreting results. Results: Of the 552 responses received, the prevalence of challenges with result interpretation was estimated in an average of 17% of diagnostic encounters. The most commonly-reported challenges were not receiving test results in a timely manner (51% of respondents and previous results not being easily available (37%. When faced with diagnostic uncertainty, 84% of respondents would either follow-up and reassess the patient or discuss the case with a specialist, and 67% would contact a laboratory professional. The most useful test utilisation enablers were found to be: interpretive comments (78% of respondents, published guidelines (74%, and a dedicated laboratory phone line (72%. Conclusion: Primary care doctors acknowledge uncertainty with test result interpretation. Potential countermeasures include the addition of patient-specific interpretive comments, the availability of guidelines or algorithms, and a dedicated laboratory phone line. The benefit of enhanced test result interpretation would reduce diagnostic error rates.

  2. Patterns of substance use in South Africa: Results from the South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results. The estimate for cumulative occurrence of alcohol use was 38.7%, of tobacco smoking 30.0%, of cannabis use 8.4%, of other drug use 2.0%, and of extra-medical psychoactive drug use 19.3%. There were statistically significant associations between male gender and alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drug use.

  3. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  4. Satisfaction with Life Amongst the Urban Poor: Empirical Results from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengedzai Mafini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction with life is a dynamic factor which merits ongoing research takes into consideration all contextual influences. This study assessed the influence of four economic factors, namely employment status, rural/urban residence, public service delivery and poverty on satisfaction with life amongst the urban poor in South Africa. Although satisfaction with life is a well-research concept in most environments, no consensus exists on the results, which prompts the need for continuous research. A survey design was adopted involving 402 purposively selected residents of Sebokeng Township in Gauteng Province. Regression analysis revealed that employment status, public service delivery and poverty significantly predicted satisfaction with life. Residing in the rural areas was statistically insignificant. The study provides current insights on the association between economic factors and satisfaction with life amongst poor people in urban societies. The study may be used by governments in developing countries to develop policies for improving the socio-economic well-being of poor societies.

  5. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  6. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  7. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To strengthen competition authorities in the region, IDRC supported the creation of the African Competition. Forum in 2010. IDRC-funded research also helped ... Saving lives, money, and ecosystems. Funding: $675,000. Duration: 2013–2016. Grantee: University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Environmental economists seek to ...

  8. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ... Matsumoto Culture and Psychology 16: "…the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of ... Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour (PHC) unreported case no 59521/2007 of 18 June 2008 ...

  9. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skills, talent identification, financial implications and sci- entific support for swimmers in South Africa. The top 45 swimmers ... potential, capacity and raw talent to compete at interna- tional leveL Scientific and medical support, administration ..... Human Kinstie811, 1999. 7-8. . 3 . Bruckner P, Khan K. Clinical Sport8 Medicine.

  10. Aspects of the working life of women in the nursing profession in South Africa: survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, B J; Brevis, T

    2005-05-01

    This article reports on a survey done among nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council. The survey was carried out in the last quarter of 2003. The purpose of the survey was to investigate aspects of the working life of women in the nursing profession in South Africa and to make recommendations on how their working environment could be improved. The important findings were that pay-related issues dominate as the main problem at work. Improving pay scales and being paid according to extra experience, responsibilities and qualifications could improve the nurses' working environment. Furthermore, training opportunities, medical insurance and equal opportunities should be addressed as a matter of urgency. In general, respondents had a positive attitude towards their job, which leaves the impression that nurses still regard their jobs as something they do for the sake of a service to the community and not only for the money they earn.

  11. Aspects of the working life of women in the nursing profession in South Africa: survey results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BJ Erasmus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a survey done among nurses registered with the South African Nursing Council. The survey was carried out in the last quarter of 2003. The purpose of the survey was to investigate aspects of the working life of women in the nursing profession in South Africa and to make recommendations on how their working environment could be improved. The important findings were that pay-related issues dominate as the main problem at work. Improving pay scales and being paid according to extra experience, responsibilities and qualifications could improve the nurses’ working environment. Furthermore, training opportunities, medical insurance and equal opportunities should be addressed as a matter of urgency. In general, respondents had a positive attitude towards their job, which leaves the impression that nurses still regard their jobs as something they do for the sake of a service to the community and not only for the money they earn.

  12. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  13. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  14. Uranium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The history, sources, mineralogy, extraction metallurgy, conversion, and enrichment of uranium in South Africa is reviewed. Over the past 40 years extraction plants were built at 27 sites, and over 140 kt of uranium have been produced. Older plants have had to adapt to changing market conditions, no single technology has had the opportunity to become entrenched, and the costs have been reduced to a third of those of the original flowsheet. The research efforts aimed at developing the country's nuclear raw materials have been particularly rewarding, as they have enabled South Africa to become a world leader in the extraction of uranium from low-grade ores and to develop methods for uranium enrichment and the production of nuclear fuels. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  15. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  16. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...

  17. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  18. The Black Journalist in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachten, William A.

    The role of the black journalist in South Africa is contradictory, precarious, and permeated with politics. There is little freedom of expression for blacks in South Africa, yet white-owned newspapers have expanded their coverage of black news, and some have special editions for black readers. As a result, the English language press is using more…

  19. Alcohol Use and Transactional Sex among Women in South Africa: Results from a Nationally Representative Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Magni

    Full Text Available Transactional sex is a risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol use may increase the risk of transactional sex. No nationally-representative studies have examined the relationship between multiple dimensions of alcohol use and transactional sex in women in South Africa. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between alcohol dependence, binge drinking and frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex in adult women in South Africa.A cross-sectional study using multi-stage, cluster sampling collected data from a nationally representative sample of 5,969 women aged 16-55 years in 2012. The analysis conducted for this paper was restricted to women reporting sexual activity in the past 12 months (n = 3,594. Transactional sex was defined as having received money/gifts in exchange for sex with any sex partner in the past year. Alcohol use measures included: alcohol dependence (≥2 positive responses to the CAGE questionnaire; binge drinking (≥4 drinks for women on one occasion; and drinking frequency in the previous month. Logistic regression models were built to test the hypotheses that each dimension of alcohol use was associated with transactional sex.About 6.3% (n = 225 of sexually active women reported transactional sex. Almost a third (30.6% of sexually active women had ever drunk alcohol, and 19.2% were current (past month drinkers. Among lifetime drinkers, 28.0% were alcohol dependent and 56.6% were binge drinkers. Alcohol dependent women were twice as likely to report transactional sex (AOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-4.3, p<0.05 than those not alcohol dependent. Binge drinkers were 3.1 times more likely to have had transactional sex (95% CI 1.5-6.6, p<0.01 than non-binge drinkers. There was no significant relationship between frequency of drinking in the past month and transactional sex.Alcohol dependency and binge drinking are significantly associated with transactional sex in South African women. HIV prevention programmes

  20. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  1. Radiation technology in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of the relatively new field of radiation technology in South Africa. Attention is drawn particularly to the role which radioactive radiation can play in the spheres of medicine, polymer chemistry and agriculture. The possibilities inherent in ionizing radiation in the synthesis of chemicals and new synthetic materials, are dealt with briefly, and the promising results already achieved in the manufacture of polymer-wood are considered [af

  2. First results on the Experiment FESTER on optical turbulence over False Bay South Africa: Dependencies and consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprung, D.; Van Eijk, A.M.J.; Sucher, E.; Eisele, C.; Seiffer, D.; Stein, K.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment FESTER (First European South African Transmission ExpeRiment) took place in 2015 to investigate the atmospheric influence on electro-optical systems performance across False Bay / South Africa on a long term basis. Several permanent stations for monitoring electro-optical propagation

  3. Forecasting South Africa's performance at the 2010 Commonwealth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...

  4. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  5. Arbitration Foundation of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O. Kramarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author explores the history and legal framework for the creation and operation of international commercial arbitration in South Africa. Author notes that South Africa is the most economically developed country in Africa, it is among dozens of major international organizations. From the point of view of the development of the system of law, legal proceedings and arbitration, South Africa is an attractive state for study. Author emphasizes that the South African Republic throughout its existence has been influenced by two legal families: Anglo-Saxon and Romano-Germanic. Therefore, it is important to note that South Africa refers to a mixed system of law. To date, South Africa has two international commercial arbitration: the Arbitration Foundation of South Africa and the Association of Arbitrators. In the conclusion author points out that the development and establishment of the centers of the arbitration fund continues: new centers are being established, and the system of procedures for dealing with cases in already established centers is being improved.

  6. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  7. A comparison of inflation expectations and inflation credibility in South Africa: results from survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie Rossouw

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a comparison of South African household inflation expectations and inflation credibility surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. It tests for possible feed-through between inflation credibility and inflation expectations. It supplements earlier research that focused only on the 2006 survey results. The comparison shows that inflation expectations differed between different income groups in both 2006 and 2008. Inflation credibility differed between male and female respondents, but this difference did not feed through to inflation expectations. More periodic survey data will be required for developing final conclusions on the possibility of feed-through effects. To this end the structure of credibility surveys should be reconsidered, as a large percentage of respondents indicated that they ‘don’t know’ whether the historic rate of inflation is an accurate indication of price increases.

  8. Bibliographic Control in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiker, Reuben

    1972-01-01

    The author sets as his task the consideration of the present state of bibliographical control of South Africa's bookstock with special reference to centralization and decentralization. (20 references) (Author/SJ)

  9. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  10. Energy Crisis Racks South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwijs, H.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will struggle with energy capacity shortages until at least 2015. Giant coal-fired power plants are now being built to solve the problem - but they will not prevent the problem of climate change

  11. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  12. Fiscal stimulation of human capital and resultant economic growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Shift-share analysis of employment as a measuring instrument for human resource management is proposed by this study. The results obtained through this technique can assist human resource management on the macro-level in making informed and strategic decisions regarding future employment practices and trends. This technique is often applied to studies of economic geography, and is illustrated in this article through its application to the estimation of future employment potential of manufacturing industries of South Africa’s Southern District Municipality. The economy in this region is mainly dependent on gold mining, which is declining as gold reserves are becoming depleted. As a result, a large section of the area’s population will be unemployed in future, causing adversity and other development needs. Shift-share analysis provides insight into the shifts of employment in the various sectors over time, as well as insight into the national share effect on employment in the region, including the regional-industrial mix and the competitive share effects. It was found that the sectors with the highest employment creation potential are: transport equipment, wood and paper products, metal products, and furniture. Some suggestions are also made regarding the ways that this information can be utilised in human resource management.

  13. Monitoring results of PBS vehicles in South Africa in terms of productivity, safety and road wear performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of a Performance-Based Standards (PBS) research programme for heavy vehicles in South Africa, a need was identified to design, manufacture and operate a number of PBS or Smart Truck demonstration vehicles in order to gain practical...

  14. Impact of communal land use and conservation on woody vegetation structure in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa – Lidar results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available use and conservation on woody vegetation structure in the Lowveld savannas of South Africa ? Lidar results. K.J. Wesselsa*, R. Mathieub, B.F.N. Erasmusc, G.P. Asnerd, I.P.J. Smite, J.A.N. Van Aardtf, R. Mainb, J. Fisherb,c a Remote Sensing... with related studies, suggest that communal land use have a higher impact on the woody cover below 5m than both elephants and fire. Keywords: Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO), Lidar, fuel wood, South Africa, Savannas, woody vegetation structure 1...

  15. INTERNATIONALCAREEREXPERIENCESOFEXPATRIATEACADEMICS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashika Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africais facingamajor staffing shortageinscarce skills disciplines.Expatriateacademics have been sourcedbyuniversities to run programmes inthese disciplinesto create ‘home grown’ talent tosolvethis problem.This study isbased on Lazarova, Westman and Shaffer’s(2010modelrelating to expatriatework and family performance.It seeksto examine the experiencesof academics atUKZN,as well as provide recommendationson howto improve theirexperience.The key question ofthepaper, deals with the how expatriate academics haveadjusted to their new environment based onjob andwork environment challenges,family and lifestyle challenges, organisational support and contextual challengesin the host country.The results showedthat the majorityof respondentsare welladjusted in terms of their relationships with their host country colleagues and theirrelationships with family and friendsin theirhomecountry,as well as in terms ofthe fulfilment of theirworkplaceexpectations.Their experience oforganisationalsupport couldhoweverbeimproved.It was found that theydidnot share closeties with other expatriates or local South Africansat the universityorintheircommunities.Thestudy is exploratory and involves a single professional group,as such the findings are not generalisable to other contexts or respondents.Adescriptive quantitative analysis of the career experiences of 83 expatriateacademics was done. Thestudywasuniquein that itexaminedall levels ofacademiain conjunction withmanagement and takes place in a South Africancontext.To improve organisational support,the institution should establishsupport systems forinternational facultyFurthermore, itwassuggestedin thestudy, thatthereshouldbe the creation of a mentorship or buddy programme bythe university to support the adjustment of newinternational staff. Universitymanagement should set up an international staff office similar to the InternationalStudent Office manned by dedicated staff who deal only with matters

  16. Upscaling laboratory results for water quality prediction at underground collieries in South Africa's Highveld Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, B.H. [University of Orange Free State, Bloemfontein (South Africa). Institute for Groundwater Studies

    2009-01-15

    The prediction of future acidity and water quality is a key aspect of water management in mining environments. In this paper, different prediction techniques tested in an isolated underground compartment at a colliery in the Highveld Coalfield of South Africa are discussed. Considerations for upscaling these results are explained, and a methodology for upscaling is tested at this facility. Over 30 samples were collected around the compartment and through cored boreholes. These samples were tested using acid-base accounting tests, humidity cells, and mineralogy. From this, an integrated interpretation of potential water quality evolution was made, supported by detailed water quality sampling with the use of surface boreholes, stratified sampling underground, and pumped qualities over a period of two years. The results show that analytical tests play an integral role in water quality predictions at underground collieries. The results also show that, despite the vast differences between laboratory test conditions and the situation in the field, by taking site conditions into account to properly contextualise the results, improved predictions of expected water quality can be obtained.

  17. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  18. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  19. Scaling up integration: development and results of a participatory assessment of HIV/TB services, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell Judy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the need to integrate HIV, TB and STI programmes has been recognised at a policy and organisation level; the challenge is now one of translating policies into relevant actions and monitoring implementation to ensure that the anticipated benefits of integration are achieved. In this research, set in public primary care services in Cape Town, South Africa, we set out to determine how middle level managers could be empowered to monitor the implementation of an effective, integrated HIV/TB/STI service. Methods A team of managers and researchers designed an evaluation tool to measure implementation of key components of an integrated HIV/TB/STI package with a focus on integration. They used a comprehensive health systems framework based on conditions for programme effectiveness and then identified and collected tracer indicators. The tool was extensively piloted in two rounds involving 49 clinics in 2003 and 2004 to identify data necessary for effective facility-level management. A subsequent evaluation of 16 clinics (2 per health sub district, 12% of all public primary care facilities was done in February 2006. Results 16 clinics were reviewed and 635 records sampled. Client access to HIV/TB/STI programmes was limited in that 50% of facilities routinely deferred clients. Whilst the physical infrastructure and staff were available, there was problem with capacity in that there was insufficient staff training (for example, only 40% of clinical staff trained in HIV care. Weaknesses were identified in quality of care (for example, only 57% of HIV clients were staged in accordance with protocols and continuity of care (for example, only 24% of VCT clients diagnosed with HIV were followed up for medical assessment. Facility and programme managers felt that the evaluation tool generated information that was useful to manage the programmes at facility and district level. On the basis of the results facility managers drew

  20. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Anton; Visser Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s s...

  1. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    Background With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the

  2. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  3. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  4. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, T A; Stevens, R C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs.

  5. Paediatric triage in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-07

    May 7, 2013 ... There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this ... So opens the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Countdown to 2015, the .... walk as normal. 27 or more. 160 or more. Unrespon- sive. Reacts to. Pain ... Each time the IMCI or.

  6. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  7. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  8. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-07-29

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus. 

  9. Nutrition in contemporary South Africa#

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa. 2 Division ... based diet that is inadequate in energy and of low nutrient density. ..... Vitamin A deficiency impacts on mortality of women of ... increased risk of heavy metal (e.g. lead) poisoning in children;.

  10. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  11. Sedating children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bRed Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. cSedation and Pain ... As the authors indicate, there is increasing pressure from practitioners, funders and patients or parents for procedures to take place outside the ...

  12. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  13. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR - First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available -borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and backscatter...

  14. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  15. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  16. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  17. Managing riparian zone vegetation to sustain streamflow: results of paired catchment experiments in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available be no closer than 20-50 m from streams and other water bodies. This paper presents the results of three catchment experiments, analysed by the paired catchment method that aimed to provide a quantitative evaluation of the water yield savings attributable...

  18. Reregistration of gynaecologists in South Africa - results of a 1-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research or tuition. Outcome measures. Compliance with the rules of the system and participants' comments. Results. Ten of the 180 volunteers withdrew from the study. Only 42% of the ... The Royal Australian College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology .... The pros and cons of each category are summarised in. Table 11.

  19. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Anton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s secondary cities. The paper draws attention to the economic, socio-cultural, and physical characteristics of this form of student housing on host locations. It is argued that studentification holds both positive and negative impacts for the host communities of Bloemfontein. Finally, it is suggested that studentification in South Africa requires greater research attention.

  20. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  1. First Attempt at and Early Results on the Biological Control of Pistia stratiotes L. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina J. Cilliers

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce is not an important weed in the Republic of South Africa, the host-specific weevil Neohydronomus pulchellus Hustache was imported for the biological control of this weed. The weevil was released onto a dense infestation of P. stratiotes of several years standing on a pan in the Pafuri area in December 1985. By September 1986 the weevils had already destroyed most of the weed and in October 1986 the weed was under biological control at this site.

  2. Development research in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC Communications ... It would result, some three years later, in a program of development research support designed expressly to prepare ... In South Africa, post-secondary education is a privilege, and many students currently enrol ... Recent research into decision-making in households has produced ...

  3. Shoreline deposits and diagenesis resulting from two Late Pleistocene highstands near +5 and +6 metres, Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.A.G.; Flores, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    In exposures of Pleistocene rocks on the east coast of South Africa, eight sedimentary facies were distinguished on the basis of petrology, grain size, internal structures and field relationships. These are interpreted as deposits of surf zone, breaker zone, swash zone, backbeach, boulder beach and dune environments. Three phases of deposition and diagenesis are recognized. As a result of the stabilising effect of pre-existing coastal facies, the deposits from successive sea level stands are stacked vertically in a narrow coast-normal strip. Early cementation prevented erosion of the deposits during subsequent transgressions. Deposition of subsequent facies took place on an existing coastal dune (Facies 1). A terrace was cut into this dune at a sea level 4.5 to 5 m above present. At this sea level, clastic shoreline sediments were deposited which make up the main sedimentary sequence exposed (Facies 2-7). The steep swash zone, coarse grain size, and comparison with modern conditions in the study area indicate clastic deposition on a high-energy, wave-dominated, microtidal coastline. Vertical stacking of progressively shallower water facies indicates progradation associated with slightly regressive conditions, prior to stranding of the succession above sea level. During a subsequent transgression to 5.5 or 6 m above present sea level, a second terrace was cut across the existing facies, which by then were partly lithified. A boulder beach (Facies 8) deposited on this terrace is indicative of high wave energy and a rocky coastline, formed by existing cemented coastal facies. Comparison with dated deposits from other parts of the South African coast suggest a Late Pleistocene age for Facies 2-8. Deposition was terminated by subsequent regression and continuing low sea levels during the remainder of the Pleistocene. Cementation of the facies took place almost entirely by carbonate precipitation. The presence of isopachous fibrous cements suggests early cementation of

  4. Talk or text to tell? How young adults in Canada and South Africa prefer to receive STI results, counseling, and treatment updates in a wireless world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labacher, Lukas; Mitchell, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Young adults often lack access to confidential, long-lasting, and nonjudgmental interactions with sexual health professionals at brick-and-mortar clinics. To ensure that patients return for their STI test results, post-result counseling, and STI-related information, computer-mediated health intervention programming allows them to receive sexual health information through onsite computers, the Internet, and mobile phone calls and text messages. To determine whether young adults (age: M = 21 years) prefer to communicate with health professionals about the status of their sexual health through computer-mediated communication devices, 303 second-year university students (183 from an urban North American university and 120 from a periurban university in South Africa) completed a paper-based survey indicating how they prefer to communicate with doctors and nurses: talking face to face, mobile phone call, text message, Internet chat programs, Facebook, Twitter, or e-mail. Nearly all students, and female students in South Africa in particular, prefer to receive their STI test results, post-results counseling, and STI-related information by talking face to face with doctors and nurses rather than communicating through computers or mobile phones. Results are clarified in relation to gender, availability of various technologies, and prevalence of HIV in Canada and in South Africa.

  5. Methodology and Baseline Results From the Evaluation of a Sexuality Education Activity in Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S; Mandal, Mahua; Xiong, Khou; Hattori, Aiko; Makina-Zimalirana, Ndinda; Kumalo, Faith; Taylor, Stephen; Ndlovu, Muzi S; Madibane, Mathata; Beke, Andy

    2018-04-01

    In South Africa, adolescents and young adults (ages 15-24) are at risk of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancies. Recently, the Department of Basic Education has revised its sexuality education content and teaching strategies (using scripted lessons plans) as part of its life orientation curriculum. This paper presents the methodology and baseline results from the evaluation of the scripted lesson plans and supporting activities. A rigorous cluster-level randomized design with random assignment of schools as clusters is used for the evaluation. Baseline results from grade 8 female and male learners and grade 10 female learners demonstrate that learners are at risk of HIV and early and unintended pregnancies. Multivariable analyses demonstrate that household-level food insecurity and living with an HIV-positive person are associated with sexual experience and pregnancy experience. Implications are discussed for strengthening the current life orientation program for future scale-up by the government of South Africa.

  6. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  7. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  8. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  9. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  10. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  11. South Africa : an opportunity for Western Europe ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Of the six threshold countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa), South Africa is the only one that, by a judicious application of pressures and incentives might be induced to accede the Non-Proliferation Treaty. There are several reasons for this, which derive chiefly from South Africa's political isolation and economic vulnerability and the absence of any credible military threat from beyond the country's borders. (author)

  12. Where are general surgeons located in South Africa? | Dell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery ... Methods: A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the 1 October 2014 until 31 ...

  13. Tele-education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained settings. The development of local and

  14. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  15. Wind energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    Wind, in South Africa, has been a source of energy for many years but at the same time it is taking as much time and effort to receive the recognition it deserves as anywhere else in the world. The wind resource is comparable to a number of areas in the world wind is exploited as a grid connected source of electrical energy. Although the environmental impact of conventional sources of energy is not as widespread as most of the industrial nations some areas should be looked at critically. Wind as a bulk generator of energy is tentatively being looked at with some demonstration projects being planned. (author)

  16. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  17. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  18. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  19. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  20. Robotics and automation activities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Utete, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...

  1. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  2. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One goal was to transform structures and institutions of global governance while another aim was to place developmental goals on the global agenda. As South Africa targeted UN agencies, notably the Security Council, the IMF, World Bank, WTO and more recently the G20, the curious question begs: will South Africa ...

  3. R-HPDC in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...

  4. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism. Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education. Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region. Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting South Africa.

  5. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  6. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  7. Can family-centered programing mitigate HIV risk factors among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents? Results from a pilot study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Tonya Renee; Nice, Johanna; Luckett, Brian; Visser, Maretha

    2018-04-01

    Let's Talk is a structured, family-centered adolescent HIV prevention program developed for use in South Africa using key components adapted from programs successfully implemented in the US and South Africa. It is designed to address individual HIV transmission risk factors common among orphaned and vulnerable adolescents, including elevated risk for poor psychological health and sexual risk behavior. These efforts are accentuated through parallel programing to support caregivers' mental health and parenting skills. Twelve Let's Talk groups, each serving approximately 10 families, were piloted by two local community-based organizations in Gauteng and Kwa-Zulu Natal provinces, South Africa. Face-to-face interviews were conducted among participating caregivers and adolescents at baseline and three months post-intervention to explore the potential effects of the program on intermediate outcomes that may support HIV preventive behavior. Specifically, generalized estimation equations were used to estimate average change on HIV prevention knowledge and self-efficacy, caregiver and adolescent mental health, and family dynamics. Among the 105 adolescents and their 95 caregivers who participated in Let's Talk and completed both surveys, statistically significant improvements were found for adolescents' HIV and condom use knowledge as well as condom negotiation self-efficacy, but not sexual refusal self-efficacy. Both caregivers and adolescents demonstrated significantly better mental health at post-test. Adolescent/caregiver connection and communication about healthy sexuality also improved. These preliminary results highlight the potential of HIV prevention interventions that engage caregivers alongside the vulnerable adolescents in their care to mitigate adolescent HIV risk factors. A more rigorous evaluation is warranted to substantiate these effects and identify their impact on adolescents' risk behavior and HIV incidence.

  8. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  9. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ajuruchukwu Obi; Sanelise Tafa

    2016-01-01

    South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN). Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the perc...

  10. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available of such functions, determined from forestry trial data in South Africa, are shown below. Harrison et al. (1994) give the following result for P. patula in Nelshoogte, South Africa: Vste, . = Vf~,,at(1- exp(-0.141 l(1-0.6782exp(-O.OO13TP))i)) 3"°935 with n = 218... an expected life of more than 20 years. In South Africa most construction timber falls into this category, as well as timber destined to be permanently buried underground as mine supports. The C stored in timber products can be calculated as: Cp = ~aVkPk E...

  11. The transformation of municipal development planning in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): Impressions and impasse. ... Town and Regional Planning ... In South Africa, the government's transformation process, which effectively started in 1994, not only resulted in a new democracy, a new governmental dispensation or a 'new ...

  12. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South...... African Defence Force (SADF) during the apartheid era. The transition to peacemaker has imposed constraints on the use of force and required fundamental changes to the way military force is employed. South Africa’s transition has therefore transformed the international role of the SANDF. The destabilizing....... Introduction – Setting the Scene Chapter 2. Foreign Policy and Military Power in South Africa – framing the debate on RSA foreign policy in relation to Africa, Chapter 3. South Africa and the Concept of National Security Chapter 4. The SANDF: Capacity and Capabilities Chapter 5. Sorry Mr. Chairman, can we stop...

  13. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  15. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available were pooled according to health regions and related to population ... Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron. Machine energy beam. Tvl .... Remote afrerloading brachytherapy devices have developed ...

  16. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Abstract .... cognitive functioning could be influenced by the type of housing.26 ..... Weisman AG, Lopez SR, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH, Goldstein MJ,.

  17. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  18. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  19. RETAINING PROFESSIONAL NURSES IN SOUTH AFRICA: NURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... were vacant throughout South Africa (Health Systems Trust 2008). The provinces with the highest ... monetary rewards), the manager or supervisor (enhancing ... theory is one of nurse retention and not motivation. The shape.

  20. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...

  1. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  2. Memory of Lithuania in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskienė, Aušra

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania remains a constant in the memory of Jews of the world. Lithuania is remembered in English literature of South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, especially in works by Rose Zwi and Dan Jacobson. Lithuania is still remembered in the South Africa not only because of nostalgic feelings Lithuanian Jews of this country have. After the truth about the Jewish community destroyed in Lithuania, descendants of immigrants felt guilt because of their privileged position in the commu...

  3. National infrastructure maintenance strategy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MULTISECTORAL APPROACHES A National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy for South Africa Kevin Wall, South Africa [OFFICE USE ONLY: REVIEWED...; − effects on human health and economic growth; − lack of effective countermeasures in the event of failure of the service; and − the risk generally to government's growth objectives. Wastewater treatment works are often problematic, as are water...

  4. South Africa: The Good International Nuclear Citizen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Since South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal, it has claimed the status of 'good international nuclear citizen', a position confirmed by its engagement in the nonproliferation regime. Pretoria plays a bridge-building role between states with and without nuclear weapons as well as in instances of proliferation. Recent changes have raised doubts around its position, a movement which could threaten South Africa's nuclear diplomacy

  5. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  6. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  7. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  8. NIASA: Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollard, P.; Louf, P.H.; Gentet, G.; Doix, G.

    2015-01-01

    NIASA (Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa) aims at promoting the highest standards in the development and use of nuclear technologies. NIASA was founded in 2007. South-Africa has a long history in nuclear activity since the construction of the first nuclear power plant ever built on African soil was commissioned in 1984 in South-Africa (Koeberg plant equipped with two 900 MW reactors). There is also an important center for nuclear research near Pretoria that was founded in 1948 to regulate the prospecting for uranium. NECSA (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation is a state-owned public company) that manages nuclear research, operates the Safari-1 (2 MWe - commissioned in 1965) research reactor and manages the national radioactive waste center located at Vaalputs. The South African nuclear industry employs about 4000 people. (A.C.)

  9. Consumer attitudes towards radurisation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Olst, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    To gain any insight into consumer attitudes towards radurization in South Africa, it is first of all necessary to pinpoint the consumer. The consumer has to be reached at all levels and must be convinced that radurization is a harmless process. All the indications are there that South African consumer acceptance will come readily once the positive benefits of irradiated food have been adequately publicized. Label and package information create untold problems for the grocery manufacturing and packaging industry. The radiation industry cannot afford to lose consumer confidence. The question is: Must a label be attached to a radurized product or not? The results of the trial marketing campaign have shown that if the correct information is supplied at the right time, the consumer is prepared to accept irradiated food

  10. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  11. Inflation perceptions and inflation expectation in South Africa: trends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a multinomial analysis of inflation perceptions and inflation expectations in South Africa. Inflation perceptions surveys among South African individuals have been undertaken since 2006. The introduction of these surveys followed on domestic inflation expectation surveys conducted in 2000, ...

  12. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 8 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: ELECTRONIC PUBLISHING, RESEARCH RESULTS, PERIODICALS. Région: South of Sahara, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, Tanzania, South Africa. Financement total : CA$ 128,000.00. Modernisation des marchés agroalimentaires - inclusion des petits exploitants aux marchés dynamiques. Projet. Les marchés ...

  13. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  14. Radiology and the law in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, C.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In terms of regulations gazetted in 1973, the Department of Health has control of the practice of medical radiology in South Africa. The regulations and the rules of the South African Medical and Dental Council that apply to radiology are discussed, and the legal position of workers is noted

  15. Court supervised institutional transformation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions ...

  16. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  17. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  18. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  19. Results of a paleomagnetic survey undertaken in the Damara mobile belt, South West Africa, with special reference to the magnetisation of the uraniferous pegmatitic granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, B.; Henthorn, D.I.

    1978-10-01

    A project study, undertaken by the Geology Division of the AEB, on the correlation between airborne magnetic and radiometric data covering a portion of the Damara Mobile Belt in South West Africa, has revealed that all the known occurrences of uranium in late- to post-tectonic leucogranite (alaskite) of the Damara orogeny are associated with negative geomagnetic anomalies. Although the uranium occurrences themselves do not display marked geomagnetic anomalies, their immediate geological environment is characterised by the negative anomalies, which are semi-regional in extent. To investigate the origin of these anomalies, the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa undertook a palaeomagnetic study of the area. Oriented cores were taken from 31 sites in the mobile belt, 18 of which were selected within the negative magnetic zones, mostly in close association with known uraniferous alaskitic granites. Palaeomagnetic evidence suggests that the negative geomagnetic anomalies are associated with a remanent magnetisation, resulting from the Damara orogenic event, whose direction is removed from the earth's present field and which has affected rocks of the Nosib Group. Absence of this stable remanent direction in rocks stratigraphically overlying the Nosib Group accounts for the distinctive geomagnetic signature, in the form of negative anomalies, of the Nosib Group. It is this signature which can be used in airborne surveys to identify rocks of the Nosib Group outcropping, or of shallow suboutcrop, in anticlinal or dome-like structures. Since the uraniferous alaskites are mostly confined stratigraphically to the Nosib Group, the negative geomagnetic anomalies form an important prospecting criterion as they may be used to delineate target areas for further exploration in areas covered by sand, scree and duricrust deposits [af

  20. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry van der Heever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1% tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT (score 8 or more. Among the 147 (96.7% university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009. Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting.

  1. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  2. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  3. Journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Hoskins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on part of a survey that investigated journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa. A study population consisting of 17 university libraries in South Africa was surveyed by means of an online questionnaire to establish the factors that influenced journal cancellations. Interpretation of the results revealed that South African university libraries, like most academic and research libraries world wide, have been adversely affected by high priced journal subscriptions and many libraries have simply cancelled subscriptions to pay for ongoing subscriptions. Recommendations are made about enhancing library budgets and access to usage statistics, supporting consortia and avoiding restrictive journal packages.

  4. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  5. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  6. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  7. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  8. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  9. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country's infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country's energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry

  10. Influence of certain tactical attacking patterns on the result achieved by the teams participants of the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare tactical manifestations of soccer teams, different competitive success, defined on the basis of the achieved results in one match at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The teams were divided into 3 groups based on the match results, the tactical analysis included a total of 60 matches of 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa. The first sub-sample of the subjects (winning was consisted of the teams that won in the final result, the second sub-sample (draw were the teams that ended in tied score (no winner, while the third subs ample (defeat consisted of the teams which were defeated in the course of regular 90-minute game. Based on the previously processed data, which were taken from the official website of the International Federation of Association Soccer (www.fi fa.com, the observed parameters refer to the game efficiency, tactical attacking resource - passing the ball and the ball passing structure. Based on the analysis of the successful attacks frequency, it was revealed that there is a statistically significant difference in the number of successful attacks between the teams that had achieved different results (p = 0.003, in favor of the winning teams. Additionally, the successfulness of attacks, observed through their accuracy, indicates the differences in their distribution (p = 0.000 between the aforesaid groups. The results also indicate that the total run distance, on the level of one team is not associated with the final result. However, ball possession (P = 0.001, overall number of passes (p = 0.015 and overall number of correct passes (P = 0.013 were figured as important factors in achieving better results, while the analysis of the efficacy percentage and the structure of the game that applied passing, i.e., pass length is little or not associated with the final result. The results of this study can help identify those tactical attacking resources in soccer, which contribute to achieving

  11. Advantages and pitfalls of South Africa-Angola strategic alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Owing to a shortage of South African research focusing on international strategic alliances, this study aimed to determine whether the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances referred to in international business publications are also applicable to South African international strategic alliances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This was a formal, empirical study that targeted the 163 South African enterprises which were members of the South African-Angolan Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and 2006. Findings: The results identified joint ventures as the most prominent mode of entry when expanding into developing countries and, with few exceptions, the findings support the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances identified in other international publications. Value of the research: A great deal of international management research over the years has been focused on the importance of strategic alliances as a mode of entry, as well as on the pitfalls experienced by alliance partners, particularly in developed countries. However, the lack of such research in Africa in general and South Africa in particular means that South African enterprises must base their entry mode selection on non-South African research findings, and although this sample size was small, the lack of other Africa-specific research makes this research significant. Implications: With South Africa being the largest source of FDI into the rest of Africa, the findings of this paper show that South African enterprises can attain the advantages associated with international strategic alliances when using this mode of entry into Africa. In terms of pitfalls, the findings highlight the need for multinational enterprises to pay specific attention to the role of governments when forming strategic alliances.

  12. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, F.C. de [Radiation Sciences, Research and Development, Necsa (South Africa)], E-mail: Frikkie.DeBeer@necsa.co.za; Botha, H. [South African Institute for Objects Conservation, Twee Riviere, Eastern Cape (South Africa); Ferg, E. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Grundlingh, R. [South African Institute for Objects Conservation, Twee Riviere, Eastern Cape (South Africa); Smith, A. [National Cultural History Museum, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2009-06-21

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  13. Archaeology benefits from neutron tomography investigations in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Botha, H.; Ferg, E.; Grundlingh, R.; Smith, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.

  14. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V.

    2000-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  15. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V

    2000-07-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  16. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 96 of 96 ... (2) “Hospitality Management Education” is devoted to articles about ... More information for this journal can be found here. ... Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to ...

  17. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  18. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  19. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals. ... The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  20. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  1. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  2. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  3. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  4. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  5. Uranium enrichment with lasers - will South Africa lead or lag?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, G.

    1992-01-01

    Over 30 percent of the cost of locally made nuclear fuel in South Africa is associated with increasing the concentration of uranium 235. Cheaper enrichment technologies and, in particular, the decision by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa to concentrate its research efforts on laser techniques are therefore of considerable significance. The laser isotope separation programme in South Africa is reviewed. 1 ill

  6. South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...

  7. Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa: theories, pedagogies and sustainability. ... academics and other stakeholders in education in South Africa. There remains a need for a population proficient ... the relationship between theory, approaches and contexts in language development in South Africa.

  8. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  9. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  10. Excess co-movement in asset prices: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ocran, Mathew; Mlambo, Chipo

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates excess co-movement in asset prices in South Africa between 1995 and 2005 using the definition of excess comovement as correlation between two asset prices beyond what could be explained by key economic fundamentals. The results of the study suggest that there is excess co-movement between returns on equities and bonds in South Africa. The findings suggest that there are considerable noise traders on the financial market in South Africa. The result of this behaviour woul...

  11. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  12. Reflections on educational research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    research in South Africa as (1) a particular mode of social service (with discussion of an ... by an interest in scientific work, and an interest in theatre. The study provided an apt way to ... the general public, and establish professional autonomy (through ... own affairs responsibly and for societal benefit). ..... In this case, the.

  13. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, E.

    1997-01-01

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  14. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  15. Haemodialysis and Transplantation Facilities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... The provIsion of services in South Africa for patients suffering from chronic renal failure is inadequate in terms· of nationai requirements. A survey of the available facili- ties made in July 1973 showed that 14 maintenance haemodialysis centres had a total of 39 dialysing stations capable of treating 143 ...

  16. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  17. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  18. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  19. mHealth implementation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available to incorporate a wide range of Mhealth applications to service the Health System information needs and end user needs. This paper aims to describe the current state of mHealth applications and implementation in South Africa by a review of reported MHealth...

  20. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  1. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  2. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-11-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers.

  3. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Internationally, the development of partnerships between institutions of higher learning and the communities they serve is stressed as a priority. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) is an educational model developed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a response to the scarcity of ...

  4. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the UNFCCC and therefore required to share information on, among other things, the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs). DEAT is the national focal point for climate change activities, and is responsible for co...

  5. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  6. Hydrometeorological Research in South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.

  7. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  8. Emergomyces africanus in Soil, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilan S; Lerm, Barbra; Hoving, J Claire; Kenyon, Chris; Horsnell, William G; Basson, W Joan; Otieno-Odhiambo, Patricia; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Botha, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.

  9. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  10. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the rest of the Free World is presently ... during the Anglo-Boer War, many Europeans joined the Boer ... covetous interest, causing the Dutch East India. Company to .... tween the Boers and the British and the first in which the ...

  11. Ending Apartheid in South Africa: Alternative Approaches,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-07

    you travel backward in its history, confusion develops. It is believed that it has been inhabited for many thousands of years. Black African tribes ...languages - English and Afrikaans - with several African languages like Zulu , Sotho, Xhosa and Swazi.3 Modern day government in South Africa was founded in...Internal African Organizations ...........................12 External Forces.......................................... 14 V. OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO

  12. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  13. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. ... Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the .... that affect forage production of rangelands and pastures in Africa.

  14. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa......, that recognized the injustices of the past and would be built on fundamental human rights and justice for all no matter their race, ethnicity, or economic power. South Africa has moved a long way in developing a democratic society. The emergence of this book is the result of a collaborative effort of people...... with diverse cultural, social and ethnic roots, who share a common belief in the development of a just and equal society, and who share a specific interest in developing schools as a fundamental element in developing this equal and just society....

  15. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist.  Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.

  16. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  17. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  18. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A D; Grobbelaar, C J; Asamoah, J K [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  19. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  20. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  1. health services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.

  2. The Existence Of Revenue Gap In South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamae Retselisitsoe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an empirical analysis of the macroeconomic factors that enhance revenue gap in South Africa using the multivariate cointegration techniques for the period 1965 to 2012. The results from the cointegration analysis indicate that the revenue gap in South Africa is negatively associated with the level of imports while positively related to external debt and underground economy. The former finding is consistent with the notion that imports are subjected to more taxation than domestic activities because of certain features of international trade that tend to make tax evasion difficult. On the other hand, the positive relationship between external debt and tax gap shows that the South African government relies upon external debt to finance its budget deficit resulting from missing revenues. Furthermore, the observed negative effect of the post-apartheid dummy confirms that the tax policy reforms that South Africa introduced following the liberation in 1994 have led to a reduction in missing revenues. The results from the Granger causality test also show that there is a unidirectional causality running from imports and underground economy to revenue gap, while revenue gap on the other hand is found to Granger-cause national income and external debt in South Africa.

  3. Solar ultraviolet radiation in South Africa and sun-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among South African adults: pilot study results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available -ordinated attempt has been made to carry out a large, nationwide survey of South African’s perceptions towards sun exposure behaviour, sunrelated knowledge and attitudes. Comprehensive, local research is essential to fully understand the implications of personal...

  4. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moolman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  5. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA, Democracy, Gender. Région: Brazil, South America, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of ... SOCIAL INEQUALITY, COOPERATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS ... d'examiner les liens de cause à effet entre la faiblesse de l'autorité d'État et ...

  6. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  7. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  8. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  9. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa | Blumberg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based ...

  10. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A definition of educational research is proposed: Educational research is a particular mode of social service, using rigorous scientific endeavours for the continuous improvement of educational practice. The key ... It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact.

  11. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  13. All projects related to south africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR SUPPLY, LABOUR MARKET, SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL SOUTH, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Madagascar, Tanzania, South Africa. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 717,400.00.

  14. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  15. DNA Profiling and the Law in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SScheepers

    The aim of this article is to provide the legal community with the necessary ... unit of the Forensic Science Laboratory of the South African Police Service ...... In South Africa, the South African National Accreditation System, SANAS, provides.

  16. Biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.T. Sekoai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production has captured increasing global attention due to it social, economic and environmental benefits. Over the past few years, energy demands have been growing significantly in South Africa due to rapid economic and population growth. The South African parastatal power supplier i.e. Electricity Supply Commission (ESKOM has been unable to meet the country’s escalating energy needs. As a result, there have been widespread and persistent power cuts throughout the country. This prompts an urgent need for exploration and implementation of clean and sustainable energy fuels like biohydrogen production in order to address this crisis. Therefore, this paper discusses the current global energy challenges in relation to South Africa’s problems. It then examines the feasibility of using biohydrogen production as a potential energy fuel in South Africa. Finally, it reviews the hydrogen-infrastructure development plans in the country.

  17. Psychological capital, a requisite for organisational performance in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Du Plessis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131 as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model for the PCQ, renamed the Potential South African PsyCap (PSA-PsyCap instrument. All dimensions displayed acceptable reliabilities. Statistically significant differences exist in the POB of demographic groups, relating to age, marital status, home language, seniority and qualifications. This research reveals that South African HR practitioners and managers should fully embrace psychological capital to effectively create caring workplaces taking cognizance of the broader economic and social issues affecting employees and their performance.

  18. Status of marine pollution research in South Africa (1960-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wepener, V; Degger, N

    2012-07-01

    The published literature on marine pollution monitoring research in South Africa from 1960 to present was evaluated. There has been a general decline in the number of papers from the 1980s and this can be linked to the absence of a marine pollution monitoring programme in South Africa. General trends observed were that contaminant exposure monitoring of metals predominates the research conducted to date. Monitoring results indicate that there has been a general decrease in metal concentrations in South African coastal waters and concentrations of metals and most organics in mussels are lower than in other industrialised nations. This is reflected in the general pristine nature and high biodiversity of the South African coastline. The establishment of a national marine pollution monitoring framework would stimulate marine pollution research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uranium Exploration, Resources and Production in South Africa 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainslie, L.C., E-mail: lee.ainslie@necsa.co.za [South African Nuclear Energy Agency (Necsa), Pretoria (South Africa)

    2014-05-15

    The paper gives a brief history of uranium mining in South Africa. The types of uranium deposits in South Africa are described and their distribution given. The majority of uranium is hosted as a by-product in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin with lesser amounts in tabular sandstone and coal hosted deposits. The exploration activities of companies operating in South Africa are discussed and the reserves and resources identified are presented. A substantial increase in reserves has been recorded over the last two years because of intensive investigation of known deposits. Only a marginal increase in total resources was reported because of a lack of “greenfield” exploration. Production is far down from the levels achieved in the 1970s and 1980s. The surge in the uranium market resulted in a number of companies investigating their production options. The recent decline in the market has slowed down some of these activities and forced the closure of an operating mine. However a new mine has come into production and feasibility studies are being carried out on other deposits. The recently promulgated Nuclear Energy Policy for the Republic of South Africa defines Necsa’s role in nuclear fuel cycle and the uranium mining industry emphasizing security of supply. South African uranium resources will be able to supply all local needs for the foreseeable future. (author)

  20. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  1. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  2. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  3. The design, construction and first-phase heavy vehicle simulator testing results on full scale ultra-thin reinforced concrete test sections at Rayton, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available .J. Jordaan2, P.J. Strauss3, A. Kilian4 1. L. du Plessis, CSIR Built Environment, Meiring Naudé Street, Brummeria, Pretoria, South Africa, Phone: 012 841 2922, E-mail: lplessis@csir.co.za Corresponding author 2. G.J. Jordaan, Tshepega Engineering (Pty...) Ltd, PO Box 33783 Glenstantia 0010 Phone: 012 665 2722, and University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 0001, E-mail: jordaangj@tshepega.co.za 3. P.J. Strauss, Pieter Strauss CC, PO Box 588 La Montagne 0184, Phone: 012 807 0367, E-mail: Pieter...

  4. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to eliminate plastic shopping bags from South Africa's environment has resulted in the formation and implementation of the Plastic Carrier Bags and Plastics Flat Bags Regulations (hereafter referred to as the Plastic Bags Regulations).The new law requires manufacturers to produce thicker, reusable and ...

  5. Occurrence and causes of occupational asthma in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To present results for the first 3 years of the occupational asthma registry of the Surveillance of Workrelated and Occupational Respiratory Diseases in South Africa (SORDSA) programme, ending December 1999. Design. Surveillance was accomplished by collecting voluntary reports of occupational asthma ...

  6. Republic of South Africa: Fourth quarter 1989 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The production of uranium in South Africa is discussed. Uranium producers continue to be plagued by increasing costs and falling uranium prices, in addition to markets diminished as a result of political pressures. Difficult economic conditions have reduced the number of operating mines to seven where twelve were operating just three years ago

  7. Monitoring urban growth around Rustenburg, South Africa, using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nale Mudau

    spatial growth of Rustenburg city in South Africa from 2007 to 2012 using ... Many studies point out that population growth in urban areas is a result of ... maximum likelihood, minimum distance, spectral unmixing and neutral networks. ..... Bands (Case Study: Arid Region of Iran)', American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural.

  8. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nations, including South Africa, and resulted in the virtual elimination of measles in ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines, and Biologicals, World Health Organization,. Geneva, Switzerland ..... Lancet 1996; 348: 415. 18. Helfand RF, Moss WJ, Harpaz R, Scott S, Cutts F. Evaluating the impact of the HIV pandemic.

  9. Progress and future of a cashmere industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the progress that has been made with the utilisation and promotion of fine down (cashmere type) fibre production from indigenous goat breeds in South Africa and on the results obtained on samples received during the past two...

  10. Portugal and South Africa: Close Allies or Unwilling Partners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The popular perception of the existence of a straightforward alliance between Portugal and South Africa as a result of the growing efficacy of African nationalist groups during the 1960s and early 1970s has never been seriously questioned. However, new research into recently declassified documents from the Portuguese ...

  11. The management of professional sport coaches in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of a study on human resources managers and professional sport coaches at sport organizations in South Africa. It focuses specifically on the management of professional coaches. The methodology involved an extensive literature survey, structured in-depth interviews and the administration ...

  12. Estimation of adult antiretroviral treatment coverage in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unmet need for treatment in adults is estimated using a Markov model of HIV progression in adults, combined with estimates of annual new HIV infections from a national AIDS and demographic model. Results. By the middle of 2008, 568 000 adults and children were receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa, ...

  13. Economic and demographic trends of municipalities in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.J. du Plessis, Centre for Regional and Urban Innovation and Statistical ... Studies, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa. ... long-term development and resulting in the ..... France. 0.88-0.89. Company sales. France. 0.89-0.91. Company employees ... municipalities, and 1.04 in the case of.

  14. Extreme wind atlases of South Africa from global reanalysis data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Kruger, Andries; Badger, Jake

    2013-01-01

    Extreme wind atlases of South Africa were developed using three reanalysis data and recently developed approaches. The results are compared with the maps produced using standard wind measurements over the region. It was found that different reanalyses with the same approach provide similar spatia...

  15. The balance of trade in alien species between South Africa and the rest of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn T. Faulkner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alien organisms are not only introduced from one biogeographical region to another but also spread within regions. As South Africa shares land borders with six countries, multiple opportunities exist for the transfer of alien species between South Africa and other African countries; however, the direction and importance of intra-regional spread is unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of the introduction of alien species into Africa and the spread of species between South Africa and other African countries. Method: We developed scenarios that describe the routes by which alien species are introduced to and spread within Africa and present case studies for each. Using data from literature sources and databases, the relative importance of each scenario for alien birds and insect pests of eucalypts was determined, and the direction and importance of intra-regional spread was assessed. Results: Alien species from many taxonomic groups have, through various routes, been introduced to and spread within Africa. For birds and eucalypt insect pests, the number of species spreading in the region has recently increased, with South Africa being a major recipient of birds (14 species received and 5 donated and a major donor of eucalypt insect pests (1 species received and 10 donated. For both groups, many introduced species have not yet spread in the region. Conclusion: The intra-regional spread of alien species in Africa represents an important and possibly increasing threat to biosecurity. To address this threat, we propose a framework that details how African countries could cooperate and develop a coordinated response to alien species introductions.

  16. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  17. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. Abstract. South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa and stands at some risk from negative pollution i apa~ To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first attempt toapply the critical loads approach...

  18. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  19. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  20. Biodiversity intactness score for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biggs, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available are to show that the BII can be confidently applied, using available data, at all three gover- nance levels in South Africa (national, provincial, and local), as well as at the ecosystem level. We thereby introduce a tool that could be used to complement... existing methods in reporting on the state of South Africa’s biodiversity, a significant need which has been identified by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).23,38,39 We highlight the implications of our findings for bio...

  1. The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS: results of a baseline biological and behavioral HIV surveillance survey in two MSM communities in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Lane

    Full Text Available The Mpumalanga Men's Study (MPMS is the assessment of the Project Boithato HIV prevention intervention for South African MSM. Boithato aims to increase consistent condom use, regular testing for HIV-negative MSM, and linkage to care for HIV-positive MSM. The MPMS baseline examined HIV prevalence and associated risk behaviors, and testing, care, and treatment behaviors among MSM in Gert Sibande and Ehlanzeni districts in Mpumalanga province, South Africa in order to effectively target intervention activities. We recruited 307 MSM in Gert Sibande and 298 in Ehlanzeni through respondent-driven sampling (RDS between September 2012-March 2013. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence estimates are 28.3% (95% CI 21.1%-35.3% in Gert Sibande, and 13.7% (95% CI 9.1%-19.6% in Ehlanzeni. Prevalence is significantly higher among MSM over age 25 [57.8% (95% CI 43.1%-72.9% vs. 17.9% (95% CI 10.6%-23.9%, P<0.001 in Gert Sibande; 34.5% (95%CI 20.5%-56.0% vs. 9.1% (95% CI 4.6%-13.9%, P<0.001 in Ehlanzeni]. In Gert Sibande, prevalence is higher among self-identified gay and transgender MSM vs. other MSM [39.3% (95%CI, 28.3%-47.9%, P<0.01], inconsistent condom users [38.1% (18.1%-64.2%, P<0.05], those with a current regular male partner [35.0% (27.1%-46.4%, P<0.05], and those with lifetime experience of intimate partner violence with men [40.4%, (95%CI 28.9%-50.9%, P<0.05]. Prevalence of previous HIV testing was 65.8% (95%CI 58.8%-74.0% in Gert Sibande, and 69.3% (95%CI 61.9%-76.8% in Ehlanzeni. Regular HIV testing was uncommon [(34.6%, (95%CI 27.9%-41.4% in Gert Sibande; 31.0% (95%CI 24.9%-37.8% in Ehlanzeni]. Among HIV-positive participants, few knew their status (28.1% in Gert Sibande and 14.5% in Ehlanzeni, or were appropriately linked to care (18.2% and 11.3%, respectively, or taking antiretroviral therapy (13.6% and 9.6% respectively. MPMS results demonstrate the importance of implementing interventions for MSM to increase consistent condom use, regular HIV testing, and

  2. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  3. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and early antiretroviral treatment among female sex workers in South Africa: Results from a prospective observational demonstration project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Eakle

    2017-11-01

    . There were no seroconversions on PrEP and 7 virological failures on early ART among women remaining in the study. Reported adherence to PrEP varied over time between 70% and 85%, whereas over 90% of participants reported taking pills daily while on early ART. Data on provider-side costs were also collected and analysed. The total cost of service delivery was approximately US$126 for PrEP and US$406 for early ART per person-year. The main limitations of this study include the lack of a control group, which was not included due to ethical considerations; clinical study requirements imposed when PrEP was not approved through the regulatory system, which could have affected uptake; and the timing of the implementation of a national sex worker HIV programme, which could have also affected uptake and retention.PrEP and early ART services can be implemented within FSW routine services in high prevalence, urban settings. We observed good uptake for both PrEP and early ART; however, retention rates for PrEP were low. Retention rates for early ART were similar to retention rates for the current standard of care. While the cost of the interventions was higher than previously published, there is potential for cost reduction at scale. The TAPS Demonstration Project results provided the basis for the first government PrEP and early ART guidelines and the rollout of the national sex worker HIV programme in South Africa.

  4. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter https://www.policytracker.com/headlines/south­africa­heading­for­dynamic­spectrum­management/?searchterm=lysko 1/2 South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management Sep 26, 2016 by Albert Lysko South... characteristic of rural areas, which traditionally lag behind more commercially attractive urban areas. The technology is a bridge towards fully dynamic spectrum management and 5G. The ability to manage spectrum dynamically should significantly improve the utilization and availability of spectrum, especially in rural areas, as well as...

  5. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  6. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  7. All projects related to south africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South of Sahara, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 503,000.00. Creating a Common Platform for HIV Vaccine Research and HIV Care and Treatment Program. Project. Second only to South Africa in HIV burden, Nigeria's complex ...

  8. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  9. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  10. Insight into American tourists’ experiences with weather in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddy Julia K.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Weather and climate are often important factors determining the success of a tourism destination and resultant satisfaction among tourists. This is particularly true for South Africa due the predominance of outdoor tourist attractions. Increasing numbers of international tourists have visited South Africa since the fall of apartheid, particularly those from the United States (U.S., which is an important market for South African tourism. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine a sample of American tourists’ experience with day-to-day weather and climatic conditions in South Africa. The results show that although respondents did not feel that climatic conditions were an important factor in motivations to visit the country, the day-to-day weather did often impact the enjoyment of their visit. Most notably, weather controlled their ability to participate in outdoor activities. In correlating accounts of unpleasant weather conditions with the meteorological records, a close association emerged, particularly for excessively high temperatures. This indicates that the experiences of American tourists are an accurate indication of climatic unsuitability for tourism, which poses threats to the South African outdoor tourism sector.

  11. Post-Apartheid South Africa and United States National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    .... It is based on the realist premise that the U.S. has limited national interests in Sub-Saharan Africa which would be best served by a regional security strategy explicitly predicated on engagement with South Africa...

  12. A spatio-temporal analysis of fires in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Strydom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and history of fires in Africa has led to the continent being named "the fire continent". Fires are common on the continent and lead to a high number of annual fire disasters which result in many human fatalities and considerable financial loss. Increased population growth and concentrated settlement planning increase the probability of fire disasters and the associated loss of human life and financial loss when disasters occur. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations and characteristics of fires in South Africa, an 11-year data set of MODIS-derived Active Fire Hotspots was analysed using an open source geographic information system. The study included the mapping of national fire frequency over the 11-year period. Results indicate that the highest fire frequency occurred in the northeastern regions of South Africa, in particular the mountainous regions of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga, and in the Western Cape. Increasing trends in provincial fire frequency were observed in eight of the nine provinces of South Africa, with Mpumalanga the only province for which a decrease in annual fire frequency was observed. Temporally, fires were observed in all months for all provinces, although distinct fire seasons were observed and were largely driven by rainfall seasons. The southwestern regions of South Africa (winter-rainfall regions experienced higher fire frequencies during the summer months and the rest of the country (summer-rainfall regions during the winter months. Certain regions those which experienced bimodal rainfall seasons did not display distinct fire seasons because of the complex wet and dry seasons. Investigation into the likely effects of climate change on South African fire frequency revealed that increased air temperatures and events such as La Niña have a marked effect on fire activity.

  13. The uranium industry of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  14. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  15. The African Renaissance and the Transformation of the Higher Education Curriculum in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum is a critical element in the transformation of higher education, and as a result, I argue for the inclusion of what I refer to as an African epistemic in higher education curricula in South Africa. In so doing, attention is directed at the decolonisation of the curriculum in higher education in South Africa, which aims to give…

  16. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  17. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  18. Continental margin neotectonics in South Africa: a nuclear siting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoli, M.A.G.; Hambleton-Jones, B.B.; Anderson, N.J.B.; Faurie, J.N.; Raubenheimer, E.; Antoine, L.; Von Veh, M.W.; McMillan, I.K.

    1990-01-01

    Neotectonic activity in South Africa has only recently received attention despite the fact that a rigorous knowledge of this phenomenon could have a major impact on industrial development within certain areas. Since the early 1980s the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa has addressed this specific problem in the process of detailed site investigations for the licensing of six facilities related to the nuclear industry. The data indicates that there is a general correspondence in five selected areas along the South African coast between the development of Quarternary joints/faults and the degree of seismic activity recorded in each geological domain. Finally, the results provide new data that may add to a recent survey of global tectonic stresses. 13 refs., 1 fig

  19. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  20. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  1. URAT South Parallax Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Jao, Wei-Chun

    2018-04-01

    We present 916 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions of newly discovered nearby stars from the United States Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). Observations were taken at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory over a 2-year period from 2015 to 2017 October covering the entire sky south of about +25° decl. SPM4 and UCAC4 early epoch catalog data were added to extend the temporal coverage for the parallax and proper motion fit up to 48 years. Using these new URAT parallaxes, optical and near-IR photometry from the AAVSO Photometric All-Sky Survey and Two Micron All-Sky Survey catalogs, we identify possible new nearby dwarfs, young stars, low-metallicity subdwarfs and white dwarfs. Comparison to known trigonometric parallaxes shows a high quality of the URAT-based results confirming the error in parallax of the URAT south parallaxes reported here to be between 2 and 13 mas. We also include additional 729 trigonometric parallaxes from the URAT north 25 pc sample published in Finch & Zacharias here after applying the same criterion as for the southern sample to have a complete URAT 25 pc sample presented in this paper.

  2. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  3. Aggregate electricity demand in South Africa: Conditional forecasts to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inglesi, Roula [Department of Economics, Faculty of Economic and Management Sciences, University of Pretoria, Main Campus, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-01-15

    In 2008, South Africa experienced a severe electricity crisis. Domestic and industrial electricity users had to suffer from black outs all over the country. It is argued that partially the reason was the lack of research on energy, locally. However, Eskom argues that the lack of capacity can only be solved by building new power plants. The objective of this study is to specify the variables that explain the electricity demand in South Africa and to forecast electricity demand by creating a model using the Engle-Granger methodology for co-integration and Error Correction models. By producing reliable results, this study will make a significant contribution that will improve the status quo of energy research in South Africa. The findings indicate that there is a long run relationship between electricity consumption and price as well as economic growth/income. The last few years in South Africa, price elasticity was rarely taken into account because of the low and decreasing prices in the past. The short-run dynamics of the system are affected by population growth, too After the energy crisis, Eskom, the national electricity supplier, is in search for substantial funding in order to build new power plants that will help with the envisaged lack of capacity that the company experienced. By using two scenarios for the future of growth, this study shows that the electricity demand will drop substantially due to the price policies agreed - until now - by Eskom and the National Energy Regulator South Africa (NERSA) that will affect the demand for some years. (author)

  4. Aggregate electricity demand in South Africa: Conditional forecasts to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglesi, Roula

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, South Africa experienced a severe electricity crisis. Domestic and industrial electricity users had to suffer from black outs all over the country. It is argued that partially the reason was the lack of research on energy, locally. However, Eskom argues that the lack of capacity can only be solved by building new power plants. The objective of this study is to specify the variables that explain the electricity demand in South Africa and to forecast electricity demand by creating a model using the Engle-Granger methodology for co-integration and Error Correction models. By producing reliable results, this study will make a significant contribution that will improve the status quo of energy research in South Africa. The findings indicate that there is a long run relationship between electricity consumption and price as well as economic growth/income. The last few years in South Africa, price elasticity was rarely taken into account because of the low and decreasing prices in the past. The short-run dynamics of the system are affected by population growth, too After the energy crisis, Eskom, the national electricity supplier, is in search for substantial funding in order to build new power plants that will help with the envisaged lack of capacity that the company experienced. By using two scenarios for the future of growth, this study shows that the electricity demand will drop substantially due to the price policies agreed - until now - by Eskom and the National Energy Regulator South Africa (NERSA) that will affect the demand for some years. (author)

  5. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  6. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. ...

  7. All projects related to south africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and inequality? ... URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, URBAN POPULATION, Gender. Region: Brazil, India, South Africa, United Kingdom.

  8. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  9. Resource use associated with type 2 diabetes in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey: results from the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardino, Juan J; Atanasov, Petar K; Chan, Juliana C N; Mbanya, Jean C; Shestakova, Marina V; Leguet-Dinville, Prisca; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications form a global healthcare burden but the exact impact in some geographical regions is still not well documented. We describe the healthcare resource usage (HRU) associated with T2D in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Eurasia and Turkey. In the fifth wave of the International Diabetes Management Practices Study (IDMPS; 2011-2012), we collected self-reported and physician-reported cross-sectional data from 8156 patients from 18 countries across 5 regions, including different types of HRU in the previous 3-6 months. Negative binomial regression was used to identify parameters associated with HRU, using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) to express associations. Patients in Africa (n=2220), the Middle East (n=2065), Eurasia (n=1843), South Asia (n=1195) and Turkey (n=842) experienced an annual hospitalization rate (mean±SD) of 0.6±1.9, 0.3±1.2, 1.7±4.1, 0.4±1.5 and 1.3±2.7, respectively. The annual number of diabetes-related inpatient days (mean±SD) was 4.7±22.7, 1.1±6.1, 16.0±30.0, 1.5±6.8 and 10.8±34.3, respectively. Despite some inter-regional heterogeneity, macrovascular complications (IRRs varying between 1.4 and 8.9), microvascular complications (IRRs varying between 3.4 and 4.3) and, to a large extent, inadequate glycemic control (IRRs varying between 1.89 and 10.1), were independent parameters associated with hospitalization in these respective regions. In non-Western countries, macrovascular/microvascular complications and inadequate glycemic control were common and important parameters associated with increased HRU.

  10. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  11. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseapo P. Mthobeni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information.Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering

  12. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maseapo P. Mthobeni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available South African communities are still greatly affected by the high rate of infection with HIV or who are living with AIDS, mirrored in the 2008 overall national HIV prevalence of 29.3%(UNAIDS 2010:10. In addressing the challenge, the health system is dependent on community care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers based in the communities are the ones with first-hand information on what is needed for the success of health promotion programmes. This study, aimed at exploring the challenges faced by the health promoters, described their perceptions regarding a health promotion programme for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS. Data were collected on the purposively selected participants at the rural Hammanskraal region in South Africa and the research question: ‘What is your perception regarding health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS’ was asked and discussed by participants in a focus group interview. Data were analysed using the adapted Tesch method to organize and isolate the main categories, sub-categories and themes. The following main categories were isolated: attitudes of adolescents, effectiveness of home visits, need for health education and limited resources. Based on the findings, it was therefore recommended that health care planners assist in the improvement of health promotion and education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, including young people, to access the information. Suid-Afrikaanse gemeenskappe word steeds grootliks beïnvloed deur die hoë vlak van MIV en vigs, soos weerspieël in die algehele nasionale MIV-syfer in 2008 van 29.3% (UNAIDS 2010:10. In die aanspreek van hierdie uitdaging is die gesondheidstelsel afhanklik van gemeenskapsorgwerkers om gesondheidsbevordering

  13. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  14. Housing conditions and mental health of orphans in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Lochner; Sharp, Carla; Pappin, Michele; Lenka, Molefi; Cloete, Jan; Skinner, Donald; Serekoane, Joe

    2013-11-01

    Literature from the developed world suggests that poor housing conditions and housing environments contribute to poor mental health outcomes, although research results are mixed. This study investigates the relationship between housing conditions and the socio-emotional health of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in South Africa. The results of the study are mainly inconclusive, although it is suggested that methodological considerations play a vital role in explaining the mixed results. However, a positive relationship was found between living in informal settlements and better socio-emotional health of the OVC. We speculate that the historical context of informal settlement formation in South Africa helps to explain this unexpected result. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mars

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa.  Future actions are outlined.

  16. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined.

  17. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available as Sustainability Assessment and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been conceptualised and promoted in South Africa. This paper therefore investigates the following questions: Could the South African concept and application of SEA be what is required...

  18. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the kinds of investments and interventions needed to address urban violence. ... in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  20. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Pillay

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.

  1. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  2. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  3. Suicide and related health risk behaviours among school learners in South Africa: results from the 2002 and 2008 national youth risk behaviour surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sewpaul, Ronel; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2013-10-04

    Attempted and completed suicide constitute a major public health problem among young people world-wide, including South Africa (SA). Suicide attempt and completed suicide increase during the adolescent period. One in 5 adolescents considers attempting suicide, but statistics are frequently unreliable. Data for this study were derived from the 2002 and 2008 South African Youth Risk Behaviour Surveys (YRBS). The study population comprised grades 8, 9, 10 and 11 students in governmental schools in the nine provinces of SA (N = 10,699 in 2002 and 10,270 in 2008). Key outcome measures were suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Of the total sample, 18% of the students in 2002 and 19% in 2008 reported to have seriously considered and/or made a plan to commit suicide during the past six months (Suicide ideation), whereas 18.5% of students in 2002 and 21.8% in 2008 reported that they had attempted suicide at least 1 time during the past six months. On both suicide measures girls have higher prevalence scores than boys, and older school learners score higher than younger learners. In addition, 32% of the learners reported feelings of sadness or hopelessness. These feelings contributed significantly to the explanation of suicide ideation and suicide attempt next to being the victim or actor in violent acts and illegal substance use. The prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts among South African adolescents is high and seems to be influenced by a wide spectrum of factors at the demographic, psychological and behavioural level. Hence, more research is needed to determine the behavioural and psychological determinants of suicide among youngsters in order to develop comprehensive intervention strategies for suicide prevention and care.

  4. The quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedine K. Coetzee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level. Objective: To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students. Method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12, faculty (N = 50; n = 26, doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26 and students (N = 106; n = 63 at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15 were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys. Results: Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified. Conclusion: These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.

  5. Investor's and procurement guide South Africa. Pt. 1. Heavy minerals, rare earth elements, antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graupner, Torsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich; Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Opperman, Rehan; Long'a Tongu, Elisa; Kenan, Abdul O.; Nondula, Unathi; Tsanwani, Matamba

    2014-01-01

    would allow investors to gain a foothold into the large emerging markets of Africa. This handbook is a result of a cooperation project between the Council for Geoscience (CGS) of South Africa and the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) that started at the end of 2011 and is conducted by experts from DERA and the CGS. Studies on the different natural resources are compiled in this manual on new occurrences and deposits with investment and supply options for German investors and purchasers in South Africa.

  6. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  7. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  8. Telepsychiatry in South Africa – present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Wynchank

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent progress in telepsychiatry results from advancing technology and videoconferencing as an effective alternative to classic face-to-face psychiatric interaction, in terms of both results and cost-effectiveness. The wide range of applications of telepsychiatry is outlined – in particular, emergency, forensic, prison and adolescent psychiatry. Attitudes of patients and the providers of psychiatric services are discussed, and a short account is given of the place of tele-education in psychiatric teaching. The advantages of telepsychiatry are outlined and its limitations. Lastly, the limited experience and relevance of telepsychiatry in South Africa (and hence for other developing countries are presented. The conclusion is that telepsychiatry is well established, its successes documented, and that it should be applied in planning future public health services in South Africa.

  9. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  10. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  11. Hydropedological interpretation of arid soilscapes, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinnefeld, Martin; Van Tol, Jacobus; Le Roux, Pieter

    2017-04-01

    Hydropedological investigations in arid regions are scarce due to the low the low contribution of these areas to water resources. Infrequent rainfall and few flow events also complicates measurements hydrological studies. Hydropedological studies, relating soil morphological properties and their spatial distribution to hydrological response, have been studied in detail in semi-arid, temperate, and sub-humid regions. In this paper, we investigated the relation between soil morphological properties and selected hydrological properties of soils in an arid landscape. We also studied the spatial distribution of the morphological properties to conceptualise the hydrological behaviour of different soilscapes in the area. A total of 806 soil profiles, covering an area of 4836 ha in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa were described and classified. The geology is dominated by Dwyka tillite overlain by aeolian sands with scattered Dolerite buttes. Thirteen modal profiles, representing the dominant soils types were selected, sampled at horizon level, and analysed for pH, CEC, iron, manganese, carbonate content. In situ measurements of saturated and near saturated (tension) hydraulic conductivity (Ks) were conducted to determine the water conducting macroporosity (WCM). Undisturbed cores were collected on which water retention characteristics were determined under laboratory conditions. Results indicate that dry soil colour, degree of structure development and the presence, absence, and abundance of carbonates as well as the degree of precipitation, are important indicators of hydrological response. For example; grey soils typically have lower Ks with higher storage capacity than soils dominated by red colours, whereas abundant carbonate precipitations in the soil matrix have lower WCM due to clogging of macropores. The dominant soil distribution pattern indicates that rapid vertical flow, through and out of the pedon, might contribute to recharge of an accumulative

  12. Renewable energy resources for distributed generation systems in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szewczuk, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    The South African Government has objective to provide universal access of electricity for its citizens and its electrification programme has been successful but focus has moved from numbers of connections to one of achieving sustainable socio-economic benefits. First-hand understanding was obtained of the complexity of socio-economic development where CSIR undertook a project in the rural areas of South Africa to identify electrification opportunities using renewable energy linked to economic activities. Lessons formed basis of a government funding implementation of pilot hybrid mini-grids to inform a future rollout. Results informed the development of distributed generation concepts and an integrated methodology.

  13. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  14. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... With Africa's largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a government eager to play an active role in the promotion of regional peace and stability, South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa...

  15. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  16. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavunda, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  17. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  18. Student mobility and doctoral education in South Africa | Sehoole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...

  19. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  20. The contribution of radurization to food provision in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Thomas, A.C.; Hill, N.

    1988-01-01

    The preservation of food by radurization on a limited commercial basis has been practised in South Africa since 1980. High capital costs have, however, had a negative effect on the commercialization of radurization technology. The state of radurization in South Africa is presented. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Government Investment, Growth and Employment in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...

  2. Forest management and water in the Republic of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a semi-arid country with a very limited area of natural forest. The early colonial governments encouraged the establishment of plantations to supply wood for local uses, and South Africa consequently has a long history of plantation...

  3. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  4. Real interest rate persistence in South Africa: Evidence and implications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available literature that examines its long-run properties, surprisingly, there does not exist any study that delves into this issue for South Africa. Given this, using quarterly data (1960:Q2-2010:Q4) for South Africa, our paper endeavors to analyze the long...

  5. All projects related to South Africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will adopt a groundbreaking approach to understanding and responding to urban ... Region: Brazil, South Africa, United Kingdom ... Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it work? ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING, ...

  6. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  7. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  8. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  9. Contextual determinants of adolescent mortality in South Africa | De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...

  10. Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.

  11. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  12. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  13. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  14. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  15. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  16. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  17. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  18. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  19. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  20. Psychology in South Africa and the end of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wahbie

    2016-08-01

    Shortly before the end of apartheid rule in South Africa, Kurt Danziger (1994) asked whether the history of psychology had a future. In the 21 years that have since elapsed, the question retains its original significance. In this article, the state of the field in postapartheid South Africa is examined. Several key trends are identified, including a declining historical consciousness and a revival of Whig historiography. It is argued that the resulting lack of a critical history of postapartheid psychology is in keeping with the unassailability of the equivalent period in official state discourse. In view of an emerging consensus that the country is on the brink of another political watershed, it is suggested that the revival of the field may yet be possible. This will require a turn to histories of the present with a focus on the growing problem of co-option. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. "Homophobia hurts": Mourning as resistance to violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Julie

    2017-04-03

    Much has been written on the successful lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex movement in South Africa, and the resulting institutionalization of sexual minority rights. Comparatively less has been written about the forms of activism undertaken specifically by Black lesbians that are not oriented toward legal change. In this article, I assert the need to examine public demonstrations of mourning as an act of Black lesbian resistance to violence in South Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with members of Free Gender, a Black lesbian organization, I argue that members' conceptualizations of mourning as providing community support force a reconsideration of what it means to be human. In order to grasp the decolonial potential of Free Gender's activism, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's argument that a singular Western bourgeois conception of human has come to dominate globally.

  2. Customer service in the residential property market of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rudansky-KlopperS

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of estate agencies are entering the real estate market in South Africa and many are struggling to survive as competition grows stronger. Customer service has become of overriding importance to establish a differential advantage that will ensure long-term survival. This study investigates customer service by estate agencies in the residential property market of South Africa. The results indicate that estate agencies seem to be aware of the importance of providing good customer service and of being service-oriented, but they do not always seem to realise the need to conduct marketing research and test the actual satisfaction of customers with the services provided, leaving a potential gap between what the customer wants and what the estate agency provides.

  3. Fortress South Africa and the deconstruction of apartheid's migration regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, J

    1999-02-01

    South Africa's new democratic government inherited a system of cross-border migration management rooted in the abusive practices of the past. Under apartheid, employers such as mining companies and White farmers, were exempted from normal immigration legislation. The result was legislation and practices that are in direct conflict with the new government's commitment to transparency, equality, accountability, and fundamental human rights. The practices permitted by this system have continued after 1994. This paper documents the continuities in international migration policy and practice between the old and new South Africa and highlights the dilemmas which the government faces in transforming inherited policy. The paper critically analyzes the regulatory framework of the bilateral labor agreements and the Aliens Control Act. The paper then highlights policy proposals that contravene the discourse of the fortress and assesses, pessimistically, the likelihood of their implementation before the 1999 elections.

  4. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  5. HIV Serostatus Disclosure to Sexual Partners Among Sexually Active People Living with HIV in South Africa: Results from the 2012 National Population-Based Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbayi, Leickness C; Zungu, Nompumelelo; Evans, Meredith; Mehlomakulu, Vuyelwa; Kupamupindi, Takura; Mafoko, Goitseone; Zuma, Khangelani

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the prevalence and correlates of HIV seropositive status disclosure to sexual partners by people living with HIV (PLHIV) in South Africa. Secondary analysis of the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey was conducted on data obtained from 934 sexually active PLHIV aged 15 years and older who responded to the question about HIV seropositive status disclosure. Overall, a large majority of respondents (77.1 %) reported disclosing their HIV-positive status to all their current sex partners. Multiple regression analysis, after adjustments for sex, marital status and locality type, revealed that those who were living together, going steady, and those who were single were all 60 % [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.20-0.78; AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.24-0.77; and AOR = 0.4, 95 % CIs 0.19-1.00, all ps < 0.05] less likely to disclose their HIV positive status to their partners compared to those who were married. Those who lived in rural formal areas were 70 % less likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who stayed in urban formal areas (AOR = 0.3, 95 % CI 0.17-0.69, p < 0.001). Those who had correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths were 2.0 times more likely to disclose their HIV status to their partners compared to those who did not have correct HIV knowledge and rejection of myths (AOR = 2.0, 95 % CI 1.04-3.68, p < 0.05). In conclusion, intervention programmes which help improve HIV seropositive status disclosure are needed by PLHIV who are not married, live in rural formal areas, and have incorrect HIV knowledge and rejection of myths.

  6. Exploring the Usefulness of MISR-HR Products to Estimate Maize Crop Extent and Using Field Evidence to Evaluate the Results in South Africa's Free State Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, M. M.; Knox, N. M.; Hunt, L. A.; Kleyn, L.

    2014-12-01

    The MISR instrument on NASA's Terra platform has been operating for almost 15 years. Standard products are generated at a spatial resolution of 1.1 km or coarser, but a recently developed method to re-analyze the Level-1B2 data allows the retrieval of biogeophysical products at the native spatial resolution of the instrument (275 m). This development opens new opportunities to better address issues such as the management of agricultural production and food security. South African maize production is of great economic and social importance, not only nationally, but on the global market too, being one of the top ten maize producing countries. Seasonal maize production statistics are currently based on a combination of field measurements and estimates derived from manually digitizing high resolution imagery from the SPOT satellite. The field measurements are collected using the Producer Independent Crop Estimate System (PICES) developed by Crop Estimates Committee of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. There is a strong desire to improve the quality of these statistics, to generate those earlier, and to automate the process to encompass larger areas. This paper will explore the feasibility of using the MISR-HR spectral and directional products, combined with the finer spatial resolution and the relatively frequent coverage afforded by that instrument, to address these needs. The study area is based in the Free State, South Africa, one of the primary maize growing areas in the country, and took place during the 2012-2013 summer growing season. The significance of the outcomes will be evaluated in the context of the 14+ years of available MISR data.

  7. Personal Data Protection in New Zealand: Lessons for South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Roos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the European Union adopted a Directive on data protection. Article 25 of this Directive compels all EU member countries to adopt data protection legislation and to prevent the transfer of personal data to non-EU member countries ('third countries' that do not provide an adequate level of data protection. Article 25 results in the Directive having extra-territorial effect and exerting an influence in countries outside the EU. Like South Africa, New Zealand is a 'third' country in terms of the EU Directive on data protection. New Zealand recognised the need for data protection and adopted a data protection Act over 15 years ago. The focus of this article is on the data protection provisions in New Zealand law with a view to establishing whether South Africa can learn any lessons from them. In general, it can be said that although New Zealand law does not expressly recognise a right to privacy, it has a data protection regime that functions well and that goes a long way to providing adequate data protection as required by the EU Directive on data protection. Nevertheless, the EU has not made a finding to that effect as yet. The New Zealand data protection act requires a couple of amendments before New Zealand might be adjudged ‘adequate’. South Africa’s protection of the right to privacy and identity is better developed and more extensive than that of New Zealand. Privacy is recognised and protected in the law of delict and by the South African Constitution. Despite South Africa’s apparently high regard for the individual’s right to privacy and identity and our well-developed common and constitutional law of privacy, South Africa does not meet the adequacy requirement of the EU Directive, because we do not have a data protection Act. This means that South African participants in the information technology arena are at a constant disadvantage. It is argued that South Africa should follow New Zealand’s example and adopt a data

  8. Food consumption changes in South Africa since 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa-Claire Ronquest-Ross

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Food consumption patterns in South Africa have changed dramatically over the past decades and likely will continue to change over the coming decades. Various food-related studies conducted over the last few decades indicate that food consumption shifts in South Africa have been towards a more Westernorientated diet, with nutritional consequences contributing to increased obesity and other non-communicable diseases. Several sources of data may be used to examine patterns in food consumption over time. Each of these methods has its own merits depending on the desired outcome, but are difficult to compare as each measures different levels of dietary information. As a result of the lack of regular national or comparable food consumption data in South Africa, the objective of this study was to establish, through the use of databases (FAOSTAT food balance sheets and Euromonitor International Passport, the broad food and beverage consumption shifts in South Africa since 1994. Our findings indicate that food consumption shifts have been towards an overall increase in daily kilojoules consumed, a diet of sugar-sweetened beverages, an increase in the proportion of processed and packaged food including edible vegetable oils, increased intake of animal source foods, and added caloric sweeteners, and a shift away from vegetables. The largest shifts in food consumption were observed for soft drinks, sauces, dressings and condiments, sweet and savoury snacks, meat, and fats and oils. Convenience, health and nutrition, and indulgence were the main drivers of the increase in consumption of packaged foods and beverages. These shifts in food consumption are concerning as relates to their fat, sugar and salt composition and potential effect on public health.

  9. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO{sub 2} free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible

  10. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO 2 free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible for research and development in

  11. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  12. Health tourism in South Africa: opportunities and possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unathi Sonwabile Henama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is one industry that has grown in leaps and bound since the watershed moment in 1994. Mining and manufacturing have declined their share of gross domestic product contribution, whilst tourism has been a perennial growth sector. The growth of tourism has resulted in tourism becoming a priority sector by government and the private sector. Tourism creates jobs, attracts investment, foreign exchange and diversifies the economy. Health tourism can be regarded within the definition of special interest tourism, which is regarded as ‘’new tourism’’. The private healthcare system in South Africa is world class, and the growth of tourism has led to synergies being formed for the development of medical tourism in South Africa. The paper reviews health and medical tourism secondary literature to present an argument for the development of the industry, and the identification of obstacles to the growth of health tourism. There is paucity of academic gaze on medical tourism and the secondary research will present certain findings that will be of benefit to the health tourism industry in South Africa.

  13. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. (Soekor Ltd., Cape Town (South Africa))

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  14. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  15. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Van de Poel; Christine Fourie; Karen Seberechts

    2013-01-01

    South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet t...

  16. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.; Ainslie, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  17. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynard, H J; Ainslie, L C [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  18. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    OpenAIRE

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination. Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African To...

  19. Optimal tax rate and economic growth. Evidence from Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Muibi SAIBU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent economic crisis had made developing countries to look inward for financial resources to finance development. The readily alternative is the tax revenues however, the possible adverse direct and indirect effects of tax on productivity and work efforts as well as on aggregate consumption had make some African countries (especially Nigeria and South Africa reluctant in implementing far reaching tax policy reform. This paper examines optimal tax burden and real output growth Nigeria and South Africa, two of the top four economies in Africa. The paper empirically determined what should be the optimal tax rate for Nigeria and South Africa-the two leading economies in Africa. The paper found that nonlinearity hypothesis in the effects of tax in the case of South Africa is rejected while a significant nonlinear relationship is found in the case of Nigeria. The results suggest that the growth-maximizing tax rate is about 15% of per capita GDP for South Africa and 30% for Nigeria. At that tax rate, the economic growth rate would be around 6% and 8% instead of the actual mean growth rate of 2.84% and 4.51% for South Africa and Nigeria respectively. The paper concluded the current tax burden in the two countries may be sub-optimal and may hurt long term sustainable growth process in the two countries

  20. History of National Economic System Formation in the Republic of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya S. Zagrebelnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific historic features of formation of agrarian and industrial sectors of Republic of South Africa since the establishment of Cape Colony. These features resulted from much earlier colonization of South Africa in comparison with other Sub-Saharan African countries on the one hand and from a large-scale influx of Europeans to the South Africa on the other hand. The two most important of these specific features are the following. First. Contrary to other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa development of the agrarian sector of Republic of South Africa was based on private property and western technologies from the start. Second. The sector is not divided into «African» and «European» sub-sectors, and South-African agricultural produce has always been oriented to both: external and internal markets. Development of industrial sector of Republic of South Africa started with creation of extractive industries, namely: extraction of diamonds and of gold. The authors specifically emphasize the role of gold extraction which grace to its effect of multiplicator opened the way for industrial revolution in the South of Africa. Development of manufacturing was mainly based on import-substitution. The article argues that there were several stages of import-substitution and analyses their outcomes. The authors point out to the special importance of import-substitution during the period of I World War and II World War.

  1. Psychoanalysis in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Storck-van Reenen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.

  2. Health promotion capacity building in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Health promotion in South Africa is in its early stages and while there is some institutional development and capacity building for managers, there has been relative disregard and lack of attention of the wider health promotion workforce who carry out community-based health promotion activities. This article describes one regional education and training programme for health promoters as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project on learners and organizations. Marked differences before and after the implementation of the training activities were reported in relation to behaviour change communication and project planning, in addition to self-reported positive change in knowledge, confidence and a high level of participant satisfaction. Investment in individual skills development needs to be accompanied by wider workforce development with organizational/institutional development and recognised competencies frameworks.

  3. Matcom 86: Engineering materials in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium MATCOM '86 represents a significant departure from the usual format of scientific and engineering conferences. It provides a unique opportunity for industrialists, economists, the engineering and scientific communities, and research and development establishments to be briefed on critical issues relating to engineering materials and the effect of these materials on the manufacturing, service, health, strategic and minerals industries. Profitability and productivity in industry can often be linked to engineering materials and their in-service performance. Major surveys conducted in South Africa and developed countries have revealed the significance of losses to industry due to materials degradation problems such as fracture, wear, corrosion etc. One of the papers delivered at this symposium focus on the nuclear engineering industry, namely the application of materials in the field of uranium enrichment

  4. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanga, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  5. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.

  6. The Prosecution of Incitement to Genocide in South Africa | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Prosecution of Incitement to Genocide in South Africa. ... The creation of the crime was a direct result of the horrific effects of acts of incitement ... thereof as interpreted and applied by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).

  7. Testing wagner's law of government size for South Africa, 1950-2008

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wise, the results imply that development plans of South Africa must incorporate such fiscal policy measures that would guarantee commensurate growth in government revenue. Keywords: Wagner's law; co-integration; causality; government size; ...

  8. Failure of rural schemes in South Africa to provide potable water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mackintosh, G

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available rural areas is substandard. This paper describes the results of sampling drinking water supplies in rural communities in the Western and Eastern Cape, South Africa. The majority of samples collected failed microbial drinking water quality standards...

  9. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrheim, D N; Leggat, P A

    1999-09-01

    One of South Africa's principal tourist attractions is the opportunity to encounter Africa's large mammals in the wild. Attacks by these mammals can be exceptionally newsworthy with potentially deleterious effects on tourism. Little is known about the risk of injury and death caused by wild mammals to visitors to South Africa's nature reserves. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of fatal and nonfatal attacks on tourists by wild mammals in South Africa and to ascertain avoidable factors, if any. Commercial press records covering all South African Newspapers archived at the Independent Newspapers' central library were systematically reviewed for a 10-year period, January 1988 to December 1997 inclusive, to identify all deaths and injuries to domestic and international tourists resulting from encounters with wild mammals in South Africa. All of these incidents were analyzed to ascertain avoidable factors. During the review period seven tourists, including two students from Thailand and a German traveler, were killed by wild mammals in South Africa. Three of the four deaths ascribed to lions resulted from tourists carelessly approaching prides on foot in lion reserves. A judicial inquiry found that the management of a KwaZulu-Natal Reserve was culpable for the remaining death. Tourist ignorance of animal behavior and flagrant disregard of rules contributed to the two fatalities involving hippopotami. The unusual behavior manifested by the bull elephant responsible for the final death, resulted from discomfort caused by a dental problem to this pachyderm. During the same period there were 14 nonfatal attacks on tourists, including five by hippo, three by buffalo, two by rhino, and one each by a lion, leopard, zebra and musth elephant. Only the latter occurred while the visitor was in a motor vehicle. Tourist ethological naivete and failure to determine the experience of trail guides prior to travel, resulted in inadvertent agonistic behavior

  10. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide.A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541 children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5% were neonates (0-28 d, and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9% were infants (under 1 y, giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d, and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8% of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015. Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%. Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment

  11. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15-19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0-28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0-6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have information on abandonment motives for all

  12. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  13. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  14. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  15. Regional Dimensions of South Africa's CAADP Process: Lessons from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Staaz, John; Boughton, Duncan; Diallo, Boubacar; Meyer, Ferdinand; Minde, Issac Joseph; Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Tschirley, David

    2015-01-01

    Regional spillovers offer prospects for accelerating Africa’s agricultural productivity growth, market development and food security. West Africa has recognised and embraced the importance of regional technology transfers, agricultural commodity trade, food security monitoring and agricultural planning. In order for the Southern African region to follow suit, South Africa’s country Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) plan will need to recognise the country’s c...

  16. Moving Across Boundaries: Migration in South Africa, 1950–2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government’s suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans. PMID:22956415

  17. Moving across boundaries: migration in South Africa, 1950-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Holly E

    2013-02-01

    Existing knowledge about historical patterns of black internal migration in South Africa is incomplete, primarily because of the lack of good life course studies as well as the apartheid government's suppression and censoring of data. This article provides a comprehensive picture of historical internal migration patterns with an analysis of a unique individual retrospective life history data set. This sample of the black population, collected in 2000, is the only known nationally representative life history data for South Africa; it includes all residential moves for each individual during his/her lifetime. Various mobility outcomes are analyzed: moves within/across provinces, moves within/across rural and urban areas, forced moves, moves with a nuclear family, and individual moves. The results indicate that migration significantly increased among black South Africans during the last half of the twentieth century, and that this increase began before the Pass Laws were repealed in 1986 and well before the official end of apartheid in 1991 or the first free election in 1994. The timing of this increase in migration rates suggests that migration in defiance of the Pass Laws (albeit a dangerous and desperate proposition) was a way of life for many black South Africans.

  18. Effects of South Africa’s Economic Growth on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Sik Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Major countries, such as the United States, Japan, and China have already recognized the potential of Africa’s markets. Korea has also taken notice of Africa's diverse export markets recently. However, Africa is comprised of 53 different countries and, as a result, entry into the region poses a formidable strategic challenge. Korean authorities and export groups have suggested a "3 plus 2 Country Strategy" in order to make inroads into the African region. This paper contributes to discussions of this strategy by comparing the effects of economic growth in South Africa and Nigeria on Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, because economic power in Africa is concentrated in a small number of countries, whose market characteristics are different from those of integrated unions, the determinants of economic growth in Africa as a whole and unions may be different. This paper investigates whether or not this is, in fact, the case. The empirical results can be summarized as follows: First, the effects of South Africa's economic growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the SADC (a representative union of South Africa are much larger than the effects of Nigeria's growth on Sub-Saharan Africa and the ECOWAS (a representative union of Nigeria. These empirical results imply that the preferred country to pursue economic cooperation with is South Africa. Second, we confirm that determinants of economic growth are different for Africa and the unions. The main determinant of growth in African countries may be the population ratio, but in the SADC, growth appears to be determined by ratio trade volumes of GDP. Finally, we also find that the ratio investments of GDP have a positive influence on the economic growth of both Africa and SADC.

  19. African immigrants in South Africa: Job takers or job creators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivence Kalitanyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade African immigrants have been met with and exposed to severe forms of hostility towards their presence in this country. A significant number of these migrants have successfully applied their entrepreneurial flair in establishing small enterprises and employing workers, often to the envy of their local counterparts. This paper presents the findings of an empirical study conducted in 2007 on job creation by African immigrant entrepreneurs for South Africans with face-to-face interviews with 120 African immigrant entrepreneurs. These findings were triangulated 7 non-governmental organisations that interact with immigrants in Cape Town. A review of the literature on migration, entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurs formed the basis for the study The findings indicate that more than 80% of African immigrant entrepreneurs interviewed employ South Africans in their businesses. Despite a generally negative national perception towards immigrants, this study has also revealed that entrepreneurial skills are transferred from immigrant entrepreneurs to their South African employees. Whilst the study was only conducted in the suburban areas of Cape Town, the researcher believes that the results represent the general trend for South Africa. Furthermore, the study only involved those migrants who come from African continent. The overall result is the acknowledgement of the contribution that non-citizens are making to the country’s growth and development. The findings suggest recommendations geared towards policy changes regarding South African immigration law, an inclusive research about the role of immigrants on job creation in South Africa, as well as the consideration of immigrant entrepreneurs when allocating financial support.

  20. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  1. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  2. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  3. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurner, Thomas W.; Varughese, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  4. A possible solution for corruption in South Africa with the church as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Transparency International, Africa is the most corrupt region in the world. In South Africa, there is an annual 'loss' of about R30 billion as a result of bribery and corruption. It would appear that it is exactly the poor and the vulnerable who suffer most under the scourge of corruption. The purpose of this research ...

  5. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltzer Karl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' views are being given more and more importance in policy-making. Understanding populations' perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary health care services. Using the data from the South African World Health Survey (WHS, the current study aims to evaluate the degree of health care service responsiveness (both out-patient and in-patient and comparing experiences of individuals who used public and private services in South Africa. Methods A population-based survey of 2352 participants (1116 men and 1236 women was conducted in South Africa in 2003, the WHS – as part of a World Health Organization (WHO project focused on health system performance assessment in member countries. Results Health care utilization was among those who attended in-patient care 72.2% attended a public and 24.3% a private facility, and of those who attended out-patient care 58.7% attended a public and 35.7% a private facility. Major components identified for out-patient care responsiveness in this survey were highly correlated with health care access, communication and autonomy, secondarily to dignity, confidentiality and quality of basic amenities, and thirdly to health problem solution. The degree of responsiveness with publicly provided care was in this study significantly lower than in private health care. Overall patient non-responsiveness for the public out-patient service was 16.8% and 3.2% for private care. Discrimination was also one of the principal reasons for non-responsiveness in all aspects of provided health care. Conclusion Health care access, communication, autonomy, and discriminatory experiences were identified as priority areas for actions to improve responsiveness of health care services in South Africa.

  6. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  7. Impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with particular emphasis on South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chamier, J; Schachtschneider, K; le Maitre, DC; Ashton, PJ; van Wilgen, BW

    2012-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge of quantified impacts of invasive alien plants on water quality, with a focus on South Africa. In South Africa, over 200 introduced plant species are regarded as invasive. Many of these species are particularly prominent in riparian ecosystems and their spread results in native species loss, increased biomass and fire intensity and consequent erosion, as well as decreased river flows. Research on the impact of invasive alien plants on water resources h...

  8. Risk Compensation Following Medical Male Circumcision: Results from a 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study of Young School-Going Men in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K; George, G; Beckett, S; Montague, C; Frohlich, J

    2018-02-01

    This study sought to assess risk compensation following voluntary medical male circumcision of young school-going men. Risk compensation is defined as an inadvertent increase in sexual risk behaviors and a corresponding decrease in self-perceived risk for contracting HIV following the application of a risk reduction technology. This study documented the sexual practices of circumcised (n = 485) and uncircumcised (n = 496) young men in 42 secondary schools at three time points (baseline and 6 and 12 months) in a sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Study participants were aged from 16 to 24 years old. At the end of the study period, there was no significant difference between the two cohorts concerning learners' perceptions of being at risk of contracting HIV (interaction effect: b = -0.12, p = 0.40). There was also no significant difference in the number of sexual partners in the previous month (interaction effect: b = -0.23, p = 0.15). The proportion of learners who have never used a condom decreased significantly over time (time effect: b = -0.27, p = 0.01), and there was no difference between the circumcised and uncircumcised learners (interaction effect: b = -0.09, p = 0.91). Risk compensation, as evidenced in this study over a 1-year period, was not associated with undergoing voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in our sample of young school-going men. However, it is of concern that at the end of this study, less than half of the sexually active sample in a high-HIV-prevalence community used condoms consistently in the previous month (39% for both study cohorts). The latter underscores the need to view VMMC as a potential entry point for planned HIV and sexuality education interventions targeting young men in this community.

  9. Sexual and reproductive health services utilization by female sex workers is context-specific: results from a cross-sectional survey in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2017-01-19

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are extremely vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. To mitigate these risks, they require access to services covering not only HIV prevention but also contraception, cervical cancer screening and sexual violence. To develop context-specific intervention packages to improve uptake, we identified gaps in service utilization in four different cities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of the baseline assessment of an implementation research project. FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400), Mysore, India (n = 458) and Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and starting with 8-16 'seeds' identified by the peer educators. FSWs responded to a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire about the use of contraceptive methods and services for cervical cancer screening, sexual violence and unwanted pregnancies. RDS-adjusted proportions and surrounding 95% confidence intervals were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests with Dunn-Šidák correction. Current use of any modern contraception ranged from 86.2% in Tete to 98.4% in Mombasa (p = 0.001), while non-barrier contraception (hormonal, IUD or sterilisation) varied from 33.4% in Durban to 85.1% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Ever having used emergency contraception ranged from 2.4% in Mysore to 38.1% in Mombasa (p < 0.001), ever having been screened for cervical cancer from 0.0% in Tete to 29.0% in Durban (p < 0.001), and having gone to a health facility for a termination of an unwanted pregnancy from 15.0% in Durban to 93.7% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Having sought medical care after forced sex varied from 34.4% in Mombasa to 51.9% in Mysore (p = 0.860). Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant after adjusting for variations in FSWs

  10. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  11. Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency departments and nuclear medicine.1 Added to this is the periodic need ... electrophysiology in the paediatric population in South Africa were not found. ..... to inadequate information technology infrastructure as well as limited data ...

  12. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  13. All projects related to South Africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / South Africa ... WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender ... over minor variants of existing products, both in developed and developing countries.

  14. an introduction to the exploration of congregations in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is to describe a framework for doing significant practical theological research, but also ... the research produced through theses, dissertations, journal articles and books make .... The quality of doctoral education in South Africa : A question of.

  15. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal ... will in government, a need to restore citizen trust in government intention and capability ... services, and a failure to up-scale existing water re-use technology.

  16. South Africa's SAFARI From nuclear weapons to nuclear medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, such as power generation and nuclear ... Building on its nuclear expertise, South Africa has become one of the world's ... By converting its nuclear reactor, SAFARI-1, to produce and supply medical ...

  17. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  18. Uptake and early removals of Implanon NXT in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coverage over the past two decades.[3,4]. In South Africa (SA), .... with dealing with implant side-effects, counselling and management, and removal. ..... social franchising: The experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali. Glob Health: Sci ...

  19. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Management of diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prediabetes: a focus on the role of diabetes education in prevention of type 2 ...

  20. South Africa. The dawn of the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forder, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Procurement of renewable energy from Independent Power Producers is well underway in South Africa in a programme that targets 3,725 MW by 2015. Wind and solar feature prominently in the initial phase. (orig.)

  1. Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major championship event. ... from the less developed and developing context from an impact perspective. ... participated in various tourism activities that contributed to the local economy.

  2. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  3. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, 2004. ... Bradshaw D, Kielkowski D, Sitas F. New birth and death registration forms – A foundation for ...

  4. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, coagulopathy may not be identified until the patient manifests with ... To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA). Methods. ... that its greatest value is in identifying those patients who do ...

  5. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. ... Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. ... is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims.

  6. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa. ... whether informed consent as envisioned by the law exists in reality. Cross-cultural research is needed to clarify patients' and parents' expectations of informed consent ...

  7. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  8. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  9. Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatrists in South Africa to meet the country's needs. There are even fewer .... criminal justice system to hospital and or community mental health placements ... administrative meetings, other judicial activities and other clinical services4,9 ...

  10. All projects related to South Africa | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... Region: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Zambia, Poland, South Africa ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  11. Industrial heritage tourism at the 'Big Hole', Kimberley, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as well as lack of leadership and strategic direction for tourism development at the local government level. These issues must be addressed if heritage tourism in South Africa is to contribute successfully to local economic development.

  12. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  13. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  14. Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa | Strydom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the ...

  15. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  17. Methods for design flood estimation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ... This paper reviews methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa and .... transposition of past experience, or a deterministic approach,.

  18. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  19. First-order regional seismotectonic model for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A first-order seismotectonic model was created for South Africa. This was done using four logical steps: geoscientific data collection, characterisation, assimilation and zonation. Through the definition of subunits of concentrations of earthquake...

  20. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers' perspectives. ... This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation ... Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and ...

  1. Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... freshwaters, implemented through a water resource classifica- tion system ... piled for each of South Africa's 19 Water Management Areas, which are ..... et al., 2011) and integrated water and land-use prioritisation. (Nel et al.

  2. Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change and ... Decreasing food availability for wildlife is likely to exacerbate the impacts of climate change ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  3. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  5. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's ... dairy industry and calculated from the number of dairy producers per province .... provincial basis were sourced from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA), the ...

  6. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. South Africa's hydropolitical history: actors, actions, roles, and responsibilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Findlater, KM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the arrival of the Dutch in 1652, water resource development in South Africa has been driven by political ideology and rising demand for limited resources, forcing major changes in policy and institutional capacity over time. Understanding...

  9. Performance of autopsies in South Africa: Selected legal and ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... In South Africa, academic and/or anatomical pathology autopsies are conducted in terms ... She is involved in the co-ordination of the academic programme in the department and teaching of undergraduate ... The incidence.

  10. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources...

  11. The biological control of aquatic weeds in South Africa: Current status and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. Hill

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems in South Africa are prone to invasion by several invasive alien aquatic weeds, most notably, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laub. (Pontederiaceae (water hyacinth; Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae (water lettuce; Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitch. (Salviniaceae (salvinia; Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Conc. Verd. (parrot’s feather; and Azolla filiculoides Lam. (Azollaceae (red water fern. Objective: We review the biological control programme on waterweeds in South Africa. Results: Our review shows significant reductions in the extent of invasions, and a return on biodiversity and socio-economic benefits through the use of this method. These studies provide justification for the control of widespread and emerging freshwater invasive alien aquatic weeds in South Africa. Conclusions: The long-term management of alien aquatic vegetation relies on the correct implementation of biological control for those species already in the country and the prevention of other species entering South Africa.

  12. Access to Justice in South Africa: Are there Enough Lawyers?

    OpenAIRE

    David Mcquoid-Mason

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses head on the contention by a prominent legal practitioner in South Africa that there are too many lawyers in the country. It does not canvass the complex issues involved in determining the meaning of access to justice or the relationship between law and society in the context of legal services, and deals with access to justice in the narrow sense of the delivery of legal services in South Africa. The paper analyses the evidence presented to substantiate the contention that...

  13. Some examples of tactical crime mapping in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica AntonyCooperandPeterSchmitz icomtek,CSIR,POBox395,Pretoria,0001,SouthAfrica Email:acooper@csir.co.za,pschmitz@csir.co.za 7January2002 1.Background TheCouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR)isoneofeightstatutoryScienceCouncils in...,especiallyPietByleveld,Andrew Davidson,BarkiesBarkhuizen,GerritRobbertse,KevinRossouwandChrisNaude. 6.References AntonyKCooper,PietByleveldandPeterMUSchmitz,“UsingGIStoreconcilecrimesceneswith thoseindicatedbyserialcriminals”,paperpresentedattheFifthInternationalCrime Mapping...

  14. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  15. Theories of distributive justice and post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Carl

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism rec...

  16. Intellectual capital management in a retail company in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. The competitive landscape in the retail sector in South Africa is changing, and new models of competitiveness are needed to deal with the challenges ahead. The responses that usually occur in relation to the above statement reveal a new competitive reality, demanding that the organisation’s capabilities will enable the retail company in South Africa to better serve their customers and to differentiate them from competitors. This dissertation is about determining the status of the meas...

  17. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  18. South Africa: time is ripe for independent power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.

    2009-09-15

    Africa's biggest producer of electricity Eskom, is at a crossroad. Almost 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated by coal-fired power stations. On-off plans for nuclear power seem to be 'on' again and the regulatory red tape that has thwarted independent power producers could be cut. 3 photos.

  19. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  20. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  1. Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-Saharan Africa. However, the country has also experienced defi cits in net international migration relative to the core Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) region of the world system. The tentative conclusion to be drawn from. South Africa's involvement in international migration is that it has ...

  2. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  3. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  4. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  5. South Africa's Nuclear Skills Development Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matube, Ntebatse [NECSA, P.O. BOX 582, 00001 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa's long nuclear history has enabled it to develop and explore new nuclear technologies. The country's nuclear industry is becoming innovative and will soon be able to compete within the global nuclear market. This includes projects such as the Pebble-Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), a generation IV reactor technology, whose construction is anticipated by 2009. This will put South Africa in the fore-front of new technologies. Globally, the nuclear sector is experiencing a renaissance with political support from most governments. The South African government intends to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country as a result of an energy crisis resulting from economic growth and thus high demand which will soon outstrip supply. This increased energy demand requires the country to take measures to counteract the crisis. It has been projected that an additional 40000 Megawatts of electricity will be required over the next 20 years in South Africa. Currently about 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated from coal and about 6% from nuclear. The South African electricity utility, Eskom is investigating the expansion of the utility's nuclear power capacity. These investigations are aimed at a potential increase of nuclear capacity to 20000 Megawatts by 2025. Eskom is in the initial phase of the investigation and is considering advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) with a combined capacity of around 3500 Megawatts. This planned expansion of the nuclear energy generating program has presented a challenge of developing and maintaining skills and competencies required by the program. The South African government has acknowledged that they do have a challenge and are going to have to develop an aggressive approach to acquire the necessary skills and competencies required for the program. This aggressive approach will have to accelerate the development of nuclear human capital capacity by ensuring that we utilize the

  6. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Van de Poel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet these particular students’ needs and provide a communication support tool, the concept of a paper-based pocket-size multi-lingual illustrated dictionary was introduced as an additional component in a blended learning approach, to complement online materials called MoM-SA. The dictionary, to which students are invited to add material, has word lists in English, Afrikaans and Spanish, and offers links to the online materials. Students can add terminology, translations into other African languages and images, so that the dictionary grows and reflects the everyday needs of the students, who, at the same time, become co-owners of the dictionary; thus, process has become content and, as a result, learner motivation has increased.

  7. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Susan J.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC). Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection. PMID:25971402

  8. Social accountability and nursing education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Armstrong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is global emphasis on transforming health workforce education in support of universal health coverage. Objective: This paper uses a social accountability framework, specifically the World Health Organization's six building blocks for transformative education, to explore key informants’ perspectives on nursing education in South Africa. Methods: Using a snowballing sampling technique, 44 key informants were selected purposively on the basis of their expertise or knowledge of the research area. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the key informants after informed consent had been obtained. The interviews were analysed using template analysis. Results: South Africa has strategic plans on human resources for health and nursing education, training, and practice and has a well-established system of regulation and accreditation of nursing education through the South African Nursing Council (SANC. Key informants criticised the following: the lack of national staffing norms; sub-optimal governance by both the SANC and the Department of Health; outdated curricula that are unresponsive to population and health system needs; lack of preparedness of nurse educators; and the unsuitability of the majority of nursing students. These problems are exacerbated by a perceived lack of prioritisation of nursing, resource constraints in both the nursing education institutions and the health training facilities, and general implementation inertia. Conclusion: Social accountability, which is an essential component of transformative education, necessitates that attention be paid to the issues of governance, responsive curricula, educator preparedness, and appropriate student recruitment and selection.

  9. Community perceptions and attitudes regarding wildlife crime in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duncker, LC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available in directing the development and design of a whole-of-society approach, which could be utilized in tackling different kinds of security problems in South Africa. Wildlife crime is a complex problem but by adding the perspectives of various actors, which... opportunities and the resulting money flowing into the areas; as well as for protecting animals for future generations. Infield [11] showed in a study in 1986 that despite a belief that the parks caused many problems for local people, and that the promised...

  10. The Economic Implications of Introducing Carbon Taxes in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing

    2014-01-01

    carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces......South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border...

  11. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). Report on Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabille, Eugéne; Prinsloo, Eric; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    , to verify the results of the meso-scale modelling. The Measurements work package (WP2) is one of six work packages that collectively make up the Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) project. The measurements also provide observed wind climates at the measurement sites, which can be used by micrositing...... to be commissioned was WM06 (Sutherland) and this was completed on 17 September 2010. The outputs of WP2 are: i. Establish 10 high quality wind measurement stations providing three years of measurement data for calibration of the mesoscale modelling. ii. A database system for wind data collection and on-line Web...

  12. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  13. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  14. Marine fisheries monitoring programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayekiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was an early leader in multidisciplinary studies of marine resources, particularly with the Benguela Ecology Programme in the 1980s and 1990s and catch records are available for some species dating back more than a century. Resources data have focused on trends in catches, fishing effort and changes in distribution and abundance of harvested resources, which often account for a major part of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Data have been collected by means of fishery-dependent and fishery-independent survey techniques appropriate to each particular stock and analysed using traditional single species stock assessment techniques. The data are complemented by comprehensive information on the environment and top predators and have been analysed using trophodynamic models such as Ecopath with Ecosim. Future approaches include a shift to an ecosystem approach to fisheries monitoring and management, in an attempt to reconcile utilisation and biodiversity conservation objectives. Despite these scientific achievements, the single species approach to the management of most resources still persists, with only limited interactions between competing species or predators and prey being formally taken into account when modelling the stock dynamics and providing management advice to the authorities.

  15. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million, respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future.

  16. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  17. South Africa. Closure plan of an operation at LILW repository in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Vaalputs, the South African, National Radioactive Waste Management Facility, is situated in an area of the Northern Cape Province and is operated by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited. Screening and site selection lasted from 1978-1984, construction took place from 1984 to 1986. The waste received is predominantly from the Koeberg nuclear power station and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste is disposed of in a near surface disposal facility in clay. Two trenches were excavated for use, one is used for concrete containers and one for other waste, mostly compressed trash in 200-liter drums. No capping of trenches has taken place as it was originally anticipated that the trenches would be capped after being filled. Much slower delivery of waste packages and other problems has led to a process of temporary capping

  18. Disposal of unwanted pesticides in Stellenbosch, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqiel Dalvie, Mohamed; Africa, Algernon; London, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Background: Unwanted pesticides in developing countries are major environmental health threats. This study followed-up a previous audit of unwanted and obsolete pesticides on farms in a rural district of South Africa six years after a National Retrieval Project (NPR) was undertaken. Methods: A descriptive survey of 37 farms that had been in possession of unwanted pesticides in a 1995 survey and a purposive sample of 34 neighbouring farms, was carried out. The survey data included farm details; details of unwanted pesticide stocks, volumes of empty containers and safety and hygiene of pesticide stores. In addition, management was asked if they had been informed about and participated in the 1997 NPR and similarly whether they were aware of the retrieval planned by the African Stockpiles Programme (ASP). Results: Forty (56%) farms were in possession of obsolete pesticides of which 24 (59%) were farms that had unwanted stocks in the previous survey. There were more than 9 tonnes of these pesticides, 50% more than in the previous survey, including 20 chemicals banned, withdrawn or restricted in South Africa or classified as WHO Class I toxicity. Over 2800 kg of pesticides (30%) were not identifiable. None of the farms participated in the NPR, although 47 knew of the initiative. Only six farmers (9%) knew of the ASP initiative. Fifty-nine farms (83%) had empty containers on the premises. Most pesticide stores (67%) had floors contaminated with chemicals. Conclusion: The survey found that despite the NPR, the problem of unwanted pesticides in the study area and probably throughout South Africa has deteriorated. National and international policies should control the problem at source and encourage more sustainable agriculture

  19. A climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, R. C.; Middleton, C.; Lennard, C.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2017-09-01

    Severe thunderstorms pose a considerable risk to society and the economy of South Africa during the austral summer months (October-March). Yet, the frequency and distribution of such severe storms is poorly understood, which partly stems out of an inadequate observation network. Given the lack of observations, alternative methods have focused on the relationship between severe storms and their associated environments. One such approach is to use a combination of covariant discriminants, derived from gridded datasets, as a probabilistic proxy for the development of severe storms. These covariates describe some key ingredient for severe convective storm development, such as the presence of instability. Using a combination of convective available potential energy and deep-layer vertical shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, this study establishes a climatology of potential severe convective environments across South Africa for the period 1979-2010. Results indicate that early austral summer months are most likely associated with conditions that are conducive to the development of severe storms over the interior of South Africa. The east coast of the country is a hotspot for potential severe convective environments throughout the summer months. This is likely due to the close proximity of the Agulhas Current, which produces high latent heat fluxes and acts as a key moisture source. No obvious relationship is established between the frequency of potential severe convective environments and the main large-scale modes of variability in the Southern Hemisphere, such as ENSO. This implies that several factors, possibly more localised, may modulate the spatial and temporal frequency of severe thunderstorms across the region.

  20. Guidelines for the marketing of independent schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaan Immelman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of the study is to recommend marketing guidelines for independent primary schools, with the focus on product and people in the marketing mix. This objective was achieved by identifying choice factors influencing parents’ selection of independent primary schools, identifying the most important choice factors and demographic differences regarding the importance parents attached to these factors. Problem investigated: Some independent schools in South Africa find it difficult to market themselves effectively as a result of a lack of information pertaining to the choice factors identified by parents when selecting independent primary schools. A comprehensive set of choice factors will provide a more accurate picture of the criteria parents perceive as important in independent school selection. Methodology: The methodological approach followed was exploratory and quantitative in nature. The sample consisted of 669 respondents from 30 independent schools in Gauteng in South Africa. A structured questionnaire, with a five-point Likert scale, was fielded to gather the data. The descriptive and factor analysis approaches were used to analyse the results. Findings and implications: The main finding is that a total of 29 different choice factors were identified that parents perceive as important when selecting an independent primary school. The most important factor for parents when making a choice is the small size of the classes, followed by the religious ethos of the school as well as qualified and committed educators. This indicates that parents have a comprehensive set of choice factors and implies that a better understanding of these factors by independent schools may assist them to focus their marketing efforts more optimally in order to attract new learners. Originality and value of the research: Very little research exists with specific reference to independent school marketing in South Africa

  1. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  2. Childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes: evidence from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Duncan

    2015-07-01

    Many South African children experience maltreatment, but we know little about the effects on long-term child development. Using the only representative dataset that includes a module on childhood maltreatment for a metropolitan city in South Africa, we explore the association between different measures of childhood maltreatment and two educational outcomes (numeracy test scores and dropout). Our study provides an estimate of the association between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes in a developing country where maltreatment is high. We control for potential confounders using a range of statistical techniques and add several robustness checks to evaluate the strength of our findings. Our results indicate that children who are maltreated suffer large adverse consequences in terms of their numeracy test scores and probability of dropout and that the estimated effects of maltreatment are larger and more consistent for the most severe type of maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. "Smuggling the Vernacular into the Classroom": Conflicts and Tensions in Classroom Codeswitching in Township/Rural Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probyn, Margie

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, as in many parts of postcolonial Africa, English dominates the political economy and as a result is the medium of instruction chosen by the majority of South African schools, despite the fact that most learners do not have the opportunity to acquire English to the levels necessary for effective engagement with the curriculum.…

  4. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  5. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa | Mokgoro | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not ... In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a ... Ubuntu can therefore become central to a new South African jurisprudence ...

  6. Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events. Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, ...

  7. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  8. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  9. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL ... Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, Europe, Russia, North and ... Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... area and makes a substantial contribution to the country's balance of payments.

  10. Experience in marketing irradiated food in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.P.N.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is acknowledged as being one of the leaders in the field of food irradiation. This paper will be divided into three major sections: 1. A background of South African radiation facilities, population demographics and the retail market. 2. Commercial marketing trials, reasons and consumer reaction. 3. The future of radiation for possible food processing and its safe introduction to society

  11. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  12. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  13. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  14. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  15. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  16. Stem cell tourism in South Africa: The legal position | Mahomed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem cell tourism has become a common phenomenon worldwide and is increasingly affecting South Africa, as is evident from recent media reports. We examine the South African legal framework regulating stem cell therapy, focusing first on the effects of unproven stem cell treatments, and provide recommendations that ...

  17. A strategic promotion of language use in multilingual South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents and discusses strategies for encouraging the use of all official languages in South Africa from a language management perspective. Although the South African language policy has been commended for its multilingual nature, the implementation of the policy is still problematic. Hence, I argue that we ...

  18. Dignity, religion and freedom of expression in South Africa | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue that this article dealt with is whether, in South African law, speech that infringes upon the religious feelings of an individual is protected by the dignity clause in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The Constitution, as well as the Broadcasting Code, prohibits language that advocates hatred, inter alia, ...

  19. Quality assurance in diabetic retinal screening in South Africa | Cook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... external quality assurance (EQA) on graders registered in the Ophthalmological Society of South Africa DR screening programme. Methods. Graders registered on the South African (SA) Diabetic Register website were invited to participate in the study. The Scottish EQA software system was used to enable on-line grading ...

  20. Chemistry in South Africa - yesterday, today and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The jubilee convention of the South African Chemical Institute covered the development of chemistry in South Africa. Specialists in the field of chemistry covered topics with reference to organic chemistry, extraction metallurgy, analytical chemistry, mass spectroscopy, instrumentation, theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry, chromatography, industrial chemistry and solid state chemistry

  1. Religion and Political Violence in Apartheid South Africa | Matheba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In analyzing religion and violence in apartheid South Africa, the article expresses the hope that churches and other civil society organs will reclaim their watchdog role in entrenching democracy even more deeply in a post-apartheid South African society. (The Journal of Cultural Studies: 2001 3(1): 108-123) ...

  2. The challenges of realising inclusive education in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, up to 70% of children of school-going age with disabilities are out of school. Of those who do attend, most are still in separate, “special” schools for learners with disabilities. This situation prevails despite the push for the educational inclusion of learners with disabilities over twelve years ago by the South ...

  3. Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... Projections and the Spectrum model program developed by the Futures Group were used to model the South African HIV epidemic, project future trends in HIV/AIDS and estimate the demographic impact of AIDS.

  4. Evaluating 5 years' NIMART mentoring in South Africa's HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating 5 years' NIMART mentoring in South Africa's HIV treatment programme: Successes, challenges and future needs. ... South African Medical Journal ... targeted mentoring was introduced; this increased the percentage of primary nurses eligible for DoH certificates of clinical competence in NIMART from 12%, ...

  5. All projects related to south africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: CUSTOMARY LAW, CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY. Region: South Africa, South of Sahara. Program: Governance and Justice. Total Funding: CA$ 314,700.00. Involvement of the Private Security Sector in African Conflicts, Peacekeeping and ...

  6. All projects related to south africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political Participation Help? ... Region: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, United Kingdom, United States, South ... Livestock production is a critical industry in Africa, but suffers large losses to ... A Critical Assessment of Whether Forgiving Crimes of the Past Contributes to ...

  7. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina R.M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All

  8. Exploring writing institutes for teachers in South Africa | Dippenaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thousand teachers in the US participate each year in these invitational summer institutes, which are based on the NWP's model of teachers teaching teachers. The US Embassy's Regional English Language Office in South Africa collaborated with directors of writing projects in the United States, and South Africans ...

  9. South Africa's Nuclear Diplomacy Since the Termination of its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an analysis of South Africa's nuclear diplomacy since the country terminated its nuclear weapons programme, and explains why it has not retracted on this position. Through the skilful use of strategies typically used by middle powers in their conduct of nuclear diplomacy as niche diplomacy, South ...

  10. Professional Counseling in South Africa: A Landscape under Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maree, Jacobus G.; van der Westhuizen, Carol N.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the history, status, and trends of the counseling profession in South Africa and on the similarities with the development of the counseling profession in the United States. A need exists for South African professional counselors to refocus their research efforts to reflect the realities of the 21st century and link…

  11. South African Corporations and post-Apartheid Expansion in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the early 2000s, South African mining and industrial corporations, financial institutions and even some medium-sized enterprises have once again asserted their role as a dominant force in the SADC region. South Africa's economic expansion is sometimes portrayed as a one-way process, where local environments and ...

  12. The journey: Women in physics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Diale, M

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available acknowledged the success of women in Physics in South Africa (WiPiSA) by continuous funding. Different universities have graduated a woman in physics PhD while there are women professors in different institutions. The president of the South African institute...

  13. Looking Back at Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a quantitative picture of doctoral education in South Africa up to 2010, from the time the first doctorate was awarded in 1899. It identifies the different institutional profiles and emphases of doctoral graduation in South African universities at various periods of time in the context of economic, political and social…

  14. Molecular diagnostics of Rickettsia africae infection in travelers returning from South Africa to The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Groen, Emilie J.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Vries, Peter J.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Sprong, Hein; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is frequently diagnosed in The Netherlands in travelers returning from South Africa. It is caused by Rickettsia africae and diagnosis is based on travel history and clinical presentation and usually confirmed by detecting serum antibodies against rickettsiae of the

  15. South Africa after sanctions. Reentering the aerospace market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anon

    1994-09-01

    South Africa has reentered the world market with a closely focused, aggressive series of industrial programs. Nowhere is this more evident than in aeronautics and space disciplines, particularly those in which the nation has long experience. The South African Air Force (SAAF), affected by the worldwide defense drawdown, has centered its efforts on bush war-fighting capability, an area where it has unique experience. In the same way Denel, one of South Africa's most secret defense companies, has opened its once classified doors, converted its military satellite program into Greensat, and is now looking for civilian customers.

  16. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, P E; Roux, V; Caumes, E; Donzel, M; Raoult, D

    1998-08-01

    African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae and transmitted by Amblyomma ticks, is an emerging rickettsiosis in southern Africa. Because of increased tourism to this area, several cases in tourists have been reported recently. We report 13 cases of R. africae infection diagnosed in France that occurred in competitors returning from an adventure race in South Africa and compare our data with previously reported findings. Most of our patients presented with fever, headache, multiple inoculation eschars, and regional lymphadenopathies, but only 15.4% had a cutaneous rash. Diagnosis was confirmed either by isolation of R. africae from an eschar biopsy specimen or by serological methods, including cross-adsorption between R. africae and Rickettsia conorii. The purpose of this study was to raise physicians' awareness of R. africae infections in an attempt to facilitate the rapid diagnosis and treatment of imported African tick-bite fever in developed countries.

  17. Musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo T. Ajidahun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musicians who play string instruments are affected more by musculoskeletal injuries when compared to other instrument playing groups. Musculoskeletal problems are commonly found in the upper extremities and trunk. Several risk factors such as gender, practice hours and instrument played are associated with the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, severity and risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Method: A cross-sectional study design using both online and paper-based questionnaires were used to collect data from string instrumentalists playing in both amateur and professional orchestras in South Africa. Results: A total of 114 string instrumentalists participated in the study, of which 86 (77% reported problems in one or more anatomic regions while 39 (35% were currently experiencing musculoskeletal problems that affected their performance. The trunk and both shoulders were the most commonly affected body regions. The majority of the participants reported the severity of the complaints as mild to moderate with aching, soreness, tingling and fatigue being the most commonly used descriptors of the symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems that affect performance is high among string instrumentalists in South Africa. An evaluation of associated risk factors with the aim of reducing injuries may be important in improving performance.

  18. The status and challenges of Industrial Engineering in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutte, Cornelius S. L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The industrial engineering discipline in South Africa is examined by introducing the context of the discipline and by revisiting its history. The drivers influencing the context and future of industrial engineering in South Africa are also considered, and the discipline is analysed in terms of the following aspects: university qualifications, employment in industry sectors, race and gender profiles, use and competence in industry, and income profiles. The analysis is based on a recent survey sent to practising industrial engineers, on membership data from the Southern African Institute for Industrial Engineering (SAIIE, and on two internal SAIIE investigations. The study concludes that the success of transformation, particularly in terms of race, has been limited. The results also indicate that there are an almost equal number of black and white industrial engineers, yet the majority of black industrial engineers have technical qualifications, while the majority of white industrial engineers have academic qualifications. The results indicate that this limits the use of black industrial engineers in industry and, consequently, the success of their careers. This in turn means that there are fewer black role models to attract young black students to the discipline. Some preliminary opportunities to unlock the increased transformation of the profession are identified.

  19. South Africa National Presentation on RAF 0033

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mpoza, N

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Energy Policy was approved in June 2008 focusing on ring-fencing nuclear activities and giving them dedication that contributes towards climate change mitigation. Contributing towards security of supply, efforts through diversification of the electricity generation mix, calls for the formation of a nuclear industry in South Africa (SA). To promote nuclear energy as an important electricity supply option, there was establishment of national industrial capability for the design, manufacture and construction of energy systems. This contribute to national program of social and economic transformation, growth and development, and Guide in the actions to develop, promote, support, enhance, sustain and monitor the nuclear energy sector in SA. Attainment of global leadership and self-sufficiency in the nuclear energy sector is a long term exercise that will control over unprocessed uranium ore for export purposes for the benefit of SA economy. There is an endeavour to implement or obtain interest in the complete nuclear fuel cycle and allow participation of public entities in the uranium value chain. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and skills development related to nuclear energy need to be improved. The Nuclear Energy Strategy and Implementation Plan Working Group was established in order to finalize the strategy to implement the Nuclear Energy Policy, as guided by the Country’s Integrated Resource Plan (IRP). To analyze the current legislative framework governing the nuclear sector and Identify gaps in current legislative and regulatory framework and the international legal instruments required to facilitate the decision. NEPIC (Nuclear Energy Policy Implementing Committee) was mandated to study issues and conditions necessary for successful implementation of nuclear power

  20. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  1. Benchmarking criteria for evaluating third-party logistics providers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Karrapan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, deemed the ‘gateway to Africa’, there is limited evidence of the existence of a survey ranking third-party logistics providers (3PLs. This lack of comparative information of the major 3PLs based on key outsourcing and ranking criteria complicates the selection process for companies that intend to contract 3PLs. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine the critical selection and ranking criteria for the creation of an index to evaluate 3PLs in South Africa for developing a 3PL benchmarking index. Method: Survey data were collected from 103 of the Top 500 Companies in Africa that use 3PLs and operate within the sectors that mostly outsource logistics services in South Africa. A factor analysis method was employed. Results: Three factors for 3PLs selection converged: service quality, information management and compliance, and collaboration. The top three ranked categories for 3PLs selection are cost and price structure, service delivery and the relationship with the 3PL provider. Most respondents (90% confirmed a need for a 3PLs index in South Africa. Conclusion: The results help managers with the strategic selection of 3PLs as these critical logistics outsourcing selection criteria can be used to evaluate and rank 3PLs prior to contracting. Based on the selection criteria for logistics outsourcing identified and ranked in this article, a ranking index for 3PLs in South Africa can be developed.

  2. The Prosecution of Incitement to Genocide in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus J van der Merwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The inchoate crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide was first recognised under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (1948. The creation of the crime was a direct result of the horrific effects of acts of incitement before and during the Second World War. Today the crime is firmly established under international law and is also criminalised in many domestic legal systems. History shows that incitement to crime and violence against a specific group is a precursor to and catalyst for acts of genocide. Consequently, the goal of prevention lies at the core of the prohibition of direct and public incitement to genocide. However, it may be said that this preventative objective has thus far been undermined by a general lack of prosecutions of the crime, especially at the domestic level. This prosecutorial void is rather conspicuous in the light of the new vision of international criminal justice under which domestic legal systems (including that of South Africa bear the primary responsibility for the enforcement of the law of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (Rome Statute, which in Article 25(3(e includes the crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide. This article provides a brief historical and teleological overview of the crime of direct and public incitement to commit genocide under international law, as well as the definitional elements thereof as interpreted and applied by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR. Thereafter it examines the criminalisation of incitement to genocide in contemporary South African law in order to assess South Africa’s capacity to prosecute incitement to genocide at the domestic level. In this regard there are, in theory, various 'legal avenues' for the prosecution of incitement to commit genocide in South Africa, namely: as a crime under the Riotous Assemblies Act 17 of 1956; as a crime under the Implementation of

  3. South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement | Van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Korean War, the politics of involvement. ... Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies ... The Union of South Africa's military involvement in the Korean War was an exercise in political maneuvering as opposed to one of any great military significance.1 South Africa's new right wing ...

  4. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Export diversification and structural changes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireen Choga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available What is the nature and extent of export diversification in South Africa? The primary purpose of this paper is to seek empirical answers to this question. In an attempt to derive empirical measures of the extent of export diversification and the structural changes taking place in South Africa, this paper uses a sample of a group of 28 selected commodities for the period 1980-2012 for which the most recent data is available. The following methods were used to measure the extent of export diversification and the structural changes in export diversification: Commodity-specific cumulative export Experience function, the Commodity-specific traditional index (CSTI, variance of CSTI, concentration ratio and the aggregate specialisation index. The Commodity-Specific Cumulative Experience Function plots show that roughly, commodities such as scientific equipment, transport equipment, motor vehicles, furniture, machinery and electronic products were shifted to the right indicating that the commodities are non-traditional in nature whereas gold coal agricultural products and wood are traditional in nature. The CSTI rankings indicated that motor vehicle exports ranked first showing that motor vehicles are non-traditional exports. Findings of this paper corroborate findings of other scholars; we conclude that our results are complementary.

  6. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  7. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  8. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  9. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  10. Informing road traffic intervention choices in South Africa: the role of economic evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadley K.H. Wesson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Given the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs in South Africa, economic evaluations of prevention interventions are necessary for informing and prioritising public health planning and policy with regard to road safety. Methods: In view of the dearth of RTI cost analysis, and in order to understand the extent to which RTI-related costs in South Africa compare with those in other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, we reviewed published economic evaluations of RTI-related prevention in LMICs. Results: Thirteen articles were identified, including cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness studies. Although RTI-related risk factors in South Africa are well described, costing studies are limited. There is minimal information, most of which is not recent, with nothing at all on societal costs. Cost-effective interventions for RTIs in LMICs include bicycle and motorcycle helmet enforcement, traffic enforcement, and the construction of speed bumps. Discussion: Policy recommendations from studies conducted in LMICs suggest a number of cost-effective interventions for consideration in South Africa. They include speed bumps for pedestrian safety, strategically positioned speed cameras, traffic enforcement such as the monitoring of seatbelt use, and breathalyzer interventions. However, interventions introduced in South Africa will need to be based either on South African cost-effectiveness data or on findings adapted from similar middle-income country settings.

  11. Psychiatric Contributions from South Africa: Ex Africa Semper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that humans originated in Africa, it is likely that many seminal psychological observations and interventions originate in the continent. Relatively little attention has been paid, however, to more recent African contributions to the scientific fields of psychiatry and clinical psychology. This article notes that a number of ...

  12. Low smoke coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Asamoah, J.K.; Grobbelaar, C.J. [Department of Minerals and Energy, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    The South African government has started a low-smoke coal programme to reduce air pollution from combustion of coal, which is used for cooking and heating in some residential areas despite electrification. Government policy is to assist the private sector to manufacture and market low-smoke fuels and to encourage use of cleaner fuels. The philosophy and the implementation of this programme are discussed. Preliminary results from a macro scale experiment, that involved supplying low-smoke fuel to a township for a period of one to two weeks and monitoring the impacts, are reported.

  13. Bibliography of marine biology in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...

  14. Investor's and procurement guide South Africa. Pt. 1. Heavy minerals, rare earth elements, antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graupner, Torsten; Schwarz-Schampera, Ulrich [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany); Hammond, Napoleon Q.; Opperman, Rehan; Long' a Tongu, Elisa; Kenan, Abdul O.; Nondula, Unathi; Tsanwani, Matamba [Council for Geoscience (CGS), Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mineral Resources Development; Liedke, Maren; Marbler, Herwig [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Berlin (Germany). Deutsche Rohstoffagentur (DERA)

    2014-03-15

    decade. Investing in South African companies would allow investors to gain a foothold into the large emerging markets of Africa. This handbook is a result of a cooperation project between the Council for Geoscience (CGS) of South Africa and the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) that started at the end of 2011 and is conducted by experts from DERA and the CGS. Studies on the different natural resources are compiled in this manual on new occurrences and deposits with investment and supply options for German investors and purchasers in South Africa.

  15. Convergence in fertility of South Africans and Mozambicans in rural South Africa, 1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Garenne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are significant numbers of people displaced by war in Africa, very little is known about long-term changes in the fertility of refugees. Refugees of the Mozambican civil war (1977–1992 settled in many neighbouring countries, including South Africa. A large number of Mozambican refugees settled within the Agincourt sub-district, underpinned by a Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance Site (AHDSS, established in 1992, and have remained there. The AHDSS data provide a unique opportunity to study changes in fertility over time and the role that the fertility of self-settled refugee populations plays in the overall fertility level of the host community, a highly relevant factor in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives: To examine the change in fertility of former Mozambican self-settled refugees over a period of 16 years and to compare the overall fertility and fertility patterns of Mozambicans to host South Africans. Design: Prospective data from the AHDSS on births from 1993 to 2009 were used to compare fertility trends and patterns and to examine socio-economic factors that may be associated with fertility change. Results: There has been a sharp decline in fertility in the Mozambican population and convergence in fertility patterns of Mozambican and local South African women. The convergence of fertility patterns coincides with a convergence in other socio-economic factors. Conclusion: The fertility of Mozambicans has decreased significantly and Mozambicans are adopting the childbearing patterns of South African women. The decline in Mozambican fertility has occurred alongside socio-economic gains. There remains, however, high unemployment and endemic poverty in the area and fertility is not likely to decrease further without increased delivery of family planning to adolescents and increased education and job opportunities for women.

  16. Introduction to South Africa's safety classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung Jun; Wu, Sang Ik; Yoon, Juh Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The safety functions of nuclear reactor facilities such as research reactors have to be maintained for all initiating events, incidents and accidents. From the position of licensee, it is a very important issue and design challenge to meet the licensing requirements for the final goal of proper safety functions from nuclear regulator. This paper intends to introduce and understand South Africa's licensing requirements and processing for safety classification of SSCs. South Africa's licensing requirements are shown in Table 1. Three categories A, B and C are categorized based on the occurrence frequency and the dose limitation of worker and public exposure. The Defense in Depth (DiD) and ALARA principle are forced to apply to a nuclear reactor facility design. Also, South Africa's safety and quality class compare with that of ANSI 51.1.

  17. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  18. The specialist physician's approach to rheumatoid arthritis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, Frederik C J; Bosch, Fredricka J; van Rensburg, Barend J Jansen

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is expected to increase in Africa and South Africa. Due to the low numbers of rheumatologists in South Africa, specialist physicians also have to care for patients with RA. Furthermore several new developments have taken place in recent years which improved the management and outcome of RA. Classification criteria were updated, assessment follow-up tools were refined and above all, several new biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs were developed. Therefore it is imperative for specialist physicians to update themselves with the newest developments in the management of RA. This article provides an overview of the newest developments in the management of RA in the South African context. This approach may well apply to countries with similar specialist to patient ratios and disease profiles.

  19. A brief description of South Africa's present-day climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, F

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available positive chill units. 31 Winter (Apr - Sep) CASE STUDY - Global change impacts on agriculture and water: South Africa?s Garden Route 33 7 Global change and human health 35 CASE STUDY - Environmental health: Bridging the gap between traditional... days). Annual (Jan - Dec) 31 Map 6.2 Intermediate future - present (degree days). Accumulated heat units. 31 Annual (Jan - Dec) Map 6.3 Accumulated positive chill units. Winter (Apr - Sep) 31 Map 6.4 Intermediate future - present. Accumulated...

  20. Adventure tourism in South Africa: Challenges and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Giddy, Julia Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    There is great potential for the development of adventure tourism in Southern Africa for a number of reasons. One is the variety of landscapes provided by South Africa's natural environment that are suitable for adventure tourism activities, many of which remain relatively pristine. In addition, the development of adventure tourism has significant potential to uplift local communities through local economic development strategies due to the relatively low capital needed to establish many acti...