WorldWideScience

Sample records for south africa prevalence

  1. Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in South Africa: Results ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Data on tobacco use have informed the effectiveness of South Africa (SA)'s tobacco control strategies over the past 20 years. Objective. To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in the adult SA population according to certain demographic variables, and identify the factors influencing cessation attempts ...

  2. Breed prevalence of canine lymphoma in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesl J. Van Rooyen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a common haematopoietic neoplasm in dogs. Several breeds have been shown to have a predisposition to lymphoma; however, very little information exists regarding the South African dog population. This study assessed whether any breed had increased odds of developing lymphoma compared with others, and also investigated the effects of age, sex and neutering status on disease prevalence. Two study populations and their corresponding reference populations were studied retrospectively. Odds ratios (ORs for lymphoma in 49 dog breeds, together with their 95% confidence intervals (CI, were calculated. Age effect was assessed by calculating ORs for different age categories in one of the populations. The chi-square test was used to evaluate differences in the prevalence of the various sex and neutering categories in one lymphoma population compared with its reference population. Fourteen breeds had significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma, and one breed had significantly decreased odds (p < 0.050. The median ages of the two lymphoma populations were 6.5 and 8.0 years, with the 6.1–9.0 year category having significantly increased odds of developing lymphoma (OR 1.61, CI 1.2–2.16, p = 0.002. In one of the lymphoma populations, higher proportions of males (p = 0.033 and neutered females (p = 0.006 were found when compared with the reference population. These findings suggest that certain breeds in South Africa have a higher risk of developing lymphoma, and that sex hormones may play a role in lymphoma pathogenesis. The findings may provide useful information for pet owners and veterinarians.

  3. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions.

  4. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  5. Socio-economic gradients in prevalent tuberculosis in Zambia and the Western Cape of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Ayles, Helen; Leacy, Finbarr P; Schaap, A; Boccia, Delia; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Floyd, Sian

    2018-04-01

    To describe the associations between socio-economic position and prevalent tuberculosis in the 2010 ZAMSTAR Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey, one of the first large tuberculosis prevalence surveys in Southern Africa in the HIV era. The main analyses used data on 34 446 individuals in Zambia and 30 017 individuals in South Africa with evaluable tuberculosis culture results. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for prevalent TB by two measures of socio-economic position: household wealth, derived from data on assets using principal components analysis, and individual educational attainment. Mediation analysis was used to evaluate potential mechanisms for the observed social gradients. The quartile with highest household wealth index in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.55 (95% CI 0.33-0.92) times and 0.70 (95% CI 0.54-0.93) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of the bottom quartile. College or university-educated individuals in Zambia and South Africa had, respectively, 0.25 (95% CI 0.12-0.54) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.70) times the adjusted odds of prevalent TB of individuals who had received only primary education. We found little evidence that these associations were mediated via several key proximal risk factors for TB, including HIV status. These data suggest that social determinants of TB remain important even in the context of generalised HIV epidemics. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  7. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  8. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaba, Olufunke; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1) construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2) estimate concentration indices (CI) to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3) perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa. PMID:24662998

  9. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Adult Obesity Prevalence in South Africa: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufunke Alaba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in obesity in low and middle income countries. However, there is limited research in these countries showing the prevalence and determinants of obesity. In this study, we examine the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among South African adults. We use nationally representative data from the South Africa National Income Dynamic Survey of 2008 to: (1 construct an asset index using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA as a proxy for socioeconomic status; (2 estimate concentration indices (CI to measure socioeconomic inequalities in obesity; and (3 perform a decomposition analysis to determine the factors that contribute to socioeconomic related inequalities. Consistent with other studies, we find that women are more obese than men. The findings show that obesity inequalities exist in South Africa. Rich men are more likely to be obese than their poorer counterparts with a concentration index of 0.27. Women on the other hand have similar obesity patterns, regardless of socioeconomic status with CI of 0.07. The results of the decomposition analysis suggest that asset index contributes positively and highly to socio-economic inequality in obesity among females; physical exercise contributes negatively to the socio-economic inequality. In the case of males, educational attainment and asset index contributed more to socio-economic inequalities in obesity. Our findings suggest that focusing on economically well-off men and all women across socioeconomic status is one way to address the obesity problem in South Africa.

  10. South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  11. High prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected tuberculosis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, L; Pai, M; Davids, V; Ling, D; Paradis, G; Lenders, L; Meldau, R; van Zyl Smit, R; Calligaro, G; Allwood, B; Dawson, R; Dheda, K

    2011-07-01

    There is growing evidence that tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). There are no data validating the accuracy of self-reported smoking in TB patients and limited data about the prevalence of smoking in TB patients from high-burden settings. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 500 patients with suspected TB in Cape Town, South Africa. All underwent comprehensive diagnostic testing. The accuracy of their self-reported smoking status was determined against serum cotinine levels. Of the 424 patients included in the study, 56 and 60% of those with active and latent TB infection (LTBI), respectively, were current smokers. Using plasma cotinine as a reference standard, the sensitivity of self-reported smoking was 89%. No statistically significant association could be found between smoking and active TB or LTBI. In Cape Town, the prevalence of smoking among patients with suspected and confirmed TB was much higher than in the general South African population. Self-reporting is an accurate measure of smoking status. These results suggest the need to actively incorporate tobacco cessation programmes into TB services in South Africa.

  12. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Giorgio, Maggie; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Mathews, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9-9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p used a condom at last sex with a main partner (p = 0.007). Few women reported early sexual debut, or multiple sexual partners. RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant women.

  13. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  14. Prevalence of and risk factors for feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Joanne L; Lobetti, Remo G; Mooney, Carmel T; Thompson, Peter N; Schoeman, Johan P

    2017-10-01

    Objectives Hyperthyroidism is a disorder of older cats that may have a geographical variation in prevalence. Prevalence studies have not yet been performed in South Africa, a geographical area where hyperthyroidism in cats has recently been observed and where, reportedly, the incidence appears to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa and to identify any potential risk factors. Further information on the worldwide prevalence and possible causative factors would increase our understanding of the aetiology of this disease and help identify any preventive measures. Methods Serum total thyroxine (tT4) and canine thyroid-stimulating hormone (cTSH) were measured in 302 cats aged 9 years and older that were presented at various veterinary clinics throughout South Africa. In cats with equivocal tT4 and undetectable cTSH values, serum free thyroxine (fT4) was also measured. At the time of blood sampling a questionnaire was completed regarding vaccination history, internal and external parasite control, diet and environment. Results Prevalence of hyperthyroidism (tT4 >50 nmol/l or tT4 between 30 and 50 nmol/l with TSH 50 pmol/l) was 7% (95% confidence interval 4.4-10.4), with no significant difference between healthy (5%) and sick (8%) cats. Cats ⩾12 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 4.3, P = 0.02) and cats eating canned food (OR 2.1, P = 0.1) were more likely to be diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. No significant relationship between vaccinations, parasite control or indoor environment and hyperthyroidism was observed. Hyperthyroid cats were more likely to present with weight loss (OR 3.2, P = 0.01) and with a heart rate ⩾200 beats per min (OR 5, P = 0.01) than cats without the disease. Conclusions and relevance Hyperthyroidism does not appear to be uncommon in the South African cat population. Risk factors for hyperthyroidism, specifically older age and eating canned food, were present in this as in

  15. Prevalence of suicidal behaviour & associated factors among tuberculosis patients in public primary care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Louw, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide, there are only a few studies on its psychiatric complications such as suicidal behaviour. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and its associated factors among tuberculosis patients in public primary care in South Africa. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in three provinces of South Africa new TB and new re-treatment patients were assessed within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample included 4900 (54.5% men and women 45.5%) consecutively selected tuberculosis patients from 42 public primary care clinics in three districts in South Africa. A total of 322 patients (9.0%) reported suicidal ideation and 131 (3.1%) had a history of a suicide attempt. In multivariate analysis female gender [Odds Ratio (OR)= 0.56, Confidence Interval (CI)= 0.43-0.74], psychological distress (OR=2.36, CI=1.04-2.29), post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) (OR=4.98, CI=3.76-6.59), harmful alcohol use (OR=1.97, CI=1.25-3.09) and being a TB re-treatment patient (OR=1.76, CI=1.32-2.34) were associated with suicidal ideation, and psychological distress (OR=3.27, CI=1.51-7.10), PTSD symptoms (OR=4.48, CI=3.04-6.61) and harmful alcohol use (OR=3.01, CI=1.83-4.95) were associated with a suicide attempt. Our findings suggest that co-morbid illnesses of psychological distress, PTSD and harmful alcohol use and HIV infection should be assessed in TB patients under TB control programmes to prevent suicidal behaviour. Clinicians should be aware about suicidality in tuberculosis patients to reduce mortality.

  16. Prevalence of suicidal behaviour & associated factors among tuberculosis patients in public primary care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In spite of the high prevalence of tuberculosis worldwide, there are only a few studies on its psychiatric complications such as suicidal behaviour. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and its associated factors among tuberculosis patients in public primary care in South Africa. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey conducted in three provinces of South Africa new TB and new re-treatment patients were assessed within one month of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The sample included 4900 (54.5% men and women 45.5% consecutively selected tuberculosis patients from 42 public primary care clinics in three districts in South Africa. Results: A total of 322 patients (9.0% reported suicidal ideation and 131 (3.1% had a history of a suicide attempt. In multivariate analysis female gender [Odds Ratio (OR= 0.56, Confidence Interval (CI= 0.43-0.74], psychological distress (OR=2.36, CI=1.04-2.29, post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD (OR=4.98, CI=3.76-6.59, harmful alcohol use (OR=1.97, CI=1.25-3.09 and being a TB re-treatment patient (OR=1.76, CI=1.32-2.34 were associated with suicidal ideation, and psychological distress (OR=3.27, CI=1.51-7.10, PTSD symptoms (OR=4.48, CI=3.04-6.61 and harmful alcohol use (OR=3.01, CI=1.83-4.95 were associated with a suicide attempt. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings suggest that co-morbid illnesses of psychological distress, PTSD and harmful alcohol use and HIV infection should be assessed in TB patients under TB control programmes to prevent suicidal behaviour. Clinicians should be aware about suicidality in tuberculosis patients to reduce mortality.

  17. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in urban hospital outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. Method. A sample of 1 532 consecutively selected patients (56.4% men and 43.6% women from various hospital outpatient departments were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Results. Based on assessment with the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, a measure of psychological distress, 17.1% of the patients (15.5% of men and 19.4% of women had severe psychological distress. Logistic multiple regression identified no income, poor health status, migraine headache and tuberculosis as significant factors associated with severe psychological stress for men. For women the factors identified were lower education, no income, having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease, stomach ulcer and migraine headache. Conclusion. The study found a high prevalence of psychological distress among hospital outpatients in South Africa. Brief psychological therapies for adult patients with anxiety, depression or mixed common mental health problems treated in hospital outpatient departments are indicated. Accurate diagnosis of co-morbid depressive and anxiety disorders in patients with chronic medical illness is essential in understanding the cause and optimising the management of somatic symptom burden.

  18. Children with intellectual disability in rural South Africa: prevalence and associated disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, A L; Zwane, M E; Manga, P; Rosen, E; Venter, A; Downs, D; Kromberg, J G R

    2002-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) and its associated disabilities in rural South African children aged 2-9 years. It was undertaken in eight villages in the district of Bushbuckridge, Northern Province, South Africa. A two-phase design was utilized. The first phase involved screening children on a house-to-house basis by interviewing mothers or caregivers using an internationally validated questionnaire for detecting childhood disability in developing countries. The second phase consisted of a paediatric/neurodevelopmental assessment of the children who screened positive. A total of 6692 children were screened; 722 (10.8%) had a paediatric evaluation and 238 children were diagnosed with ID, giving a minimum observed prevalence of 35.6 per 1000 children in this population. The prevalence of severe and mild ID was 0.64 per 1000 and 29.1 per 1000 children, respectively. The male:female ratio of children with ID was 3:2. In the affected children, a congenital aetiology for the ID was determined in 49 subjects (20.6%), an acquired aetiology in 15 (6.3%) and the aetiology was undetermined in 174 children (73.1%). Epilepsy (15.5%) and cerebral palsy (8.4%) were the commonest associated disabilities. The present study represents the first data on the prevalence of ID and associated disabilities in rural South African children. The prevalence of ID was comparable with results from a study performed in one other African country (Zambia) as well as those from other developing countries. The data provide an initial factual insight into ID and its associated disabilities for healthcare, social service and educational policy planners. This study provides a basis for the initiation and development of appropriate and integrated services for the best possible care of individuals affected with these disabilities, and for their possible prevention.

  19. The cost-effectiveness of intervening in low and high HIV prevalence areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josue Mbonigaba

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This research compared the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV/AIDS interventions in a low HIV prevalence area (LPA and in a high HIV prevalence area (HPA in South Africa. The rationale for this analysis was to assess the interaction dynamics between a specific HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation and the effects of these dynamics on the cost-effectiveness of such an HIV/AIDS intervention. A pair of Markov models was evaluated for each intervention; one model for a HPA and another for an LPA and the cost-effectiveness of that intervention was compared across an LPA and a HPA. The baseline costs and health outcomes in each area were collected from the literature. To depict interaction dynamics between an HIV/AIDS intervention and an area of implementation, baseline health outcomes collected in each area, were adjusted over time based on the patterns of the projections observed in the AIDS model of the Actuarial Society of South Africa (ASSA2008. The study found that the VCT and treatment of STDs were equally cost-effective in an LPA and in a HPA while PMTCT and HAART were more cost-effective in an LPA than in a HPA. As a policy proposal, resources earmarked to non-ARV based interventions (VCT and treatment of STDs should  be equally shared across an LPA and a HPA while  more of the resources reserved for ARV-based interventions (PMTCT and HAART should go in an LPA in order to increase efficiency.

  20. HIV prevalence by race co-varies closely with concurrency and number of sex partners in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence differs by more than an order of magnitude between South Africa's racial groups. Comparing the sexual behaviors and other risk factors for HIV transmission between the different races may shed light on the determinants of South Africa's generalized HIV epidemic. METHODS: Five nationally representative and one city-representative population-based surveys of sexual behavior were used to assess the extent to which various risk factors co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in South Africa. RESULTS: In 2004, the prevalence of HIV was 0.5%, 1%, 3.2% and 19.9% in 15-49 year old whites, Indians, coloureds and blacks respectively. The risk factors which co-varied with HIV prevalence by race in the six surveys were age of sexual debut (in five out of five surveys for men and three out of six surveys for women, age gap (zero surveys in men and three in women, mean number of sex partners in the previous year (five surveys in men and three in women and concurrent partnerships (five surveys in men and one in women. Condom usage and circumcision were both more prevalent in the high HIV prevalence groups. The reported prevalence of concurrency was 6 to 17 times higher in the black as opposed to the white men in the five surveys. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in sexual behavior in general, and the prevalence of concurrency and the number of sexual partners in particular, offer a plausible and parsimonious cause to explain a part of the differing prevalences of HIV between South Africa's racial groups.

  1. Trends in HIV Prevalence in Pregnant Women in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Frohlich, Janet A; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Mahlase, Gethwana; Samsunder, Natasha; Dellar, Rachael C; Zuma-Mkhonza, May; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2015-11-01

    Despite substantial progress in the delivery of HIV prevention programs, some communities continue to experience high rates of HIV infection. We report on temporal trends in HIV prevalence in pregnant women in a community in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Annual, anonymous cross-sectional HIV sero-prevalence surveys were conducted between 2001 and 2013 among first visit prenatal clinic attendees. The time periods 2001 to 2003 were defined as pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART), 2004 to 2008 as early ART, and 2009 to 2013 as contemporary ART roll-out, to correspond with the substantial scale-up of ART program. Overall, HIV prevalence rose from 35.3% [95% confidence interval (CI): 32.3 to 38.3] pre-ART (2001-2003) to 39.0% (95% CI: 36.8 to 41.1) in the early ART (2004-2008) to 39.3% (95% CI: 37.2 to 41.4) in the contemporary ART (2009-2013) roll-out periods. In teenage women (age 20-24 and ≥ 25 years had a 1.7-fold (95% CI: 1.3-2.4; P = 0.001) and 3-fold (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.3; P age-disparate relationships, are needed to impact this HIV epidemic trajectory.

  2. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  3. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekokotla MA

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Morongwe Annah Sekokotla,1 Nandu Goswami,2 Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike,1 Jehu Erapu Iputo,3 Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag4 1Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa; 2Gravitational Physiology and Medicine Research Unit, Institute of Physiology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; 3Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, 4Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa Objective: Metabolic syndrome (MetS, defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa.Research design and methods: Four hundred and ten adolescents (age range: 13–18 years, both sexes were recruited into this cross-sectional study. In addition to a lifestyle questionnaire being administered, anthropometric measurements (weight, height and waist circumferences were carried out for each participant. Fasting venous blood was collected for lipid profile and blood glucose assessments. Blood pressure was also measured. MetS was assessed using appropriate diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents.Results: Complete data sets were collected from 371 participants. Females showed an elevation in the risk factors for MetS. Of the 371 participants, 40.2% were overweight/obese (47.5% females; 22.5% males. MetS was diagnosed in 3.1% female participants compared with 6.0% in male participants.Conclusions: More risk

  4. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  5. Prevalence of Alcohol Use and Associated Factors in Urban Hospital Outpatients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry Van der Heever

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associated factors among outpatients in an urban hospital in South Africa. The sample included 1,532 (56.4% men and women 43.6% consecutively selected patients from different hospital outpatient departments. Results indicate that 41.2% of men and 18.3% of women were found to be hazardous drinkers, and 3.6% of men and 1.4% of women meet criteria for probable alcohol dependence or harmful drinking as defined by the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. Two in five patients (40.5% were hazardous or harmful drinkers and/or had anxiety or depression. Logistic multiple regression found that for men tobacco use and not having been diagnosed with diabetes and for women tobacco use and having been diagnosed with migraine headache was associated with hazardous and harmful drinking. Although the study is cross-sectional, it does identify groups that may be at high risk of alcohol misuse and for whom intervention is urgent. Because prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use is high in this population, routine screening should be introduced in hospital out-patient settings.

  6. The Prevalence of HIV by Ethnic Group Is Correlated with HSV-2 and Syphilis Prevalence in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Richard Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper investigates two issues: do ethnic/racial groups with high HIV prevalences also have higher prevalences of other STIs? and is HIV prevalence by ethnic group correlated with the prevalence of circumcision, concurrency, or having more than one partner in the preceding year? Methods. We used Spearman’s correlation to estimate the association between the prevalence of HIV per ethnic/racial group and HSV-2, syphilis, symptoms of an STI, having more than one partner in the past year, concurrency, and circumcision in Kenya, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Results. We found that in each country HSV-2, syphilis, and symptomatic STIs were positively correlated with HIV prevalence (HSV-2: Kenya rho = 0.50, P = 0.207; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, Syphilis: Kenya rho = 0.33, P = 0.420; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; USA rho-1, P = 0.000, and STI symptoms: Kenya rho = 0.92, P = 0.001; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. The prevalence of circumcision was only negatively associated with HIV prevalence in Kenya. Both having more than one partner in the previous year and concurrency were positively associated with HIV prevalence in all countries (concurrency: Kenya rho = 0.79, P = 0.036; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000 and multiple partners: Kenya rho = 0.82, P = 0.023; South Africa rho-1, P = 0.000; UK rho = 0.87, P = 0.058; USA rho-1, P = 0.000. Not all associations were statistically significant. Conclusion. Further attention needs to be directed to what determines higher rates of partner change and concurrency in communities with high STI prevalence.

  7. Transactional sex among young women in rural South Africa: prevalence, mediators and association with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Meghna; Heise, Lori; Pettifor, Audrey; Silverwood, Richard J; Selin, Amanda; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kahn, Kathleen; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Hughes, James P; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young adolescent women in sub-Saharan Africa are three to four times more likely to be HIV-positive than boys or men. One of the relationship dynamics that is likely to be associated with young women's increased vulnerability to HIV is transactional sex. There are a range of HIV-related risk behaviours that may drive this vulnerability. However, to date, limited epidemiological data exist on the role of transactional sex in increasing HIV acquisition, especially among young women in sub-Saharan Africa. Our paper presents data on the prevalence of self-reported engagement in transactional sex and explores whether transactional sex is associated with increased risk of HIV infection among a cohort of young, rural, sexually active South African women. We also explore whether this relationship is mediated through certain HIV-related risk behaviours. Methods We analyzed baseline data from a phase III trial of conditional cash transfers for HIV prevention of 693 sexually active, school-going young women aged 13–20 years in rural South Africa. We examined the association between young women's engagement in transactional sex and HIV infection. Transactional sex is defined as a non-commercial, non-marital sexual relationship whereby sex is exchanged for money and/or gifts. We explored whether this relationship is mediated by certain HIV-related risk behaviours. We used logistic and multinomial regression and report unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with 95% CI. Results Overall, 14% (n=97) of sexually active young women reported engaging in transactional sex. Engagement in transactional sex was associated with an increased risk of being HIV-positive (aOR: 2.5, CI: 95% 1.19–5.25, p=0.01). The effect size of this association remained nearly unchanged when adjusted for certain other dimensions of HIV risk that might help explain the underlying pathways for this relationship. Conclusions This study provides quantitative support demonstrating that transactional

  8. Sexual Violence against Migrant Women: a Study of the Prevalence of and Responses to the Rape of Migrant Women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine BOYD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the prevalence of and responses to the rape of migrant women in South Africa through the analysis of legislation, secondary sources and interviews conducted by the author with migrant women raped in South Africa. The article considers the legal protections afforded to migrant women in South Africa and the extent to which these safeguard migrant women from rape. The article also assesses whether these legal protections are implemented in practise. It additionally suggests how migrant women could be better protected from rape in South Africa.

  9. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E.; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  10. The prevalence of refractive error in three communities of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otutu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence, distribution and demographic associations of refractive error in three communities in Cape Town, South Africa were assessed. In this cross-sectional study, a clustered random sampling procedure was used to recruit participants (n=176; age=40.6±14.7 years; males=76, females=96 from Khayelitsha, Milnerton, and Mitchell’s Plain. From March to May 2010, participants underwent autore-fraction and subjective refraction eye examinations.A structured interview was used to collect data on sociodemographics, age, gender, level of education, employment and race. Participants younger than 15 years, non-residents, or residents for less than six months, who declined signing the informed consent forms were excluded from the study. In this study myopia was defined as the spherical equivalent value in the better eye of −1.00D or worse and hyperopia as the spherical equivalent value in the better eye of ≥1.00D. Astigmatism was defined as −0.50 cylinder or worse in the better eye. The prevalence of myopia was 17.4% with a 90% confidence interval (CI of 12.65-22.15, hyperopia was 13.4% (90% CI 9.13-17.67, and astigmatism was 60% (90% CI 53.86-66.14. Myopia was found to be significantly associated with race and age; while hyperopia was significantly associated with age, employment and race. The results of this study may assist in planning for eye care on district level. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 32-38

  11. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising.To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities.In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007.In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%.In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  12. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  13. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  14. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Jones, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient after HIV post-test counselling). Results indicate that overall, 48.7% [95% CI: 44.8, 52.6] of women during the prenatal period reported depressed mood (scores of ≥ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10). In multivariate analysis, not being employed, unplanned pregnancy, not having an HIV-positive child, poor antiretroviral therapy adherence, non-condom use at last sex, and intimate partner violence were associated with depressive symptoms. Potential risk factors among HIV-infected prenatal women were identified which could be utilized in interventions. Routine screening for depression may be integrated into prenatal care settings.

  15. Prevalence of Falls in an Urban Community-Dwelling Older Population of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimba Kalula, S; Ferreira, M; Swingler, G; Badri, M; Aihie Sayer, A

    2015-12-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability and mortality in older adults. Studies on falls in this population have mainly been conducted in high income countries, and scant attention has been given to the problem in low and middle income countries, including South Africa. The aim of the study was to establish a rate for falls in older adults in South Africa. A cross-sectional survey with a 12-month follow-up survey. Three purposively selected suburbs of Cape Town: Plumstead, Wynberg Central and Gugulethu. Eight hundred and thirty seven randomly sampled ambulant community-dwelling subjects aged ≥ 65 years grouped according to ethnicity in three sub-samples: black Africans, coloureds (people of mixed ancestry) and whites. Data were collected on socio-demographic and health characteristics, and history of falls using a structured questionnaire and a protocol for physical assessments and measurements. Of the total baseline (n=837) and follow-up (n=632) survey participants, 76.5% and 77.2 % were females with a mean (S.D) age of 74 years (6.4) and 75 years (6.2), respectively. Rates of 26.4% and 21.9% for falls and of 11% and 6.3% for recurrent falls, respectively, were calculated at baseline and follow-up. Fall rates differed by ethnic sub-sample at baseline: whites 42 %, coloureds 34.4% and black Africans 6.4 % (p=0.0005). Rates of 236, 406 and 354 falls per 1000 person years were calculated for men, women and both genders, respectively. Recurrent falls were more common in women than in men. Falls are a significant problem in older adults in South Africa. Effective management of falls and falls prevention strategies for older people in South Africa, need to be developed and implemented.

  16. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Ntuli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.

  17. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 assistance from the National Olympic Committee of South. Africa (NOCSA), while an overwhelming proportion (89%) received no financial support. Of the 45 swimmers surveyed,. 8 respondents were financially supported by Swimming South. Africa, whilst 8 indicated that they were sponsored privately. Twenty-one of the ...

  18. Prevalence of serotype specific antibody to equine encephalosis virus in Thoroughbred yearlings South Africa (1999-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Howell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of yearlings were sampled over a period of 6 years in a retrospective serological survey to establish the annual prevalence of serotype specific antibody to equine encephalosis virus on Thoroughbred stud farms distributed within defined geographical regions of South Africa. Seasonal seroprevalence varied between 3.6% and 34.7%, revealing both single and multiple serotype infections in an individual yearling. During the course of this study serotypes 1 and 6 were most frequently and extensively identified while the remaining serotypes 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 were all identified as sporadic and localized in fections affecting only individual horses. This study of the seasonal prevalence of equine encephalosis virus has a corollary and serves as a useful model in the seasonal incidence of the serotypes of African horse sickness and bluetongue in regions where the respective diseases are endemic.

  19. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  20. PREVALENCE OF MULTIPLE ADDICTIONS AND CURRENT TREATMENT BY DRUG TREATMENT CENTRES IN DURBAN, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keen, Helen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Substance-use disorders (SUD cause severe problems both globally and locally. Research suggests that multiple addictions create a more complex illness. This study investigated whether in-patients admitted for SUD at three drug treatment centres in Durban, South Africa had other, undiagnosed addictions. It utilised a three-phase concurrent mixed-methods design and initially screened for gambling and sex addiction. Results showed that, of the sample of 123 participants, 54% had either sex or gambling and 24% had both addictions which current treatment programmes neither assessed for nor treated. Recommendations include suggestions to update current assessment and treatment approaches and the need to train professional staff at drug treatment centres.

  1. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, J.M.; Geerlings, M.I.; Vivian, L.; Collinson, M.; Robertson, B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  2. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan; Geerlings, Mirjan; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were

  3. Common mental health problems in historically disadvantaged urban and rural communities in South Africa : prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenaar, Juhan M.; Geerlings, Mirjan I.; Vivian, Lauraine; Collinson, Marh; Robertson, Brian

    This paper reports on an epidemiological study of common mental health and substance abuse problems in a historically disadvantaged urban and rural community in South Africa. In the rural Limpopo Province of South Africa, and in a peri-urban township near Cape Town, self-report instruments were used

  4. Electricity in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  5. Birth prevalence of congenital cytomegalovirus among infants of HIV-infected women on prenatal antiretroviral prophylaxis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicklal, S; van Niekerk, A M; Kroon, S M; Hutto, C; Novak, Z; Pati, S K; Chowdhury, N; Hsiao, N Y; Boppana, S B

    2014-05-01

    A high rate of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been documented in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants in industrialized settings, both in the pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era. Only limited data on the birth prevalence of congenital CMV among infants of HIV-infected women on prenatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis are available from sub-Saharan Africa, despite a high prevalence of both infections. We evaluated the prevalence of congenital CMV in HIV-exposed infants in the Western Cape, South Africa. HIV-infected mothers were recruited in the immediate postnatal period at a referral maternity hospital between April and October 2012. Maternal and infant clinical data and newborn saliva swabs were collected. Saliva swabs were assayed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for CMV. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine specific demographic, maternal, and newborn characteristics associated with congenital CMV. CMV was detected in 22 of 748 newborn saliva swabs (2.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.9%-4.4%). Overall, 96% of mothers used prenatal ARV prophylaxis (prenatal zidovudine, 43.9%; HAART, 52.1%). Maternal age, gestational age, prematurity (CMV-infected and -uninfected infants. Maternal CD4 count CMV (adjusted odds ratio, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3). A negative correlation between CMV load in saliva and maternal CD4 count was observed (r = -0.495, n = 22, P = .019). The birth prevalence of congenital CMV was high despite prenatal ARV prophylaxis, and was associated with advanced maternal immunosuppression.

  6. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    challenges remain. ... such issues as environmental preserva- tion, new ... women's access to land. ... Youth in South Africa face many hurdles, ... works like family and friends to overcome chal- ... representatives, local businesses, and gov-.

  7. Depressed, not depressed or unsure: Prevalence and the relation to well-being across sectors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Welthagen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work engagement, burnout and stress-related ill health levels of individuals,suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, or whodo not suffer from depression, have not been investigated in South Africa.Research purpose: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence ofdepression amongst employees in South African organisations and the relationship ofdepression with specific well-being constructs.Motivation for the study: Organisations should know about the prevalence of depression andthe effects this could have on specific well-being constructs.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional design was followed. Theavailability sample (n = 15 664 included participants from diverse demographics. The SouthAfrican Employee Health and Wellness Survey was followed to measure constructs.Main findings: The results showed that 18.3% of the population currently receive treatment fordepression, 16.7% are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression and 65% do not sufferfrom depression. Depression significantly affects the levels of work engagement, burnout andthe occurrence of stress-related ill health symptoms.Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationshipbetween depression and employee work-related well-being. Proactive measures to promote thework-related well-being of employees, and to support employees suffering from depression,should be considered.Contribution/value-add: This study provides insight into the prevalence of depression andwell-being differences that exist between individuals, suffering from depression, who areunsure whether or not they suffer from depression, and who do not suffer from depression.

  8. First trimester antenatal depression and anxiety: prevalence and associated factors in an urban population in Soweto, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinger, S; Norris, S A; Pearson, R M; Richter, L; Rochat, T

    2018-02-01

    Depression and anxiety in the antenatal period are of public health concern given potential adverse effects for both mother and infant. Both are under-researched in the first trimester of pregnancy, especially in Africa. We examine the prevalence of first trimester antenatal depression and anxiety in a cohort of South African women and investigate associated risk factors. Data were collected from 946 women (2014-2016) in the Soweto First 1000 Days Cohort, a prospective pregnancy cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Antenatal depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale with a score of ⩾13 indicating probable depression. Anxiety was assessed using the short form of the State-Trait Anxiety Index with a score ⩾12 indicating probable anxiety. Prevalence of antenatal depression was 27% [95% confidence interval (CI) 24.2-29.8] and anxiety 15.2% (95% CI 12.9-17.5). Factors associated with antenatal depression and anxiety were predominantly relationship- and family-centred. Women who perceived that their partner made life harder for them had three-fold increased odds for depression [(odds ratio (OR) 3.33 [2.28-4.85] P<0.001], whereas those with family stressors had almost double the odds for depression (OR 1.78 [1.22-2.59] P=0.003) and anxiety (OR 1.75 [1.44-2.69] P=0.0011). Antenatal depression and anxiety are common in the first trimester of pregnancy, and partner and family relationship stressors are central. Longitudinal analysis is needed to determine if this is a phase of adjustment to pregnancy or onset of persistent symptomology. Early intervention may have secondary preventative effects and should involve the partner and family.

  9. South Africa comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, D.

    1993-01-01

    South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article

  10. Impact of incident and prevalent herpes simplex virus-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection among commercial sex workers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramjee, G

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of prevalent and incident HSV-2 infection on the incidence of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Prior to a vaginal microbicide trial, 416 women were...

  11. Prevalence and factors associated with depressive symptoms among young women and men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduna, Mzikazi; Jewkes, Rachel K; Dunkle, Kristin L; Jama Shai, Nwabisa P; Colman, Ian

    2013-01-01

    There is little research on prevalence of depressive symptoms and associated factors among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. This paper explores factors associated with depressive symptomatology in South Africa. A cross-sectional analysis of interviews with 1 415 women and 1 368 men aged 15-26 was undertaken. The Centre for Epidemiological Studies on Depression Scale (CESD Scale) was used to establish depressive symptomatology. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.5% in women and 13.5% in men. For women, depressive symptoms were associated with increased childhood adversity (aOR 1.34 95% CI 1.116, 1.55); drug use (aOR 1.98 CI 1.17, 3.35); experience of intimate partner violence (aOR 2.21 CI 1.16, 3.00); sexual violence before the age of 18 years (aOR 1.45 CI 1.02, 2.02) and lower perceptions of community cohesion (aOR 1.23 CI 1.07, 1.40). For men, depressive symptoms were associated with a mother's death (aOR 2.24 CI 1.25, 4.00); childhood adversity (aOR 1.61 CI 1.38, 1.88); alcohol abuse (aOR 1.63 CI 1.13, 2.35), sexual coercion by a woman (aOR 2.36 CI 1.47, 3.80) and relationship conflict (aOR 1.07 CI 1.01, 1.12). Depressive symptoms were more highly prevalent in women than in men. Depressed mood was associated with childhood adversity, sexual violence and substance misuse in both women and men. This study further suggests gender differences in that for women, depressive symptoms were associated with intimate partner violence and lower perceptions of community cohesion, while for men the associations were with a mother's death and relationship conflict.

  12. Follow-up survey of the prevalence, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remo Lobetti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spirocercosis is an important disease in South Africa. The object of this study was to determine if there had been a change in the prevalence, clinical manifestations and treatment of Spirocerca lupi over a 14-year period. A questionnaire was sent to 577 veterinary practices throughout South Africa in 2012. Of responders, 76% indicated that S. lupi occurred in their area, whilst 24% indicated that it did not; 84% considered S. lupi not to be a new phenomenon, whereas 16% considered it to be new. Monthly or seasonal distribution of the disease was not reported, and 76% of responders reported it to occur in no specific breed of dog, whereas 24% reported a breed risk, most considering large breeds to be at greater risk. No specific age or sex was identified as at higher risk. Common owner complaints were vomiting, weight loss, cough, or regurgitation. Reported clinical findings tended to mirror the clinical signs reported by owners. Most common diagnostic methods used were radiology, endoscopy, faecal flotation, and post mortem examination. Forty-four percent did not report seeing asymptomatic cases, 40% reported asymptomatic cases and 16% did not know. Associated complications were reported by 85% of responders, and included oesophageal neoplasia, hypertrophic osteopathy and acute haemothorax. Four different drugs were used as therapy: doramectin, ivermectin, milbemycin and Advocate®, with 9% of the responders using a combination of these four; 85% considered treatment to be effective and 15% ineffective. Treatment was considered more effective if the disease was diagnosed early and there were no complications. Two important conclusions were that more cases are being seen and that efficacy of therapy has increased, with a decrease in the mortality rate.

  13. Prevalent and incident tuberculosis are independent risk factors for mortality among patients accessing antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Gupta

    Full Text Available Patients with prevalent or incident tuberculosis (TB in antiretroviral treatment (ART programmes in sub-Saharan Africa have high mortality risk. However, published data are contradictory as to whether TB is a risk factor for mortality that is independent of CD4 cell counts and other patient characteristics.This observational ART cohort study was based in Cape Town, South Africa. Deaths from all causes were ascertained among patients receiving ART for up to 8 years. TB diagnoses and 4-monthly CD4 cell counts were recorded. Mortality rates were calculated and Poisson regression models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRR and identify risk factors for mortality. Of 1544 patients starting ART, 464 patients had prevalent TB at baseline and 424 developed incident TB during a median of 5.0 years follow-up. Most TB diagnoses (73.6% were culture-confirmed. A total of 208 (13.5% patients died during ART and mortality rates were 8.84 deaths/100 person-years during the first year of ART and decreased to 1.14 deaths/100 person-years after 5 years. In multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline and time-updated risk factors, both prevalent and incident TB were independent risk factors for mortality (IRR 1.7 [95% CI, 1.2-2.3] and 2.7 [95% CI, 1.9-3.8], respectively. Adjusted mortality risks were higher in the first 6 months of ART for those with prevalent TB at baseline (IRR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.5-3.5 and within the 6 months following diagnoses of incident TB (IRR 3.8; 95% CI, 2.6-5.7.Prevalent TB at baseline and incident TB during ART were strongly associated with increased mortality risk. This effect was time-dependent, suggesting that TB and mortality are likely to be causally related and that TB is not simply an epiphenomenon among highly immunocompromised patients. Strategies to rapidly diagnose, treat and prevent TB prior to and during ART urgently need to be implemented.

  14. Prevalence, quantification and typing of adenoviruses detected in river and treated drinking water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, J; Ehlers, M M; Heim, A; Grabow, W O K

    2005-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAds), of which there are 51 serotypes, are associated with gastrointestinal, respiratory, urinary tract and eye infections. The importance of water in the transmission of HAds and the potential health risks constituted by HAds in these environments are widely recognized. Adenoviruses have not previously been quantified in river and treated drinking water samples. In this study, HAds in river water and treated drinking water sources in South Africa were detected, quantified and typed. Adenoviruses were recovered from the water samples using a glass wool adsorption-elution method followed by polyethylene glycol/NaCl precipitation for secondary concentration. The sensitivity and specificity of two nested PCR methods were compared for detection of HAds in the water samples. Over a 1-year period (June 2002 to July 2003), HAds were detected in 5.32% (10/188) of the treated drinking water and 22.22% (10/45) of river water samples using the conventional nested PCR method. The HAds detected in the water samples were quantified using a real-time PCR method. The original treated drinking water and river water samples had an estimate of less than one copy per litre of HAd DNA present. The hexon-PCR products used for typing HAds were directly sequenced or cloned into plasmids before sequencing. In treated drinking water samples, species D HAds predominated. In addition, adenovirus serotypes 2, 40 and 41 were each detected in three different treated drinking water samples. Most (70%) of the HAds detected in river water samples analysed were enteric HAds (serotypes 40 and 41). One HAd serotype 2 and two species D HAds were detected in the river water. Adenoviruses detected in river and treated drinking water samples were successfully quantified and typed. The detection of HAds in drinking water supplies treated and disinfected by internationally recommended methods, and which conform to quality limits for indicator bacteria, warrants an investigation of the

  15. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  16. Prevalence of postnatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Nkangala district, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Peltzer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The prevalence of postpartum depression in South Africa is high, but there is lack of prevalence data on postnatal depression among HIV-infected women. Aim. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and associated factors in postnatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in Nkangala district, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Methods. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 607 HIV-positive postnatal women in 48 primary health care clinics and community health centres in Nkangala district. Postnatal women were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient over a period of 2 months. Demographic and other data were obtained from all the women who responded to a questionnaire in the local language on male involvement, HIV test disclosure, delivery and infant profile, infant HIV diagnosis, stigma, discrimination, postnatal depression, attendance of support groups and social support. Results. Overall, 45.1% of women reported a depressed mood in the postnatal period. Depressed mood in a multivariable analysis was significantly associated with internalised stigma (odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.05 - 1.19; p=0.000, discrimination experiences (OR 1.22, CI 1.03 - 1.46; p=0.023, lack of social support (OR 0.86, CI 0.74 - 0.99; p=0.037 and having had an STI in the past 12 months (OR 2.22, CI 1.21 - 4.04; p=0.010. There were no statistically significant correlations between the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS scores of the women and age, marital status, level of education, employment status and number of own children. Conclusion. Depressed mood is common among HIV-positive postpartum women. This is significantly associated with lack of social support, stigma and discrimination. Routine screening to identify those currently depressed or at risk of depression should be integrated into postnatal care settings to target those most needing intervention.

  17. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  18. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Ward, ProfPhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. Methods: For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15–17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. Findings: The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate. 9·99% (95% CI 8·65–11·47 of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83–16·56 of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]; school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29–3·48; rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43–0·80; having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04–1·96; parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67–3·36; being disabled (1·42, 1·10–1·82; female (but not male caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75–1·53 and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55–2·60. The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73–5·98 and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99–4·61 were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress

  19. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  1. Utilisation and prevalence of mixed methods research in library and information research in South Africa 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ngulube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of mixed methods research (MMR in library and information science (LIS research in South Africa from 2000 to 2008. The authors contrast the mixed methods research debate in the general methodological literature to how this method was practiced within the LIS scientific community. They reviewed 613 research articles published in six peer-reviewed LIS journals in South Africa, finding the research methods in these journals to be surveys drawing on positivistic assumptions and cross-sectional designs, and historical research based on constructivist knowledge claims. Mixed methods approaches that the authors identified in the methodological literature have had little impact on LIS research in South Africa. Given these limitations, the authors argue for greater methodological pluralism in conducting research in LIS and recommend the use of mixed methods research.

  2. IDRC in South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    To strengthen competition authorities in the region, IDRC supported the creation of the African Competition. Forum in 2010. IDRC-funded research also helped ... Saving lives, money, and ecosystems. Funding: $675,000. Duration: 2013–2016. Grantee: University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Environmental economists seek to ...

  3. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ... Matsumoto Culture and Psychology 16: "…the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of ... Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour (PHC) unreported case no 59521/2007 of 18 June 2008 ...

  4. in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    skills, talent identification, financial implications and sci- entific support for swimmers in South Africa. The top 45 swimmers ... potential, capacity and raw talent to compete at interna- tional leveL Scientific and medical support, administration ..... Human Kinstie811, 1999. 7-8. . 3 . Bruckner P, Khan K. Clinical Sport8 Medicine.

  5. Prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among pregnant women living with HIV in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Violeta J; Cook, Ryan R; Peltzer, Karl; Jones, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Pregnant women living with HIV (WLHIV) in South Africa (SA) report higher rates of suicidal ideation than those who are HIV uninfected, and antenatal suicidal ideation has been previously associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Few studies have attempted to identify correlates and psychosocial predictors of suicidal ideation in this population. In this study, we sought to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for suicidal ideation among pregnant WLHIV in rural SA (N = 673). Thirty-nine percent of women endorsed suicidal ideation (95% CI: 35.2% to 42.3%) and in multivariable logistic regression analysis, suicidal ideation was associated with intimate partner violence and stigma, which interacted to multiplicatively increase the odds of suicidal thoughts. Given the high rates of reported suicidal ideation identified in this sample, and the potential harm to mothers and neonates, suicide risk assessment and management protocols for pregnant WLHIV should be considered for inclusion in the standard of care in rural SA.

  6. Prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use and reported knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding its relationship with health and safety on mines in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pick, W

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available is one of the most significant public health concerns facing South Africa today. Globally, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug, with an estimated 144 million people using it annually (1). It constitutes the main drug of abuse in Africa (2... research on alcohol and cannabis use among mineworkers is limited. 1.1 Prevalence of substance use It is estimated that 6% to 16% of the average workforce is likely to be alcohol dependent and that a further 20% is likely to experience drug...

  7. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  8. The prevalence of urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life among the university female staff in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Skaal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence (UI is a common problem among females and has been associated with significant decreased quality of  life. Few  women  seek  help  for  this  condition  with  only  a  few  who consult physiotherapy treatment.Purpose: To determine the prevalence of urinary incontinence and its impact on quality of life among the university women in South Africa.Method:  A  quantitative  cross-sectional  study design  with  145  women  ran-domly selected from the university. A questionnaire was used to determine UI Diagnosis; Impact on Qol and treatment seeking tendencies. BMI was meas-ured objectively. ethical clearance was obtained from University. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.0Results:  Forty  six(32%  women  reported  to  having  UI.  Risk  factors  associated  with  UI  included  age,  race,  and  obesity. UI had a significant negative impact on quality of life and only 4.4% of participants with UI consulted physio-therapy for this condition.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of UI among the women at this university with a significant impact on quality of life.The role of Physiotherapy in management of UI has been demonstrated and there is therefore a need to empower women with non-invasive treatment options, like physiotherapy.

  9. High prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abia, ALK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa, in order to better inform health management decisions designed to protect users of the river...

  10. Seasonal prevalence, body condition score and risk factors of bovine fasciolosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease that is responsible for a significant loss in food resource and animal productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola infection in cattle. The results were obtained by coprology, antemortem and post-mortem survey of three abattoirs (HTPA1, n = 500, HTPA2, n = 400, and LTPA, n = 220. The seasonal prevalence of Fasciola infection was 10.4%, 12.8% and 10.9%, during summer, 11.2%, 10.8% and 8.6%, during autumn, 9.8%, 6.5% and 5.9% during winter and 8.2%, 7.8% and 5.9%, during spring in the three abattoirs HTPA1, HTPA and LTPA respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05 between the intensity of infection and body condition score (BCS of cattle at each abattoir. Factors such as age [HTPA1 (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2, 10.2, and LTPA (OR = 3.8, CI= 2.4, 6.1], sex [LTPA (OR = 4.2, CI= 2.5, 7.0], breed [HTPA2 (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.3, 4.1 and LTPA (OR = 2.5, CI= 1.3, 5.0] and BCS had significant (p < 0.01–0.001 influence on the prevalence of fasciolosis. In conclusion, the infection with Fasciola spp was higher in the summer than in the winter; a positive association was established between the prevalence of fasciolosis and poor body condition in study animals. This study, therefore, suggests that fasciolosis could be causing substantial production losses, mainly due to cattle weight loss and liver condemnation.

  11. Dental caries prevalence in children attending special needs schools in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nqcobo, C B; Yengopal, V; Rudolph, M J; Thekiso, M; Joosab, Z

    2012-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence from clinical data in Johannesburg suggests that there is a high burden of dental caries among children with special health care needs (CSHCN) in Johannesburg. To determine the prevalence of dental caries and Unmet Treatment Needs in children with cerebral palsy, hearing, learning and mental disabilities attending special needs schools in Johannesburg and to compare these with data from the National Children's Oral Health Survey (NCOHS) METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study comprised of 882 children attending five special needs schools in Johannesburg. Stratified randomised sampling of the participating schools was done and the schools were stratified by disability. Caries status was recorded via the dmft/DMFT index using WHO criteria and guidelines. The mean age of the participants was 10.5 years; with a caries prevalence of 27.55% and 33.56% in the primary and permanent dentition respectively. The highest unmet treatment need of 100% was found in the permanent dentition of the hearing impaired group followed by 90.77% in the primary dentition of the cerebral palsy group. In general no significant difference was found when the dmft/DMFT for CSHCN and NCOHS were compared except in the hearing impaired age groups four to five and six (both primary dentition) where significantly higher dmft scores (3.58 vs. 2.4; 3.85 vs. 2.9; p special health care needs had lower caries prevalence compared with the general population and higher unmet treatment needs regardless of the type of disability.

  12. Uranium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The history, sources, mineralogy, extraction metallurgy, conversion, and enrichment of uranium in South Africa is reviewed. Over the past 40 years extraction plants were built at 27 sites, and over 140 kt of uranium have been produced. Older plants have had to adapt to changing market conditions, no single technology has had the opportunity to become entrenched, and the costs have been reduced to a third of those of the original flowsheet. The research efforts aimed at developing the country's nuclear raw materials have been particularly rewarding, as they have enabled South Africa to become a world leader in the extraction of uranium from low-grade ores and to develop methods for uranium enrichment and the production of nuclear fuels. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  13. South Africa's mineral industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  14. Photonics in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...

  15. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  16. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalysha Closson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Methods Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS, prevalence of “ever” experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14–19 was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63. We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of ‘high PTE score’ (≥7 PTEs. Results Overall, 767/830 (92% participants were included (58% adolescent women. Nearly all (99.7% reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19. Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., “seen an act of violence in the community” whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., “family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS”. High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively. For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63; and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76. Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03, and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37. Conclusion Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with

  17. Prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma exposure among adolescent men and women in Soweto, South Africa: implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan Janine; Nkala, Busi; Musuku, Addy; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Gray, Glenda; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Hogg, Robert S; Miller, Cari L; Kaida, Angela

    2016-11-25

    Youth trauma exposure is associated with syndemic HIV risk. We measured lifetime prevalence, type, and correlates of trauma experience by gender among adolescents living in the HIV hyper-endemic setting of Soweto, South Africa. Using data from the Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Survey (BBAHS), prevalence of "ever" experiencing a traumatic event among adolescents (aged 14-19) was assessed using a modified Traumatic Event Screening Inventory-Child (TESI-C) scale (19 items, study alpha = 0.63). We assessed self-reported number of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) experienced overall and by gender. Gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression models assessed independent correlates of 'high PTE score' (≥7 PTEs). Overall, 767/830 (92%) participants were included (58% adolescent women). Nearly all (99.7%) reported experiencing at least one PTE. Median PTE was 7 [Q1,Q3: 5-9], with no gender differences (p = 0.19). Adolescent men reported more violent PTEs (e.g., "seen an act of violence in the community") whereas women reported more non-violent HIV/AIDS-related PTEs (e.g., "family member or someone close died of HIV/AIDS"). High PTE score was independently associated with high food insecurity among adolescent men and women (aOR = 2.63, 95%CI = 1.36-5.09; aOR = 2.57, 95%CI = 1.55-4.26, respectively). For men, high PTE score was also associated with older age (aOR = 1.40/year, 95%CI = 1.21-1.63); and recently moving to Soweto (aOR = 2.78, 95%CI = 1.14-6.76). Among women, high PTE score was associated with depression using the CES-D scale (aOR = 2.00, 95%CI = 1.31-3.03,) and inconsistent condom use vs. no sexual experience (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI = 1.66-4.37). Nearly all adolescents in this study experienced trauma, with gendered differences in PTE types and correlates, but not prevalence. Exposure to PTEs were distributed along social and gendered axes. Among adolescent women, associations with depression and inconsistent condom use suggest pathways for HIV risk. HIV

  18. Sexual violence against children in South Africa: a nationally representative cross-sectional study of prevalence and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L; Artz, Lillian; Leoschut, Lezanne; Kassanjee, Reshma; Burton, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to complete a nationally representative study of sexual violence against children in South Africa, and its correlates, since we could identify no other such study. For this nationally representative, cross-sectional study in South Africa, households were selected by use of a multistage sampling frame, stratified by province, urban or rural setting, and race group, and schools were selected on the basis that they were closest to the area in which households were selected. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires in each location inquired into lifetime and last-year prevalence of sexual abuse, and its correlates among children aged 15-17 years, whose parents gave informed consent and they themselves gave informed assent. The final household sample was 5631 (94·6% participation rate). 9·99% (95% CI 8·65-11·47) of boys and 14·61% (95% CI 12·83-16·56) of girls reported some lifetime sexual victimisation. Physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, family violence, and other victimisations were all strongly associated with sexual victimisation. The following were associated with greater risk of sexual abuse (adjusted odds ratio [OR]); school enrolment (OR 2·12, 95% CI 1·29-3·48); rural dwelling (0·59; 0·43-0·80); having a flush toilet (1·43, 1·04-1·96); parental substance misuse (2·37, 1·67-3·36); being disabled (1·42, 1·10-1·82); female (but not male) caregivers' poor knowledge of the child's whereabouts, friends, and activities (1·07, 0·75-1·53) and poor quality of the relationship with the child (ie, poor acceptance; 1·20, 0·55-2·60). The child's own substance misuse (4·72, 3·73-5·98) and high-risk sexual behaviour (3·71, 2·99-4·61) were the behaviours most frequently associated with sexual abuse, with mental health conditions found to be less prevalent than these factors but still strongly associated with sexual victimisation (post-traumatic stress disorder 2·81, 1·65-4·78; depression 3·43, 2·26-5·19; anxiety 2

  19. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Sarah; Agyemang, Charles; Matsha, Tandi E; Peer, Nasheeta; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P

    2017-01-01

    Factors influencing the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among children and adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa remain unclear. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of overweight and obesity and effects on cardio-metabolic profile in school learners in the Western Cape, South Africa. Cross-sectional data were collected from 7 to 18-year-old South African school learners attending 14 schools, randomly selected from 107 government schools in the areas. The learners were selected through stratified random sampling techniques. Logistic regressions were used to assess the determinants of overweight/obesity and its association with cardio-metabolic profile. Among the 1559 participants, the overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 22.9%. Being a girl (Odds ratio 2.51, 95% CI: 1.92-3.29), or Black African (1.35, 1.04-.75) was associated with increased odds of being overweight/obese. The identified health consequences among the overweight/obese learners differed between the ethnic groups. Overweight/obese coloured (mixed ancestry) learners were more likely to have hypertension (3.27, 1.18-9.08), hypertriglyceridemia (1.94, 0.99-3.78) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (3.65, 2.33-5.72), overweight/obese Black African learners had higher odds for hypertension (3.62, 1.31-10.04) and low HDL-C (1.56, 1.01-2.40) and overweight/obese White learners were prone to low HDL-C (5.04, 1.35-18.80). Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among school learners in Western Cape (South Africa), with being female or Black African increasing the odds. That overweight/obesity is also associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile aggravates the problem and suggests worse cardiovascular outcomes in South African young adults in the future.

  20. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in four rural communities in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; de Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Hoyme, Derek; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in previously unstudied rural, agricultural, lower socioeconomic populations in South Africa (ZA). Using an active case ascertainment approach among first grade learners, 1354 (72.6%) were consented into the study via: height, weight, and/or head circumference ≤ 25th centile and/or random selection as normal control candidates. Final diagnoses were made following: examination by pediatric dysmorphologists/geneticists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal risk factor interviews. FASD children were significantly growth deficient and dysmorphic: physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories from severe to mild to normal in a consistent, linear fashion. Neurodevelopmental delays were also significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across groups. Alcohol use is well documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for each diagnostic group. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: low body weight, body mass, education, and income; and high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. In this low SES, highly rural region, FAS occurs in 93-128 per 1000 children, PFAS in 58-86, and, ARND in 32-46 per 1000. Total FASD affect 182-259 per 1000 children or 18-26%. Very high rates of FASD exist in these rural areas and isolated towns where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. High prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Akebe Luther King; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Momba, Maggy Ndombo Benteke

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the presence of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in river bed sediments of the Apies River, Gauteng, South Africa, in order to better inform health management decisions designed to protect users of the river. Overall, 180 water and sediment samples were collected at 10 sites along the Apies River from January to February 2014. E. coli was enumerated using the Colilert® 18/Quanti-Tray® 2000 (IDEXX). Isolates were purified by streaking on eosin methylene blue agar followed by the indole test. Pure E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to nine antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Over 98% of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the antibiotics tested. The highest resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (sediments) and ampicillin (water). Over 80% of all resistant isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance to ≥3 antibiotics). The abundance of E. coli in the sediments not only adds to the evidence that sediments are a reservoir for bacteria and possibly other pathogens including antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also suggests that antibiotic-resistant genes could be transferred to pathogens due to the high prevalence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (MAR) strains of E. coli observed in the sediment. Using untreated water from the Apies River following resuspension for drinking and other household purposes could pose serious health risks for users. Our results suggest that river bed sediments could serve as reservoirs for MAR bacteria including pathogens under different climatic conditions and their analysis could provide information of public health concerns.

  3. Hope Matters: Developing and Validating a Measure of Future Expectations Among Young Women in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Hill, Lauren; Maman, Suzanne; DeVellis, Robert; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Hope is a future expectancy characterized by an individual's perception that a desirable future outcome can be achieved. Though scales exist to measure hope, they may have limited relevance in low resource, high HIV prevalence settings. We developed and validated a hope scale among young women living in rural South Africa. We conducted formative interviews to identify the key elements of hope. Using items developed from these interviews, we administered the hope scale to 2533 young women enrolled in an HIV-prevention trial. Women endorsed scale items highly and the scale proved to be unidimensional in the sample. Hope scores were significantly correlated with hypothesized psycholosocial correlates with the exception of life stressors. Overall, our hope measure was found to have excellent reliability and to show encouraging preliminary indications of validity in this population. This study presents a promising measure to assess hope among young women in South Africa.

  4. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  5. Bovine trypanosomosis prevalence at the edge of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lundi Ntantiso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The northern KwaZulu-Natal (NKZN region of South Africa is the southern limit of the African tsetse belt. Entomological information on Glossina brevipalpis and Glossina austeni was generated following the outbreak of trypanosomosis in cattle in 1990. However, these data have not been supported by parallel studies on epidemiology of the disease and therefore there has been no control policy in place. This study presented the first intensive investigations to address the epidemiology of trypanosomosis in NKZN. Tsetse abundance, trypanosome herd average prevalence (HAP, herd average anaemia (HAA and herd average packed cell volume (HA-PCV were investigated at three communal diptanks located at the edge of Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park by monthly sampling from June 2006 – November 2007. Seasonal trypanosome surveys were conducted at seven other communal diptanks. Glossina brevipalpis prevalence was high at two of the diptanks, Mvutshini and Ekuphindisweni, but low at Ocilwane, whilst G. austeni was only collected from Mvutshini. This high and low tsetse challenge presented different disease scenarios. Cattle at Mvutshini and Ekuphindisweni had the highest HAP of 12.3% and 8.9% respectively, both significantly different (p = 0.001 from the HAP obtained from cattle at Ocilwane (2.9%. These two cattle herds also had the highest HAA, 27.7% and 33.4% respectively, whilst cattle at Ocilwane had the lowest, 11.1% (p = 0.001. Conversely, cattle at Ocilwane had the highest HA-PCV, ranging between 29.0% and 32.0%, whilst cattle at Mvutshini and Ekuphindisweni had the lowest HA-PCV (24.0% – 29.0%. By combining the data from the three diptanks (1318 observations, 62.0% of the infected cattle were found anaemic, compared to 20.0% in the uninfected group. Trypanosome seasonal surveys showed that cattle at all the seven diptanks were infected with trypanosomes; mean HAP, HAA and HA-PCV of 10.2%, 46.6% and 23.7%, respectively. This study generated information on the

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  8. Prevalence of loss of all teeth (edentulism) and associated factors in older adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Hewlett, Sandra; Yawson, Alfred E; Moynihan, Paula; Preet, Raman; Wu, Fan; Guo, Godfrey; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Snodgrass, James J; Chatterji, Somnath; Engelstad, Mark E; Kowal, Paul

    2014-10-30

    Little information exists about the loss of all one's teeth (edentulism) among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO's) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367), Ghana (N = 4724), India (N = 7150), Mexico (N = 2315), Russian Federation (N = 3938) and South Africa (N = 3840). Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%-21.7%) than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%-9.0%). In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education), chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma), health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption) and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion) were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention.

  9. Prevalence of Loss of All Teeth (Edentulism and Associated Factors in Older Adults in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists about the loss of all one’s teeth (edentulism among older adults in low- and middle-income countries. This study examines the prevalence of edentulism and associated factors among older adults in a cross-sectional study across six such countries. Data from the World Health Organization (WHO’s Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was used for this study with adults aged 50-plus from China (N = 13,367, Ghana (N = 4724, India (N = 7150, Mexico (N = 2315, Russian Federation (N = 3938 and South Africa (N = 3840. Multivariate regression was used to assess predictors of edentulism. The overall prevalence of edentulism was 11.7% in the six countries, with India, Mexico, and Russia has higher prevalence rates (16.3%–21.7% than China, Ghana, and South Africa (3.0%–9.0%. In multivariate logistic analysis sociodemographic factors (older age, lower education, chronic conditions (arthritis, asthma, health risk behaviour (former daily tobacco use, inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption and other health related variables (functional disability and low social cohesion were associated with edentulism. The national estimates and identified factors associated with edentulism among older adults across the six countries helps to identify areas for further exploration and targets for intervention.

  10. Arbitration Foundation of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir O. Kramarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author explores the history and legal framework for the creation and operation of international commercial arbitration in South Africa. Author notes that South Africa is the most economically developed country in Africa, it is among dozens of major international organizations. From the point of view of the development of the system of law, legal proceedings and arbitration, South Africa is an attractive state for study. Author emphasizes that the South African Republic throughout its existence has been influenced by two legal families: Anglo-Saxon and Romano-Germanic. Therefore, it is important to note that South Africa refers to a mixed system of law. To date, South Africa has two international commercial arbitration: the Arbitration Foundation of South Africa and the Association of Arbitrators. In the conclusion author points out that the development and establishment of the centers of the arbitration fund continues: new centers are being established, and the system of procedures for dealing with cases in already established centers is being improved.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination in South Africa accounting for human immunodeficiency virus prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Stander, Martinus P; Van Kriekinge, Georges; Demarteau, Nadia

    2015-12-11

    This study aims at evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a 2-dose schedule human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme of HPV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) naïve 12-year-old girls, in addition to cervical cancer (CC) screening alone, in South Africa. The study aims to account for both the impact of the vaccine among girls who are HIV-positive (HIV+) as well as HIV-negative (HIV-) population. A previously published Markov cohort model was adapted to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of a HPV vaccination programme in girls aged 12 years (N = 527 900) using the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine from a public payer perspective. Two subpopulations were considered: HIV- and HIV+ women. Each population followed the HPV natural history with different transition probabilities. Model input data were obtained from the literature, local databases and Delphi panel. Costs and outcomes were discounted at 5 %. Extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of the evaluation. Implementation of the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in combination with current cytological screening in South African girls could prevent up to 8 869 CC cases and 5 436 CC deaths over the lifetime of a single cohort. Without discounting, this HPV vaccine is dominant over screening alone; with discounting, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is ZAR 81 978 (South African Rand) per quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained. HPV vaccination can be considered cost-effective based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommended threshold (3 x gross domestic product/capita = ZAR 200 293). In a scenario with a hypothetical targeted vaccination in a HIV+ subpopulation alone, the modelled outcomes suggest that HPV vaccination is still cost-effective, although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio increases to ZAR 102 479. Results were sensitive to discount rate, vaccine efficacy, HIV incidence and mortality rates, and HPV-related disease

  12. Prevalence and predictors of traditional medicine utilization among persons living with AIDS (PLWA) on antiretroviral (ARV) and prophylaxis treatment in both rural and urban areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G D; Puoane, T R; Clark, B L; Wondwossen, T L; Johnson, Q; Folk, W

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that majority of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naïve patients use traditional medicine (TM). Given that TM use is ubiquitous in South Africa especially for chronic conditions, there is a potential for ARV non-adherence and serious drug interactions among patients with HIV/AIDs who use TM. The motivating factors for TM use in HIV/AIDS patients on ARV and prophylaxis treatment have not been well defined in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, facilitators, predictors, and types of TM used among persons living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment. The study was a cross-sectional survey which involved 100 participants enrolled at ARV clinics in two South African provinces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationships between variables and potential predictors of TM. Sixteen percent of participants on ARV reported TM use. Seventy-nine percent used TM prior to a diagnosis of HIV. Participants were more likely to use TM if they were from a rural province, female, older, unmarried, employed, had limited education, or were HIV-positive for less than five years. TM users reported utilizing herbal or medicinal mixtures that were claimed to heal all conditions. This study provides insights into the treatment modalities selected by patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa who are receiving ARV. This study revealed that less than 20% of participants co-used TM and ARV. However, close to 80% of participants utilize TM before contracting HIV, which is in keeping with approximate estimates by the WHO.

  13. Prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis and imputed burden in South Africa: a national and sub-national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Mvusi, Lindiwe; Nanoo, Ananta; Dreyer, Andries; Omar, Shaheed V; Babatunde, Sanni; Molebatsi, Thabo; van der Walt, Martie; Adelekan, Adeboye; Deyde, Varough; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Madhi, Shabir A

    2018-04-20

    Globally, per-capita, South Africa reports a disproportionately high number of cases of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. We sought to estimate the prevalence of resistance to tuberculosis drugs in newly diagnosed and retreated patients with tuberculosis provincially and nationally, and compared these with the 2001-02 estimates. A cross-sectional survey was done between June 15, 2012-June 14, 2014, using population proportionate randomised cluster sampling in the nine provinces in South Africa. 343 clusters were included, ranging between 31 and 48 per province. A patient was eligible for inclusion in the survey if he or she presented as a presumptive case during the intake period at a drug resistance survey enrolling facility. Consenting participants (≥18 years old) completed a questionnaire and had a sputum sample tested for resistance to first-line and second-line drugs. Analysis was by logistic regression with robust SEs, inverse probability weighted against routine data, and estimates were derived using a random effects model. 101 422 participants were tested in 2012-14. Nationally, the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis was 2·1% (95% CI 1·5-2·7) among new tuberculosis cases and 4·6% (3·2-6·0) among retreatment cases. The provincial point prevalence of MDR tuberculosis ranged between 1·6% (95% CI 0·9-2·9) and 5·1% (3·7-7·0). Overall, the prevalence of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (4·6%, 95% CI 3·5-5·7) was higher than the prevalence of MDR tuberculosis (2·8%, 2·0-3·6; p=0·01). Comparing the current survey with the previous (2001-02) survey, the overall MDR tuberculosis prevalence was 2·8% versus 2·9% and prevalance of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis was 3·4% versus 1·8%, respectively. The prevalence of isoniazid mono-resistant tuberculosis was above 5% in all provinces. The prevalence of ethionamide and pyrazinamide resistance among MDR tuberculosis cases was 44·7% (95% CI 25

  14. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  15. Depressed, not depressed or unsure: Prevalence and the relation to well-being across sectors in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Welthagen

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of depression amongst employees in South African organisations and the relationship of depression with specific well-being constructs. Motivation for the study: Organisations should know about the prevalence of depression and the effects this could have on specific well-being constructs. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional design was followed. The availability sample (n = 15 664 included participants from diverse demographics. The South African Employee Health and Wellness Survey was followed to measure constructs. Main findings: The results showed that 18.3% of the population currently receive treatment for depression, 16.7% are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression and 65% do not suffer from depression. Depression significantly affects the levels of work engagement, burnout and the occurrence of stress-related ill health symptoms. Practical/managerial implications: This study makes organisations aware of the relationship between depression and employee work-related well-being. Proactive measures to promote the work-related well-being of employees, and to support employees suffering from depression, should be considered. Contribution/value-add: This study provides insight into the prevalence of depression and well-being differences that exist between individuals, suffering from depression, who are unsure whether or not they suffer from depression, and who do not suffer from depression.

  16. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  17. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikandiwa, Admire; Kelly, Helen; Sawadogo, Bernard; Ngou, Jean; Pisa, Pedro T; Gibson, Lorna; Didelot, Marie-Noelle; Meda, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Segondy, Michel; Mayaud, Philippe; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead

    2018-01-01

    To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV) and anogenital warts (AGW) among women living with HIV (WLHIV) in Burkina Faso (BF) and South Africa (SA), and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes. We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623) aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months) after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW. Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL). Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes. LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  18. Prevalence, incidence and correlates of low risk HPV infection and anogenital warts in a cohort of women living with HIV in Burkina Faso and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Chikandiwa

    Full Text Available To report the prevalence and incidence of low-risk human papillomavirus infection (LR-HPV and anogenital warts (AGW among women living with HIV (WLHIV in Burkina Faso (BF and South Africa (SA, and to explore HIV-related factors associated with these outcomes.We enrolled 1238 WLHIV (BF = 615; SA = 623 aged 25-50 years and followed them at three time points (6, 12 and 16 months after enrolment. Presence of AGW was assessed during gynaecological examination. Cervico-vaginal swabs for enrolment and month 16 follow-up visits were tested for HPV infection by Inno-LiPA® genotyping. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for prevalent infection or AGW. Cox regression was used to assess risk factors for incident AGW.Women in SA were more likely than those in BF to have prevalent LR-HPV infection (BF: 27.1% vs. SA: 40.9%; p500 cells/μL. Duration of ART and HIV plasma viral load were not associated with any LR-HPV infection or AGW outcomes.LR-HPV infection and AGW are common in WLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Type-specific HPV vaccines and effective ART with immunological reconstitution could reduce the burden of AGW in this population.

  19. Tuberculosis and hepatic steatosis are prevalent liver pathology findings among HIV-infected patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Liver disease epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa has shifted as a result of HIV and the increased use of antiretroviral therapy leading to a need for updated data on common causes of liver disease. We retrospectively reviewed records from all hospitalized patients who had liver biopsy at a single hospital in South Africa from 2001 to 2009 and compared diagnosis by HIV status. During the period of study 262 patients had liver biopsy, 108 (41% were HIV-infected, 25 (10% were HIV-sero-negative, and 129 (49% had unknown or unrecorded HIV status. Overall 81% of biopsies provided additional diagnostic data. Malignancy was the most common finding reported on 56 (21% biopsies followed by granuloma or TB, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis or cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have granulomas and steatosis. Half of patients with granulomas were already on TB treatment, suggesting paradoxical reactions or drug induced liver injury may have been important causes of liver inflammation among these patients. We note that TB, paradoxical reactions during TB treatment, possible drug induced liver injury, and hepatic steatosis are important causes of liver pathology among HIV-infected hospitalized patients with unclear etiology of liver disease after initial assessment. Among HIV sero-negative patients, malignancy was the major cause of liver disease. Our findings re-enforce the importance of TB as a diagnosis among HIV-infected individuals.

  20. Prevalence of mixed Trypanosoma congolense infections in livestock and tsetse in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gillingwater

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma congolense causes the most economically important animal trypanosomosis in Africa. In South Africa, a rinderpest pandemic of the 1890s removed many host animals, resulting in the near-eradication of most tsetse species. Further suppression was achieved through spraying with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT; however, residual populations of Glossina austeni and G. brevipalpis remained in isolated pockets. A total of 506 of these tsetse flies were captured in the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, the St Lucia Wetland Park and Boomerang commercial farm. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to determine the infection rate and frequency of mixed infections of these flies. Additionally, 473 blood samples were collected from cattle at communal diptanks and a commercial farm in the area and each one examined by the haematocrit centrifugation technique (HCT. Furthermore, buffy coats from these blood samples were spotted onto FTA Elute cards and the DNA extracted from each one tested using 3 separate PCRs. The HCT revealed the presence of trypanosomes in only 6.6 % of the blood samples; by contrast, species-specific PCR detected trypanosome DNA in 50 % of the samples. The species-specific PCR detected trypanosome DNA in 17 % of the tsetse flies, compared with the nested PCR targeting rDNA which detected trypanosome DNA in only 14 % of the samples. Over time, the transmission of Savannah-type T. congolense and Kilifi-type T. congolense as mixed infections could have an impact on disease manifestation in different hosts in the area.

  1. Bibliographic Control in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiker, Reuben

    1972-01-01

    The author sets as his task the consideration of the present state of bibliographical control of South Africa's bookstock with special reference to centralization and decentralization. (20 references) (Author/SJ)

  2. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  3. Energy Crisis Racks South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwijs, H.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will struggle with energy capacity shortages until at least 2015. Giant coal-fired power plants are now being built to solve the problem - but they will not prevent the problem of climate change

  4. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  5. Gender differences in prevalence and correlates of high sexual self-efficacy among adolescents in Soweto, South Africa: implications for gender-sensitive research and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Kalysha; Dietrich, Janan; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Nkala, Busi; Cui, Zishan; Chia, Jason; Hogg, Robert S; Gray, Glenda; Kaida, Angela; Miller, Cari L

    2018-04-01

    Sexual self-efficacy (SSE) - one's confidence in their ability to perform given sexual behaviours, has been shown to predict adolescents' HIV-prevention practices (e.g., Condom use). Few studies within sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV incidence and prevalence disproportionately affects young women, have examined gendered differences in SSE. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of high-SSE separately among adolescent men and women (aged 14-19) in Soweto, South Africa using a previously validated SSE scale (high-SSE [>3/6 items]; study-alpha = 0.75). SSE scale items assessed self-efficacy related to sexual refusal and condom use. Adolescent women were significantly more likely to report high-SSE than adolescent men (72.3% versus 49.5%; p < 0.01). High-SSE among adolescent men was associated with more positive beliefs about sexual relationships and negatively associated with probable depression. High-SSE among adolescent women was associated with increased HIV knowledge, more positive beliefs about condom use and sexual relationships, having an adult in the home, and negatively associated with being an older adolescent (16-17 versus ≤15), and ever experiencing physical violence. Differences in prevalence and correlates of SSE among adolescent men and women in South Africa highlight important areas for gender-sensitive interventions. Targeted efforts to reduce negative sexual beliefs, improve HIV knowledge and mental well-being may improve SSE and thus the uptake of HIV-prevention practices among adolescent men. For adolescent women, findings indicate programming should move beyond individual-levels determinants of behaviour to focus on improving enabling environments (e.g., Reduced violence and improved family relationships) in which sexual agency can be enacted.

  6. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among young people in South Africa: A nested survey in a health and demographic surveillance site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna C Francis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections (STIs and bacterial vaginosis (BV are associated with increased transmission of HIV, and poor reproductive and sexual health. The burden of STIs/BV among young people is unknown in many high HIV prevalence settings. We conducted an acceptability, feasibility, and prevalence study of home-based sampling for STIs/BV among young men and women aged 15-24 years old in a health and demographic surveillance site (HDSS in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.A total of 1,342 young people, stratified by age (15-19 and 20-24 years and sex were selected from the HDSS sampling frame; 1,171/1,342 (87% individuals had ≥1 attempted home visit between 4 October 2016 and 31 January 2017, of whom 790 (67% were successfully contacted. Among the 645 who were contacted and eligible, 447 (69% enrolled. Consenting/assenting participants were interviewed, and blood, self-collected urine (men, and vaginal swabs (women were tested for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, and BV. Both men and women reported that sample collection was easy. Participants disagreed that sampling was painful; more than half of the participants disagreed that they felt anxious or embarrassed. The weighted prevalence of STIs/BV among men and women, respectively, was 5.3% and 11.2% for chlamydia, 1.5% and 1.8% for gonorrhoea, 0% and 0.4% for active syphilis, 0.6% and 4.6% for trichomoniasis, 16.8% and 28.7% for HSV-2, and 42.1% for BV (women only. Of the women with ≥1 curable STI, 75% reported no symptoms. Factors associated with STIs/BV included having older age, being female, and not being in school or working. Among those who participated in the 2016 HIV serosurvey, the prevalence of HIV was 5.6% among men and 19% among women. Feasibility was impacted by the short study duration and the difficulty finding men at home.A high prevalence of STIs/BV was found in this rural setting with high HIV prevalence in South

  7. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  8. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  9. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage.CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome.Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment.CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  10. Urethritis/cervicitis pathogen prevalence and associated risk factors among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David A; Chirwa, Tobias F; Msimang, Veerle M Y; Radebe, Frans M; Kamb, Mary L; Firnhaber, Cynthia S

    2012-07-01

    To determine sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, and patient characteristics associated with detection of urethritis/cervicitis pathogens, among HIV-infected individuals offered voluntary STI screening at a South African HIV treatment center. Individuals, asymptomatic for genital discharge, were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) infections (real-time polymerase chain reaction assay), for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (serologically), and for bacterial vaginosis and Candida (microscopy, women only). Patients' most recent CD4 and viral load results were recorded. Demographic, clinical, and behavioral data were collected by nurse-administered questionnaire. Compared with men (n = 551), women (n = 558) were younger (mean age, 35.0 vs. 37.9 years; P urethritis/cervicitis pathogens detected (21.3% vs.16.4%, P = 0.035), and were less aware of their partner's HIV status (53.1% vs. 62.3%; P = 0.007). The overall prevalence of individual urethritis/cervicitis pathogens was TV (7.6%), MG (6.1%), NG (5.4%), and C. trachomatis (2.1%). Multivariate analysis highlighted 4 significant factors associated with the detection of specific urethritis/cervicitis pathogens, namely female gender (TV, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47-4.37), having a regular sexual partner in the past 3 months (NG, aOR 2.26, 95% CI: 1.01-5.08), suboptimal condom use with regular partners (TV, aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.25-3.42), and a history of genital warts in the past year (NG, 2.25, 95% CI: 1.26-4.03). Asymptomatic urethritis/cervicitis pathogens were highly prevalent in this population. Few urethritis/cervicitis pathogen-associated patient characteristics were identified, emphasizing the need for affordable STI diagnostics to screen HIV-infected patients.

  11. Patterns and Prevalence of School Access, Transitions and Equity in South Africa: Secondary Analyses of BT20 Large-Scale Data Sources. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This monograph looks at patterns and prevalence of initial school enrolment, late entry, attainment promotion, and repetition in urban South Africa. The paper pays special attention to the particular gender nature of the patterns of school participation. The study analyses data generated in the genuine representative cohort study, Birth-to-Twenty…

  12. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-06-14

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonotic helminth are people living in rural areas most of whom earn their livelihood wholly or partially through livestock rearing. Here we report on initial results of a community-based study of pigs owned by resource-poor, emerging pig producers from 21 villages in the Eastern Cape Province. Lingual examination (tongue palpation) in live pigs, two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), which detect parasite antigen (B158/B60 Ag-ELISA and HP10 Ag-ELISA) and an enzyme immunotransfer blot (EITB) assay, which detects antiparasite antibody, were used to verify endemicity and estimate apparent prevalence. In the absence of a gold standard true prevalence was obtained, using a Bayesian approach, with a model that uses both available data and prior information. Results indicate that the parasite is indeed present in the study villages and that true prevalence was 64.6%. The apparent prevalences as measured by each of the four tests were: 11.9% for lingual examination, 54.8% for B158/B60 Ag-ELISA, 40.6% for HP10 Ag-ELISA and 33.3% for EITB. This base-line knowledge of the prevalence of T. solium in pigs provides information essential to the design and monitoring of sustainable and appropriate interventions for cysticercosis prevention and control.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of depression among HIV-infected and -affected older people in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirenda, M; Chatterji, S; Rochat, T; Mutevedzi, P; Newell, M-L

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about depression in older people in sub-Saharan Africa, the associated impact of HIV, and the influence on health perceptions. Examine the prevalence and correlates of depression; explore the relationship between depression and health perceptions in HIV-infected and -affected older people. In 2010, 422 HIV-infected and -affected participants aged 50+ were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Nurse professionals interviewed participants and a diagnosis of depressive episode was derived from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Depression module) using the International Classification of Diseases diagnostic criteria and categorised as major (MDE) or brief (BDE). Overall, 42.4% (n=179) had a depressive episode (MDE: 22.7%, n=96; BDE: 19.7%, n=83). Prevalence of MDE was significantly higher in HIV-affected (30.1%, 95% CI 24.0-36.2%) than HIV-infected (14.8%, 95% CI 9.9-19.7%) participants; BDE was higher in HIV-infected (24.6%, 95% CI 18.7-30.6%) than in HIV-affected (15.1%, 95% CI 10.3-19.8%) participants. Being female (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.73-5.36), receiving a government grant (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.75), urban residency (aOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and adult care-giving (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.37-4.12) were significantly associated with any depressive episode. Participants with a depressive episode were 2-3 times more likely to report poor health perceptions. Study limitations include the cross-sectional design, limited sample size and possible selection biases. Prevalence of depressive episodes was high. Major depressive episodes were higher in HIV-affected than HIV-infected participants. Psycho-social support similar to that of HIV treatment programmes around HIV-affected older people may be useful in reducing their vulnerability to depression. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The breed prevalence of Dog Erythrocyte Antigen 1.1 in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa and its significance in selection of canine blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.L. Van der Merwe

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The blood group antigen Dog Erythrocyte Antigen (DEA 1.1 is clinically the most important canine blood group as DEA 1.1 antibodies are capable of causing acute haemolytic, potentially life-threatening transfusion reactions. Dogs do not have naturally occurring antibodies to DEA 1.1 but are rapidly sensitised by the first incompatible transfusion. The prevalence of DEA 1.1 in the general dog population is estimated at 42-46 %. Canine blood donors registered with the Onderstepoort Animal Blood Bank (n = 93 as well as potential donors (n = 140 were typed for DEA 1.1 using a monoclonal antibody card kit. All dogs came from the Onderstepoort area, near Pretoria, Gauteng province, South Africa. Overall prevalence of DEA 1.1 was 47 %. Prevalence was 47 % in purebred dogs and 48 % in mongrels. Distinct breed differences were noted with less than 20 % of German shepherd dogs and Boxers and greater than 75 % of Rottweilers, Great Danes, St Bernards and Dalmations testing DEA 1.1 positive. Knowledge of local breed differences will increase effectiveness of blood donor recruitment.

  15. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety disorders amongst low-income pregnant women in urban South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heyningen, Thandi; Honikman, Simone; Myer, Landon; Onah, Michael N; Field, Sally; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety is highly prevalent in many populations; however, the burden of anxiety disorders amongst pregnant women in low-resource settings is not well documented. We investigated the prevalence and predictors of antenatal anxiety disorders amongst low-income women living with psychosocial adversity. Pregnant women were recruited from an urban, primary level clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview diagnostic interview assessed prevalence of anxiety disorders. Four self-report questionnaires measured psychosocial characteristics. Logistic regression models explored demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, psychosocial risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity as predictors for anxiety disorders. Amongst 376 participants, the prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 23%. Although 11% of all women had post-traumatic stress disorder, 18% of the total sample was diagnosed with other anxiety disorders. Multivariable analysis revealed several predictors for anxiety including a history of mental health problems (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.03-8.32), Major depressive episode (MDE) diagnosis (AOR 3.83; CI 1.99-7.31), multigravidity (AOR 2.87; CI 1.17-7.07), food insecurity (AOR 2.57; CI 1.48-4.46), unplanned and unwanted pregnancy (AOR 2.14; CI 1.11-4.15), pregnancy loss (AOR 2.10; CI 1.19-3.75) and experience of threatening life events (AOR 1.30; CI 1.04-1.57). Increased perceived social support appeared to reduce the risk for antenatal anxiety (AOR 0.95; CI 0.91-0.99). A range of antenatal anxiety disorders are prevalent amongst pregnant women living in low-resource settings. Women who experience psychosocial adversity may be exposed to multiple risk factors, which render them vulnerable to developing antenatal anxiety disorders.

  17. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  18. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  19. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  20. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  1. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann Anton; Visser Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s s...

  2. Prevalence of and factors associated with frailty and disability in older adults from China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, R B; Minicuci, N; Yawson, A E; Theou, O; Mensah, G P; Naidoo, N; Wu, F; Guo, Y; Zheng, Y; Jiang, Y; Maximova, T; Kalula, S; Arokiasamy, P; Salinas-Rodríguez, A; Manrique-Espinoza, B; Snodgrass, J J; Sterner, K N; Eick, G; Liebert, M A; Schrock, J; Afshar, S; Thiele, E; Vollmer, S; Harttgen, K; Strulik, H; Byles, J E; Rockwood, K; Mitnitski, A; Chatterji, S; Kowal, P

    2016-09-01

    The severe burden imposed by frailty and disability in old age is a major challenge for healthcare systems in low- and middle-income countries alike. The current study aimed to provide estimates of the prevalence of frailty and disability in older adult populations and to examine their relationship with socioeconomic factors in six countries. Focusing on adults aged 50+ years, a frailty index was constructed as the proportion of deficits in 40 variables, and disability was assessed using the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), as part of the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. This study included a total of 34,123 respondents. China had the lowest percentages of older adults with frailty (13.1%) and with disability (69.6%), whereas India had the highest percentages (55.5% and 93.3%, respectively). Both frailty and disability increased with age for all countries, and were more frequent in women, although the sex gap varied across countries. Lower levels of both frailty and disability were observed at higher levels of education and wealth. Both education and income were protective factors for frailty and disability in China, India and Russia, whereas only income was protective in Mexico, and only education in South Africa. Age-related frailty and disability are increasing concerns for older adult populations in low- and middle-income countries. The results indicate that lower levels of frailty and disability can be achieved for older people, and the study highlights the need for targeted preventive approaches and support programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  4. Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of chronic diseases in private healthcare sector of South Africa: A threat to public health. Lourens Johannes Rothmann, Martha Susanna Lubbe, Jan Hendrik Philippus Serfontein, Jan Jakobus Gerber, Madeeha Malik ...

  5. Longitudinal Trends in the Prevalence of Detectable HIV Viremia: Population-Based Evidence From Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Alain; Bärnighausen, Till; Herbeck, Joshua; Tomita, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew; Pillay, Deenan; de Oliveira, Tulio; Tanser, Frank

    2018-04-03

    The prevalence of detectable viremia has previously been used to infer the potential for ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. To date, no study has evaluated the longitudinal change in the prevalence of detectable viremia within the HIV-positive community (PDV+) and the entire population (PDVP) using data from a sub-Saharan African setting. In 2011, 2013, and 2014, we obtained 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative test results from a population-based surveillance system in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. We quantified the PDV+ as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL and the PDVP as the proportion of the 6752 HIV-positive and 15415 HIV-negative results with a viral load >1550 copies/mL. Between 2011 and 2014, the PDV+ decreased by 16.5 percentage points (pp) for women (from 71.8% to 55.3%) and 10.6 pp for men (from 77.8% to 67.2%). However, a steady rise in the overall HIV prevalence, from 26.7% to 32.4%, offset the declines in the PDV+ for both sexes. For women, the PDVP decreased by only 2.1 pp, from 21.3% to 19.2%, but for men, the PDVP actually increased by 1.6 pp, from 14.6% to 16.2%, over the survey period. The PDV+, which is currently being tracked under the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets, may not be an accurate indicator of the potential for ongoing HIV transmission. There is a critical need for countries to monitor and report the prevalence of detectable viremia among all adults, irrespective of HIV status.

  6. The continuum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a community in South Africa: Prevalence and characteristics in a fifth sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hasken, Julie M; Adnams, Colleen M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of the continuum of diagnoses within fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were researched in a fifth sample in a South African community. An active case ascertainment approach was employed among all first grade learners in this community (n=862). Following individual examination by clinical geneticists/dysmorphologists, cognitive/behavioral testing, and maternal interviews, final diagnoses were made in multidisciplinary case conferences. Physical measurements, cardinal facial features of FAS, and total dysmorphology scores clearly differentiated diagnostic categories in a consistent, linear fashion, from severe to mild. Neurodevelopmental delays and behavioral problems were significantly worse for each of the FASD diagnostic categories, although not as consistently linear across diagnostic groups. Alcohol use was documented by direct report from the mother in 71% to 100% of cases in specific diagnostic groups. Significant distal maternal risk factors in this population are: advanced maternal age at pregnancy; low height, weight, and body mass index (BMI); small head circumference; low education; low income; and rural residence. Even when controlling for socioeconomic status, prenatal drinking correlates significantly with total dysmorphology score, head circumference, and five cognitive and behavioral measures. In this community, FAS occurs in 59-79 per 1,000 children, and total FASD in 170-233 per 1,000 children, or 17% to 23%. Very high rates of FASD continue in this community where entrenched practices of regular binge drinking co-exist with challenging conditions for childbearing and child development in a significant portion of the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Household-based prevalence of helminths and parasitic protozoa in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, assessed from faecal vault sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trönnberg, Linda; Hawksworth, David; Hansen, Anette; Archer, Colleen; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the family-based prevalence of environmentally persistent parasites in two rural communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from 120 urine-diversion family toilets and screened for selected protozoa and helminths with immunomagnetic separation and the ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) protocol respectively. The parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (59%), Giardia intestinalis (54%), Trichuris trichiura (48%), Cryptosporidium spp. (21%) and Taenia spp. (18%). Only 14% of the household toilets were negative for these pathogens. The occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was lower (Pparasites per gram was done for each sample and this provided realistic risk assessment data for the reuse of material from urine-diversion toilets. The high occurrence of parasites found in the two communities, in spite of sanitation and hygiene interventions in the areas, suggests an endemicity that will not be reduced without de-worming campaigns. Finally, the study showed that sampling directly from the deposited faecal material may be useful for parasitic prevalence estimations. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Prevalence of Multiple Antibiotics Resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas Species in the Final Effluents of Three Municipal Wastewater Treatment Facilities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odjadjare, Emmanuel E.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Mordi, Raphael; Igere, Bright; Igeleke, Clara L.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    The final effluents of three (Alice, Dimbaza, and East London) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were evaluated to determine their physicochemical quality and prevalence of multiple antibiotics resistant (MAR) Pseudomonas species, between August 2007 and July 2008. The annual mean total Pseudomonas count (TPC) was 1.20 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), 1.08 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), and 2.66 × 104 (cfu/100 mL), for the Alice, Dimbaza, and East London WWTPs respectively. The effluents were generally compliant with recommended limits for pH, temperature, TDS, DO, nitrite and nitrate; but fell short of target standards for turbidity, COD, and phosphate. The tested isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), ofloxacin (100%), clindamycin (90%), erythromycin (90%) and nitrofurantoin (80%); whereas high resistance was observed against the penicillins (90–100%), rifampin (90%), sulphamethoxazole (90%) and the cephems (70%). MAR index ranged between 0.26 and 0.58. The study demonstrated that MAR Pseudomonas species were quite prevalent in the final effluents of WWTPs in South Africa; and this can lead to serious health risk for communities that depend on the effluent-receiving waters for sundry purposes. PMID:22829792

  9. Paediatric triage in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-07

    May 7, 2013 ... There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this ... So opens the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Countdown to 2015, the .... walk as normal. 27 or more. 160 or more. Unrespon- sive. Reacts to. Pain ... Each time the IMCI or.

  10. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  11. Young engineers of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  12. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-07-29

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus. 

  13. Nutrition in contemporary South Africa#

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa. 2 Division ... based diet that is inadequate in energy and of low nutrient density. ..... Vitamin A deficiency impacts on mortality of women of ... increased risk of heavy metal (e.g. lead) poisoning in children;.

  14. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  15. Sedating children in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bRed Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. cSedation and Pain ... As the authors indicate, there is increasing pressure from practitioners, funders and patients or parents for procedures to take place outside the ...

  16. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  17. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  18. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  19. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  20. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  1. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Anton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s secondary cities. The paper draws attention to the economic, socio-cultural, and physical characteristics of this form of student housing on host locations. It is argued that studentification holds both positive and negative impacts for the host communities of Bloemfontein. Finally, it is suggested that studentification in South Africa requires greater research attention.

  2. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D

    2014-12-21

    Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of ART on the resolution of anaemia in patient cohorts with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis is incompletely defined and the impact of TB episodes on haemoglobin recovery has not previously been reported. We therefore examined these issues using data from a well-characterised cohort of patients initiating ART in South Africa. Prospectively collected clinical and haematological data were retrospectively analysed from patients receiving ART in a South African township ART service. TB diagnoses and time-updated haemoglobin concentrations, CD4 counts and HIV viral loads were recorded. Anaemia severity was classified according to WHO criteria. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors independently associated with anaemia after 12 months of ART. Of 1,140 patients with baseline haemoglobin levels, 814 were alive in care and had repeat values available after 12 months of ART. The majority of patients were female (73%), the median CD4 count was 104 cells/uL and 30.5% had a TB diagnosis in the first year of ART. At baseline, anaemia (any severity) was present in 574 (70.5%) patients and was moderate/severe in 346 (42.5%). After 12 months of ART, 218 (26.8%) patients had anaemia of any severity and just 67 (8.2%) patients had moderate/severe anaemia. Independent predictors of anaemia after 12 months of ART included greater severity of anaemia at baseline, time-updated erythrocyte microcytosis and receipt of an AZT-containing regimen. In contrast, prevalent and/or incident TB, gender and baseline and time-updated CD4 cell count and viral load measurements were not independent predictors. Although anaemia was very common among ART-naive patients, the anaemia resolved during the first year of ART in a

  4. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Treffry-Goatley

    Full Text Available Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to

  5. (MTCT) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-18

    Mar 18, 2018 ... per 100 000 live births (MTCT case rate). The global target is <5% final MTCT in breastfeeding countries and ≤50 new paediatric HIV infections ..... Spatial distribution of IU case rates, by provincial antenatal HIV prevalence ...

  6. Prevalence of eye pathology in a group of diabetic patients at National District Hospital Outpatient Department in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen P. Cairncross

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This study confirms that glaucoma, cataracts and diabetic retinopathy are prevalent eye conditions among diabetic patients. Offering eye screening at primary healthcare level may contribute to early detection of eye pathology and timeous referral for sight-saving treatment.

  7. Prevalence of consensual male-male sex and sexual violence, and associations with HIV in South Africa: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Dunkle

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non

  8. Prevalence of Consensual Male–Male Sex and Sexual Violence, and Associations with HIV in South Africa: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM) is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male–male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration) in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus. Methods and Findings In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18–49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6%) of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1%) provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2%) also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92) of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164) reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51) reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79) of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26) reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26) also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male–male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26–12.3), and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22–7.90). Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24–7.80). Men who had raped a man

  9. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  10. Radiation technology in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of the relatively new field of radiation technology in South Africa. Attention is drawn particularly to the role which radioactive radiation can play in the spheres of medicine, polymer chemistry and agriculture. The possibilities inherent in ionizing radiation in the synthesis of chemicals and new synthetic materials, are dealt with briefly, and the promising results already achieved in the manufacture of polymer-wood are considered [af

  11. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  12. INTERNATIONALCAREEREXPERIENCESOFEXPATRIATEACADEMICS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashika Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africais facingamajor staffing shortageinscarce skills disciplines.Expatriateacademics have been sourcedbyuniversities to run programmes inthese disciplinesto create ‘home grown’ talent tosolvethis problem.This study isbased on Lazarova, Westman and Shaffer’s(2010modelrelating to expatriatework and family performance.It seeksto examine the experiencesof academics atUKZN,as well as provide recommendationson howto improve theirexperience.The key question ofthepaper, deals with the how expatriate academics haveadjusted to their new environment based onjob andwork environment challenges,family and lifestyle challenges, organisational support and contextual challengesin the host country.The results showedthat the majorityof respondentsare welladjusted in terms of their relationships with their host country colleagues and theirrelationships with family and friendsin theirhomecountry,as well as in terms ofthe fulfilment of theirworkplaceexpectations.Their experience oforganisationalsupport couldhoweverbeimproved.It was found that theydidnot share closeties with other expatriates or local South Africansat the universityorintheircommunities.Thestudy is exploratory and involves a single professional group,as such the findings are not generalisable to other contexts or respondents.Adescriptive quantitative analysis of the career experiences of 83 expatriateacademics was done. Thestudywasuniquein that itexaminedall levels ofacademiain conjunction withmanagement and takes place in a South Africancontext.To improve organisational support,the institution should establishsupport systems forinternational facultyFurthermore, itwassuggestedin thestudy, thatthereshouldbe the creation of a mentorship or buddy programme bythe university to support the adjustment of newinternational staff. Universitymanagement should set up an international staff office similar to the InternationalStudent Office manned by dedicated staff who deal only with matters

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for intimate partner violence among Grade 8 learners in urban South Africa: baseline analysis from the Skhokho Supporting Success cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamu, Simukai; Gevers, Anik; Mahlangu, B Pinky; Jama Shai, P Nwabisa; Chirwa, Esnat D; Jewkes, Rachel K

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious public health problem among adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with Grade 8 girls' experience and boys' perpetration of IPV in South Africa. Participants were interviewed using interviewer-administered questionnaires about IPV, childhood violence, bullying, gender attitudes, alcohol use and risky sexual behaviours. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess factors associated with girls' experience and boys' perpetration of IPV. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted to assess the pathways to IPV experience and perpetration. Results show dating relationships are common among girls (52.5%) and boys (70.7%) and high prevalence of sexual or physical IPV experience by girls (30.9%; 95% CI: 28.2-33.7) and perpetration by boys (39.5%; 95% CI: 36.6-42.3). The logistic regression model showed factors associated with girls' experience of IPV include childhood experience of violence, individual gender inequitable attitudes, corporal punishment at home and in school, alcohol use, wider communication with one's partner and being more negative about school. We found three pathways from childhood trauma to IPV experience and perpetration in both models and these are through inequitable gender attitudes and risky sex, bullying and alcohol use. Prevention of IPV in children needs to encompass prevention of exposure to trauma in childhood and addressing gender attitudes and social norms to encourage positive disciplining approaches. : The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT02349321. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection and predictive factors in an urban informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncayiyana, Jabulani R; Bassett, Jean; West, Nora; Westreich, Daniel; Musenge, Eustasius; Emch, Michael; Pettifor, Audrey; Hanrahan, Colleen F; Schwartz, Sheree R; Sanne, Ian; van Rie, Annelies

    2016-11-08

    South Africa has one of the highest burdens of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in high-risk populations such as young children, adolescents, household contacts of TB cases, people living with HIV, gold miners and health care workers, but little is known about the burden of LTBI in its general population. Using a community-based survey with random sampling, we examined the burden of LTBI in an urban township of Johannesburg and investigated factors associated with LTBI. The outcome of LTBI was based on TST positivity, with a TST considered positive if the induration was ≥5 mm in people living with HIV or ≥10 mm in those with unknown or HIV negative status. We used bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with LTBI RESULTS: The overall prevalence of LTBI was 34.3 (95 % CI 30.0, 38.8 %), the annual risk of infection among children age 0-14 years was 3.1 % (95 % CI 2.1, 5.2). LTBI was not associated with HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, LTBI was associated with age (OR = 1.03 for every year increase in age, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.05), male gender (OR = 2.70, 95 % CI = 1.55-4.70), marital status (OR = 2.00, 95 % CI = 1.31-3.54), and higher socio-economic status (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI = 1.04-4.31). The prevalence of LTBI and the annual risk of infection with M. tuberculosis is high in urban populations, especially in men, but independent of HIV infection status. This study suggests that LTBI may be associated with higher SES, in contrast to the well-established association between TB disease and poverty.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyun, Victoria; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; le Roux, Stanzi; McIntyre, James A; Zerbe, Allison; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2018-04-03

    Prevention of unplanned pregnancy is a crucial aspect of preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission. There are few data investigating how HIV status and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may influence pregnancy planning in high HIV burden settings. Our objective was to examine the prevalence and determinants of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in Cape Town, South Africa. Cross-sectional analysis. Single primary-level antenatal care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women, booking for antenatal care from March 2013 to August 2015, were included. Unplanned pregnancy was measured at the first antenatal care visit using the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP). Analyses examined LMUP scores across four groups of participants defined by their HIV status, awareness of their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and/or whether they were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) prior to the current pregnancy. Among 2105 pregnant women (1512 HIV positive; 593 HIV negative), median age was 28 years, 43% were married/cohabiting and 20% were nulliparous. Levels of unplanned pregnancy were significantly higher in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative women (50% vs 33%, p<0.001); and highest in women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (53%). After adjusting for age, parity and marital status, unplanned pregnancy was most common among women newly diagnosed and women who were known HIV positive but not on ART (compared with HIV-negative women, adjusted OR (aOR): 1.43; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.94 and aOR: 1.57; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.15, respectively). Increased parity and younger age (<24 years) were also associated with unplanned pregnancy (aOR: 1.42; 95% CI 1.25 to 1.60 and aOR: 1.83; 95% CI 1.23 to 2.74, respectively). We observed high levels of unplanned pregnancy among HIV-positive women, particularly among those not on ART, suggesting ongoing missed opportunities for improved family planning and

  16. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.

  17. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  18. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  19. South Africa : an opportunity for Western Europe ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Of the six threshold countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa), South Africa is the only one that, by a judicious application of pressures and incentives might be induced to accede the Non-Proliferation Treaty. There are several reasons for this, which derive chiefly from South Africa's political isolation and economic vulnerability and the absence of any credible military threat from beyond the country's borders. (author)

  20. Where are general surgeons located in South Africa? | Dell | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Surgery ... Methods: A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the 1 October 2014 until 31 ...

  1. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  2. Mortality Associated With Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in a High-HIV-Prevalence Setting-South Africa, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; von Mollendorf, Claire; Moyes, Jocelyn; McAnerney, Johanna M; Cohen, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Information on the mortality burden associated with seasonal and pandemic influenza virus infection among pregnant women is scarce in most settings, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where pregnancy and maternal mortality rates as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence are elevated. We used an ecological study design to estimate the seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza-associated mortality among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age (15-49 years) by HIV serostatus during 1999-2009 in South Africa. Mortality rates were expressed per 100 000 person-years. During 1999-2009, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 12.6 (123 deaths) and 7.3 (914 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively. Among pregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rates were 74.9 (109 deaths) among HIV-infected and 1.5 (14 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Among nonpregnant women, the estimated mean annual seasonal influenza-associated mortality rate was 41.2 (824 deaths) among HIV-infected and 0.9 (90 deaths) among HIV-uninfected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of seasonal influenza-associated mortality compared with nonpregnant women (relative risk [RR], 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-3.9). In 2009, the estimated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09-associated mortality rates were 19.3 (181 deaths) and 9.4 (1189 deaths) among pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively (RR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.3-4.1). Among women of childbearing age, the majority of estimated seasonal influenza-associated deaths occurred in HIV-infected individuals. Pregnant women experienced an increased risk of death associated with seasonal and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza infection compared with nonpregnant women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  4. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  5. Wind energy in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    Wind, in South Africa, has been a source of energy for many years but at the same time it is taking as much time and effort to receive the recognition it deserves as anywhere else in the world. The wind resource is comparable to a number of areas in the world wind is exploited as a grid connected source of electrical energy. Although the environmental impact of conventional sources of energy is not as widespread as most of the industrial nations some areas should be looked at critically. Wind as a bulk generator of energy is tentatively being looked at with some demonstration projects being planned. (author)

  6. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  7. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. David A. Huchzermeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP; the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes, seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The

  8. Prevalence of pansteatitis in African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K David A

    2012-11-09

    Pansteatitis was confirmed in sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), from three main locations within the Kruger National Park (KNP); the Olifants River Gorge, Engelhard Dam on the Letaba River and from the Sabie River in the Sabiepoort. An increasing prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish during repeated samplings from the Olifants Gorge from 2009 to 2011 and co-existence of old and recent lesions indicated on-going incitement of pansteatitis. Only a low prevalence of pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from the Olifants River upstream of the Gorge in the KNP and no pansteatitis was observed in catfish sampled from a rain-filled dam not connected to the Olifants River. Common to both the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort is the damming of the rivers in Mozambique to form lakes Massingir and Corumana respectively. Anthropogenic activities resulting in potential pollution of the rivers differ greatly between these two catchments, providing argument against a primary pollution-related aetiology of the pansteatitis found at these two sites. Compared with other sites, analysis of stomach contents of catfish from the Olifants Gorge and the Sabiepoort strongly suggested that consumption of a predominantly fish diet was associated with the development of pansteatitis in these fish. In a farmed population of catfish used as positive control, development of pansteatitis could be ascribed to consumption of rancid fish waste from a trout slaughterhouse. In the Olifants Gorge, alien invasive silver carp, Hypophthalmychthys molitrix (Valenciennes), seasonally migrate upstream out of Lake Massingir to spawn. This schooling species is an obligate phytoplankton feeder with consequent high levels of adipose tissue n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the Olifants Gorge, at least, this may explain seasonal exposure to levels of polyunsaturated fats in the diets of catfish and crocodiles to which these animals are not adapted. The possible roles of

  9. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  10. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  11. Coal: the future in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  12. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  13. Robotics and automation activities in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Utete, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...

  14. The Black Journalist in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachten, William A.

    The role of the black journalist in South Africa is contradictory, precarious, and permeated with politics. There is little freedom of expression for blacks in South Africa, yet white-owned newspapers have expanded their coverage of black news, and some have special editions for black readers. As a result, the English language press is using more…

  15. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  16. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One goal was to transform structures and institutions of global governance while another aim was to place developmental goals on the global agenda. As South Africa targeted UN agencies, notably the Security Council, the IMF, World Bank, WTO and more recently the G20, the curious question begs: will South Africa ...

  17. R-HPDC in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...

  18. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million, respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future.

  19. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  20. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  1. HIV epidemic in South Africa: A comparison of HIV epidemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-26

    Aug 26, 2014 ... the Western Cape. HIV infection in this age group is associated with recent infection, thus .... lowest HIV prevalence in South Africa) using two different sources of data at two different time points in different age groups in order ...

  2. Turbo-charging tobacco control in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tobacco use globally and in. South Africa. Tobacco continues to be the leading cause of death and disease worldwide.[1] Globally, the prevalence of smoking among adults decreased between 1980 and 2012 from 41% to 31% for men and from 11% to 6% for women, yet the number of smokers increased to nearly 1 billion ...

  3. Notification of rheumatic fever in South Africa - evidence for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Information on the incidence of rheumatic fever (RF) and the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is required for the prevention of valvular heart disease in developing countries. In South Africa, RF was made a notifiable condition in 1989. It has recently been suggested that the reporting of RF cases ...

  4. Future HIV Vaccine Acceptability among Young Adults in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…

  5. Down's syndrome in South Africa - incidence, maternal age and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Down's syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal cause of mental retardation, and amniocentesis is the most significant factor affecting its prevalence. In South Africa, prenatal cytogenetic diagnoses have been available for just over a decade and the utilisation and effect of this procedure in the white population ...

  6. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are some 38 venomous snake species in South Africa (SA), of which approximately half are dangerous to humans.[1] Snake species and density vary across the regions of SA.[2] Prevalent species include the Mozambique spitting cobra (Naja mossambica) and puff adder. (Bitis arietans), an elapid and viperid ...

  7. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  8. Prevalence of possible drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral agents in different age groups in a section of the private health care sector setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katende-Kyenda, N L; Lubbe, M S; Serfontein, J H P; Truter, I

    2008-08-01

    The chronic nature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection requires lifelong highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) to continuously suppress HIV-1 viral replication, thus reducing morbidity and mortality. HAART is restricted by complex dosing, drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and toxicities. To determine the prevalence of possible DDIs between ARV drugs in different age groups in a section of the private primary health care sector in South Africa. A quantitative, retrospective drug utilization review was performed on 47 085 ARV prescriptions claimed through a national medicine claims database during 2006. Possible DDIs identified were classified according to a clinical significance rating as described by Tatro [Drug Interaction Facts 2005. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons (2005)]. The total number of patients who received prescriptions that were claimed through the medicine claims database was 275 424, of whom 25.11% were males, 28.28% were females and the gender of 46.61% patients was unknown. Of the total number of patients, 3.27% were HIV patients of which an average of 5.23 +/- 3.86 ARV prescriptions (n = 47 085) per patient were claimed for representing 4.73% of the total number of prescriptions claimed during the study period (N = 993 804). HIV patients received an average of 2.36 +/- 0.61 ARVs per prescription. Only 4.95% of the prescriptions had one ARV medicine item, 56.04% two, 37.10% three, 1.75% four and 6 years and 12 and 60 years with patients <40 years and < or =60 years having the highest number of DDIs and patients older than 60 years the lowest. The majority of DDIs between the ARVs presented in significance levels 2 and 4. The most important interactions were between: indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (n = 199); efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 65) and EFV and IDV (n = 60) all interacting at level 2. The importance of using drug utilization study as an identification tool to provide insight into the prescribing and

  9. Population specific genetic heterogeneity of familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Natalie; Ramsay, Michèle; Raal, Frederick J

    2018-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and population-specific genetic heterogeneity of familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa. This review highlights the paucity of data on familial hypercholesterolemia in South Africa, and the urgent need to uncover the mutation profiles in lipid-associated genes, causing an increase in LDL-cholesterol in the different ethnic groups. Case reports and small studies have shown that familial hypercholesterolemia, although apparently uncommon, is present in black Africans. Local founder effects have led to an increased prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia in several South African populations: Afrikaner founder mutations (c.681 C>G, c.1285 G>A, c.523 G>A), Ashkenazi founder mutation (c.654_656del) and possible Indian founder mutation (c.2054 C>T). Preliminary data in black Africans with elevated LDL-cholesterol identified a possible common mutation, c.137_142del. The South African multiethnic society and well described founder effects emphasize the need for differential approaches to diagnosis and management of familial hypercholesterolemia. Studies involving larger cohorts and inclusive of different ethnicities are paramount to establishing an accurate prevalence of familial hypercholesterolemia in black Africans, not only in South Africa but in the Sub-Saharan African region. It is clear that the estimated world prevalence of one in 250 cannot be generally applied across African populations.

  10. Prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms and associated factors in tuberculosis (TB), TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Naidoo, Pamela; Matseke, Gladys; Louw, Julia; McHunu, Gugu; Tutshana, Bomkazi

    2013-01-01

    High rates of tuberculosis (TB) and TB/HIV co-infection is often linked with mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which is further associated with poor health outcomes. In a country such as South Africa where rates of these infectious diseases are high, it is concerning that there is limited/no data on prevalence rates of mental disorders such as PTSD and its associated factors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and associated factors in TB, TB retreatment and/or TB-HIV co-infected primary public health-care patients in three districts in South Africa. Brief screening self-report tools were used to measure: PTSD symptoms, psychological distress (anxiety and depression) and alcohol misuse. Other relevant measures, such as adherence to medication, stressful life events and sexual risk-taking behaviours, were obtained through structured questions. A total of 4900 public primary care adult patients from clinics in high TB burden districts from three provinces in South Africa participated. All the patients screened positive for TB (either new or retreatment cases). The prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 29.6%. Patients who screened positive for PTSD symptoms and psychological distress were more likely to be on antidepressant medication. Factors that predicted PTSD symptoms were poverty, residing in an urban area, psychological distress, suicide attempt, alcohol and/or drug use before sex, unprotected sex, TB-HIV co-infected and the number of other chronic conditions. Health-care systems should be strengthened to improve delivery of mental health care, by focusing on existing programmes and activities, such as those which address the prevention and treatment of TB and HIV.

  11. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South...... African Defence Force (SADF) during the apartheid era. The transition to peacemaker has imposed constraints on the use of force and required fundamental changes to the way military force is employed. South Africa’s transition has therefore transformed the international role of the SANDF. The destabilizing....... Introduction – Setting the Scene Chapter 2. Foreign Policy and Military Power in South Africa – framing the debate on RSA foreign policy in relation to Africa, Chapter 3. South Africa and the Concept of National Security Chapter 4. The SANDF: Capacity and Capabilities Chapter 5. Sorry Mr. Chairman, can we stop...

  12. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  14. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  15. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available were pooled according to health regions and related to population ... Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron. Machine energy beam. Tvl .... Remote afrerloading brachytherapy devices have developed ...

  16. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Abstract .... cognitive functioning could be influenced by the type of housing.26 ..... Weisman AG, Lopez SR, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH, Goldstein MJ,.

  17. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  18. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  19. RETAINING PROFESSIONAL NURSES IN SOUTH AFRICA: NURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... were vacant throughout South Africa (Health Systems Trust 2008). The provinces with the highest ... monetary rewards), the manager or supervisor (enhancing ... theory is one of nurse retention and not motivation. The shape.

  20. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...

  1. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  2. Memory of Lithuania in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskienė, Aušra

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania remains a constant in the memory of Jews of the world. Lithuania is remembered in English literature of South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, especially in works by Rose Zwi and Dan Jacobson. Lithuania is still remembered in the South Africa not only because of nostalgic feelings Lithuanian Jews of this country have. After the truth about the Jewish community destroyed in Lithuania, descendants of immigrants felt guilt because of their privileged position in the commu...

  3. National infrastructure maintenance strategy for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MULTISECTORAL APPROACHES A National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy for South Africa Kevin Wall, South Africa [OFFICE USE ONLY: REVIEWED...; − effects on human health and economic growth; − lack of effective countermeasures in the event of failure of the service; and − the risk generally to government's growth objectives. Wastewater treatment works are often problematic, as are water...

  4. South Africa: The Good International Nuclear Citizen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Since South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal, it has claimed the status of 'good international nuclear citizen', a position confirmed by its engagement in the nonproliferation regime. Pretoria plays a bridge-building role between states with and without nuclear weapons as well as in instances of proliferation. Recent changes have raised doubts around its position, a movement which could threaten South Africa's nuclear diplomacy

  5. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  6. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  7. NIASA: Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollard, P.; Louf, P.H.; Gentet, G.; Doix, G.

    2015-01-01

    NIASA (Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa) aims at promoting the highest standards in the development and use of nuclear technologies. NIASA was founded in 2007. South-Africa has a long history in nuclear activity since the construction of the first nuclear power plant ever built on African soil was commissioned in 1984 in South-Africa (Koeberg plant equipped with two 900 MW reactors). There is also an important center for nuclear research near Pretoria that was founded in 1948 to regulate the prospecting for uranium. NECSA (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation is a state-owned public company) that manages nuclear research, operates the Safari-1 (2 MWe - commissioned in 1965) research reactor and manages the national radioactive waste center located at Vaalputs. The South African nuclear industry employs about 4000 people. (A.C.)

  8. Evaluation of the accuracy of the CellaVision™ DM96 in a high HIV-prevalence population in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenifer L. Vaughan

    2016-03-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the DM96 in a South African laboratory, with emphasis on its performance in samples collected from HIV-positive patients. Methods: A total of 149 samples submitted for a routine differential white cell count in 2012 and 2013 at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa were included, of which 79 (53.0% were collected from HIV-positive patients. Results of DM96 analysis pre- and post-classification were compared with a manual differential white cell count and the impact of HIV infection and other variables of interest were assessed. Results: Pre- and post-classification accuracies were similar to those reported in developed countries. Reclassification was required in 16% of cells, with particularly high misclassification rates for eosinophils (31.7%, blasts (33.7% and basophils (93.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant relationship between the number of misclassified cells and both the white cell count (p = 0.035 and the presence of malignant cells in the blood (p = 0.049, but not with any other variables analysed, including HIV status. Conclusion: The DM96 exhibited acceptable accuracy in this South African laboratory, which was not impacted by HIV infection. However, as it does not eliminate the need for experienced morphologists, its cost may be unjustifiable in a resource-constrained setting.

  9. High prevalence of primary dyslipidaemia in black South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), premature deaths due to heart and blood vessel diseases in people of working age (35 - 64 years) have been predicted to increase by 41% between 2007 ... To assess the burden and prevalence of dyslipidaemia in the SA black population at Dr George Mukhari Hospital in the north region of Gauteng.

  10. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  11. Radiology and the law in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, C.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In terms of regulations gazetted in 1973, the Department of Health has control of the practice of medical radiology in South Africa. The regulations and the rules of the South African Medical and Dental Council that apply to radiology are discussed, and the legal position of workers is noted

  12. Court supervised institutional transformation in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions ...

  13. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  14. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  15. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  16. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  17. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy among patients treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer in a population with a high HIV prevalence in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruff P

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Paul Ruff,1,2 Herbert Cubasch,2,3 Maureen Joffe,2,4 Evan Rosenbaum,5 Nivashni Murugan,2,3 Ming-Chih Tsai,2,3 Oluwatosin Ayeni,2 Katherine D Crew,5–7 Judith S Jacobson,6,7 Alfred I Neugut5–7 1Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, 2Noncommunicable Diseases Research Division, Wits Health Consortium, University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Surgery, Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital and University of the Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, 4MRC Developmental Pathways of Health Research Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Witwatersrand, Faculty of Health Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa; 5Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 6Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, 7Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Background: Neoadjuvant (primary chemotherapy (NACT is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. It also allows for the short-term assessment of chemotherapy response; a pathological complete responses correspond to improved long-term breast cancer outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients are diagnosed with large nonresectable tumors. We examined NACT use in breast cancer patients who visited public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: We assessed demographic characteristics, tumor stage and grade, hormone receptor status, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV status of female patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive carcinoma of the breast at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. The patients received neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or no chemotherapy. Trastuzumab was unavailable. We developed logistic regression models to analyze the factors associated with NACT receipt in these patients

  18. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  19. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  20. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  1. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Plessis, T A; Stevens, R C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs.

  2. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    Background With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the

  3. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  4. The Case for Adolescent HIV Vaccination in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moodley, Nishila; Gray, Glenda; Bertram, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite comprising 0.7% of the world population, South Africa is home to 18% of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Unyielding HIV subepidemics among adolescents threaten national attempts to curtail the disease burden. Should an HIV vaccine become available, establishing its point of entry into the health system becomes a priority. This study assesses the impact of school-based HIV vaccination and explores how variations in vaccine characteristics affect cost-e...

  5. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  6. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 96 of 96 ... (2) “Hospitality Management Education” is devoted to articles about ... More information for this journal can be found here. ... Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to ...

  7. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  8. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  9. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals. ... The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  10. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  11. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  12. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  13. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Fixed-Dose Combination Antiretroviral Drugs Adherence among HIV-Positive Pregnant Women on Option B Treatment in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandir Ramlagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility for all babies to be born and remain HIV-negative for the first year of life is achievable in South Africa. HIV-positive mothers’ adherence to their antiretroviral medication is one of the crucial factors to achieve this target. Cross-sectional data were collected at 12 community health centres, over 12 months (2014–2015, from 673 HIV-positive women, less than 6 months pregnant, attending antenatal care, and on Option B treatment. Adherence measures included the Adults AIDS Clinical Trials Group (AACTG four-day measure, as well as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS seven-day measure. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regressions are presented. 78.8% of respondents were adherent on AACTG, while 68.8% reported VAS adherence. Bivariate analyses for increased adherence show significant associations with older age, less/no alcohol usage, disclosure of HIV status, higher HIV knowledge, no desire to avoid ARV side effects, low stigma, and low depression. AACTG showed a negative association with intimate partner violence. Multivariable logistic regression on AACTG and VAS adherence rates resulted in unique contributions to increased adherence of older age, less/no alcohol usage, higher HIV knowledge, lack of depression, and non-disclosure. Programs targeting closer side effect monitoring, HIV disclosure, pre-natal depression, alcohol intake, and HIV knowledge need consideration.

  14. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  15. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  16. Uranium enrichment with lasers - will South Africa lead or lag?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Toit, G.

    1992-01-01

    Over 30 percent of the cost of locally made nuclear fuel in South Africa is associated with increasing the concentration of uranium 235. Cheaper enrichment technologies and, in particular, the decision by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa to concentrate its research efforts on laser techniques are therefore of considerable significance. The laser isotope separation programme in South Africa is reviewed. 1 ill

  17. Forecasting South Africa's performance at the 2010 Commonwealth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...

  18. South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...

  19. Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa: theories, pedagogies and sustainability. ... academics and other stakeholders in education in South Africa. There remains a need for a population proficient ... the relationship between theory, approaches and contexts in language development in South Africa.

  20. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy among patients treated for nonmetastatic breast cancer in a population with a high HIV prevalence in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Paul; Cubasch, Herbert; Joffe, Maureen; Rosenbaum, Evan; Murugan, Nivashni; Tsai, Ming-Chih; Ayeni, Oluwatosin; Crew, Katherine D; Jacobson, Judith S; Neugut, Alfred I

    2018-01-01

    Neoadjuvant (primary) chemotherapy (NACT) is the standard of care for locally advanced breast cancer. It also allows for the short-term assessment of chemotherapy response; a pathological complete responses correspond to improved long-term breast cancer outcomes. In sub-Saharan Africa, many patients are diagnosed with large nonresectable tumors. We examined NACT use in breast cancer patients who visited public hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. We assessed demographic characteristics, tumor stage and grade, hormone receptor status, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of female patients diagnosed with nonmetastatic invasive carcinoma of the breast at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2011. The patients received neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or no chemotherapy. Trastuzumab was unavailable. We developed logistic regression models to analyze the factors associated with NACT receipt in these patients. Of 554 women with nonmetastatic breast cancer, the median age at diagnosis was 52 years (range: 28-88 years). Only 5.8% of patients were diagnosed with stage I disease; 49.3% and 44.9% were diagnosed with stages II and III, respectively. Most patients had hormone-responsive tumors: luminal A, 38.1%; luminal B 1 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 [HER2]-negative and high grade), 12.5%, and luminal B 2 (HER2-positive any grade), 11.6%; 11.6% had a HER2-enriched tumor and 20.6% a triple-negative tumor. Eighty (14.4%) patients were HIV-positive. In total, 195 patients (35.2%) received NACT, 264 (47.7%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, and 95 patients (17.1%) received no chemotherapy, including 62 (11.2%) patients who received only hormonal therapy. Of patients receiving NACT, 125 (64.1%) were evaluable for clinical response. Eighty (64.0%) patients had a clinically significant response; 19 (15.2%) patients had a stable disease, and 26 (20.8%) patients had a progressive disease. Multivariate analysis

  1. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  2. A spatio-temporal analysis of fires in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Strydom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and history of fires in Africa has led to the continent being named "the fire continent". Fires are common on the continent and lead to a high number of annual fire disasters which result in many human fatalities and considerable financial loss. Increased population growth and concentrated settlement planning increase the probability of fire disasters and the associated loss of human life and financial loss when disasters occur. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations and characteristics of fires in South Africa, an 11-year data set of MODIS-derived Active Fire Hotspots was analysed using an open source geographic information system. The study included the mapping of national fire frequency over the 11-year period. Results indicate that the highest fire frequency occurred in the northeastern regions of South Africa, in particular the mountainous regions of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga, and in the Western Cape. Increasing trends in provincial fire frequency were observed in eight of the nine provinces of South Africa, with Mpumalanga the only province for which a decrease in annual fire frequency was observed. Temporally, fires were observed in all months for all provinces, although distinct fire seasons were observed and were largely driven by rainfall seasons. The southwestern regions of South Africa (winter-rainfall regions experienced higher fire frequencies during the summer months and the rest of the country (summer-rainfall regions during the winter months. Certain regions those which experienced bimodal rainfall seasons did not display distinct fire seasons because of the complex wet and dry seasons. Investigation into the likely effects of climate change on South African fire frequency revealed that increased air temperatures and events such as La Niña have a marked effect on fire activity.

  3. Coverage of alcohol consumption by national surveys in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Charlotte; Shuper, Paul A; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that adult per-capita alcohol consumption, as estimated from self-reports of nationally representative surveys, underestimates 'true' consumption, as measured as the sum of recorded and unrecorded consumption. The proportion of total adult alcohol per capita reported in representative surveys is usually labelled 'coverage'. The aim of the present paper was to estimate coverage for South Africa under different scenarios of alcohol use assessment and 'true' consumption. Five nationally representative surveys from South Africa were used to estimate the prevalence of drinking and the grams per day among current drinkers. All surveys used a complex multi-stage sampling frame that was accounted for by using survey weights. The total (recorded and unrecorded), the recorded and the adjusted total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa served as different estimates of the 'true' consumption. South Africa. Alcohol use information was assessed on a total of 8115, 16 398 and 13 181 adults (15 years or older) in surveys from the years 2003, 2005 and 2008, respectively. Two surveys in 2012 included 27 070 and 18 688 adults. Coverage of the alcohol use reported in the surveys was calculated, compared with the 'true' adult per-capita alcohol. The survey data covered between 11.8% [2005; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 9.3-16.2%)] and 19.4% (2003; 95% UI = 14.9-24.2%) of the total alcohol used per capita. The highest coverage of 27.9% (95% UI = 22.4-36.8%) was observed when looking only at recorded alcohol in 2003. Evidence from five nationally representative surveys assessing alcohol use suggests that less than 20% of the total adult per-capita alcohol consumption in South Africa is reported in surveys. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  5. Reflections on educational research in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    research in South Africa as (1) a particular mode of social service (with discussion of an ... by an interest in scientific work, and an interest in theatre. The study provided an apt way to ... the general public, and establish professional autonomy (through ... own affairs responsibly and for societal benefit). ..... In this case, the.

  6. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spore, E.

    1997-01-01

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  7. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  8. Haemodialysis and Transplantation Facilities in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... The provIsion of services in South Africa for patients suffering from chronic renal failure is inadequate in terms· of nationai requirements. A survey of the available facili- ties made in July 1973 showed that 14 maintenance haemodialysis centres had a total of 39 dialysing stations capable of treating 143 ...

  9. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  10. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  11. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  12. Development research in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC Communications ... It would result, some three years later, in a program of development research support designed expressly to prepare ... In South Africa, post-secondary education is a privilege, and many students currently enrol ... Recent research into decision-making in households has produced ...

  13. mHealth implementation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available to incorporate a wide range of Mhealth applications to service the Health System information needs and end user needs. This paper aims to describe the current state of mHealth applications and implementation in South Africa by a review of reported MHealth...

  14. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  15. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  16. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-11-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers.

  17. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Internationally, the development of partnerships between institutions of higher learning and the communities they serve is stressed as a priority. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) is an educational model developed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a response to the scarcity of ...

  18. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the UNFCCC and therefore required to share information on, among other things, the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs). DEAT is the national focal point for climate change activities, and is responsible for co...

  19. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  20. Hydrometeorological Research in South Africa: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.

  1. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  2. Emergomyces africanus in Soil, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ilan S; Lerm, Barbra; Hoving, J Claire; Kenyon, Chris; Horsnell, William G; Basson, W Joan; Otieno-Odhiambo, Patricia; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Botha, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.

  3. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  4. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa and the rest of the Free World is presently ... during the Anglo-Boer War, many Europeans joined the Boer ... covetous interest, causing the Dutch East India. Company to .... tween the Boers and the British and the first in which the ...

  5. Ending Apartheid in South Africa: Alternative Approaches,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-07

    you travel backward in its history, confusion develops. It is believed that it has been inhabited for many thousands of years. Black African tribes ...languages - English and Afrikaans - with several African languages like Zulu , Sotho, Xhosa and Swazi.3 Modern day government in South Africa was founded in...Internal African Organizations ...........................12 External Forces.......................................... 14 V. OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO

  6. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  7. African Journals Online: South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. ... Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the .... that affect forage production of rangelands and pastures in Africa.

  8. 'Testing Together Challenges the Relationship': Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanani Tabana

    Full Text Available We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention.This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples.Learning about each other's status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised.Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples, traditional gender roles exposed

  9. Prevalence and antibiogram profiles of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates recovered from three selected dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyanda Msolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the occurrence and antibiotics susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 isolates from raw milk, cattle udder, milking machines and worker’s hand swabs from three selected commercial dairy farms in the Amathole District Municipality, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Methods: Raw milk samples were collected from bulk storage tanks and swab samples were collected from milking machines, cattle udders and worker’s hands fortnightly over a sixmonth sampling regime between June and November 2014. A standard culture-based method was used for the enumeration and isolation of E. coli O157:H7, presumptive identification using sorbitol MacConkey agar (supplemented with cefixime (50 µg/L and potassium tellurite (25 mg/L. A serological confirmation of the presumptive E. coli O157:H7 isolates was conducted using the O157 latex agglutination test kit. Results: A total of 252 E. coli O157:H7 isolates were further subjected to PCR amplification of rfbEO157 and flCH7 genes of which 27(11% of the isolates were confirmed positive E. coli O157:H7. The percentage antibiotic resistance of the 27 E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the dairy farms revealed penicillin [23 (85%], tetracycline [22 (81%], erythromycin [19 (70%], streptomycin [14 (52%] and chloramphenicol [12 (45%]. The highest resistances were penicillin [23 (85%] and tetracycline [22 (81%]. Conclusions: These findings revealed that the dairy farms are potential reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 serotype, and harbor antibiotic-resistant determinants, a concern to public and environmental health.

  10. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  11. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  12. health services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.

  13. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupa, Joel; Burch, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: → Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. → Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. → Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  14. A new energy future for South Africa: The political ecology of South African renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupa, Joel, E-mail: jkrupa@mstar-ca.com [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Burch, Sarah [University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Renewable energy remains a contested topic in South Africa. This paper argues that South Africa can build on the momentum surrounding its introduction of a feed-in tariff by enacting policies that may, if given adequate funding and political effort, allow the country to be a world leader in renewable energy. Given a variety of renewable energy policy options for moving forward, a majority of stakeholders consulted in this study strongly prefer the development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster, in which government develops coordinated policy mechanisms that attract renewable energy manufacturers, over three other policies suggested by the authors. Interviews with key informants that play critical roles in this decision-making process suggest that there are reasons to remain cautiously optimistic about the country's renewable energy future while cognizant of the challenges that must still be overcome. Opportunities for a low carbon renewable energy transition in South Africa include the prevalence of broad stakeholder consultation, facilitated by civil society, and an innovative policy development context. Significant impediments also exist, however, and include pervasive social issues such as poverty and political inertia, along with the ongoing difficulties facing renewable energy technologies in reaching grid parity with inexpensive and abundant South African coal. - Highlights: > Numerous opportunities exist for a low carbon energy transition in South Africa. > Stakeholders in study prefer development of a renewable energy manufacturing cluster. > Significant impediments still exist, including grid parity, poverty, and inequality.

  15. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  16. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  17. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Moolman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  18. Tele-education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained settings. The development of local and

  19. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  20. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background : Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods : Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results : Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions : Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  1. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA, Democracy, Gender. Région: Brazil, South America, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of ... SOCIAL INEQUALITY, COOPERATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS ... d'examiner les liens de cause à effet entre la faiblesse de l'autorité d'État et ...

  2. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  3. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  4. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  5. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa | Blumberg | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based ...

  6. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A definition of educational research is proposed: Educational research is a particular mode of social service, using rigorous scientific endeavours for the continuous improvement of educational practice. The key ... It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact.

  7. Prevalence of workplace bullying of South African employees

    OpenAIRE

    Leanri Cunniff; Karina Mostert

    2012-01-01

    Orientation: Workplace bullying has negative physical and psychological effects on employees and several negative effects on organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the prevalence of workplace bullying in South Africa and whether there are differences in employees’ experiences of bullying with regard to socio-demographic characteristics, sense of coherence (SOC) and diversity experiences. Motivation for the study: This study intended to draw a...

  8. All projects related to south africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Topic: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR SUPPLY, LABOUR MARKET, SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL SOUTH, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Madagascar, Tanzania, South Africa. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 717,400.00.

  9. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  10. DNA Profiling and the Law in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SScheepers

    The aim of this article is to provide the legal community with the necessary ... unit of the Forensic Science Laboratory of the South African Police Service ...... In South Africa, the South African National Accreditation System, SANAS, provides.

  11. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  12. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  13. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  14. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  15. Industry Perceptions of Industry-University Partnerships Related to Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of the extent to which industry-university partnerships in doctoral education, which have become increasingly prevalent in the knowledge economy, have begun to penetrate the South African higher education milieu, is reported. The factors that motivate large industries in developing countries such as South Africa to invest in doctoral…

  16. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  17. HIV epidemic drivers in South Africa: A model-based evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV prevalence differs substantially between South Africa's provinces, but the factors accounting for this difference are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and incidence trends by province, and to identify the epidemiological factors that account for most of the variation between provinces ...

  18. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  19. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. Abstract. South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa and stands at some risk from negative pollution i apa~ To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first attempt toapply the critical loads approach...

  20. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  1. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  2. Biodiversity intactness score for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Biggs, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available are to show that the BII can be confidently applied, using available data, at all three gover- nance levels in South Africa (national, provincial, and local), as well as at the ecosystem level. We thereby introduce a tool that could be used to complement... existing methods in reporting on the state of South Africa’s biodiversity, a significant need which has been identified by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).23,38,39 We highlight the implications of our findings for bio...

  3. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  4. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter https://www.policytracker.com/headlines/south­africa­heading­for­dynamic­spectrum­management/?searchterm=lysko 1/2 South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management Sep 26, 2016 by Albert Lysko South... characteristic of rural areas, which traditionally lag behind more commercially attractive urban areas. The technology is a bridge towards fully dynamic spectrum management and 5G. The ability to manage spectrum dynamically should significantly improve the utilization and availability of spectrum, especially in rural areas, as well as...

  5. Autopsy Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Other Potentially Treatable Infections among Adults with Advanced HIV Enrolled in Out-Patient Care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Tanvier; von Gottberg, Anne; Tlali, Mpho; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Johnson, Suzanne; Martinson, Neil A.; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Wolter, Nicole; Wong, Emily B.; Charalambous, Salome; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early mortality among HIV-positive adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains high in resource-limited settings, with tuberculosis (TB) the leading cause of death. However, current methods to estimate TB-related deaths are inadequate and most autopsy studies do not adequately represent those attending primary health clinics (PHCs). This study aimed to determine the autopsy prevalence of TB and other infections in adults enrolled at South African PHCs in the context of a pragmatic trial of empiric TB treatment (“TB Fast Track”). Methods and Findings Adults with CD4 ≤150 cells/μL, not on ART or TB treatment, were enrolled to TB Fast Track and followed up for at least six months. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) was conducted as soon as possible after death. Lungs, liver, and spleen were biopsied; blood, CSF, and urine aspirated; and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained. Samples underwent mycobacterial, bacterial, and fungal culture; molecular testing (including Xpert® MTB/RIF); and histological examination. 34 MIAs were conducted: 18 (53%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range 33–44) years; 25 (74%) deaths occurred in hospitals; median time from death to MIA was five (IQR 3–6) days. 16/34 (47%) had evidence of TB (14/16 [88%] with extrapulmonary disease; 6/16 [38%] not started on treatment antemortem); 23 (68%) had clinically important bacterial infections; four (12%) cryptococcal disease; three (9%) non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease; and two (6%) Pneumocystis pneumonia. Twenty decedents (59%) had evidence of two or more concurrent infections; 9/16 (56%) individuals with TB had evidence of bacterial disease and two (13%) cryptococcal disease. Conclusions TB, followed by bacterial infections, were the leading findings at autopsy among adults with advanced HIV enrolled from primary care clinics. To reduce mortality, strategies are needed to identify and direct those at highest risk into a structured pathway

  6. Prevalence and characterisation of non-cholerae Vibrio spp. in final effluents of wastewater treatment facilities in two districts of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoh, Anthony I; Sibanda, Timothy; Nongogo, Vuyokazi; Adefisoye, Martins; Olayemi, Osuolale O; Nontongana, Nolonwabo

    2015-02-01

    Vibrios and other enteric pathogens can be found in wastewater effluents of a healthy population. We assessed the prevalence of three non-cholerae vibrios in wastewater effluents of 14 wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Chris Hani and Amathole district municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa for a period of 12 months. With the exception of WWTP10 where presumptive vibrios were not detected in summer and spring, presumptive vibrios were detected in all seasons in other WWTP effluents. When a sample of 1,000 presumptive Vibrio isolates taken from across all sampling sites were subjected to molecular confirmation for Vibrio, 668 were confirmed to belong to the genus Vibrio, giving a prevalence rate of 66.8 %. Further, molecular characterisation of 300 confirmed Vibrio isolates revealed that 11.6 % (35) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 28.6 % (86) were Vibrio fluvialis and 28 % (84) were Vibrio vulnificus while 31.8 % (95) belonged to other Vibrio spp. not assayed for in this study. Antibiogram profiling of the three Vibrio species showed that V. parahaemolyticus was ≥50 % susceptible to 8 of the test antibiotics and ≥50 % resistant to only 5 of the 13 test antibiotics, while V. vulnificus showed a susceptibility profile of ≥50 % to 7 of the test antibiotics and a resistance profile of ≥50 % to 6 of the 13 test antibiotics. V. fluvialis showed ≥50 % resistance to 8 of the 13 antibiotics used while showing ≥50 % susceptibility to only 4 antibiotics used. All three Vibrio species were susceptible to gentamycin, cefuroxime, meropenem and imipenem. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also evident especially against such antibiotics as tetracyclin, polymixin B, penicillin G, sulfamethazole and erythromycin against which all Vibrio species were resistant. These results indicate a significant threat to public health, more so in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa which is characterised by widespread poverty, with more than a

  7. Musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedayo T. Ajidahun

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musicians who play string instruments are affected more by musculoskeletal injuries when compared to other instrument playing groups. Musculoskeletal problems are commonly found in the upper extremities and trunk. Several risk factors such as gender, practice hours and instrument played are associated with the prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, distribution, severity and risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among string instrumentalists. Method: A cross-sectional study design using both online and paper-based questionnaires were used to collect data from string instrumentalists playing in both amateur and professional orchestras in South Africa. Results: A total of 114 string instrumentalists participated in the study, of which 86 (77% reported problems in one or more anatomic regions while 39 (35% were currently experiencing musculoskeletal problems that affected their performance. The trunk and both shoulders were the most commonly affected body regions. The majority of the participants reported the severity of the complaints as mild to moderate with aching, soreness, tingling and fatigue being the most commonly used descriptors of the symptoms of playing-related musculoskeletal problems. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems that affect performance is high among string instrumentalists in South Africa. An evaluation of associated risk factors with the aim of reducing injuries may be important in improving performance.

  8. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among primary school children in a developing country: NW-CHILD longitudinal data of 6-9-yr-old children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Anita E

    2015-01-01

    Widespread trends of increasing child obesity are reported in developing countries. This longitudinal NW-CHILD study investigated changes in overweight and obesity over a three year period among 574 children between the ages 6 and 9 (282 boys, 292 girls; 407 black, 143 white) in South Africa (SA), taking into consideration sex, race and school type. Stratified random sampling was used to identify 20 schools, across 5 school SES levels (quintiles), in 4 educational districts of the North West Province of SA. Standard anthropometric techniques and international age adjusted BMI cut-off points for children were used to determine overweight and obesity, 3-years apart. Mixed models were used to analyse the effects of sex, race and socio-economic status (SES) of the school. Overall obesity increased over 3-years by 4% from 12.5% at baseline to 16.7% during follow-up. Obesity increased significantly in both white (4.2%) and black (2.0%) children, although overall prevalence in the final year was double (27.3%) in white children compared to black children (13.3%). Prevalence in obesity increased more in boys (3.2%) compared to girls (2.4%), although girls showed a higher overall prevalence (18.5%). SES effects were significant where children in schools associated with higher SES, had the highest rate of increase and the highest prevalence of obesity. A significant change towards an unhealthy BMI was found in 9.2% of the group over the 3-year period, although a small percentage (3.0%) also transitioned towards a healthier BMI. Overall obesity prevalence rose significantly from 6-9-years. Obesity, compared to overweight, increased more during this period. Prevalence and rate of increase differed markedly in different sexes, race and SES, masking the extent of the problem. Shifting towards an unhealthy BMI was more common than obtaining a healthier BMI over the 3-year period. It also demonstrated the difficulty of breaking the cycle of obesity, once it had started. Early

  9. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  10. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  11. All projects related to south africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: South of Sahara, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 503,000.00. Creating a Common Platform for HIV Vaccine Research and HIV Care and Treatment Program. Project. Second only to South Africa in HIV burden, Nigeria's complex ...

  12. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  13. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  14. Resolution of anaemia in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with a high prevalence and incidence of tuberculosis receiving antiretroviral therapy in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anaemia is frequently associated with both HIV-infection and HIV-related tuberculosis (TB) in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in sub-Saharan Africa and is strongly associated with poor prognosis. However, the effect of ART on the resolution of anaemia in patient cohorts with

  15. Post-Apartheid South Africa and United States National Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochran, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    .... It is based on the realist premise that the U.S. has limited national interests in Sub-Saharan Africa which would be best served by a regional security strategy explicitly predicated on engagement with South Africa...

  16. The uranium industry of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  17. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  18. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  19. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  20. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  1. Gender and Empowerment in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to provide analysis and insight which addresses the over-determined discrimination of so-called coloured and black South African women, not just on the basis of gender but racial hierarchies still prevalent as well in the rainbow nation. Design/methodology/approach: The observations grapple with reconciling the…

  2. Prevalence of helminth parasites in free-range chickens from selected rural communities in KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 79 chickens were randomly collected from 4 rural localities and processed to detect the presence of helminth parasites and their prevalences. Sixteen helminth species comprising 12 nematode and 4 cestode species were recorded from the 4 localities. Syngamus trachea and Cyathostoma spp. were the only helminth species recovered from the respiratory tract and the rest of the helminth species were from the gastrointestinal tract. The most prevalent nematode species across the 4 localities were Heterakis gallinarum (prevalence range 80-94.4 %, Gongylonema ingluvicola (43.3-86.7 %, Tetrameres americana (53.3-66.7 % and Ascaridia galli (22.2-43.8 % and for cestode species, Raillietina tetragona(16.7-40 % and Skrijabinia cesticillus (3.3-13.3 % were the most prevalent in that order.Heterakis gallinarum and T. americana had the highest intensity of infection in chickens acrossall the rural areas compared with other helminth species. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05 observed in the sex distribution for As. galli, Baruscapillaria obsignata (syn. Capillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus (syn. Capillaria annulata, Eucoleus contortus (syn. Capillaria contorta and Subulura suctoria among the 4 rural areas. However, a significant difference (P<0.05 was observed in the intensity of infection of both males and females for H. gallinarum and T. americana across the 4 localities studied. Tetrameres americana, A. galli, C. obsignata and C. annulata had prevalence and number of females higher than that of males, while H. gallinarum showed the opposite. Prevalence of H. gallinarum and T. americana as determined by faecal egg count were much lower compared with the prevalence as determined by post mortem examination, confirming the limitation of using faecal samples in determining the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in chickens.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with recent intimate partner violence and relationships between disability and depression in post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Carpenter, Bradley; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Hannass-Hancock, Jill; Smit, Jennifer; Tomlinson, Mark; Butler, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by pregnant and post-partum women has negative health effects for women, as well as the foetus, and the new-born child. In this study we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recent IPV amongst post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and explore the relationship between IPV, depression and functional limitations/disabilities. Past 12 month IPV-victimisation was 10.55%. Logistic regression modelled relationships between IPV, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, socio-economic measures, and sexual relationship power. In logistic regression models, overall severity of functional limitations were not associated with IPV-victimisation when treated as a continuous overall score. In this model relationship power (aOR0.22, p = 0.001) and depressive symptoms (aOR1.26, p = 0.001) were significant. When the different functional limitations were separated out in a second model, significant factors were relationship power (aOR0.20, p = 0.001), depressive symptoms (aOR1.20, p = 0.011) and mobility limitations (aOR2.96, p = 0.024). The study emphasises that not all functional limitations are associated with IPV-experience, that depression and disability while overlapping can also be considered different drivers of vulnerability, and that women's experience of IPV is not dependent on pregnancy specific factors, but rather wider social factors that all women experience.

  4. All projects related to south africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and inequality? ... URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, URBAN POPULATION, Gender. Region: Brazil, India, South Africa, United Kingdom.

  5. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  6. An update of the tsetse fly (Diptera: Glossinidae distribution and African animal trypanosomosis prevalence in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel J. de Beer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An unpredicted outbreak of African animal trypanosomosis or nagana in 1990 in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal necessitated an emergency control programme, utilising the extensive cattledipping system in the area, as well as a reassessment of the tsetse and trypanosomosis problem in the province. Since 1990, sporadic blood sampling of cattle at the dip tanks in the naganainfested areas were undertaken to identify trypanosome species involved and to determine the infection prevalence in cattle. The distribution and species composition of the tsetse populations in the area were also investigated. From November 2005 to November 2007 selected dip tanks were surveyed for trypanosome infection prevalence. During April 2005 to August 2009 the distribution and abundance of tsetse populations were assessed with odour-baited H traps. The tsetse and trypanosome distribution maps were updated and potential correlations between tsetse apparent densities (ADs and the prevalence of trypanosomosis were assessed. Glossina brevipalpis Newstead and Glossina austeni Newstead were recorded in locations where they have not previously been collected. No significant correlation between tsetse relative abundance and nagana prevalence was found, which indicated complex interactions between tsetse fly presence and disease prevalence. This was epitomised by data that indicated that despite large differences in the ADs of G. austeni and G. brevipalpis, trypanosome infection prevalence was similar in all three districts in the area. This study clearly indicated that both tsetse species play significant roles in trypanosome transmission and that it will be essential that any control strategy, which aims at sustainable management of the disease, should target both species. Keywords: Tsetse distribution; Glossina brevipalpis; Glossina austeni; trypanosome infection prevalence

  7. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  8. Typhoid Fever in South Africa in an Endemic HIV Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddy, Karen H; Sooka, Arvinda; Smith, Anthony M; Musekiwa, Alfred; Tau, Nomsa P; Klugman, Keith P; Angulo, Frederick J

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever remains an important disease in Africa, associated with outbreaks and the emerging multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) haplotype, H58. This study describes the incidence of, and factors associated with mortality due to, typhoid fever in South Africa, where HIV prevalence is high. Nationwide active laboratory-based surveillance for culture-confirmed typhoid fever was undertaken from 2003-2013. At selected institutions, additional clinical data from patients were collected including age, sex, HIV status, disease severity and outcome. HIV prevalence among typhoid fever patients was compared to national HIV seroprevalence estimates. The national reference laboratory tested Salmonella Typhi isolates for antimicrobial susceptibility and haplotype. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted determining factors associated with typhoid fever mortality. We identified 855 typhoid fever cases: annual incidence ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 per 100,000 population. Additional clinical data were available for 369 (46.8%) cases presenting to the selected sites. Among typhoid fever patients with known HIV status, 19.3% (29/150) were HIV-infected. In adult females, HIV prevalence in typhoid fever patients was 43.2% (19/44) versus 15.7% national HIV seroprevalence (P Typhoid fever incidence in South Africa was largely unchanged from 2003-2013. Typhoid fever mortality was associated disease severity. HIV infection may be a contributing factor. Interventions mandate improved health care access, including to HIV management programmes as well as patient education. Further studies are necessary to clarify relationships between HIV infection and typhoid fever in adults.

  9. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  10. 'Differential poverty rates are responsible for the racial differentials in HIV prevalence in South Africa'; an enduring and dangerous epidemiological urban legend?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kenyon

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely held to be axiomatic in South African epidemiological and social science circles that it is not worth comparing the risk factors underpinning the dramatic differences in HIV spread in South Africa’s racial groups, as these are all explained by corresponding differences in socio-economic status. The available evidence, however, suggests that HIV is not simply contoured along lines of socio-economic deprivation; rather, other – largely culturally determined – factors such as the practice and acceptance of multiple concurrent sexual partnerships play a key role. Comparison of sexual behaviours between South Africa’s different races supports the likelihood that cultural and not socio-economic factors are the mediators of differential racial HIV spread. Finally, it is argued that the failure of many South African experts in the study of HIV to consider race as a valid variable for analysis, and allied to this their continued exaggeration of the importance of socio-economic rather than cultural factors, has contributed to the relative failure of our national AIDS strategy.

  11. The role of influenza, RSV and other common respiratory viruses in severe acute respiratory infections and influenza-like illness in a population with a high HIV sero-prevalence, South Africa 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Marthi A; Tempia, Stefano; Walaza, Sibongile; Cohen, Adam L; Moyes, Jocelyn; Variava, Ebrahim; Dawood, Halima; Seleka, Mpho; Hellferscee, Orienka; Treurnicht, Florette; Cohen, Cheryl; Venter, Marietjie

    2016-02-01

    Viruses detected in patients with acute respiratory infections may be the cause of illness or asymptomatic shedding. To estimate the attributable fraction (AF) and the detection rate attributable to illness for each of the different respiratory viruses We compared the prevalence of 10 common respiratory viruses (influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza virus 1-3; respiratory syncytial virus (RSV); adenovirus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and enterovirus) in both HIV positive and negative patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), outpatients with influenza-like illness (ILI), and control subjects who did not report any febrile, respiratory or gastrointestinal illness during 2012-2015 in South Africa. We enrolled 1959 SARI, 3784 ILI and 1793 controls with a HIV sero-prevalence of 26%, 30% and 43%, respectively. Influenza virus (AF: 86.3%; 95%CI: 77.7-91.6%), hMPV (AF: 85.6%; 95%CI: 72.0-92.6%), and RSV (AF: 83.7%; 95%CI: 77.5-88.2%) infections were associated with severe disease., while rhinovirus (AF: 46.9%; 95%CI: 37.6-56.5%) and adenovirus (AF: 36.4%; 95%CI: 20.6-49.0%) were only moderately associated. Influenza, RSV and hMPV can be considered pathogens if detected in ILI and SARI while rhinovirus and adenovirus were commonly identified in controls suggesting that they may cause only a proportion of clinical disease observed in positive patients. Nonetheless, they may be important contributors to disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Mars

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa.  Future actions are outlined.

  13. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined.

  14. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available as Sustainability Assessment and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been conceptualised and promoted in South Africa. This paper therefore investigates the following questions: Could the South African concept and application of SEA be what is required...

  15. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the kinds of investments and interventions needed to address urban violence. ... in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  17. Population structure analyses of Staphylococcus aureus at Tygerberg Hospital, South Africa, reveals a diverse population, a high prevalence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes, and unique local methicillin-resistant S. aureus clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosthuysen, W. F.; Orth, H.; Lombard, C. J.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    Studies reporting on the population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in South Africa have focused only on methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). This study describes the population structure of S. aureus, including methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolated from patients at Tygerberg

  18. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  19. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Pillay

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.

  20. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  1. Prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Kharsany, Ayesha B M; Leask, Kerry; Ntombela, Fanelisibonge; Humphries, Hilton; Frohlich, Janet A; Samsunder, Natasha; Grobler, Anneke; Dellar, Rachael; Abdool Karim, Salim S

    2014-12-01

    Adolescents in southern African high schools are a key population for HIV prevention interventions. We report on the prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy as indicators of high-risk sexual behaviour among high school students in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Bio-behavioural cross-sectional survey. Students completed a self-administered structured, standardised demographic and sexual behavioural questionnaire. Dried blood spot specimens were collected for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Urine specimens were used for pregnancy testing in female students. A total of 2675 (1423 females, 1252 males) consenting students were enrolled from 14 high schools between September and November 2010. The median age of students was 16 years (IQR 15-18). HIV prevalence was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9 to 1.9) in males and 6.4% (95% CI 4.6 to 8.3) in females (pPregnancy prevalence was 3.6% (95% CI 2.6 to 4.5). Risk factors for prevalent HIV infection in female students included being over 18 years of age (adjusted OR (aOR)=2.67, 95% CI 1.67 to 4.27; ppregnancy (aOR=1.66, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.51; p=0.016) and experience of two or more deaths in the household in the previous year (aOR=1.97, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.44; p=0.016). The high prevalence of HIV, HSV-2 and pregnancy underscore the need for school-based sexual and reproductive health services, and provide further impetus for the inclusion of adolescents in behavioural and biomedical trials with HIV incidence endpoints. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Consumer attitudes towards radurisation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Olst, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    To gain any insight into consumer attitudes towards radurization in South Africa, it is first of all necessary to pinpoint the consumer. The consumer has to be reached at all levels and must be convinced that radurization is a harmless process. All the indications are there that South African consumer acceptance will come readily once the positive benefits of irradiated food have been adequately publicized. Label and package information create untold problems for the grocery manufacturing and packaging industry. The radiation industry cannot afford to lose consumer confidence. The question is: Must a label be attached to a radurized product or not? The results of the trial marketing campaign have shown that if the correct information is supplied at the right time, the consumer is prepared to accept irradiated food

  3. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  4. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  5. Prevalence of food allergies in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakali, Schweta R; Green, Todd D; Dinakar, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the published medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergies in South Asia. A PubMed search was performed using the keywords India and food allergy, Asia and food allergy, and South Asia and food allergy for any period. Articles cited in selected studies were reviewed for their appropriateness of inclusion into this review. Publications were included that were original research and fit the topic of food allergy and South Asia. South Asia is defined as region inclusive of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. A total of 169 articles were initially identified, and 47 were reviewed in detail for inclusion in this review. The primary focus was placed on 10 studies that consisted of case reports of newly reported or documented food allergy, survey studies that investigated food allergy prevalence in specific demographics, and prospective and cross-sectional studies with case controls, all of which investigated food allergy prevalence by allergy testing in a selected population. The medical literature on the prevalence and types of food allergy in South Asia indicates that there is a variety of unusual and unique allergens and an overall low incidence of food allergy. There is also an association of increased food allergy prevalence in individuals who live in metropolitan regions or who migrate to communities that have adopted westernization. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  7. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... With Africa's largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a government eager to play an active role in the promotion of regional peace and stability, South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa...

  8. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  9. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  10. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  11. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavunda, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  12. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  13. Student mobility and doctoral education in South Africa | Sehoole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...

  14. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  15. The contribution of radurization to food provision in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Thomas, A.C.; Hill, N.

    1988-01-01

    The preservation of food by radurization on a limited commercial basis has been practised in South Africa since 1980. High capital costs have, however, had a negative effect on the commercialization of radurization technology. The state of radurization in South Africa is presented. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  16. Government Investment, Growth and Employment in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...

  17. Forest management and water in the Republic of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a semi-arid country with a very limited area of natural forest. The early colonial governments encouraged the establishment of plantations to supply wood for local uses, and South Africa consequently has a long history of plantation...

  18. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  19. Real interest rate persistence in South Africa: Evidence and implications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available literature that examines its long-run properties, surprisingly, there does not exist any study that delves into this issue for South Africa. Given this, using quarterly data (1960:Q2-2010:Q4) for South Africa, our paper endeavors to analyze the long...

  20. All projects related to South Africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will adopt a groundbreaking approach to understanding and responding to urban ... Region: Brazil, South Africa, United Kingdom ... Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it work? ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING, ...

  1. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  2. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  3. Contextual determinants of adolescent mortality in South Africa | De ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...

  4. Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.

  5. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  6. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  7. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  8. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  9. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  10. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  11. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  12. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  13. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  14. Vaginal microbicides save money: a model of cost-effectiveness in South Africa and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, S; Walsh, J A

    2010-06-01

    To determine the hypothetical cost-effectiveness of vaginal microbicides preventing male to female HIV transmission. A mathematical epidemiological and cost-effectiveness model using data from South Africa and the USA was used. The prospective 1-year-long intervention targeted a general population of women in a city of 1,000,000 inhabitants in two very different epidemiological settings, South Africa with a male HIV prevalence of 18.80% and the USA with a male HIV prevalence of 0.72%. The base case scenario assumes a microbicide effective at 55%, used in 30% of sexual episodes at a retail price for the public sector in South Africa of US$0.51 per use and in the USA of US$2.23 per use. In South Africa, over 1 year, the intervention would prevent 1908 infections, save US$6712 per infection averted as compared with antiretroviral treatment. In the USA, it would be more costly: over 1 year, the intervention would prevent 21 infections, amounting to a net cost per infection averted of US$405,077. However, in the setting of Washington DC, with a higher HIV prevalence, the same intervention would prevent 93 infections and save US$91,176 per infection averted. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and even a microbicide with a low effectiveness of 30% would still save healthcare costs in South Africa. A microbicide intervention is likely to be very cost-effective in a country undergoing a high-level generalised epidemic such as South Africa, but is unlikely to be cost-effective in a developed country presenting epidemiological features similar to the USA unless the male HIV prevalence exceeds 2.4%.

  15. Molecular characterization and prevalence of two capulaviruses: Alfalfa leaf curl virus from France and Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Muhire, Brejnev; François, Sarah; Deshoux, Maëlle; Hartnady, Penelope; Farkas, Kata; Kraberger, Simona; Filloux, Denis; Fernandez, Emmanuel; Galzi, Serge; Ferdinand, Romain; Granier, Martine; Marais, Armelle; Monge Blasco, Pablo; Candresse, Thierry; Escriu, Fernando; Varsani, Arvind; Harkins, Gordon W; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, diversity, evolutionary processes, genomic structures and population dynamics of viruses in the divergent geminivirus lineage known as the capulaviruses. We determined and analyzed full genome sequences of 13 Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus (EcmLV) and 26 Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV) isolates, and partial genome sequences of 23 EcmLV and 37 ALCV isolates. While EcmLV was asymptomatic in uncultivated southern African Euphorbia caput-medusae, severe alfalfa disease symptoms were associated with ALCV in southern France. The prevalence of both viruses exceeded 10% in their respective hosts. Besides using patterns of detectable negative selection to identify ORFs that are probably functionally expressed, we show that ALCV and EcmLV both display evidence of inter-species recombination and biologically functional genomic secondary structures. Finally, we show that whereas the EcmLV populations likely experience restricted geographical dispersion, ALCV is probably freely moving across the French Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Notes on the occurrence of Trypanosoma sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae in freshwater fishes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryke L. Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 257 fishes from four families, Clariidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae and Schilbeidae were collected from three localities: the Sand River Dam, Swaziland; the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa and the Vaal Dam and Vaal River Barrage, South Africa. Only fishes (n= 154 from Clariidae and Cichlidae were found to be infected with trypanosomes. A total of 221 Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822 were collected from the Vaal Dam and Vaal Barrage area, South Africa. Of these, 74%(89/121 were infected with trypanosomes from the Vaal Dam and 63%(63/100 from the Vaal River Barrage, with no seasonal infection pattern. A prevalence of 25%(1/4 was found in C. gariepinus from the Sand River Dam, Swaziland, and a 50% (1/2 prevalence was found in Tilapia sparrmanii from the Nylsvlei Nature Reserve, South Africa. Standard measurements conformed closely to the morphometric and morphological descriptions of Trypanosoma mukasai. This article provides new locality records for T. mukasai from the Vaal Dam, Vaal River Barrage and Nylsvlei Nature Reserve (South Africa and the Sand River Dam (Swaziland. Tilapia sparrmanii collected in the Sand River Dam in Swaziland is also noted as a new host record.

  17. Prevalence and factors associated with recent intimate partner violence and relationships between disability and depression in post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gibbs

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV experienced by pregnant and post-partum women has negative health effects for women, as well as the foetus, and the new-born child. In this study we sought to assess the prevalence and factors associated with recent IPV amongst post-partum women in one clinic in eThekwini Municipality, South Africa, and explore the relationship between IPV, depression and functional limitations/disabilities. Past 12 month IPV-victimisation was 10.55%. Logistic regression modelled relationships between IPV, functional limitations, depressive symptoms, socio-economic measures, and sexual relationship power. In logistic regression models, overall severity of functional limitations were not associated with IPV-victimisation when treated as a continuous overall score. In this model relationship power (aOR0.22, p = 0.001 and depressive symptoms (aOR1.26, p = 0.001 were significant. When the different functional limitations were separated out in a second model, significant factors were relationship power (aOR0.20, p = 0.001, depressive symptoms (aOR1.20, p = 0.011 and mobility limitations (aOR2.96, p = 0.024. The study emphasises that not all functional limitations are associated with IPV-experience, that depression and disability while overlapping can also be considered different drivers of vulnerability, and that women's experience of IPV is not dependent on pregnancy specific factors, but rather wider social factors that all women experience.

  18. Problem drinking and associated factors in older adults in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alcohol abuse poses special risks for increased morbidity and mortality among older adults. Little attention has focused on assessing alcohol use and associated factors among older adults in transitional societies such as South Africa. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and associated ...

  19. Impact of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study seeks to raise awareness and expand knowledge about the deleterious effect of HIV/AIDS mortality on South Africa's life expectancy, a country with a relatively high HIV/AIDS prevalence rate (19. percent). Using the multiple and associated single decrement life table techniques, the study estimates the total ...

  20. Indications of high levels of inattentive and distracted driving in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the Road Traffic Management Corporation undertook a pilot study to investigate how prevalent driver inattention and distraction is in South Africa. Driver inattention and distraction is the leading factor in near-crashes in for instance...

  1. No decrease in annual risk of tuberculosis infection in endemic area in Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kritzinger, Fiona E.; den Boon, Saskia; Verver, Suzanne; Enarson, Donald A.; Lombard, Carl J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Gie, Robert P.; Beyers, Nulda

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the change in annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) in two neighbouring urban communities of Cape Town, South Africa with an HIV prevalence of approximately 2%, and to compare ARTI with notification rates and treatment outcomes in the tuberculosis (TB) programme. In 1998-1999 and

  2. HIV Incidence Remains High in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Evidence from Three Districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, Annaléne; Mabude, Zonke; Smit, Jenni; Kotze, Philip; Arbuckle, Derek; Wu, Jian; van Niekerk, Neliëtte; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV prevalence and incidence among sexually active women in peri-urban areas of Ladysmith, Edendale, and Pinetown, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, were assessed between October 2007 and February 2010 in preparation for vaginal microbicide trials. Methodology/Principal Findings: Sexually

  3. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO{sub 2} free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible

  4. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO 2 free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible for research and development in

  5. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  6. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Van de Poel; Christine Fourie; Karen Seberechts

    2013-01-01

    South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet t...

  7. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynard, H.J.; Ainslie, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  8. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynard, H J; Ainslie, L C [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  9. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism. Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education. Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region. Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting South Africa.

  10. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    OpenAIRE

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination. Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African To...

  11. Learning from HIV: exploring migration and health in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearey, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa is associated with high HIV prevalence and diverse population movements, including temporary, circular movements between rural and urban areas within countries (internal migration), and movements across borders (international migration). Whilst most migration in southern Africa is associated with the search for improved livelihood opportunities in urban areas a small--but significant--number of people are forced to migrate to escape persecution or civil war. This paper utilises recent empirical studies conducted in South Africa to explore linkages between migration into urban areas and health, focusing on HIV. It is shown that the relationship between migration and HIV is complex; that both internal and international migrants move to urban areas for reasons other than healthcare seeking; and that most migratory movements into urban areas involve the positive selection of healthy individuals. Whilst healthy migration has economic benefits for rural sending households, the data uncovers an important process of return migration (internally or across borders) in times of sickness, with the burden of care placed on the rural, sending household. There is an urgent need for a comprehensive response that maintains the health of migrants in urban areas, and provides support to rural areas in times of sickness.

  12. Prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, related disease and risk factors among HIV-infected men in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa: baseline findings from a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Chikandiwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV infection is associated with the development of anogenital cancers, particularly in men living with HIV (MLWH. We describe the prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, abnormal anal cytology and anogenital warts (AGWs in MLWH in Johannesburg, and explore whether HPV infection and receipt of antiretroviral treatment is associated with detection of abnormal anal cytology and AGWs. Methods We enrolled a cohort of 304 sexually-active MLWH ≥18 years, who completed a questionnaire and physical examination. Genital swabs were collected from all men and intra-anal swabs from 250 (82%. Swabs were tested for HPV DNA and genotypes, and anal smears graded using the Bethesda classification. Factors associated with anogenital disease were assessed by logistic regression models. Results Two thirds were receiving antiretroviral treatment, for a median 33 months (IQR = 15–58 and 54% were HIV-virologically suppressed. Only 5% reported ever having sex with men. Among 283 genital swabs with valid results, 79% had any HPV, 52% had HR-HPV and 27% had >1 HR-HPV infection. By comparison, 39% of the 227 valid intra-anal swabs had detectable HPV, 25% had any HR-HPV and 7% >1 HR infection. While most anal smears were normal (51%, 20% had ASCUS and 29% were LSIL. No cases had HSIL or cancer. Infection with >1 HR type (adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.39; 95%CI = 1.02–5.58 and alpha-9 types (aOR = 3.98; 95%CI = 1.42–11.16 were associated with having abnormal cytology. Prevalence of AGWs was 12%. Infection with any LR type (aOR = 41.28; 95%CI = 13.57–125.62, >1 LR type (aOR = 4.14; 95%CI = 1.60–10.69, being <6 months on antiretroviral treatment (aOR = 6.90; 95%CI = 1.63–29.20 and having a CD4+ count <200 cells/μL (aOR = 5.48; 95%CI: 1.60–18.78 were associated with having AGWs. Conclusions In this population, anogenital HR-HPV infection and associated low-grade disease is

  13. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  14. Health of adults caring for orphaned children in an HIV endemic community in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don

    2011-01-01

    In South Africa, an estimated 2.5 million children have been orphaned by AIDS and other causes of adult mortality. Although there is a growing body of research on the well-being of South African orphaned children, few research studies have examined the health of adult individuals caring for children in HIV endemic communities. The cross-sectional survey assessed prevalence of general health and functioning (based on Short-Form 36 version 2 scale), depression (based on Center for Epidemiologic...

  15. Multiple Traumatic Events and Psychological Distress : The South Africa Stress and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stacey L.; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya; Jackson, Pamela B.; Moomal, Hashim

    2007-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from South Africa, we examine lifetime prevalence of traumas and multiple traumas (number of events). Employing multiple regression analysis, we study sociodemographic risk of trauma, and the association between trauma and distress. Results indicate most South Africans experience at least one traumatic event during their lives, with the majority reporting multiple. Consistent variation in risk is evident for gender and marital status but not other sociodem...

  16. Psychoanalysis in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Storck-van Reenen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.

  17. Health promotion capacity building in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Jane; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Health promotion in South Africa is in its early stages and while there is some institutional development and capacity building for managers, there has been relative disregard and lack of attention of the wider health promotion workforce who carry out community-based health promotion activities. This article describes one regional education and training programme for health promoters as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project on learners and organizations. Marked differences before and after the implementation of the training activities were reported in relation to behaviour change communication and project planning, in addition to self-reported positive change in knowledge, confidence and a high level of participant satisfaction. Investment in individual skills development needs to be accompanied by wider workforce development with organizational/institutional development and recognised competencies frameworks.

  18. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V.

    2000-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  19. Matcom 86: Engineering materials in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium MATCOM '86 represents a significant departure from the usual format of scientific and engineering conferences. It provides a unique opportunity for industrialists, economists, the engineering and scientific communities, and research and development establishments to be briefed on critical issues relating to engineering materials and the effect of these materials on the manufacturing, service, health, strategic and minerals industries. Profitability and productivity in industry can often be linked to engineering materials and their in-service performance. Major surveys conducted in South Africa and developed countries have revealed the significance of losses to industry due to materials degradation problems such as fracture, wear, corrosion etc. One of the papers delivered at this symposium focus on the nuclear engineering industry, namely the application of materials in the field of uranium enrichment

  20. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Human, S.; Bajic, V

    2000-07-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  1. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  2. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in South Africa: analysis from the South African Stress and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwoli, Lukoye; Stein, Dan J; Williams, David R; Mclaughlin, Katie A; Petukhova, Maria; Kessler, Ronald C; Koenen, Karestan C

    2013-07-03

    South Africa's unique history, characterised by apartheid, a form of constitutional racial segregation and exploitation, and a long period of political violence and state-sponsored oppression ending only in 1994, suggests a high level of trauma exposure in the general population. The aim of this study was to document the epidemiology of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the South African general population. The South African Stress and Health Study is a nationally representative survey of South African adults using the WHO's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. The most common traumatic events were the unexpected death of a loved one and witnessing trauma occurring to others. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of PTSD were 2.3% and 0.7% respectively, while the conditional prevalence of PTSD after trauma exposure was 3.5%. PTSD conditional risk after trauma exposure and probability of chronicity after PTSD onset were both highest for witnessing trauma. Socio-demographic factors such as sex, age and education were largely unrelated to PTSD risk. The occurrence of trauma and PTSD in South Africa is not distributed according to the socio-demographic factors or trauma types observed in other countries. The dominant role of witnessing in contributing to PTSD may reflect the public settings of trauma exposure in South Africa and highlight the importance of political and social context in shaping the epidemiology of PTSD.

  3. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  4. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  5. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  6. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A D; Grobbelaar, C J; Asamoah, J K [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  7. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  8. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  9. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  10. Regional Dimensions of South Africa's CAADP Process: Lessons from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Staaz, John; Boughton, Duncan; Diallo, Boubacar; Meyer, Ferdinand; Minde, Issac Joseph; Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Tschirley, David

    2015-01-01

    Regional spillovers offer prospects for accelerating Africa’s agricultural productivity growth, market development and food security. West Africa has recognised and embraced the importance of regional technology transfers, agricultural commodity trade, food security monitoring and agricultural planning. In order for the Southern African region to follow suit, South Africa’s country Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) plan will need to recognise the country’s c...

  11. Can an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery(ERAS) programme improve colorectal cancer outcomes in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oodit, R L; Ljungqvist, O; Moodley, J

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and the fourth most common cause of cancer related deaths. It is estimated that CRC is amongst the top five malignancies in South Africa (SA) with an age standardised incidence rate of 10.2 and 6.1 per 100 000 for males and females respectively. The incidence is projected to increase in South Africa as a result of ageing, a growing population and an increase in prevalence of risk factors. Copyright© Authors.

  12. Infant feeding practices among mothers with and without HIV in Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrand, Møyfrid Elin

    2012-01-01

    Master i samfunnsernæring The HIV prevalence in adults and children in South Africa is high. South Africa is also a country where the breastfeeding rate is low and the child mortality rate is high. HIV-infected mothers have to weigh the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) through breastfeeding versus the risk of other diseases from formula feeding when choosing infant feeding practice. In 2007 researches conducted a third and last wave in a panel survey in Khayelitsha. I...

  13. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  14. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ajuruchukwu Obi; Sanelise Tafa

    2016-01-01

    South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN). Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the perc...

  15. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available of such functions, determined from forestry trial data in South Africa, are shown below. Harrison et al. (1994) give the following result for P. patula in Nelshoogte, South Africa: Vste, . = Vf~,,at(1- exp(-0.141 l(1-0.6782exp(-O.OO13TP))i)) 3"°935 with n = 218... an expected life of more than 20 years. In South Africa most construction timber falls into this category, as well as timber destined to be permanently buried underground as mine supports. The C stored in timber products can be calculated as: Cp = ~aVkPk E...

  16. Cultural Practices and HIV in South Africa: A Legal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mswela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has not escaped the rising prevalence and severe impact of HIV/AIDS in relation to women. From an economic and social vantage point, the HIV/AIDS epidemic effects women the hardest, with underprivileged black women the most susceptible to the virus. The theoretical framework of this paper focuses on the intersection between HIV/AIDS, gender inequality and gender violence, and more specifically on certain cultural practices and customs that contribute towards and exacerbate women’s subordination and inequality, which in turn increase women’s exposure to HIV infection. Relevant to this focus is inevitably an analysis of the perceived threats to specific fundamental human rights as a result of some of the entrenched practices that continue to reinforce women’s subordinate position in society, aggravated by the high incidence of gender violence.

  17. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  18. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  19. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  20. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  1. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurner, Thomas W.; Varughese, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  2. Clinical correlates of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, John A; Fincham, Dylan S; Stein, Dan J; Paul, Robert H; Seedat, Soraya

    2010-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) occurs globally and across different genetic clades of the virus. However, few studies have examined HAND in South Africa, despite the prevalence of HIV in this region of the world, and the predominance of clade C. The present study examined the relationship between a number of demographic and clinical variables in a sample of 536 patients attending HIV clinics in South Africa. HAND was present in 23.5% of the sample and was associated with older age, a low educational level among those with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse among those with many months since diagnosis. These results suggest that HAND is common among patients in South Africa, and is associated with clinical variables such as PTSD and alcohol abuse. This underlines the impact of HIV on the nervous system and the importance of screening for co morbid mental health conditions.

  3. Exploring Treatment Needs and Expectations for People Living with HIV in South Africa: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Bogart, Laura M; Courtney, Ingrid; Zanoni, Holly; Bangsberg, David R; Orrell, Catherine; Goggin, Kathy; Katz, Ingrid T

    2018-04-04

    The UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment targets aim to dramatically increase the number of people who initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 2020. Greater understanding of barriers to ART initiation in high prevalence countries like South Africa is critical. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 participants in Gugulethu Township, South Africa, including 10 healthcare providers and 20 people living with HIV (PLWH) who did not initiate ART. Interviews explored barriers to ART initiation and acceptability of theory-based intervention strategies to optimize ART initiation. An inductive content analytic approach was applied to the data. Consistent with the Theory of Triadic Influence, barriers to ART initiation were identified at the individual, social, and structural levels. Results suggested high acceptability for intervention strategies involving trained HIV-positive peers among South African PLWH and healthcare providers. Research is needed to evaluate their feasibility and efficacy in high HIV prevalence countries.

  4. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  5. Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergency departments and nuclear medicine.1 Added to this is the periodic need ... electrophysiology in the paediatric population in South Africa were not found. ..... to inadequate information technology infrastructure as well as limited data ...

  6. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  7. All projects related to South Africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / South Africa ... WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender ... over minor variants of existing products, both in developed and developing countries.

  8. an introduction to the exploration of congregations in south africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is to describe a framework for doing significant practical theological research, but also ... the research produced through theses, dissertations, journal articles and books make .... The quality of doctoral education in South Africa : A question of.

  9. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal ... will in government, a need to restore citizen trust in government intention and capability ... services, and a failure to up-scale existing water re-use technology.

  10. South Africa's SAFARI From nuclear weapons to nuclear medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, such as power generation and nuclear ... Building on its nuclear expertise, South Africa has become one of the world's ... By converting its nuclear reactor, SAFARI-1, to produce and supply medical ...

  11. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  12. Uptake and early removals of Implanon NXT in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    coverage over the past two decades.[3,4]. In South Africa (SA), .... with dealing with implant side-effects, counselling and management, and removal. ..... social franchising: The experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali. Glob Health: Sci ...

  13. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Management of diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prediabetes: a focus on the role of diabetes education in prevention of type 2 ...

  14. South Africa. The dawn of the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forder, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Procurement of renewable energy from Independent Power Producers is well underway in South Africa in a programme that targets 3,725 MW by 2015. Wind and solar feature prominently in the initial phase. (orig.)

  15. Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major championship event. ... from the less developed and developing context from an impact perspective. ... participated in various tourism activities that contributed to the local economy.

  16. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  17. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, 2004. ... Bradshaw D, Kielkowski D, Sitas F. New birth and death registration forms – A foundation for ...

  18. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, coagulopathy may not be identified until the patient manifests with ... To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA). Methods. ... that its greatest value is in identifying those patients who do ...

  19. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. ... Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. ... is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims.

  20. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa. ... whether informed consent as envisioned by the law exists in reality. Cross-cultural research is needed to clarify patients' and parents' expectations of informed consent ...

  1. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  2. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  3. Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    psychiatrists in South Africa to meet the country's needs. There are even fewer .... criminal justice system to hospital and or community mental health placements ... administrative meetings, other judicial activities and other clinical services4,9 ...

  4. All projects related to South Africa | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... Region: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Zambia, Poland, South Africa ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  5. Industrial heritage tourism at the 'Big Hole', Kimberley, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , as well as lack of leadership and strategic direction for tourism development at the local government level. These issues must be addressed if heritage tourism in South Africa is to contribute successfully to local economic development.

  6. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  7. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  8. Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa | Strydom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the ...

  9. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  10. The transformation of municipal development planning in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ): Impressions and impasse. ... Town and Regional Planning ... In South Africa, the government's transformation process, which effectively started in 1994, not only resulted in a new democracy, a new governmental dispensation or a 'new ...

  11. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  12. Methods for design flood estimation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ... This paper reviews methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa and .... transposition of past experience, or a deterministic approach,.

  13. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  14. First-order regional seismotectonic model for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A first-order seismotectonic model was created for South Africa. This was done using four logical steps: geoscientific data collection, characterisation, assimilation and zonation. Through the definition of subunits of concentrations of earthquake...

  15. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers' perspectives. ... This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation ... Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and ...

  16. Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... freshwaters, implemented through a water resource classifica- tion system ... piled for each of South Africa's 19 Water Management Areas, which are ..... et al., 2011) and integrated water and land-use prioritisation. (Nel et al.

  17. Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change and ... Decreasing food availability for wildlife is likely to exacerbate the impacts of climate change ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  18. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  20. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lindeque

    The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's ... dairy industry and calculated from the number of dairy producers per province .... provincial basis were sourced from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA), the ...

  1. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  2. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. South Africa's hydropolitical history: actors, actions, roles, and responsibilities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Findlater, KM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the arrival of the Dutch in 1652, water resource development in South Africa has been driven by political ideology and rising demand for limited resources, forcing major changes in policy and institutional capacity over time. Understanding...

  4. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  5. Performance of autopsies in South Africa: Selected legal and ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... In South Africa, academic and/or anatomical pathology autopsies are conducted in terms ... She is involved in the co-ordination of the academic programme in the department and teaching of undergraduate ... The incidence.

  6. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources...

  7. Access to Justice in South Africa: Are there Enough Lawyers?

    OpenAIRE

    David Mcquoid-Mason

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses head on the contention by a prominent legal practitioner in South Africa that there are too many lawyers in the country. It does not canvass the complex issues involved in determining the meaning of access to justice or the relationship between law and society in the context of legal services, and deals with access to justice in the narrow sense of the delivery of legal services in South Africa. The paper analyses the evidence presented to substantiate the contention that...

  8. Some examples of tactical crime mapping in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica AntonyCooperandPeterSchmitz icomtek,CSIR,POBox395,Pretoria,0001,SouthAfrica Email:acooper@csir.co.za,pschmitz@csir.co.za 7January2002 1.Background TheCouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR)isoneofeightstatutoryScienceCouncils in...,especiallyPietByleveld,Andrew Davidson,BarkiesBarkhuizen,GerritRobbertse,KevinRossouwandChrisNaude. 6.References AntonyKCooper,PietByleveldandPeterMUSchmitz,“UsingGIStoreconcilecrimesceneswith thoseindicatedbyserialcriminals”,paperpresentedattheFifthInternationalCrime Mapping...

  9. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  10. Theories of distributive justice and post-apartheid South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Knight, Carl

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism rec...

  11. Intellectual capital management in a retail company in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. The competitive landscape in the retail sector in South Africa is changing, and new models of competitiveness are needed to deal with the challenges ahead. The responses that usually occur in relation to the above statement reveal a new competitive reality, demanding that the organisation’s capabilities will enable the retail company in South Africa to better serve their customers and to differentiate them from competitors. This dissertation is about determining the status of the meas...

  12. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  13. South Africa: time is ripe for independent power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, C.

    2009-09-15

    Africa's biggest producer of electricity Eskom, is at a crossroad. Almost 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated by coal-fired power stations. On-off plans for nuclear power seem to be 'on' again and the regulatory red tape that has thwarted independent power producers could be cut. 3 photos.

  14. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  15. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  16. Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sub-Saharan Africa. However, the country has also experienced defi cits in net international migration relative to the core Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) region of the world system. The tentative conclusion to be drawn from. South Africa's involvement in international migration is that it has ...

  17. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  18. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  19. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  20. The effects of obesity on doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in Africa: empirical results from Senegal and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay

    2006-01-01

    While inadequate food and communicable infectious diseases have been a concern of researchers and policy makers in Africa, little attention has been given to obesity and chronic, non-communicable diseases. Africa is not usually associated with obesity and chronic diseases. Yet there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity and chronic diseases, a major public health problem in many countries. The paper examines the impact of obesity on the prevalence of four doctor-diagnosed chronic diseases in Senegal and South Africa. The results reveal that obese respondents were 4.7, 2.8, and 4.8% more likely to face the risks of arthritis, diabetes, and heart diseases in South Africa and 6.5 and 7.4% more likely to face the risks of heart disease and asthma in Senegal than their lean counterparts. Obesity imposes a real and substantial danger, affecting the prevalence of chronic diseases. Unchecked it can be a major public health problem, impose a serious challenge to the health sector, and can jeopardize future developments.

  1. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  2. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  3. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  4. Marine fisheries monitoring programmes in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mayekiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was an early leader in multidisciplinary studies of marine resources, particularly with the Benguela Ecology Programme in the 1980s and 1990s and catch records are available for some species dating back more than a century. Resources data have focused on trends in catches, fishing effort and changes in distribution and abundance of harvested resources, which often account for a major part of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Data have been collected by means of fishery-dependent and fishery-independent survey techniques appropriate to each particular stock and analysed using traditional single species stock assessment techniques. The data are complemented by comprehensive information on the environment and top predators and have been analysed using trophodynamic models such as Ecopath with Ecosim. Future approaches include a shift to an ecosystem approach to fisheries monitoring and management, in an attempt to reconcile utilisation and biodiversity conservation objectives. Despite these scientific achievements, the single species approach to the management of most resources still persists, with only limited interactions between competing species or predators and prey being formally taken into account when modelling the stock dynamics and providing management advice to the authorities.

  5. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  6. South Africa. Closure plan of an operation at LILW repository in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Vaalputs, the South African, National Radioactive Waste Management Facility, is situated in an area of the Northern Cape Province and is operated by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited. Screening and site selection lasted from 1978-1984, construction took place from 1984 to 1986. The waste received is predominantly from the Koeberg nuclear power station and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste is disposed of in a near surface disposal facility in clay. Two trenches were excavated for use, one is used for concrete containers and one for other waste, mostly compressed trash in 200-liter drums. No capping of trenches has taken place as it was originally anticipated that the trenches would be capped after being filled. Much slower delivery of waste packages and other problems has led to a process of temporary capping

  7. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  8. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country's infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country's energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry

  9. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  10. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa | Mokgoro | Potchefstroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not ... In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a ... Ubuntu can therefore become central to a new South African jurisprudence ...

  11. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  12. Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events. Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, ...

  13. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  14. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  15. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL ... Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, Europe, Russia, North and ... Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... area and makes a substantial contribution to the country's balance of payments.

  16. Experience in marketing irradiated food in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.P.N.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is acknowledged as being one of the leaders in the field of food irradiation. This paper will be divided into three major sections: 1. A background of South African radiation facilities, population demographics and the retail market. 2. Commercial marketing trials, reasons and consumer reaction. 3. The future of radiation for possible food processing and its safe introduction to society

  17. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...

  18. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  19. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  20. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…