WorldWideScience

Sample records for south africa based

  1. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  2. South Africa

    Cathy Egan

    prompted in part by the growth of the anti-apartheid movement. ... showing a new degree of organizational capacity and power in South Africa and among .... leading institutions in the generation and application of new knowledge to meet.

  3. South Africa

    Fischer, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  4. as a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-08

    Apr 8, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: “Enjoy a variety of foods”: as a food-based dietary guideline. 13. 2013 .... of age and culture. She further .... on the French national food consumption study estimated the cost of ...

  5. a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-09

    Apr 9, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: The “Have milk, maas or yoghurt every day”. S57. 2013 ..... foods or other compounds, individually or in interaction. ... action of cholesterol-lowering drugs and some dietary.

  6. South Africa

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of South Africa was acquired on May 14, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution visible wavelength bands. As part of the opening ceremony to begin the joint U.S.-South Africa SAFARI Field Experiment, NASA presented print copies of this image as GIFts to Dr. Ben Ngubane, Minister of Arts, Science and Technology, and Honorable Advocate Ngoaka Ramathlodi, Premier of the Northern Province, South Africa. The area shown in this image encompasses seven capital cities and a number of the region's distinctive geological features can be seen clearly. Toward the northern (top) central part of the image, the browns and tans comprise the Kalahari Desert of southern Botswana. The Tropic of Capricorn runs right through the heart of the Kalahari and the Botswanan capital city of Gaborone sits on the Limpopo River, southeast of the Kalahari. Along the western coastline of the continent is the country of Namibia, where the Namib Desert is framed against the sea by the Kaokoveld Mountains. The Namibian capital of Windhoek is obscured by clouds. Looking closely in the center of the image, the Orange River can be seen running from east to west, demarcating the boundary between Namibia and South Africa. On the southwestern corner of the continent is the hook-like Cape of Good Hope peninsula and Cape Town, the parliamentary capital of South Africa. Running west to east away from Cape Town are the Great Karroo Mountains. The shadow in this image conveys a sense of the very steep grade of the cliffs along the southern coast of South Africa. Port Elizabeth sits on the southeasternmost point of South Africa, and a large phytoplankton bloom can be seen in the water about 100 miles east of there. Moving northward along the east coast, the Drakensberg Mountains are visible. The two small nations of Lesotho and Swaziland are in this region, completely

  7. South Africa

    2002-01-01

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in South Africa for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  8. Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa ... preferable, especially in those at risk of the harmful effects of sugar, e.g. people who are overweight, have prediabetes, ..... regarded as being synonymous with “junk food” into one.

  9. Performance and behaviour of bitumen emulsion treated road bases in South Africa.

    Horak, E

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion treatment of granular bases is used mostly as a rehabilitation option in South Africa. Emulsion treated bases (ETBs) have been used on an ad hoc basis in South Africa in the past. Considerable work has gone into the mix design of ETBs...

  10. Revised food-based dietary guidelines for South Africa: challenges ...

    especially the alcohol FBDG,3-4 might be misinterpreted by consumers. ... of the general recommendations for healthy eating. The main ... psychological and biological interactions. Clearly, there is a need to influence dietary behaviour towards a more prudent diet. ... postgraduate students at South Africa universities that.

  11. a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... African women in South Africa, and from 15.5% to 21% of energy in rural ...... heart disease risk, and that the discrepancies between estimates from .... in energy, will need to pay attention to replacing SFA with. PUFA and ...

  12. South Africa

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits...

  13. South Africa

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  14. Sugar and health: a food-based dietary guideline for South Africa

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... Food-Based Dietary Guidelines for South Africa: Sugar and health: a ... of the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, and probably cardiovascular disease too. ... that there is a strong association between sugar intake.

  15. Guns and gender-based violence in South Africa | Abrahams | South ...

    Background. The criminal use of firearms in South Africa is widespread and a major factor in the country having the thirdhighest homicide rate in the world. Violence is a common feature of South African society. A firearm in the home is a risk factor in intimate partner violence, but this has not been readily demonstrated in ...

  16. Terrorism in South Africa.

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  17. in South Africa

    9 assistance from the National Olympic Committee of South. Africa (NOCSA), while an overwhelming proportion (89%) received no financial support. Of the 45 swimmers surveyed,. 8 respondents were financially supported by Swimming South. Africa, whilst 8 indicated that they were sponsored privately. Twenty-one of the ...

  18. Electricity in South Africa

    Davis, Mark; Steyn, Grove

    1998-09-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introductory background; The South African energy sector; The development and regulation of the South African electricity supply industry; Electricity supply and demand; Eskom: South Africa's public utility; Electricity distribution; Household electrification; Regional integration and environmental issues; Regulation and emerging policies - pointers to the future. (Author)

  19. AIDS in South Africa.

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  20. IDRC in South Africa

    challenges remain. ... such issues as environmental preserva- tion, new ... women's access to land. ... Youth in South Africa face many hurdles, ... works like family and friends to overcome chal- ... representatives, local businesses, and gov-.

  1. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  2. South Africa comes clean

    Albright, D.

    1993-01-01

    South African President F. W. de Klerk made headlines on March 24 when he admitted to a joint session of parliament that South Africa had once had a supply of nuclear weapons; six of seven planned devices had been completed. South African spokesmen had previously said that Pretoria was capable of building weapons, but they had remained deliberately vague about whether or not any had been built. According to de Klerk, the weapons were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on July 10, 1991. De Klerk's revelation came in response to charges by the African National Congress and U.S. government officials that South Africa had possibly hidden atomic bomb components and manufacturing plants and that it had been evasive about its stockpile of weapon-grade uranium. A more complete discussion of de Klerk's disclosure and events leading to the admission are explored in this article

  3. Late Departures from Paper-Based to Supported Networked Learning in South Africa: Lessons Learned

    Kok, Illasha; Beter, Petra; Esterhuizen, Hennie

    2018-01-01

    Fragmented connectivity in South Africa is the dominant barrier for digitising initiatives. New insights surfaced when a university-based nursing programme introduced tablets within a supportive network learning environment. A qualitative, explorative design investigated adult nurses' experiences of the realities when moving from paper-based…

  4. The applications of sisal fibre-based materials in the built environment: opportunities for South Africa

    Dlungwana, Sihle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available of sisal fibre-based materials in the built environment: opportunities for South Africa Sihle Dlungwana, Joe Mapiravana, Naa Lamkai Ampofo-Anti and Nozonke Dumani Introduction: The building sector represented the largest uptake globally of natural fibre...

  5. Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa ...

    Referral criteria for school-based hearing screening in South Africa: Considerations for resource-limited contexts. ... Diagnostic audiometry confirmed that almost half (47%) of the referred children had a hearing loss. Conclusion: A screening intensity of 25 dB HL andimmediate rescreen reduces the referral rate significantly ...

  6. Counselling Psychology in South Africa

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country’s socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country’s mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country’s health care and education systems. PMID:27867261

  7. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  8. Implementing model based systems engineering in South Africa

    Oosthuizen, Rudolph

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available significant benefits such as enhancing productivity and quality, reducing risk, and providing improved communications among the system development team. Implementing MBSE for the South African environment requires a process suited for the local environment...

  9. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Sexton, V.S.; Msiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation

  10. Distributed generation for South Africa based on renewable energy resources

    Szewczuk, S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid mini-grid systems at the Hluleka Nature Reserve and Lucingweni on the Wild coast of the Eastern Cape Province of South African were implemented to provide the experience necessary to develop a nation wide rollout plan for hybrid mini...

  11. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  12. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  13. Implementing community-based education in basic nursing education programs in South Africa.

    Mtshali, N G

    2009-03-01

    Education of health professionals using principles of community-based education is the recommended national policy in South Africa. A paradigm shift to community-based education is reported in a number of nursing education institutions in South Africa. Reviewed literature however revealed that in some educational institutions planning, implementation and evaluation of Community-based Educational (CBE) programmes tended to be haphazard, uncoordinated and ineffective, resulting in poor student motivation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the implementation of community-based education in basic nursing education programmes in South Africa. Strauss and Corbin's (1990) grounded theory approach guided the research process. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and document analysis. The findings revealed that collaborative decision-making involving all stakeholders was crucial especially during the curriculum planning phase. Furthermore, special criteria should be used when selecting community learning sites to ensure that the selected sites are able to facilitate the development of required graduate competencies. Collaborative effort, true partnership between academic institutions and communities, as well as government support and involvement emerged as necessary conditions for the successful implementation of community-based education programmes.

  14. Implementing community-based education in basic nursing education programs in South Africa

    N.G. Mtshali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Education of health professionals using principles of community-based education is the recommended national policy in South Africa. A paradigm shift to community based education is reported in a number of nursing education institutions in South Africa. Reviewed literature however revealed that in some educational institutions planning, implementation and evaluation of Community-based Educational (CBE programmes tended to be haphazard, uncoordinated and ineffective, resulting in poor student motivation. Therefore the purpose of this study was to analyse the implementation of community-based education in basic nursing education programmes in South Africa. Strauss and Corbin’s (1990 grounded theory approach guided the research process. Data were collected by means of observation, interviews and document analysis. The findings revealed that collaborative decision-making involving all stakeholders was crucial especially during the curriculum planning phase. Furthermore, special criteria should be used when selecting community learning sites to ensure that the selected sites are able to facilitate the development of required graduate competencies. Collaborative effort, true partnership between academic institutions and communities, as well as government support and involvement emerged as necessary conditions for the successful implementation of community-based education programmes.

  15. IDRC in South Africa

    To strengthen competition authorities in the region, IDRC supported the creation of the African Competition. Forum in 2010. IDRC-funded research also helped ... Saving lives, money, and ecosystems. Funding: $675,000. Duration: 2013–2016. Grantee: University of Pretoria,. South Africa. Environmental economists seek to ...

  16. APARTHEID SOUTH AFRICA

    conventions that are shared by a group of people, and that influence (but do not determine) ... Matsumoto Culture and Psychology 16: "…the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of ... Chinese Association of South Africa v Minister of Labour (PHC) unreported case no 59521/2007 of 18 June 2008 ...

  17. in South Africa

    skills, talent identification, financial implications and sci- entific support for swimmers in South Africa. The top 45 swimmers ... potential, capacity and raw talent to compete at interna- tional leveL Scientific and medical support, administration ..... Human Kinstie811, 1999. 7-8. . 3 . Bruckner P, Khan K. Clinical Sport8 Medicine.

  18. Nutrition in contemporary South Africa#

    1 Nutritional Intervention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, PO Box 19070, Tygerberg, 7505, South Africa. 2 Division ... based diet that is inadequate in energy and of low nutrient density. ..... Vitamin A deficiency impacts on mortality of women of ... increased risk of heavy metal (e.g. lead) poisoning in children;.

  19. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  20. Promoting Environmental Justice through Civil-Based Instruments in South Africa

    Michelle Toxopeüs and Louis J. Kotzé

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Achieving environmental justice in South Africa is critically important, not only because of historical reasons rooted in the country’s apartheid past, but also to ensure that everyone in the country, especially marginalized and vulnerable sectors of society, are properly protected from disproportional environmental impacts. Another aim of environmental justice in South Africa is to ensure that everyone equally shares in the benefits of the country’s resources. In this article, we interrogate ways through which to achieve environmental justice in South Africa through the use of civil-based instruments (CBIs of environmental governance. The central hypothesis is that CBIs are particularly well-suited to contribute to the achievement of environmental justice since they are essentially instruments which empower civil society to become central stakeholders in environmental governance by fostering active participation in the decisions that may impact on the environment and people’s health and well-being. Through these instruments all of society, particularly disenfranchised people suffering most from environmental injustice, are afforded a platform to pursue their environment-related interests that may be affected by the decisions taken by government and private actors such as polluting companies. For the purpose of the discussion we focus specifically on public participation, access to information and access to justice, all of which are generally accepted as CBIs, including in international law.

  1. Uranium in South Africa

    Ford, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The history, sources, mineralogy, extraction metallurgy, conversion, and enrichment of uranium in South Africa is reviewed. Over the past 40 years extraction plants were built at 27 sites, and over 140 kt of uranium have been produced. Older plants have had to adapt to changing market conditions, no single technology has had the opportunity to become entrenched, and the costs have been reduced to a third of those of the original flowsheet. The research efforts aimed at developing the country's nuclear raw materials have been particularly rewarding, as they have enabled South Africa to become a world leader in the extraction of uranium from low-grade ores and to develop methods for uranium enrichment and the production of nuclear fuels. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  2. South Africa's mineral industry

    1985-06-01

    The main aim of the Minerals Bureau in presenting this annual review is to provide an up-to-date reference document on the current state of the mineral industry in South Africa. This includes a brief look at the production, trade, economy, resources and deposits of precious metals and minerals, energy minerals, metallic minerals, and non-metallic minerals. One article discusses the production, trade, export, deposits and economy of uranium

  3. Photonics in South Africa

    Bollig, C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available : photonics, ultrafast and ultra- intense laser science (Heinrich Schwoerer, University of Stellenbosch); quantum information processing and communication (Francesco Petruccione, University of KwaZulu-Natal); medicinal chemistry and nanotechnology... of experience in diamond research, where scientists are now turning their attention to diamond for photonic devices. �ere is an active community in South Africa studying the potential of diamond as a single-photon source for applications in quantum...

  4. Administrative bias in South Africa

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  5. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    1986-03-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  6. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    1988-06-01

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  7. Small contribution of gold mines to the ongoing tuberculosis epidemic in South Africa: a modeling-based study.

    Chang, Stewart T; Chihota, Violet N; Fielding, Katherine L; Grant, Alison D; Houben, Rein M; White, Richard G; Churchyard, Gavin J; Eckhoff, Philip A; Wagner, Bradley G

    2018-04-12

    Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations. We calibrated to mine- and country-level data and used the static model to estimate force of infection (FOI) and new infections attributable to local residents in each community compared to other residents. Using the individual-based model, we simulated a counterfactual scenario to estimate the fraction of overall TB incidence in South Africa attributable to recent transmission in mines. We estimated that the majority of FOI in each community is attributable to local residents: 93.9% (95% confidence interval 92.4-95.1%), 91.5% (91.4-91.5%), and 94.7% (94.7-94.7%) in gold mining, peri-mining, and labor-sending communities, respectively. Assuming a higher rate of Mtb transmission in mines, 4.1% (2.6-5.8%), 5.0% (4.5-5.5%), and 9.0% (8.8-9.1%) of new infections in South Africa are attributable to gold mine workers, peri-mining residents, and labor-sending residents, respectively. Therefore, mine workers with TB disease, who constitute ~ 2.5% of the prevalent TB cases in South Africa, contribute 1.62 (1.04-2.30) times as many new infections as TB cases in South Africa on average. By modeling TB on a longer time scale, we estimate 63.0% (58.5-67.7%) of incident TB disease in gold mining communities to be attributable to recent transmission, of which 92.5% (92.1-92.9%) is attributable to

  8. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  9. Latitudinal variations of aerosol optical parameters over South Africa based on MISR satellite data

    Tesfaye M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The latitudunal variation of the relative weight size distribution and optical properties of aerosols over South Africa is presented here. The study uses 10-years of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) satellite data, collected over South...

  10. Progress in materials-based hydrogen storage at Hysa infrastructure in South Africa

    Langmi, Henrietta W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed the National Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies (HFCT) Research, Development and Innovation (RDI) Strategy, which was branded Hydrogen South Africa (HySA). HySA was established...

  11. Echinococcus felidis in hippopotamus, South Africa.

    Halajian, Ali; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J; Roux, Francois; Nakao, Minoru; Sasaki, Mizuki; Lavikainen, Antti

    2017-08-30

    Hydatid cysts of Echinococcus felidis are described from the hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) from Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Among six hippopotami investigated, hepatic hydatids were found in three. The identification was based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. In addition, the rostellar hook morphology was analysed. This is the first morphological description of the metacestode of E. felidis, and the first molecularly confirmed report of the intermediate host of E. felidis in South Africa. The definitive host of E. felidis in South Africa is the lion (Panthera leo). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    Richard Meissner, DPhil

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: As one of the 40 driest countries in the world with an annual average rainfall of 497 mm, South Africa is a water-scarce country. Additionally, South Africa's rate of economic development is closely linked to its water security. Thus, increasing water stress, supply variability, flooding, and water pollution levels and inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation are slowing economic growth. Despite the high premium placed on South Africa's water resources, no commonly shared understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security. Methods: We used interviews and qualitative analyses to establish and compare how people from different lifestyles perceive water security in the Greater Sekhukhune District and the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipalities of South Africa. The inland Sekhukhune has a drier climate and more rural socioeconomic profile than the coastal, urbanised eThekwini with its complex economy and diverse socioeconomic structure. We did face-to-face structured interviews with a diverse stakeholder group consisting of community members, traditional leaders, municipal officials, researchers, business people, and farmers in each municipality and focus groups in two communities of each municipality: Leeuwfontein and Motetema (Sekhukhune and Inanda and Ntshongweni (eThekwini. Each interview lasted 40–60 min, and focus group discussions lasted 90–120 min. We asked the respondents about their understanding of the concept of water security and whether they believe that, at the local and national level, the authorities had achieved water security for all. Findings: Following a qualitative analysis, we found that water security is a state of mind based on context-specific (ie, localised and individualised perceptions held by an individual of water-related threats and how it influences

  13. Forecasting South Africa's performance at the 2010 Commonwealth ...

    Objectives. This paper predicts South Africa's performance at the Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. Methods. Potential scenarios are developed based on South Africa's previous performances. Results. South Africa will win up to 15 gold medals and 43 medals in total. Conclusions. After Delhi 2010, the actual results ...

  14. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.

  15. Arbitration Foundation of South Africa

    Vladimir O. Kramarenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author explores the history and legal framework for the creation and operation of international commercial arbitration in South Africa. Author notes that South Africa is the most economically developed country in Africa, it is among dozens of major international organizations. From the point of view of the development of the system of law, legal proceedings and arbitration, South Africa is an attractive state for study. Author emphasizes that the South African Republic throughout its existence has been influenced by two legal families: Anglo-Saxon and Romano-Germanic. Therefore, it is important to note that South Africa refers to a mixed system of law. To date, South Africa has two international commercial arbitration: the Arbitration Foundation of South Africa and the Association of Arbitrators. In the conclusion author points out that the development and establishment of the centers of the arbitration fund continues: new centers are being established, and the system of procedures for dealing with cases in already established centers is being improved.

  16. Drug use among youth and adults in a population-based survey in South Africa

    Karl Peltzer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Illicit drug use is a growing public health problem. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of drug use and the sociodemographic and health characteristics that influence it among young and adult South Africans. Methods: Data based on the South African national population-based survey in 2012 for 26 453 individuals (52.0% women and 48.0% men aged 15 years and older were analysed. Past 3-month drug use was assessed with the ‘Alcohol, Smoking and Substance use Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST’. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to assess the association between sociodemographic factors, health variables and any past 3-month drug use. Results: Overall, any past 3-month drug use was 4.4%, 7.9% among men and 1.3% among women. The proportion of past 3-month cannabis use was 4.0%, followed by sedatives or sleeping pills 0.4%, amphetamine-type stimulants 0.3%, cocaine 0.3%, opiates 0.3%, inhalants 0.2% and hallucinogens 0.1%. Among the nine South African provinces, any past 3-month drug use was the highest in the Western Cape (7.1%, followed by the Free State (6.3% and Northern Cape (5.2%. In adjusted, multivariable, logistic regression analysis among both men and women, younger age, being mixed race and hazardous or harmful alcohol use were associated with any past 3-month drug use. In addition, having been a victim of violent crime and sexual risk behaviour among men and having psychological distress among women were associated with any past 3-month drug use. Conclusion: An increase of any past 3-month drug use from 3.7% in 2008 to 4.4% in 2012 was observed in South Africa. Prevention and intervention activities targeting drug use, in particular in identified risk groups, need to be strengthened in South Africa.

  17. The use of a GIS-based malaria information system for malaria research and control in South Africa.

    Martin, Carrin; Curtis, Bronwyn; Fraser, Colleen; Sharp, Brian

    2002-12-01

    The paper aims to outline the innovative development and application of a Geographical Information System based Malaria Information System for malaria research and control in South Africa. This system is a product of collaboration between the Malaria Control Programmes and the Malaria Research Programme of the Medical Research Council of South Africa. The ability of such a system to process data timeously into a usable format is discussed, as well as its relevance to malaria research, appropriate malaria control measures, tourism, and social and economic development.

  18. Communication received from South Africa

    1984-02-01

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  19. Bibliographic Control in South Africa

    Musiker, Reuben

    1972-01-01

    The author sets as his task the consideration of the present state of bibliographical control of South Africa's bookstock with special reference to centralization and decentralization. (20 references) (Author/SJ)

  20. South Africa and the BRICS

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  1. Energy Crisis Racks South Africa

    Verwijs, H.

    2008-01-01

    South Africa will struggle with energy capacity shortages until at least 2015. Giant coal-fired power plants are now being built to solve the problem - but they will not prevent the problem of climate change

  2. Radioactivity standardization in South Africa

    Simpson, BRS

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's national radioactivity measurement standard is maintained at a satellite laboratory in Cape Town by the National Metrology Laboratory (NML) of the Council-for Scientific and Industrial Research. Standardizations are undertaken by a...

  3. Guns and gender-based violence in South Africa | Abrahams | South ...

    South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 100, No 9 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your ...

  4. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a ...

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... tional high-resolution regional atmospheric models in South Africa. ... have been tested against observed rainfall data over 3 austral summer 6-month periods from 2006/07 to ..... characteristics of a point measurement, making comparison .... metrics give almost a complete diagnostic evaluation of fore-.

  5. Performance based standards: A sustainable solution for transportation in South Africa

    Berman, R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The costs of logistics in South Africa are dominated by high transportation and fuel costs which are ultimately carried by consumers. An alternative regulatory framework for governing heavy vehicles is explored as a means to not only decrease...

  6. HIV epidemic drivers in South Africa: A model-based evaluation of ...

    Background: HIV prevalence differs substantially between South Africa's provinces, but the factors accounting for this difference are poorly understood. Objectives: To estimate HIV prevalence and incidence trends by province, and to identify the epidemiological factors that account for most of the variation between provinces ...

  7. Gendered home-based care in South Africa: more trouble for the troubled.

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates the experiences of informal caregivers of people living with HIV in two semi-rural communities in South Africa. Ethnographic methods were used to collect and analyse data on the gendered nature and consequences of home-based care from 21 primary caregivers and 20 volunteer caregivers as well as 10 key informants. It was generally women who were poor, unemployed and unmarried who combined the care-giving role with their traditional role as homemaker and that of being the household head and breadwinner. The caregivers experienced physical strains and emotional problems, and were at elevated risk of being infected with HIV and TB. Men were largely absent in HIV/AIDS-affected homes and usually did not assist because of rigid gendered divisions of labour. Home-based care, by creating a disproportionate burden on women, is exacerbating existing gender inequities. It is argued that a thorough understanding of how home-based care undermines the physical health and psychological wellbeing of already vulnerable women is crucial for informing policies on home-based care. Thus, there is a need to incorporate gender perspectives when planning and implementing home-based care programmes.

  8. South-Africa (Goodstart III) trial: community-based maternal and newborn care economic analysis.

    Daviaud, Emmanuelle; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Ijumba, Petrida; Doherty, Tanya; Lawn, Joy E; Owen, Helen; Jackson, Debra; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-10-01

    In light of South Africa's generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic coupled with high infant mortality, we undertook a cluster Randomized Control Trial (2008-10) assessing the effect of Community Health Worker (CHW) antenatal and postnatal home visits on, amongst other indicators, levels of HIV-free survival, and exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks. Cost and time implications were calculated, by assessing the 15 participating CHWs, using financial records, mHealth and interviews. Sustainability and scalability were assessed, enabling identification of health system issues. The majority (96%) of women in the community received an average of 4.1 visits (target seven). The paid, single purpose CHWs spent 13 h/week on the programme. The financial cost per mother amounted to $94 ($23 per home visit). Modelling target coverage (95% mothers, seven visits) and increased efficiency showed that if CHWs spent 25 h/week on the programme, the number of CHWs required would decrease from 15 to 12. The intervention almost doubled exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 12 weeks and showed a 6% relative increase in EBF with each additional CHW visit. Home visit programmes improve access and prevention but are not an inexpensive alternative: the observed cost per home visit is twice that of a clinic visit and in target/efficiency scenario decreases to 70% of the cost of a clinic visit. Ensuring sustainability requires optimizing the design of programmes and deployment of human resources, whilst maintaining impact. However, low remuneration of CHWs leads to shorter working hours, low motivation and sub-optimal coverage even in a situation with well-resourced supervision. The community-based care programme in South-Africa is based on multi-purpose CHWs, its cost and impact should be compared with results from this study. Quality of support for multi-purpose CHWs may be the biggest challenge to address to achieving higher efficiency of community-based services. ISRCTN41046462.

  9. Aspects of Digital Forensics in South Africa

    Jacques Ophoff

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the issues facing digital forensics in South Africa. It examines particular cyber threats and cyber threat levels for South Africa and the challenges in addressing the cybercrimes in the country through digital forensics. The paper paints a picture of the cybercrime threats facing South Africa and argues for the need to develop a skill base in digital forensics in order to counter the threats through detection of cybercrime, by analyzing cybercrime reports, consideration of current legislation, and an analysis of computer forensics course provision in South African universities. The paper argues that there is a need to develop digital forensics skills in South Africa through university programs, in addition to associated training courses. The intention in this paper is to promote debate and discussion in order to identify the cyber threats to South Africa and to encourage the development of a framework to counter the threats – through legislation, high tech law enforcement structures and protocols, digital forensics education, digital forensics skills development, and a public and business awareness of cybercrime threats.

  10. Post-Apartheid South Africa and United States National Security

    Cochran, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    .... It is based on the realist premise that the U.S. has limited national interests in Sub-Saharan Africa which would be best served by a regional security strategy explicitly predicated on engagement with South Africa...

  11. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  12. Promise of a microfluidic research network in South Africa: establishment of the base with the CSIR

    Land, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available and pharmaceutical production. This technology requires a range of multidisciplinary skills, which solicits skills and knowledge sharing between organisations to ensure competitiveness. While research activities in this fi eld are still minimal in South Africa... to form what is known as a ʻlab-on-chipʼ device. Lab-on-chip devices are used for performing physical, chemical, or biological functions, such as separation, mixing, chemical reaction and analysis (Liu et al. 2008; Nguyen & Wereley, 2006...

  13. INTERNATIONALCAREEREXPERIENCESOFEXPATRIATEACADEMICS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Ashika Maharaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africais facingamajor staffing shortageinscarce skills disciplines.Expatriateacademics have been sourcedbyuniversities to run programmes inthese disciplinesto create ‘home grown’ talent tosolvethis problem.This study isbased on Lazarova, Westman and Shaffer’s(2010modelrelating to expatriatework and family performance.It seeksto examine the experiencesof academics atUKZN,as well as provide recommendationson howto improve theirexperience.The key question ofthepaper, deals with the how expatriate academics haveadjusted to their new environment based onjob andwork environment challenges,family and lifestyle challenges, organisational support and contextual challengesin the host country.The results showedthat the majorityof respondentsare welladjusted in terms of their relationships with their host country colleagues and theirrelationships with family and friendsin theirhomecountry,as well as in terms ofthe fulfilment of theirworkplaceexpectations.Their experience oforganisationalsupport couldhoweverbeimproved.It was found that theydidnot share closeties with other expatriates or local South Africansat the universityorintheircommunities.Thestudy is exploratory and involves a single professional group,as such the findings are not generalisable to other contexts or respondents.Adescriptive quantitative analysis of the career experiences of 83 expatriateacademics was done. Thestudywasuniquein that itexaminedall levels ofacademiain conjunction withmanagement and takes place in a South Africancontext.To improve organisational support,the institution should establishsupport systems forinternational facultyFurthermore, itwassuggestedin thestudy, thatthereshouldbe the creation of a mentorship or buddy programme bythe university to support the adjustment of newinternational staff. Universitymanagement should set up an international staff office similar to the InternationalStudent Office manned by dedicated staff who deal only with matters

  14. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via a case-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age, working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  15. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking. Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method. Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age,working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years. Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services. Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  16. Power generation in South Africa

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  17. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  18. Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Coastal South Africa Based on Mega-Earthquakes of Remote Subduction Zones

    Kijko, Andrzej; Smit, Ansie; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.; Novikova, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    After the mega-earthquakes and concomitant devastating tsunamis in Sumatra (2004) and Japan (2011), we launched an investigation into the potential risk of tsunami hazard to the coastal cities of South Africa. This paper presents the analysis of the seismic hazard of seismogenic sources that could potentially generate tsunamis, as well as the analysis of the tsunami hazard to coastal areas of South Africa. The subduction zones of Makran, South Sandwich Island, Sumatra, and the Andaman Islands were identified as possible sources of mega-earthquakes and tsunamis that could affect the African coast. Numerical tsunami simulations were used to investigate the realistic and worst-case scenarios that could be generated by these subduction zones. The simulated tsunami amplitudes and run-up heights calculated for the coastal cities of Cape Town, Durban, and Port Elizabeth are relatively small and therefore pose no real risk to the South African coast. However, only distant tsunamigenic sources were considered and the results should therefore be viewed as preliminary.

  19. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  20. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Ackermann Anton; Visser Gustav

    2016-01-01

    Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s s...

  1. A pairwise unit-root-test based approach to investigating convergence of household debts in South Africa and the United States

    Ntebogang Dinah Moroke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to test convergence of household debts in the United States and South Africa taking a pairwise unit root tests based approaches into account. Substantial number of studies dealt with convergence of several macroeconomic variables but to my knowledge no study considered this subject with respect to household debts of the identified countries. Quarterly data on household debts consisting of 88 observations in the South Africa and United States spanning the period 1990 to 2013 was collected from the South African and St. Louis Federal Reserve Banks. Focused on the absolute value of household debts, this study proved that South Africa is far from catching-up with the United States in terms of overcoming household debts for the selected period. The findings of this study can be used by relevant authorities to help improve ways and means of dealing with household debts South Africa

  2. Evidence to support a food-based dietary guideline on sugar consumption in South Africa.

    Steyn, Nelia P; Temple, Norman J

    2012-07-04

    To review studies undertaken in South Africa (SA) which included sugar intake associated with dental caries, non-communicable diseases, diabetes, obesity and/or micronutrient dilution, since the food-based dietary guideline: "Use foods and drinks that contain sugar sparingly and not between meals" was promulgated by the Department of Health (DOH) in 2002. Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect), and SA Journal of Clinical Nutrition (SAJCN), DOH and SA Medical Research Council (SAMRC) websites were searched for SA studies on sugar intake published between 2000 and January 2012. Studies were included in the review if they evaluated the following: sugar intake and dental caries; sugar intake and non-communicable diseases; sugar and diabetes; sugar and obesity and/or sugar and micronutrient dilution. The initial search led to 12 articles in PubMed, 0 in Cochrane, 35 in ScienceDirect, 5 in the SAJCN and 3 reports from DOH/SAMRC. However, after reading the abstracts only 7 articles from PubMed, 4 from SAJCN and 3 reports were retained for use as being relevant to the current review. Hand searching of reference lists of SAJCN articles produced two more articles. Intake of sugar appears to be increasing steadily across the South African (SA) population. Children typically consume about 50 g per day, rising to as much as 100 g per day in adolescents. This represents about 10% of dietary energy, possibly as much as 20%. It has been firmly established that sugar plays a major role in development of dental caries. Furthermore, a few studies have shown that sugar has a diluting effect on the micronutrient content of the diet which lowers the intake of micronutrients. Data from numerous systematic reviews have shown that dietary sugar increases the risk for development of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Risk for development of these conditions appears to be especially strong when sugar is consumed as sugar-sweetened beverages. Based on the evidence

  3. Nutrition and HIV/AIDS in infants and children in South Africa: implications for food-based dietary guidelines.

    Hendricks, Michael K; Eley, Brian; Bourne, Lesley T

    2007-10-01

    The implications for food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) that are being developed in South Africa are reviewed in relation to HIV-exposed and -infected children. The nutritional consequences of HIV infection and nutritional requirements along with programmes and guidelines to address undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency in these children are also investigated. Based on studies for HIV-infected children in South Africa, more than 50% are underweight and stunted, while more than 60% have multiple micronutrient deficiencies. Nutritional problems in these children are currently addressed through the Prevention-of-Mother-to-Child Transmission Programme (PMTCT), the Integrated Nutrition Programme and Guidelines for the Management of HIV-infected Children which include antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in South Africa. Evaluations relating to the implementation of these programmes and guidelines have not been conducted nationally, although certain studies show that coverage of the PMTCT and the ARV therapy programmes was low. FBDGs for infants and young children could complement and strengthen the implementation of these programmes and guidelines. However, FBDGs must be in line with national and international guidelines and address key nutritional issues in these infants and young children. These issues and various recommendations are discussed in detail in this review.

  4. Paediatric triage in South Africa

    2013-05-07

    May 7, 2013 ... There has been a lot of interest and work in the field of triage of sick children in South Africa over the past few years. Despite this ... So opens the World Health Organization (WHO)'s Countdown to 2015, the .... walk as normal. 27 or more. 160 or more. Unrespon- sive. Reacts to. Pain ... Each time the IMCI or.

  5. African Journals Online: South Africa

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation ... continent of Africa, to contribute to developing home-grown (African) methods ... Envisaged readers are academic researchers, teachers and students and practitioners in the ... that have relevance to the South African educational context.

  6. Young engineers of South Africa

    Beyers, R

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The Young Engineers of South Africa Programme (YESA) also endorses the e-Education and the Science and Technology White Papers. The main focus area will be on Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education and the way that they can impact...

  7. Human fascioliasis in South Africa.

    Black, J; Ntusi, N; Stead, P; Mayosi, B; Mendelson, M

    2013-07-29

    Human fascioliasis has the widest latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal distribution of any vector-borne disease, yet only 3 cases have been reported from South Africa, the last in 1964. We report 2 cases from the same geographic area associated with local consumption of watercress, suggesting an endemic focus. 

  8. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  9. Sedating children in South Africa

    bRed Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. cSedation and Pain ... As the authors indicate, there is increasing pressure from practitioners, funders and patients or parents for procedures to take place outside the ...

  10. South Africa makes some decisions

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  11. Costs of a school-based dental mobile service in South Africa.

    Molete, M P; Chola, L; Hofman, K J

    2016-10-19

    The burden of untreated tooth decay remains high and oral healthcare utilisation is low for the majority of children in South Africa. There is need for alternative methods of improving access to low cost oral healthcare. The mobile dental unit of the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) has been operational for over 25 years, providing alternative oral healthcare to children and adults who otherwise would not have access. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-analysis of a school based oral healthcare program in the Wits mobile dental unit. The objectives were to estimate the general costs of the school based program, costs of oral healthcare per patient and the economic implications of providing services at scale. In 2012, the Wits mobile dental unit embarked on a 5 month project to provide oral healthcare in four schools located around Johannesburg. Cost and service use data were retrospectively collected from the program records for the cost analysis, which was undertaken from a provider perspective. The costs considered included both financial and economic costs. Capital costs were annualised and discounted at 6 %. One way sensitivity tests were conducted for uncertain parameters. The total economic costs were R813.701 (US$76,048). The cost of screening and treatment per patient were R331 (US$31) and R743 (US$69) respectively. Furthermore, fissure sealants cost the least out of the treatments provided. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the Wits mobile dental unit was cost efficient at 25 % allocation of staff time and that a Dental Therapy led service could save costs by 9.1 %. Expanding the services to a wider population of children and utilising Dental Therapists as key personnel could improve the efficiency of mobile dental healthcare provision.

  12. Providing a USSD location based clinic finder in South Africa: did it work?

    Parsons, Annie Neo; Timler, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    A new mHealth service, Clinic Finder, was designed to provide a location-based service for any cellphone user in South Africa dialing a dedicated USSD string to find the nearest public primary health care facility. The service was funded by a European Union grant to Cell-Life to support the National Department of Health. Clinic Finder's aims were to provide a reliable and accurate service, and to assess both the most effective means of advertising the service as well as interest in the service. Users dialing the USSD string are asked to agree to geo-location (Vodacom and MTN users) or asked to enter their province, town and street (virtual network users and those choosing not to geo-locate). The service provider, AAT, sends the data to Cell-Life where an SMS with details of the nearest public primary health care facility is sent to the user by Cell-Life's open-source Communicate platform. The service was advertised on 3 days in 2014 using two different means: a newspaper ad on 20 May 2014 and Please Call Me ads on 30 July 2014 and 14 August 2014. 28.2% of unique users on 20 May 2014, 10.5% of unique users on 30 July 2014 and 92.8% of unique users on 14 August 2014 who agreed to geo-location successfully received SMSs. However, only 4.2%, 0.5%, and 2.4% of unique users responding to each advertisement who did not geo-locate then received an SMS. A small survey of users following the 20 May 2014 newspaper ad found overall interest in the idea of Clinic Finder, though unsuccessful users were more likely to dislike the service. The overall experience of using location based services and USSD for Clinic Finder suggests a need in the field of mHealth for wider availability of data on service usability and effectiveness.

  13. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  14. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa.

    Rosenberg, Molly S; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X; Rohr, Julia K; Houle, Brian C; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Wagner, Ryan G; Salomon, Joshua A; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F; Tollman, Stephen M; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age-sex standardization. HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age-sex standardization. Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. South Africa PIMS

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  16. Utilization of solar energy in South Africa

    Whillier, A

    1953-04-01

    Full Text Available Design curves based on measurements of solar irradiation in South Africa are presented for two geographic areas, the highveld and the Cape Peninsula, giving data on the amount of thermal energy that can be collected from the sun by use of flat...

  17. Studentification in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Ackermann Anton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Studentification is a global phenomenon that has been prominent in urban geographical discourse since the large-scale expansion of higher education in the early 1990s. In many developed and developing world countries, expansion in student enrolment has outstripped the ability of institutions of higher learning to provide adequate accommodation. Similar trends have been recorded in South Africa. The task of this paper is to investigate studentification as experienced in one of South Africa’s secondary cities. The paper draws attention to the economic, socio-cultural, and physical characteristics of this form of student housing on host locations. It is argued that studentification holds both positive and negative impacts for the host communities of Bloemfontein. Finally, it is suggested that studentification in South Africa requires greater research attention.

  18. Oil crops in biofuel applications: South Africa gearing up for a bio-based economy

    BB Marvey

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Large fluctuations in crude oil prices and the diminishing oil supply have left economies vulnerable to energy shortages thus placing an enormous pressure on nations around the world to seriously consider alternative renewable resources as feedstock in biofuel applications. Apart from energy security reasons, biofuels offer other advantages over their petroleum counterparts in that they contribute to the reduction in green- house gas emissions and to sustainable development. Just a few decades after discontinuing its large scale production of bioethanol for use as en- gine fuel, South Africa (SA is again on its way to resuscitating its biofuel industry. Herein an overview is presented on South Africa’s oilseed and biofuel production, biofuels industrial strategy, industry readiness, chal- lenges in switching to biofuels and the strategies to overcome potential obstacles.

  19. Treatment Outcomes and Costs of Providing Antiretroviral Therapy at a Primary Health Clinic versus a Hospital-Based HIV Clinic in South Africa

    Long, Lawrence C.; Rosen, Sydney B.; Brennan, Alana; Moyo, Faith; Sauls, Celeste; Evans, Denise; Modi, Shookdev L.; Sanne, Ian; Fox, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2010 South Africa revised its HIV treatment guidelines to allow the initiation and management of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) by nurses, rather than solely doctors, under a program called NIMART (Nurse Initiated and Managed Antiretroviral Therapy). We compared the outcomes and costs of NIMART between the two major public sector HIV treatment delivery models in use in South Africa today, primary health clinics and hospital-based HIV clinics. Methods and findings The s...

  20. A national survey of home-based care kits for palliative HIV/AIDS care in South Africa.

    Mabude, Z A; Beksinska, M E; Ramkissoon, A; Wood, S; Folsom, M

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess home-based care (HBC) kits and programs in South Africa to evaluate the feasibility of scaling up kit production and distribution. South African HBC organizations received structured questionnaires; key informant interviews and a literature review were completed to assess systems for production, distribution and supply of HBC kits. Meetings with stakeholders were held in two Provinces to share and analyze the study findings. The study team distributed questionnaires to 466 organizations and conducted interviews with representatives from 45 organizations, the Provincial Department of Health (DoH) and manufacturers of kits. All identifiable HBC organizations in South Africa were included in the survey. As a result 215 HBC organizations returned questionnaires; including non-governmental organizations (56%), community-based organizations (32%) and organizations affiliated with government health departments. Two types of kits were available: a home kit and a professional kit. The demand for HBC kits exceeded availability, kit contents and availability varied considerably and the supply chain was irregular. Kit production and distribution systems were fragmented. Replenishment of kit items was problematic. End-users are mostly caregivers who have not received adequate training on their use. The study shows that substantial work has been done by HBC organizations in South Africa to respond to the need for palliative care supplies within resource constraints. The growing demand for kits exceeds the supply. There is a need to improve the supply chain management of HBC kits, strengthen referral systems and links between community-based organizations and government departments, expand training opportunities for care givers, and develop monitoring and evaluation systems.

  1. Successfully controlling malaria in South Africa | Blumberg | South ...

    Following major successes in malaria control over the past 75 years, South Africa is now embarking on a malaria elimination campaign with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The key control elements have been intensive vector control, primarily through indoor residual spraying, case management based ...

  2. Initial fieldwork for LWAZI: a telephone-based spoken dialog system for rural South Africa

    Gumede, T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available government information and services. Our interviews, focus group discussions and surveys revealed that Lwazi, a telephone-based spoken dialog system, could greatly support current South African government efforts to effectively connect citizens to available...

  3. Cassava as feedstock for ethanol production in South Africa

    Sanette

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... Rising crude oil prices, lower crop prices on world ... industrial strategy of South Africa suggests the use of sugar based crops, ... Development of the biofuels industry in South Africa is ... production of ethanol from cassava is both economical ... In the SSF process, the saccharification step and fermentation.

  4. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  5. Obstacles to Success--Doctoral Student Attrition in South Africa

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The article explores doctoral attrition in South Africa, investigating and comparing the attributions of attrition of doctoral students and PhD programme leaders. The article is based on secondary data analysis of two large studies on doctoral education in South Africa. The main point of the article is that the different understandings of the…

  6. CORRUPTION IN SOUTH AFRICA: GENESIS AND OUTLOOK

    Natasha Georgieva Hadji Krsteski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in South Africa includes the private use of public resources, bribery and improper favouritism. South Africa scored 45 points out of 100 on the 2016 Corruption Perceptions Index reported by Transparency International. Corruption Index in South Africa averaged 46.97 Points from 1996 until 2016, reaching an all-time high of 56.80 Points in 1996 and a record low of 41 Points in 2011. A tenderpreneur is common corruption in South Africa. It is an individual who enriches themselves through corrupting the awarding of government tender contracts, mostly based on personal connections and corrupt relationships - although outright bribery might also take place - and sometimes involving an elected or politically appointed official (or his or her family members holding simultaneous business interests. This is often accompanied by overcharging and shoddy workmanship. BEE-fronting is an abuse of the rules governing Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, where qualifying persons are given a seat on the Board of Directors of a company while having no decision-making power in the company, in order to qualify the company for government contracts in terms of BEE.

  7. Radiation technology in South Africa

    Du Plessis, T.A.

    1976-01-01

    A review is given of the relatively new field of radiation technology in South Africa. Attention is drawn particularly to the role which radioactive radiation can play in the spheres of medicine, polymer chemistry and agriculture. The possibilities inherent in ionizing radiation in the synthesis of chemicals and new synthetic materials, are dealt with briefly, and the promising results already achieved in the manufacture of polymer-wood are considered [af

  8. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  9. An assessment of a community-based, forest restoration programme in Durban (eThekwini), South Africa

    Mugwedi, LF

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Site Community Reforestation Project in Durban, South Africa, by assessing ecological attributes. Measures of plant richness, diversity, vegetation structure, invasive alien plants (IAPs) and ecological processes were contrasted across a chronosequence...

  10. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  11. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  12. South Africa : an opportunity for Western Europe ?

    Fischer, D.

    1989-01-01

    Of the six threshold countries (Argentina, Brazil, India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa), South Africa is the only one that, by a judicious application of pressures and incentives might be induced to accede the Non-Proliferation Treaty. There are several reasons for this, which derive chiefly from South Africa's political isolation and economic vulnerability and the absence of any credible military threat from beyond the country's borders. (author)

  13. Where are general surgeons located in South Africa? | Dell | South ...

    South African Journal of Surgery ... Methods: A descriptive analysis of the general surgical workforce in South Africa was performed. The total number of specialist and non-specialist general surgeons working in the public sector in South Africa was documented between the periods from the 1 October 2014 until 31 ...

  14. PROTECTING CRITICAL DATABASES – TOWARDS A RISK-BASED ASSESSMENT OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES (CIIS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Mzukisi N Njotini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has made great strides towards protecting critical information infrastructures (CIIs. For example, South Africa recognises the significance of safeguarding places or areas that are essential to the national security of South Africa or the economic and social well-being of South African citizens. For this reason South Africa has established mechanisms to assist in preserving the integrity and security of CIIs. The measures provide inter alia for the identification of CIIs; the registration of the full names, address and contact details of the CII administrators (the persons who manage CIIs; the identification of the location(s of CIIs or their component parts; and the outlining of the general descriptions of information or data stored in CIIs.It is argued that the measures to protect CIIs in South Africa are inadequate. In particular, the measures rely on a one-size-fits-all approach to identify and classify CIIs. For this reason the South African measures are likely to lead to the adoption of a paradigm that considers every infrastructure, data or database, regardless of its significance or importance, to be key or critical.

  15. Prospects for HIV control in South Africa: a model-based analysis

    Leigh F. Johnson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of virtual elimination of horizontal and mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa (SA has been proposed, but there have been few systematic investigations of which interventions are likely to be most critical to reducing HIV incidence. Objective: This study aims to evaluate SA's potential to achieve virtual elimination targets and to identify which interventions will be most critical to achieving HIV incidence reductions. Design: A mathematical model was developed to simulate the population-level impact of different HIV interventions in SA. Probability distributions were specified to represent uncertainty around 32 epidemiological parameters that could be influenced by interventions, and correlation coefficients (r were calculated to assess the sensitivity of the adult HIV incidence rates and mother-to-child transmission rates (2015–2035 to each epidemiological parameter. Results: HIV incidence in SA adults (ages 15–49 is expected to decline from 1.4% in 2011–2012 to 0.29% by 2035 (95% CI: 0.10–0.62%. The parameters most strongly correlated with future adult HIV incidence are the rate of viral suppression after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART (r=−0.56, the level of condom use in non-marital relationships (r=−0.40, the phase-in of intensified risk-reduction counselling for HIV-positive adults (r=0.29, the uptake of medical male circumcision (r=−0.24 and the phase-in of universal ART eligibility (r=0.22. The paediatric HIV parameters most strongly associated with mother-to-child transmission rates are the relative risk of transmission through breastfeeding when the mother is receiving ART (r=0.70 and the rate of ART initiation during pregnancy (r=−0.16. Conclusions: The virtual elimination target of a 0.1% incidence rate in adults will be difficult to achieve. Interventions that address the infectiousness of patients after ART initiation will be particularly critical to achieving long-term HIV

  16. Critical elements in defining work-based identity in a post-apartheid South Africa

    Sandra Lloyd

    2011-08-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the specific research questions was to determine which life sphere and life role elements, and which work-based identity facets were significant in forming work-based identity. Motivation for the study: The findings of the study will enable the formulation of an integrative definition of work-based identity applicable to the South African context. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative data was collected by means of unstructured interviews with 29 employees representing a range of job titles, levels and demographics in a large South African manufacturing company. A grounded theory approach (open and axial coding was used to analyse the data. Main findings: Distinctive individual self-definitions and a number of common themes integrating social and personal identity perspectives emerged from the data. These themes provided a sound basis for the proposed integrative model to define work-based identity. Practical/managerial implications: The findings of this research will assist human resource practitioners to develop training interventions and management strategies for the potential enhancement of work-based identities. This will result in a more engaged and harmonised workforce. Contribution/value-add: This was the first study of its kind to identify and delineate significant work-based identity elements for the formation of a work-based identity within a South African work context.

  17. Private Observatories in South Africa

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    Descriptions of private observatories in South Africa, written by their owners. Positions, equipment descriptions and observing programmes are given. Included are: Klein Karoo Observatory (B. Monard), Cederberg Observatory (various), Centurion Planetary and Lunar Observatory (C. Foster), Le Marischel Observatory (L. Ferreira), Sterkastaaing Observatory (M. Streicher), Henley on Klip (B. Fraser), Archer Observatory (B. Dumas), Overbeek Observatory (A. Overbeek), Overberg Observatory (A. van Staden), St Cyprian's School Observatory, Fisherhaven Small Telescope Observatory (J. Retief), COSPAR 0433 (G. Roberts), COSPAR 0434 (I. Roberts), Weltevreden Karoo Observatory (D. Bullis), Winobs (M. Shafer)

  18. Wind energy in South Africa

    Linde, H.A. van der

    1996-01-01

    Wind, in South Africa, has been a source of energy for many years but at the same time it is taking as much time and effort to receive the recognition it deserves as anywhere else in the world. The wind resource is comparable to a number of areas in the world wind is exploited as a grid connected source of electrical energy. Although the environmental impact of conventional sources of energy is not as widespread as most of the industrial nations some areas should be looked at critically. Wind as a bulk generator of energy is tentatively being looked at with some demonstration projects being planned. (author)

  19. Electricity supply in South Africa

    De Villiers, J.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  20. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) in South Africa: engaging multiple constituents to shape the research question.

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; van Stade, Debbie; Buchbinder, Mara

    2005-12-01

    Community engagement is an on-going, arduous, and necessary process for developing effective health promotion programs. The challenges are amplified when the particular health issue or research question is not prominent in the consciousness of the targeted community. In this paper, we explore the community-based participatory research (CBPR) model as a means to negotiate a mutual agenda between communities and researchers. The paper is focused on the (perceived) need for cervical cancer screening in an under-resourced community in Cape Town, South Africa. Cervical cancer is a significant health problem in this community and elsewhere in South Africa. Unlike HIV-AIDS, however, many Black South Africans have not been educated about cervical cancer and the importance of obtaining screening. Many may not consider screening a priority in their lives. Our research included extensive consultations and informal interviews with diverse community and regional stakeholders. Following these, we conducted 27 focus groups and 106 demographic surveys with randomly selected youth, parents, local health care personnel, educators and school staff. Focus group data were summarized and analyzed cross-sectionally. Community stakeholders were involved throughout this research. Our consultations, interviews, and focus group data were key in identifying the concerns and priorities of the community. By engaging community stakeholders, we developed a research framework that incorporated the community's concerns and priorities, and stressed the intersecting roles of poverty, violence, and other cultural forces in shaping community members' health and wellbeing. Community members helped to refocus our research from cervical cancer to 'cervical health,' a concept that acknowledged the impact on women's bodies and lives of HIV-AIDS and STDs, sexual violence, poverty, and multiple social problems. We conclude that the research agenda and questions in community-based health research should not be

  1. Standing of industrial radiography in South Africa

    Marais, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this article a look is taken at industrial radiography in South Africa to determine where radiographic testing is being used, and for what reasons. The status of training of industrial radiographers is considered and it is compared to radiographic techniques used in South Africa

  2. The Africa South America Intercontinental Teleconnection.

    Cook, K. H.; Hsieh, J.-S.; Hagos, S. M.

    2004-07-01

    The influence of heating over Africa on the South American precipitation climatology, and the influence of South America on Africa, is examined through the application of GCM simulations with idealized boundary conditions and perpetual solstice (January and July) conditions.The presence of Africa is associated with a pronounced (up to 4 mm day-1) decrease in precipitation in Brazil's Nordeste region during austral summer. Low-level moisture divergence and dry-air advection associated with the downbranch of a Walker circulation induced by heating over southern Africa is amplified over the Nordeste due to the response of the land surface. The response is much smaller during austral winter due to differences in the heat source over Africa and a reduced sensitivity in the surface heat balance over tropical South America. Forcing from South America in January shifts the position of the South Indian convergence zone (SICZ) to the southwest over southern Africa in association with the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ). In July, a Rossby wave train generated over South America induces a response in the surface temperature of Africa that leads to stronger precipitation in central and western Africa.This study suggests a zonal mode of variability for South American and African circulation and precipitation fields. The resulting perturbations depend as much on land surface atmosphere interactions as on the direct forcing from the adjacent continent, and the mechanisms are highly nonlinear.

  3. Coal: the future in South Africa

    1976-07-01

    The whole issue is devoted to the future of coal in South Africa, and includes articles on the Petrick report, coal conversion research in South Africa, the activities of the Fuel Research Institute (on beneficiation, briquetting, carbonization, fluidized bed combustion), Sasol's production of chemical feedstocks from coal, mining methods, and the coal requirements of the electric and chemical industries.

  4. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  5. Robotics and automation activities in South Africa

    Utete, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Second in the series of articles focusing on the state of robotics and automation in the BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, this article provides an overview on South Africa written by researchers from the Council...

  6. The Black Journalist in South Africa.

    Hachten, William A.

    The role of the black journalist in South Africa is contradictory, precarious, and permeated with politics. There is little freedom of expression for blacks in South Africa, yet white-owned newspapers have expanded their coverage of black news, and some have special editions for black readers. As a result, the English language press is using more…

  7. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  8. South Africa's transformational approach to global governance ...

    One goal was to transform structures and institutions of global governance while another aim was to place developmental goals on the global agenda. As South Africa targeted UN agencies, notably the Security Council, the IMF, World Bank, WTO and more recently the G20, the curious question begs: will South Africa ...

  9. R-HPDC in South Africa

    Curle, A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenomena 2013/ Vol. 192-193, pp 3-15 R-HPDC in South Africa CURLE Ulyate A.a, MÖLLER Heinrichb and GOVENDER Gonasagrenc Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Pretoria, South Africa a ucurle...

  10. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-08-01

    Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism. Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education. Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region. Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting South Africa.

  11. African Journals Online: South Africa

    Items 1 - 50 of 96 ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... confirmation of previous findings, application of new teaching/coaching techniques and research notes. ... Manuscripts are considered for publication in AJPHES based on the .... that affect forage production of rangelands and pastures in Africa.

  12. Opportunities for technology-based HIV prevention programming among high school students in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Ybarra, Michele L; Mwaba, Kelvin; Prescott, Tonya L; Roman, Nicolette V; Rooi, Bronwyn; Bull, Sheana

    2014-01-01

    One in three new cases of HIV in South Africa is among adolescents. Given that adolescents are particularly affected, scalable, and cost-effective prevention programs are urgently needed. This study aims to identify opportunities to integrate technology into youth HIV prevention efforts. In 2012, 1107 8th-11th graders completed a paper-and-pencil survey. Respondents were enrolled in one of three public high schools in Langa, a lower income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Eighty-nine percent of respondents have used text messaging (SMS) and 86% have gone online. If an HIV prevention program was offered online, 66% of youth would be somewhat or extremely likely to access it; slightly fewer (55%) felt the same about SMS-based programming. In comparison, 85% said they would be somewhat or extremely likely to access a school-based HIV prevention program. Interest in Internet- (60%) and SMS-based (54%) HIV prevention programming was similar for youth who had a self-appraised risk of HIV compared to youth who appraised their risk to be lower, as it was for youth who were tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention. Technology use is common - even among high school students who live in lower income communities. At the same time, these data reveal that it is not uncommon for youth to be tired of hearing messages about HIV prevention, and many of the typical topics key to HIV prevention have low interest levels among youth. HIV prevention researchers need to be mindful of the extent of existing programming that youth are exposed to. Technology-based programming may be especially amenable to meeting these requirements because of its novelty especially in developing countries, and because interactive functionality can be easily integrated into the program design. Given the preference for school- and Internet-based programming, it seems that a hybrid approach is likely feasible and acceptable.

  13. Livestock greenhouse gas emissions inventory of South Africa

    Lindeque

    The methodology utilized is based on the Australian national greenhouse account's ... dairy industry and calculated from the number of dairy producers per province .... provincial basis were sourced from Statistics South Africa (Stats SA), the ...

  14. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    Sujet: INTERNATIONAL FINANCE, INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL MARKET, FINANCIAL POLICY, DEMOGRAPHY, DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE, DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION. Région: Americas, Brazil, South America, Asia, China, Far East Asia, India, South and Central Asia, Global, Africa, South Africa, South of Sahara.

  15. CIVIL JUSTICE IN SOUTH AFRICA

    D. Van Loggerenberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African adversarial system of civil procedure in the High Court owes its origin to that of England. As with all civil procedural systems, the South African system is not stagnant. Its primary sources, namely Acts of Parliament and rules of court, are constantly amended in an attempt to meet the changing needs of society. Court delay and costinefficient procedural mechanisms, however, contribute to public dismay. The High Court, in the exercise of its inherent power to regulate its process, do so with the purpose of enhancing access to justice. The advantage of the system lies in the fact that it is not cast in stone but could, subject to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996, be developed to make it more accessible to the public whilst protecting the public’s fundamental rights entrenched in the Constitution and, in this regard, particularly the right to afair trial embedded in sec. 34 of the Constitution. This contribution gives an overview of the system with reference to the court structure, the judiciary, the process in the High Court and its underlying principles, appeals, class actions and alternative civil dispute resolution mechanisms.

  16. Pinus saw timber tree optimisation in South Africa: a comparison of ...

    Both Cut to Length (CTL) and Full Tree/Tree Length (FT/TL) ground-based systems are used to harvest pine in South Africa. The fully mechanised CTL system is the most recently introduced system in South Africa. One of the reasons for the limited use of CTL harvesting systems in South Africa is the perceived inability of the ...

  17. Client characteristics and acceptability of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention in rural South Africa

    Naik Reshma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV counselling and testing (HCT is a critical gateway for addressing HIV prevention and linking people to treatment, care, and support. Since national testing rates are often less than optimal, there is growing interest in expanding testing coverage through the implementation of innovative models such as home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT. With the aim of informing scale up, this paper discusses client characteristics and acceptability of an HBHCT intervention implemented in rural South Africa. Methods Trained lay counsellors offered door-to-door rapid HIV testing in a rural sub-district of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Household and client data were captured on cellular phones and transmitted to a web-based data management system. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to examine client characteristics, testing history, HBHCT uptake, and reasons for refusal. Chi-square tests were performed to assess the association between client characteristics and uptake. Results Lay counsellors visited 3,328 households and tested 75% (5,086 of the 6,757 people met. The majority of testers (73.7% were female, and 57% had never previously tested. With regard to marital status, 1,916 (37.7%, 2,123 (41.7%, and 818 (16.1% were single, married, and widowed, respectively. Testers ranged in age from 14 to 98 years, with a median of 37 years. Two hundred and twenty-nine couples received couples counselling and testing; 87.8%, 4.8%, and 7.4% were concordant negative, concordant positive, and discordant, respectively. There were significant differences in characteristics between testers and non-testers as well as between male and female testers. The most common reasons for not testing were: not being ready/feeling scared/needing to think about it (34.1%; knowing his/her status (22.6%, being HIV-positive (18.5%, and not feeling at risk of having or acquiring HIV (10.1%. The distribution of reasons for refusal differed significantly by gender

  18. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It is examined, how Zulu linguistic culture is regarded a resource in the isiZulu-speaking community and as one of the most salient tools of in-group identification in the larger contemporary South African society. Zulu people’s culture is profoundly language-embedded and Zulu linguistic culture often based on essentialism.

  19. The uranium industry of South Africa

    McLean, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper was originally published in 1954 and is reproduced in this centenary issue of the journal of the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. South Africa's economy was (and is) based on mining. The early history of the uranium mining industry (until 1954) is discussed in detail, together with its status and economy. The first quantitative assessment of the uranium potential of the Witwatersrand goldfield was made in 1945 when it was reported that South Africa had one of the largest low-grade uranium fields in the world. The first metallurgical plants brought considerable benefit to the area. The process of uranium extraction was basically similar to that employed in the recovery of gold. It could be divided into the same three main headings: agitation, filtration and precipitation. It was predicted that the program, in full swing, would possibly consume as much as 20,000 tons of manganese ore a month, as the extraction process requires dioxide. It was for this reason that manganese recovery plants have been incorporated in the process. Other materials that were to be used in large quantities were lime, limestone, animal glue and water. Considering the increasing importance of uranium in the economy of the country, the question of secrecy was becoming a problem. At that time the demand for South African uranium was guaranteed by a ten-year agreement with the British and American authorities. 3 figs

  20. Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) and Africa ...

    This article reflects on the dynamics of the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) states' political economy and its implications for Africa's continuous effort to search for new developmental paradigms. The core questions addressed in the article are: What are the BRICS states specifically proposing to the ...

  1. Multiple daytime nucleation events in semi-clean savannah and industrial environments in South Africa: analysis based on observations

    A. Hirsikko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown very high frequencies of atmospheric new particle formation in different environments in South Africa. Our aim here was to investigate the causes for two or three consecutive daytime nucleation events, followed by subsequent particle growth during the same day. We analysed 108 and 31 such days observed in a polluted industrial and moderately polluted rural environments, respectively, in South Africa. The analysis was based on two years of measurements at each site. After rejecting the days having notable changes in the air mass origin or local wind direction, i.e. two major reasons for observed multiple nucleation events, we were able to investigate other factors causing this phenomenon. Clouds were present during, or in between most of the analysed multiple particle formation events. Therefore, some of these events may have been single events, interrupted somehow by the presence of clouds. From further analysis, we propose that the first nucleation and growth event of the day was often associated with the mixing of a residual air layer rich in SO2 (oxidized to sulphuric acid into the shallow surface-coupled layer. The second nucleation and growth event of the day usually started before midday and was sometimes associated with renewed SO2 emissions from industrial origin. However, it was also evident that vapours other than sulphuric acid were required for the particle growth during both events. This was especially the case when two simultaneously growing particle modes were observed. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the relative contributions of estimated H2SO4 and other vapours on the first and second nucleation and growth events of the day varied from day to day, depending on anthropogenic and natural emissions, as well as atmospheric conditions.

  2. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weighted Enumeration Area for the selected communities, 366 households were chosen and interviewed. Data analysis involved computing frequencies and conducting the Chi-square, binomial tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The respondents identified erratic rainfall, extreme temperature, extreme drought and flooding as key climatic events in their community. But not all identified key climatic events were perceived to constitute risk to forest products and forest-based livelihood. Only extreme drought was indicated to constitute risk to availability of forest products. In addition, the binary logistic regression showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the perceived risk of climate change to the availability of essential forest products across the three municipalities. Hence the need for forest development initiatives that target vulnerable forest products per community as a means of enhancing resilience of forest-based livelihood to climate change impacts in rural community development in South Africa.

  3. The Military of the New South Africa

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South...... African Defence Force (SADF) during the apartheid era. The transition to peacemaker has imposed constraints on the use of force and required fundamental changes to the way military force is employed. South Africa’s transition has therefore transformed the international role of the SANDF. The destabilizing....... Introduction – Setting the Scene Chapter 2. Foreign Policy and Military Power in South Africa – framing the debate on RSA foreign policy in relation to Africa, Chapter 3. South Africa and the Concept of National Security Chapter 4. The SANDF: Capacity and Capabilities Chapter 5. Sorry Mr. Chairman, can we stop...

  4. Prostate Cancer in South Africa: Pathology Based National Cancer Registry Data (1986–2006 and Mortality Rates (1997–2009

    Chantal Babb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986–2006 and data on mortality (1997–2009 from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma. There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  5. Prostate cancer in South Africa: pathology based national cancer registry data (1986-2006) and mortality rates (1997-2009).

    Babb, Chantal; Urban, Margaret; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kellett, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common male cancers globally; however little is known about prostate cancer in Africa. Incidence data for prostate cancer in South Africa (SA) from the pathology based National Cancer Registry (1986-2006) and data on mortality (1997-2009) from Statistics SA were analysed. World standard population denominators were used to calculate age specific incidence and mortality rates (ASIR and ASMR) using the direct method. Prostate cancer was the most common male cancer in all SA population groups (excluding basal cell carcinoma). There are large disparities in the ASIR between black, white, coloured, and Asian/Indian populations: 19, 65, 46, and 19 per 100 000, respectively, and ASMR was 11, 7, 52, and 6 per 100 000, respectively. Prostate cancer was the second leading cause of cancer death, accounting for around 13% of male deaths from a cancer. The average age at diagnosis was 68 years and 74 years at death. For SA the ASIR increased from 16.8 in 1986 to 30.8 in 2006, while the ASMR increased from 12.3 in 1997 to 16.7 in 2009. There has been a steady increase of incidence and mortality from prostate cancer in SA.

  6. Using mobile phones and social media to facilitate education and support for rural-based midwives in South Africa.

    Chipps, Jennifer; Pimmer, Christoph; Brysiewicz, Petra; Walters, Fiona; Linxen, Sebastian; Ndebele, Thandi; Gröhbiel, Urs

    2015-12-14

    Empirical studies show the value of mobile phones as effective educational tools to support learning in the nursing profession, predominantly in high income countries. The rapidly increasing prevalence of mobile phone technology in Africa nourishes hopes that these tools could be equally effective in lowly resourced contexts, specifically in efforts to achieve the health-related Millennium Development goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and use of mobile phones as educational and professional tools by nurses in lowly resourced settings. A quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted of rural advanced midwives. Fifty-six nurses (49.6%) from the 113 rural-based midwives attending an advanced midwifery training programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled in a questionnaire. The results showed that, whilst nurses regarded their technology competences as low and although they received very little official support from their educational and professional institutions, the majority frequently used mobile functions and applications to support their work and learning processes. They perceived mobile devices with their voice, text, and email functions as important tools for the educational and professional activities of searching for information and engaging with facilitators and peers from work and study contexts. To a lesser extent, the use of social networks, such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were also reported. It is concluded that educational institutions should support the appropriate use of mobile phones more systematically; particularly in relation to the development of mobile network literacy skills.

  7. Implementation and testing of WELD and automatic spectral rule-based classifications for Landsat ETM+ in South Africa

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD) system was successfully installed in South Africa (SA) and used for pre-processing large amounts of Landsat ETM+ data to composited seasonal mosaics. In pursuit of automated land cover mapping, the overall...

  8. Predicting the distribution of Endophyllum osteospermi (Uredinales, Pucciniaceae) in Australia based on its climatic requirements and distribution in South Africa

    Wood, A.R.; Crous, P.W.; Lennox, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    The perennial bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera (Asteraceae) is infected by the autoecious, microcyclic rust fungus Endophyllum osteospermi. Both organisms are native to South Africa, whilst the plant has also become naturalised in Australia where it is the target of a biological

  9. Initiative to introduce a performance-based standards (PBS) approach for heavy vehicle design and operations in South Africa

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of PBS for heavy vehicles in South Africa was first identified in the National Overload Control Strategy as a potential concession of a proposed Self-regulation initiative. In August 2004 a PBS committee was established...

  10. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  11. Molecular diagnostics of Rickettsia africae infection in travelers returning from South Africa to The Netherlands

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; Groen, Emilie J.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Vries, Peter J.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Tijsse-Klasen, Ellen; Sprong, Hein; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is frequently diagnosed in The Netherlands in travelers returning from South Africa. It is caused by Rickettsia africae and diagnosis is based on travel history and clinical presentation and usually confirmed by detecting serum antibodies against rickettsiae of the

  12. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  13. Expanding the suite of measures of gender-based discrimination: gender differences in ablution facilities in South Africa

    Renier Steyn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws all advocate the equal treatment of men and women, but claims of gender-based discrimination continue. Indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that there have been considerable gains in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, specific and concrete method of describing and detecting discrimination is presented, namely the difference in the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13, with women receiving fewer service facilities than men. These results suggest that, despite progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action in South Africa, local women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, visible level. The effectiveness of the measurement tool is also discussed.

  14. Of elephants and men : politics and nature conservation in South Africa

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1994-01-01

    South Africa's policy of destabilisation of neighbouring countries was closely associated with the rise of South Africa as a leading middleman in the international ivory trade. South African-based traders, acting in partnership or with protection from officers of the South African Military

  15. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  16. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    available were pooled according to health regions and related to population ... Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron. Machine energy beam. Tvl .... Remote afrerloading brachytherapy devices have developed ...

  17. Schizophrenia among Sesotho speakers in South Africa

    2Department of Psychology, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Abstract .... cognitive functioning could be influenced by the type of housing.26 ..... Weisman AG, Lopez SR, Ventura J, Nuechterlein KH, Goldstein MJ,.

  18. Solid wastes research in South Africa

    Noble, RG

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of solid wastes management in environmental pollution control cannot be over-emphasised. Increased socio-economic development in South Africa has brought with it increasing volumes of urban, industrial and agricultural wastes...

  19. Future wind deployment scenarios for South Africa

    Wright, Jarrad G

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available understood wind (and solar) resource in South Africa combined with large geographical land-area and technology cost reductions globally and domestically for wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) has made these technologies more than competitive with alternatives...

  20. RETAINING PROFESSIONAL NURSES IN SOUTH AFRICA: NURSE ...

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... were vacant throughout South Africa (Health Systems Trust 2008). The provinces with the highest ... monetary rewards), the manager or supervisor (enhancing ... theory is one of nurse retention and not motivation. The shape.

  1. Environmental research perspectives in South Africa

    Ecosystem Programmes

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Programme for Environmental Sciences is a cooperative undertaking of scientists and scientific institutions in South Africa concerned with research related to environmental problems. This annual report describes the rationale, approach...

  2. Memory of Lithuania in South Africa

    Paulauskienė, Aušra

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania remains a constant in the memory of Jews of the world. Lithuania is remembered in English literature of South Africa of the second half of the 20th century, especially in works by Rose Zwi and Dan Jacobson. Lithuania is still remembered in the South Africa not only because of nostalgic feelings Lithuanian Jews of this country have. After the truth about the Jewish community destroyed in Lithuania, descendants of immigrants felt guilt because of their privileged position in the commu...

  3. National infrastructure maintenance strategy for South Africa

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2009 WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND MULTISECTORAL APPROACHES A National Infrastructure Maintenance Strategy for South Africa Kevin Wall, South Africa [OFFICE USE ONLY: REVIEWED...; − effects on human health and economic growth; − lack of effective countermeasures in the event of failure of the service; and − the risk generally to government's growth objectives. Wastewater treatment works are often problematic, as are water...

  4. South Africa: The Good International Nuclear Citizen?

    Maitre, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Since South Africa destroyed its nuclear arsenal, it has claimed the status of 'good international nuclear citizen', a position confirmed by its engagement in the nonproliferation regime. Pretoria plays a bridge-building role between states with and without nuclear weapons as well as in instances of proliferation. Recent changes have raised doubts around its position, a movement which could threaten South Africa's nuclear diplomacy

  5. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  6. Rural development update for South Africa

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  7. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Martha Geiger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  8. Exploring writing institutes for teachers in South Africa | Dippenaar ...

    Several thousand teachers in the US participate each year in these invitational summer institutes, which are based on the NWP's model of teachers teaching teachers. The US Embassy's Regional English Language Office in South Africa collaborated with directors of writing projects in the United States, and South Africans ...

  9. NIASA: Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa

    Mollard, P.; Louf, P.H.; Gentet, G.; Doix, G.

    2015-01-01

    NIASA (Nuclear Industry Association of South Africa) aims at promoting the highest standards in the development and use of nuclear technologies. NIASA was founded in 2007. South-Africa has a long history in nuclear activity since the construction of the first nuclear power plant ever built on African soil was commissioned in 1984 in South-Africa (Koeberg plant equipped with two 900 MW reactors). There is also an important center for nuclear research near Pretoria that was founded in 1948 to regulate the prospecting for uranium. NECSA (South African Nuclear Energy Corporation is a state-owned public company) that manages nuclear research, operates the Safari-1 (2 MWe - commissioned in 1965) research reactor and manages the national radioactive waste center located at Vaalputs. The South African nuclear industry employs about 4000 people. (A.C.)

  10. Water security at local government level in South Africa: a qualitative interview-based analysis

    Meissner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available understanding of water security exists. The aim of this study was to research, using qualitative social scientific methods, how people in two South African localities understand water security....

  11. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  12. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  13. Radiology and the law in South Africa

    Muller, C.J.B.

    1978-01-01

    In terms of regulations gazetted in 1973, the Department of Health has control of the practice of medical radiology in South Africa. The regulations and the rules of the South African Medical and Dental Council that apply to radiology are discussed, and the legal position of workers is noted

  14. Court supervised institutional transformation in South Africa ...

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions ...

  15. Bibliography on marine pollution in South Africa

    Darracott, DA

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The South African Committee in Oceanographic Research (SANCOR) has been requested to compile a comprehensive bibliography on marine biology in South Africa. It is hoped that it will appear in 1977. SANCOR has made funds available on its 1976 budget...

  16. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  17. Using mobile phones and social media to facilitate education and support for rural-based midwives in South Africa

    Jennifer Chipps

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical studies show the value of mobile phones as effective educational tools to support learning in the nursing profession, predominantly in high income countries. Problem statement: The rapidly increasing prevalence of mobile phone technology in Africa nourishes hopes that these tools could be equally effective in lowly resourced contexts, specifically in efforts to achieve the health-related Millennium Development goals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception and use of mobile phones as educational and professional tools by nurses in lowly resourced settings. Methodology: A quantitative survey using self-administered questionnaires was conducted of rural advanced midwives. Results: Fifty-six nurses (49.6% from the 113 rural-based midwives attending an advanced midwifery training programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, filled in a questionnaire. The results showed that, whilst nurses regarded their technology competences as low and although they received very little official support from their educational and professional institutions, the majority frequently used mobile functions and applications to support their work and learning processes. They perceived mobile devices with their voice, text, and email functions as important tools for the educational and professional activities of searching for information and engaging with facilitators and peers from work and study contexts. To a lesser extent, the use of social networks, such as WhatsApp and Facebook, were also reported. Conclusion and recommendation: It is concluded that educational institutions should support the appropriate use of mobile phones more systematically; particularly in relation to the development of mobile network literacy skills.

  18. Effectiveness of community-based support for pregnant women living with HIV: a cohort study in South Africa.

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation in HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains inadequate, and there is a severe shortage of professional healthcare workers in the region. The effectiveness of community support programmes for HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants in SSA is unclear. This study compared initiation of maternal antiretrovirals and infant outcomes amongst HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants who received and did not receive community-based support (CBS) in a high HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa. A cohort study, including HIV-infected pregnant women and their infants, was conducted at three sentinel surveillance facilities between January 2009 and June 2012, utilising enhanced routine clinical data. Through home visits, CBS workers encouraged uptake of interventions in the ART cascade, provided HIV-related education, ART initiation counselling and psychosocial support. Outcomes were compared using Kaplan-Meier analyses and multivariable Cox and log-binomial regression. Amongst 1105 mother-infant pairs included, 264 (23.9%) received CBS. Amongst women eligible to start ART antenatally, women who received CBS had a reduced risk of not initiating antenatal ART, 5.4% vs. 30.3%; adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.44; P Pregnant women living with HIV who received CBS had improved antenatal triple ART initiation in eligible women, women initiated ART and ZDV with shorter delays, and had a lower risk of stillbirth. CBS is an intervention that shows promise in improving maternal and infant health in high HIV-prevalence settings.

  19. Journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa

    Ruth Hoskins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on part of a survey that investigated journal cancellations in university libraries in South Africa. A study population consisting of 17 university libraries in South Africa was surveyed by means of an online questionnaire to establish the factors that influenced journal cancellations. Interpretation of the results revealed that South African university libraries, like most academic and research libraries world wide, have been adversely affected by high priced journal subscriptions and many libraries have simply cancelled subscriptions to pay for ongoing subscriptions. Recommendations are made about enhancing library budgets and access to usage statistics, supporting consortia and avoiding restrictive journal packages.

  20. A short-range weather prediction system for South Africa based on a ...

    The accurate prediction of rainfall events, in terms of their timing, location and rainfall depth, is important to a wide range of social and economic applications. At many operational weather prediction centres, as is also the case at the South African Weather Service, forecasters use deterministic model outputs as guidance to ...

  1. A performance-based standards regime to regulate car-carriers in South Africa

    De Saxe, CC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, South African car-carriers operated under the abnormal load permit system allowing an additional 300 mm height and 500 mm length. Because car-carrier payloads are divisible and abnormal load permits are usually granted...

  2. Liquid-based cervical cytology in the United Kingdom and South Africa

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... lower than they had been 30 years earlier. It is the National ... Around 21% of South African women are thought to carry human papilloma virus. (HPV),4 which is .... that increased capital costs of £50 000 and consumables ...

  3. A GIS-based approach for identifying potential runoff harvesting sites in the Thukela River basin, South Africa

    de Winnaar, G.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Horan, M.

    Water scarce countries such as South Africa are subject to various hydrological constraints which can often be attributed to poor rainfall partitioning, particularly within resource poor farming communities that are reliant on rainfed agriculture. Recent initiatives to address this have shifted focus to explore more efficient alternatives to water supply and the recognition of numerous opportunities to implement runoff harvesting as a means to supplement water availability. However, increasing the implementation of runoff harvesting, without encountering unintended impacts on downstream hydrological and ecological systems, requires better understanding of the hydrologic and environmental impacts at catchment scale. In this paper the representation of spatial variations in landscape characteristics such as soil, land use, rainfall and slope information is shown to be an important step in identifying potential runoff harvesting sites, after which modelling the hydrological response in catchments where extensive runoff harvesting is being considered can be performed and likely impacts assessed. Geographic information systems (GIS) was utilised as an integrating tool to store, analyse and manage spatial information and when linked to hydrological response models, provided a rational means to facilitate decision making by providing catchment level identification, planning and assessment of runoff harvesting sites as illustrated by a case study at the Potshini catchment, a small sub-catchment in the Thukela River basin, South Africa. Through the linked GIS, potential runoff harvesting sites are identified relative to areas that concentrate runoff and where the stored water will be appropriately distributed. Based on GIS analysis it was found that 17% percent of the Potshini catchment area has a high potential for generating surface runoff, whereas an analysis of all factors which influence the location of such systems, shows that 18% is highly suitable for runoff

  4. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  5. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  6. Advantages and pitfalls of South Africa-Angola strategic alliances

    A. J. Vogel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Owing to a shortage of South African research focusing on international strategic alliances, this study aimed to determine whether the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances referred to in international business publications are also applicable to South African international strategic alliances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This was a formal, empirical study that targeted the 163 South African enterprises which were members of the South African-Angolan Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and 2006. Findings: The results identified joint ventures as the most prominent mode of entry when expanding into developing countries and, with few exceptions, the findings support the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances identified in other international publications. Value of the research: A great deal of international management research over the years has been focused on the importance of strategic alliances as a mode of entry, as well as on the pitfalls experienced by alliance partners, particularly in developed countries. However, the lack of such research in Africa in general and South Africa in particular means that South African enterprises must base their entry mode selection on non-South African research findings, and although this sample size was small, the lack of other Africa-specific research makes this research significant. Implications: With South Africa being the largest source of FDI into the rest of Africa, the findings of this paper show that South African enterprises can attain the advantages associated with international strategic alliances when using this mode of entry into Africa. In terms of pitfalls, the findings highlight the need for multinational enterprises to pay specific attention to the role of governments when forming strategic alliances.

  7. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa | Steyn | South ...

    Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...

  8. Public attitudes to organ donation in South Africa | Pike | South ...

    Public attitudes to organ donation may be influenced by cultural beliefs as well as racial prejudices and superstitions. In South Africa we are able to examine these issues from both a Firstand a Third-World perspective. In this study the attitudes of 1 299 urban white, 625 rural black and 826 urban black South Africans were ...

  9. Value-based management for small and medium enterprises in South Africa / John Diederik Beneke

    Beneke, John Diederik

    2014-01-01

    The new millennium is the time for entrepreneurship both nationally and internationally because the new millennium has many opportunities, afforded by technology and global communications, as it is filled with challenges and uncertainty. The South African government has identified the important role small- and medium-sized enterprises have to play in employment creation. The first step towards economic development is creating new businesses; the second step is ensuring sustainability through ...

  10. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Du Plessis, T.A.; Stevens, R.C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)

  11. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Du Plessis, T A; Stevens, R C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs.

  12. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Storbeck, Claudine

    2015-01-01

    Background With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014) in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority and extends beyond the

  13. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  14. Promises of protection? Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and gender-based violence in South Africa.

    Combrinck, Helene

    Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) guarantees persons with disabilities freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse. This article explores the current status of implementation of article 16 in South Africa, with specific reference to the legislative framework underpinning protection from exploitation, violence and abuse. This investigation is done specifically in the context of gender-based violence, which remains a cause of great concern in this country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  16. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO{sub 2} free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible

  17. AREVA in the Republic of South Africa

    2007-01-01

    South Africa opted to develop its electricity production sector in a safe and competitive manner using CO 2 free technologies in order to support its economic and social growth. The country's ambitious energy program aims to create a lasting nuclear sector generating 20 GW of electricity by 2025 mainly from super modern water reactors and PBMRs. South Africa wishes to become a world player in the nuclear energy field, thus reinforcing its position as one of the major world producers of energy. In the strategic plan for the development of a national nuclear policy unveiled in July 2007, the government's objective is to create the suitable conditions for a nuclear industry based on the most modern technologies and promote an ambitious new builds construction program. By 2030, nuclear energy should provide 30% of electricity in South Africa, from a fleet of PWRs and PBMRs. In 2007, ESKOM's Board of Directors approved a plan to re-launch the construction of electrical plants in South Africa, to reach around 80 GW by 2025 and including the construction of an additional 20 GW of nuclear-based capacity. This nuclear revival program provides for the construction of PWR nuclear power plant generating a total of 3 GWe to 3,5 GWe, to go online as of 2016, and the consideration of a fleet of PWR power plants up to 20,000 MWe in total to gradually go on line through 2025. Five sites have already been identified for the new power stations and the nuclear company to build the power plants will be selected in 2008. AREVA's Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) and Westinghouse's AP 1000 have been pre-selected. The Government aims to achieve the objective of encourage the participation of Public entities such as the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA) in the uranium value chain. Such public entities shall be used to store the secured uranium supplies, as well as participate in the local beneficiation. NECSA, as the state's body responsible for research and development in

  18. African Journals Online: South Africa

    Items 51 - 96 of 96 ... (2) “Hospitality Management Education” is devoted to articles about ... More information for this journal can be found here. ... Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to ...

  19. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  20. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  1. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals. ... The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  2. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  3. Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa

    Bosilong, KP

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...

  4. Criminality or monopoly? Informal immigration enforcement in South Africa

    Vigneswaran, D.; Araia, T.; Hoag, C.; Tshabalala, X.

    2010-01-01

    Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants' claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped

  5. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals: India vs South Africa

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Puri, Amarender Singh; Reddy, Duvvur Nageshwar

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa, nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction, safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression, creating more specialist trainees in public and private hospitals and shortening the period of professional training are potential solutions to the problem. India, which has a population of more than 1 billion people, is struggling with similar problems. For the past 10-15 years, private hospitals have assisted in manpower development for medical specialist and subspecialist careers. Currently their private sector trains 60% of their recognised (sub)specialities fellows. A national task force for specialist training in RSA should be instituted. It should discuss, based on the current status and projected specialist and subspecialist personnel requirements, the future structure and logistics of training needs. This is required in all subspecialities including gastroenterology, as has been done in India. It is hoped that as a consequence well-trained doctors, similar to those in India, might move to provincial hospitals in rural areas, upgrading the medical services and keeping medical power in South Africa. South Africa should become a model for Sub-Saharan Africa, as India already is for South-East Asia. PMID:20180232

  6. Uranium enrichment in South Africa

    Roux, A.J.A.; Grant, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that the South African process is of an aerodynamic type, the separating element being in effect a high performance stationary-walled centrifuge using UF 6 in hydrogen as process fluid. Some details of the very low uranium inventory and high separation factor achievable are given. A new cascade technique is described, based on the principle that an axial flow compressor can simultaneously transmit several streams of different isotopic composition without there being significant mixing between them. The research and development programme is discussed. It is expected that an enrichment plant of 5000 t/a SW capacity, with provision for expansion up to 10,000 t/a SW capacity, will come into operation by 1984. (U.K.)

  7. Health promotion capacity building in South Africa.

    Wills, Jane; Rudolph, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Health promotion in South Africa is in its early stages and while there is some institutional development and capacity building for managers, there has been relative disregard and lack of attention of the wider health promotion workforce who carry out community-based health promotion activities. This article describes one regional education and training programme for health promoters as well as the limited available evidence on the impact of the project on learners and organizations. Marked differences before and after the implementation of the training activities were reported in relation to behaviour change communication and project planning, in addition to self-reported positive change in knowledge, confidence and a high level of participant satisfaction. Investment in individual skills development needs to be accompanied by wider workforce development with organizational/institutional development and recognised competencies frameworks.

  8. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  9. Linguistic Culture and Essentialism in South Africa

    Stephanie Rudwick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores how language and culture are intertwined and often regarded as “invariable fixed properties” in contemporary South Africa by focusing on one particular indigenous African language group, i.e. isiZulu-speakers. Drawing from general theoretical sociolinguistic approaches to language and culture and considering South Africa’s socio-political history, the paper demonstrates the significance and saliency of Zulu linguistic culture to Zulu people in the post-apartheid state. It ...

  10. Introduction to South Africa's safety classification

    Kang, Kyung Jun; Wu, Sang Ik; Yoon, Juh Yeon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The safety functions of nuclear reactor facilities such as research reactors have to be maintained for all initiating events, incidents and accidents. From the position of licensee, it is a very important issue and design challenge to meet the licensing requirements for the final goal of proper safety functions from nuclear regulator. This paper intends to introduce and understand South Africa's licensing requirements and processing for safety classification of SSCs. South Africa's licensing requirements are shown in Table 1. Three categories A, B and C are categorized based on the occurrence frequency and the dose limitation of worker and public exposure. The Defense in Depth (DiD) and ALARA principle are forced to apply to a nuclear reactor facility design. Also, South Africa's safety and quality class compare with that of ANSI 51.1.

  11. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa......, that recognized the injustices of the past and would be built on fundamental human rights and justice for all no matter their race, ethnicity, or economic power. South Africa has moved a long way in developing a democratic society. The emergence of this book is the result of a collaborative effort of people...... with diverse cultural, social and ethnic roots, who share a common belief in the development of a just and equal society, and who share a specific interest in developing schools as a fundamental element in developing this equal and just society....

  12. Productivity losses due to premature mortality from cancer in Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS): A population-based comparison.

    Pearce, Alison; Sharp, Linda; Hanly, Paul; Barchuk, Anton; Bray, Freddie; de Camargo Cancela, Marianna; Gupta, Prakash; Meheus, Filip; Qiao, You-Lin; Sitas, Freddy; Wang, Shao-Ming; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2018-04-01

    Over two-thirds of the world's cancer deaths occur in economically developing countries; however, the societal costs of cancer have rarely been assessed in these settings. Our aim was to estimate the value of productivity lost in 2012 due to cancer-related premature mortality in the major developing economies of Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa (BRICS). We applied an incidence-based method using the human capital approach. We used annual adult cancer deaths from GLOBOCAN2012 to estimate the years of productive life lost between cancer death and pensionable age in each country, valued using national and international data for wages, and workforce statistics. Sensitivity analyses examined various methodological assumptions. The total cost of lost productivity due to premature cancer mortality in the BRICS countries in 2012 was $46·3 billion, representing 0·33% of their combined gross domestic product. The largest total productivity loss was in China ($28 billion), while South Africa had the highest cost per cancer death ($101,000). Total productivity losses were greatest for lung cancer in Brazil, the Russian Federation and South Africa; liver cancer in China; and lip and oral cavity cancers in India. Locally-tailored strategies are required to reduce the economic burden of cancer in developing economies. Focussing on tobacco control, vaccination programs and cancer screening, combined with access to adequate treatment, could yield significant gains for both public health and economic performance of the BRICS countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Uranium enrichment with lasers - will South Africa lead or lag?

    Du Toit, G.

    1992-01-01

    Over 30 percent of the cost of locally made nuclear fuel in South Africa is associated with increasing the concentration of uranium 235. Cheaper enrichment technologies and, in particular, the decision by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa to concentrate its research efforts on laser techniques are therefore of considerable significance. The laser isotope separation programme in South Africa is reviewed. 1 ill

  14. South Africa in the BRICS: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects1

    This study investigates the participation of South Africa in the BRICS group from an analytical perspective. It is argued that South Africa's membership to this group entails both opportunities and challenges for South Africa, the continent and the system of global governance. We seek to flesh out the potential mediumand ...

  15. Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa ...

    Mother-tongue education or bilingual education for South Africa: theories, pedagogies and sustainability. ... academics and other stakeholders in education in South Africa. There remains a need for a population proficient ... the relationship between theory, approaches and contexts in language development in South Africa.

  16. Open ends: an ethnographic radio montage about post-diagnosis lives in Denmark and South Africa

    Houmøller, Kathrin; Steno, Anne Mia

    This presentation takes the form of a radio montage and presents stories of post-diagnosis lives in Denmark and urban South Africa. Based on ethnographic fieldworks with young people in psychiatric treatment (Denmark) and among hiv-positive people in anti-retroviral therapy (South Africa), the mo......This presentation takes the form of a radio montage and presents stories of post-diagnosis lives in Denmark and urban South Africa. Based on ethnographic fieldworks with young people in psychiatric treatment (Denmark) and among hiv-positive people in anti-retroviral therapy (South Africa...

  17. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  18. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  19. Financial Globalisation and Sectoral Reallocation of Capital in South Africa

    Ziv Chinzara; Radhika Lahiri; En Te chen

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of financial globalisation on intra-sector and inter-sector firm level reallocation of capital in South Africa using panel data for the period 1991-2008. The measure of efficient reallocation of capital is based on the variation of firm's marginal returns to capital around the optimal level, while the measure of financial globalisation is constructed by tracing the financial reforms/restrictions that took place in South Africa since the 1970s. We find that financ...

  20. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  1. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  2. Intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring – exploring application in South Africa

    Labuschagne, FJJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper details the anticipated benefits of an intelligent vehicle based traffic monitoring approach holds. The approach utilises advanced technology with the potential to reduce crashes and includes the monitor of vehicle speeds and flows...

  3. South Africa’s Technology Sector

    2007-08-01

    Somchem’s rocket motor propellant casting pits were destroyed and sealed with concrete .135 In taking this step, South Africa became the only country...principles of restraint, responsibility, and translucence .163 Translucence or semi-transparency is distinct from the more rigorous concept of total

  4. Reflections on educational research in South Africa

    Erna Kinsey

    research in South Africa as (1) a particular mode of social service (with discussion of an ... by an interest in scientific work, and an interest in theatre. The study provided an apt way to ... the general public, and establish professional autonomy (through ... own affairs responsibly and for societal benefit). ..... In this case, the.

  5. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    Spore, E.

    1997-01-01

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-01-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers. (AJ) [de

  7. Haemodialysis and Transplantation Facilities in South Africa

    1974-04-13

    Apr 13, 1974 ... The provIsion of services in South Africa for patients suffering from chronic renal failure is inadequate in terms· of nationai requirements. A survey of the available facili- ties made in July 1973 showed that 14 maintenance haemodialysis centres had a total of 39 dialysing stations capable of treating 143 ...

  8. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); C.W. Spearman

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross

  9. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa

    An international campaign under the leadership of the. World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  10. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of cold fronts over the southern African subcontinent. Over the eastern and central interior of South Africa annual maximum wind gusts are usually caused by thunderstorm gust fronts during summer, while in the western and southern interior extratropical...

  11. Development research in South Africa | IDRC - International ...

    2011-01-11

    Jan 11, 2011 ... IDRC Communications ... It would result, some three years later, in a program of development research support designed expressly to prepare ... In South Africa, post-secondary education is a privilege, and many students currently enrol ... Recent research into decision-making in households has produced ...

  12. mHealth implementation in South Africa

    Botha, Adele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available to incorporate a wide range of Mhealth applications to service the Health System information needs and end user needs. This paper aims to describe the current state of mHealth applications and implementation in South Africa by a review of reported MHealth...

  13. Hilton College Farm School, Natal, South Africa.

    Beveridge, Sue

    1989-01-01

    The Hilton College Farm School is a primary school providing for the educational needs of children in a rural area of Natal, South Africa. Described are the school's historical development, funding sources, staffing, and development of an affiliated pre-primary school. (JDD)

  14. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  15. Progress in food irradiation: South Africa

    Linde, H.J. van der

    1982-11-01

    The report contains irradiation methods for fruit, vegetables, meat and spices in South Africa with the irradiation effect being studied on pathogenic fungi. A large-scale test in super-markets of Johannesburg and Pretoria showed positive acceptance of irradiated potatoes, mangoes, papayas and strawberries by 90% of consumers.

  16. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation, South Africa ...

    Background. Internationally, the development of partnerships between institutions of higher learning and the communities they serve is stressed as a priority. The Umthombo Youth Development Foundation (UYDF) is an educational model developed in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa as a response to the scarcity of ...

  17. Developing the GHG inventory for South Africa

    Taviv, R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a signatory to the UNFCCC and therefore required to share information on, among other things, the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs). DEAT is the national focal point for climate change activities, and is responsible for co...

  18. Hydrometeorological Research in South Africa: A Review

    Christina M. Botai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world are of great concern, as they are closely linked to the wellbeing of humankind. Sophisticated hydrological prediction tools are required to assess climatic and hydrometeorological conditions, as they impact the sustainability of water resources as well as water availability. Research and data collection activities from multi-hydrometeorological sensors (e.g., gauges, radars, satellites form the basis for quantifying the impact of extreme episodes along the hydrologic phases that manifest in terms of the magnitude, duration and frequency of floods, droughts and other hydrometeorological hazards that affect water resources management. A number of hydrometeorological research activities have been reported in the literature by various researchers and research groups globally. This contribution presents (a a review of the hydrometeorology resource landscape in South Africa; (b an analysis of the hydrometeorology services and products in South Africa; (c a review of the hydrometeorological research that has been conducted in South Africa for the last four decades; and (d highlights on some of the challenges facing the sustained advancement of research in hydrometeorology in South Africa.

  19. Emergomyces africanus in Soil, South Africa.

    Schwartz, Ilan S; Lerm, Barbra; Hoving, J Claire; Kenyon, Chris; Horsnell, William G; Basson, W Joan; Otieno-Odhiambo, Patricia; Govender, Nelesh P; Colebunders, Robert; Botha, Alfred

    2018-02-01

    We detected Emergomyces africanus, a thermally dimorphic fungus that causes an HIV-associated systemic mycosis, by PCR in 18 (30%) of 60 soil samples from a wide range of habitats in South Africa. Direct and indirect culture techniques were unsuccessful. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation of conidia induced murine disease.

  20. Homicide-Suicide in Durban, South Africa

    Roberts, Kerry; Wassenaar, Douglas; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Pillay, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated homicide-suicide in Durban, South Africa, for the years 2000 to 2001. The incidence was 0.89 per 100,000, higher than the international average. A majority of perpetrators (91%) and victims (87%) were Black African, proportional to their representation in the population. Perpetrators were typically men (in 95% of cases),…

  1. Foreigners in the defence of South Africa

    South Africa and the rest of the Free World is presently ... during the Anglo-Boer War, many Europeans joined the Boer ... covetous interest, causing the Dutch East India. Company to .... tween the Boers and the British and the first in which the ...

  2. Ending Apartheid in South Africa: Alternative Approaches,

    1986-04-07

    you travel backward in its history, confusion develops. It is believed that it has been inhabited for many thousands of years. Black African tribes ...languages - English and Afrikaans - with several African languages like Zulu , Sotho, Xhosa and Swazi.3 Modern day government in South Africa was founded in...Internal African Organizations ...........................12 External Forces.......................................... 14 V. OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO

  3. National HIV surveillance - South Africa, 1990 - 1992

    that a suitable central unit situated outside of it should ... initially by the World Health Organisation, provision ... clear that for national AIDS surveillance to focus exclu- ... The following were the strata identified: the four ..... distribution and time trend in South Africa. .... pants. The directors and/or heads of the following laborato-.

  4. Evidence-based policy for environmental sustainability: a path forward for South Africa

    Funke, Nicola S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This handbook summarises the background behind, format of and lessons learned from a Collaborative Workshop on Evidence-based Policy-making that was held in November 2008. The workshop was organised by CSIR and funded by the UK's Department of Food...

  5. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  6. A new South Africa: coal exports in transition

    Botha, R.F. [Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs (South Africa)

    1995-11-01

    Discusses aspects of the coal industry in South Africa particularly in the light of the recent political changes i.e. the ending of apartheid and the election of the South African Government of National Unity. Areas covered include: increased foreign investment; the Government`s Reconstruction and Development Programme; improved health and safety; production of coal based liquid fuels; coal reserves; power generation; and exports and terminal facilities.

  7. Task-based factors influencing the successful functioning of copreneurial businesses in South Africa

    Shelley Farrington

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally, evidence exists to suggest that the number of copreneurial businesses or spousal partnerships are on the increase. The primary objectives of this study are to identify the task-based factors influencing the effectiveness of a copreneurial business, to propose a conceptual model based on these factors and to subject the model to empirical testing. The model is empirically tested among copreneurial businesses to assess potential relationships between selected independent variables (shared dream, leadership, personal needs alignment, division of labour, complementary skills, supportive employees, competencies and adequate resources and measures of copreneurial success (perceived success and financial performance. In order to address the primary objective of this study, a questionnaire was administered to a sample of 1548 respondents (spouses in business together of which 380 questionnaires were useable for statistical analysis. The empirical results revealed that apart from division of labour all the other factors investigated exert a significant influence on the successful functioning of copreneurial businesses.

  8. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  9. health services in South Africa

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... Health programming for men who have sex with men (MSM) in South ... and institutionalised stigma within the public healthcare ... reduction services for MSM who use drugs, or ... Screen and address mental health issues.

  10. Gender-based discrimination in South Africa: A quantitative analysis of fairness of remuneration

    Renier Steyn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equity is important to most individuals and its perceived absence  may impact negatively on individual and organisational performance. The concept of equity presupposes fair treatment, while discrimination implies unfair treatment. The perceptions of discrimination, or being treated unfairly, may result from psycho-social processes, or from data that justifies discrimination and is quantifiable. Objectives: To assess whether differences in post grading and remuneration for males and females are based on gender, rather than on quantifiable variables that could justify these differences. Method: Biographical information was gathered from 1740 employees representing 29 organisations. The data collected included self-reported post grading (dependent variable and 14 independent variables, which may predict the employees’ post gradings. The independent variables related primarily to education, tenure and family responsibility. Results: Males reported higher post gradings and higher salaries than those of females, but the difference was not statistically significant and the practical significance of this difference was slight. Qualification types, job specific training, and membership of professional bodies did not affect post grading along gender lines. The ways in which work experience was measured had no influence on post grading or salary for either males or females. Furthermore, family responsibility, union membership and the type of work the employees performed did not influence the employees’ post grading. The only difference found concerned the unfair treatment of males, particularly those who were well-qualified.   Conclusions: Objective evidence of unfair gender-based discrimination affecting post grading and salary is scarce, and the few differences that do occur have little statistical and practical significance. Perceptions of being discriminated against may therefore more often be seen as the result of psycho-social processes and

  11. Black Teenage Pregnancy in South Africa: Some Considerations.

    Cunningham, Peter W.; Boult, Brenda E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts black teenage pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases in South Africa are at threatening levels. Outlines selected consequences based on the assertion that teenage pregnancy is multi-causational. Hypothesizes teenage pregnancy needs reexamination in terms of the pheronomal climate's impact on prepuberial girls; and nature's way of…

  12. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa ...

    Objective. This article aims: (I) to re-examine the use and usefulness of categorisation based on 'race'. ethnicity and 'population group' membership in public heatth research; and (ii) to assess the consequences of using these categories for describing, analysing and redressing disparities in health within South Africa The ...

  13. Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock | Lund | African ...

    Mental Health Services in South Africa: Taking stock. ... This provides an opportunity to take stock of our mental health services. At primary care level key challenges include- training and ... on evaluating interventions. With current policy commitment, the time to act and invest in evidence-based mental health services is now.

  14. A critical look at South Africa's Green Drop Programme

    direct regulation. The programme is based on DWS's realisation that rewarding positive behaviour may be more efficient and effective than sanctioning negative behaviour (Ntombela, 2013). The Green Drop Programme aims to sustainably improve the quality of wastewater management in South Africa by identifying.

  15. Benchmarking leakage from water reticulation systems in South Africa

    driniev

    Abstract. A project to assess the levels of leakage in 30 water utilities throughout South Africa was initiated by the Water ... average operating pressure, systems input volume and the compo- ... simple, user-friendly model that is based on an excel spreadsheet ..... One can see from the four graphs presented here that various.

  16. Neo-Nationalism in Higher Education: Case of South Africa

    Lee, Jenny J.

    2017-01-01

    Given the rise of regional hubs, emerging economies are experiencing international student growth as higher education providers in their respective regions. This study examined the neo-national experiences of international students in South Africa. Neo-nationalism refers to a new nationalism based national order in the new global economy. The…

  17. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...

  18. Children Associate Racial Groups with Wealth: Evidence from South Africa

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.; Weisman, Kara G.

    2012-01-01

    Group-based social hierarchies exist in nearly every society, yet little is known about whether children understand that they exist. The present studies investigated whether 3- to 10-year-old children (N = 84) in South Africa associate higher status racial groups with higher levels of wealth, one indicator of social status. Children matched higher…

  19. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof ...

  20. The distribution of sweetveld and sourveld in South Africa's ...

    The distribution of sweet- and sourveld in relation to climate, parent material and soil nutrients hs been examined in South Africa's grassland biome. Sourveld occurs in areas with high water supply and where parent material gives rise to soils with a high base status. Sweetveld occurs in areas with low water supplyand ...

  1. The Political Economy of Carbon Tax in South Africa | Mbadlanyana ...

    This is why many countries are trying to change environmentally harmful behaviour by introducing market-based mitigation measures such as carbon tax. This article engages with the discourse on the political economy of climate change, with a particular focus on South Africa, with the aim of assessing the viability of ...

  2. Elusive Equity in Doctoral Education in South Africa

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…

  3. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations. Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population. Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  4. Considering barriers to investment in South Africa

    KB Afful

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of South Africa’s economic fundamentals on net direct investment and net portfolio investment. The results suggest that the main determinants of investment in South Africa are resource prices, input productivity and the economic performance of the domestic economy. The results illustrate that net direct investment and net portfolio investment are close but not perfect substitutes. In addition, we find that an increase in labour input costs reduces both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Further, an increase in fixed capital productivity increases net direct investment. Further, also the results illustrate that subsidies increase both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Moreover, an increase in exports increases both net direct investment and net portfolio investment. Policy recommendations are thus proposed that may increase foreign direct investment in South Africa.

  5. Modelling price determination in South Africa

    E Moolman

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been faced with high inflation rates since the early 1970s. Despite continued monetary discipline the inflation target has not yet been met, highlighting South Africa’s price-vulnerability as a small open emerging economy and raising questions about the efficiency of monetary policy. The objectives of this paper are: (i to analyse the influence of monetary policy on inflation in the small open emerging economy of South Africa, (ii to highlight the channels other than monetary policy through which inflation can be influenced (iii to analyse the influence of international prices and the exchange rate on inflation, (iv to determine the role of the labour market on inflation, especially through wage-push dynamics and (v to determine the role of demand-pull factors on inflation.

  6. Tele-education in South Africa.

    Mars, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has an extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low, there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programs. The aims of this study were (i) to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa, (ii) describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N) in South Africa, and (iii) review the development of these programs with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation. A literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made. Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health (DOH). Despite initial attempts by the National DOH, there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N, a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 h of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education. Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource constrained settings. The development of local and

  7. Transnational entrepreneurship in the Global South: evidence from Southern Africa

    Rogerson Jayne M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transnational entrepreneurship is an evolving field of research which occupies an interface between social and regional sciences. The phenomenon of transnational entrepreneurship is driven by entrepreneurs that migrate from one country to another whilst maintaining business-related linkages with their former country of origin and the adopted country. The most critical distinguishing feature of transnational entrepreneurs is bifocality or the ability to function across two different business environments. Most writings on transnational entrepreneurship concentrate on business individuals from the global South operating enterprises in the global North. Absent are empirical studies of the nature and behaviour of transnational migrant entrepreneurs who operate across or between emerging or developing economies. This South-South gap in international research concerning transnational entrepreneurship is addressed in the paper which provides an exploratory analysis of the nature of transnational entrepreneurship occurring in Southern Africa using evidence of Zimbabwean transnational entrepreneurs based in Johannesburg, South Africa.

  8. Psychological capital, a requisite for organisational performance in South Africa

    Yvonne Du Plessis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars argue that to address the social, economic and political challenges facing South Africa since 1994, organisational managers/leaders should adopt a positive approach, based on sound organisational behaviour. This study administered the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ to determine whether human resources practitioners (N=131 as custodians of change and positive behaviour in organisations in South Africa embrace core elements of Positive Organisational Behaviour (POB. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a three-factor model for the PCQ, renamed the Potential South African PsyCap (PSA-PsyCap instrument. All dimensions displayed acceptable reliabilities. Statistically significant differences exist in the POB of demographic groups, relating to age, marital status, home language, seniority and qualifications. This research reveals that South African HR practitioners and managers should fully embrace psychological capital to effectively create caring workplaces taking cognizance of the broader economic and social issues affecting employees and their performance.

  9. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    ... EQUALITY, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, BRAZIL, SOUTH AFRICA, INDIA, Democracy, Gender. Région: Brazil, South America, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of ... SOCIAL INEQUALITY, COOPERATION BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS ... d'examiner les liens de cause à effet entre la faiblesse de l'autorité d'État et ...

  10. Eradication of poliomyelitis in South Africa | Blecher | South African ...

    An international campaign under the leadership of the World Health Organisation is underway to eradicate polio from the world by the year 2000. South Africa may already be free of polio. However, to ensure eradication we need to move from a polio control programme to a polio eradication programme. This necessitates ...

  11. Multiple sclerosis in South Africa | Modi | South African Medical ...

    Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to ...

  12. Book Review:Victimology in South Africa | Hargovan | South African ...

    Title: Victimology in South Africa, Author: Robert Peacock (Editor), Publisher: Van Schaik Publishers, Pages: 221, Price: R359, ISBN: 978-0627030208. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sacq.v47i1.5 · AJOL African ...

  13. Reflections on educational research in South Africa | Kamper | South ...

    A definition of educational research is proposed: Educational research is a particular mode of social service, using rigorous scientific endeavours for the continuous improvement of educational practice. The key ... It is evident that educational research in South Africa has a noteworthy record of national and regional impact.

  14. Assessing ecosystem response to multiple disturbances and climate change in South Africa using ground- and satellite-based measurements and model

    Kutsch, W. L.; Falge, E. M.; Brümmer, C.; Mukwashi, K.; Schmullius, C.; Hüttich, C.; Odipo, V.; Scholes, R. J.; Mudau, A.; Midgley, G.; Stevens, N.; Hickler, T.; Scheiter, S.; Martens, C.; Twine, W.; Iiyambo, T.; Bradshaw, K.; Lück, W.; Lenfers, U.; Thiel-Clemen, T.; du Toit, J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa currently experiences rapidly growing human population, intrinsically tied to substantial changes in land use on shrubland, savanna and mixed woodland ecosystems due to over-exploitation. Significant conversions driving degradation, affecting fire frequency and water availability, and fueling climate change are expected to increase in the immediate future. However, measured data of greenhouse gas emissions as affected by land use change are scarce to entirely lacking from this region. The project 'Adaptive Resilience of Southern African Ecosystems' (ARS AfricaE) conducts research and develops scenarios of ecosystem development under climate change, for management support in conservation or for planning rural area development. This will be achieved by (1) creation of a network of research clusters (paired sites with natural and altered vegetation) along an aridity gradient in South Africa for ground-based micrometeorological in-situ measurements of energy and matter fluxes, (2) linking biogeochemical functions with ecosystem structure, and eco-physiological properties, (3) description of ecosystem disturbance (and recovery) in terms of ecosystem function such as carbon balance components and water use efficiency, (4) set-up of individual-based models to predict ecosystem dynamics under (post) disturbance managements, (5) combination with long-term landscape dynamic information derived from remote sensing and aerial photography, and (6) development of sustainable management strategies for disturbed ecosystems and land use change. Emphasis is given on validation (by a suite of field measurements) of estimates obtained from eddy covariance, model approaches and satellite derivations.

  15. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  16. All projects related to south africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    Topic: EMPLOYMENT POLICY, LABOUR SUPPLY, LABOUR MARKET, SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL SOUTH, COMPETITIVENESS. Region: South of Sahara, Ghana, Madagascar, Tanzania, South Africa. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 717,400.00.

  17. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 6 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    Sujet: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, PATENT LAW, PHARMACEUTICALS, PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, ESSENTIAL DRUGS, ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY. Région: India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, South America, Central Asia, ...

  18. DNA Profiling and the Law in South Africa

    SScheepers

    The aim of this article is to provide the legal community with the necessary ... unit of the Forensic Science Laboratory of the South African Police Service ...... In South Africa, the South African National Accreditation System, SANAS, provides.

  19. Classification of cyber attacks in South Africa

    Van Heerden, R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available various ATM's throughout South Africa. Two criminals, Motsoane and Masoleng, were arrested in February 2012 and both sentenced to 15 years in jail [36, 37]. 3.10 2013: IOL DDoS Anonymous Africa claimed responsibility for launching a Distributed Denial... of Service (DDoS) attack on the Independent Newspaper web site iol.co.za. The attack was in response to claims that the IOL group supports Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe. The following taunt was sent to boast about the attack: “IOL bad boys bad boys...

  20. ENSO forecasts in South Africa

    Landman, WA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The SST prediction systems currently being used at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and the South African Weather Service (SAWS) are presented. In particular, the skill of these systems to predict Niño3.4 SST and how...

  1. Introducing carbon taxes in South Africa

    Alton, Theresa; Arndt, Channing; Davies, Rob; Hartley, Faaiqa; Makrelov, Konstantin; Thurlow, James; Ubogu, Dumebi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO 2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO 2 , constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity

  2. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    Wymer, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  3. Experiences in conducting multiple community-based HIV prevention trials among women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Moodley Jothi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa, with its scientific capacity, good infrastructure and high HIV incidence rates, is ideally positioned to conduct large-scale HIV prevention trials. The HIV Prevention Research Unit of the South African Medical Research Council conducted four phase III and one phase IIb trials of women-initiated HIV prevention options in KwaZulu-Natal between 2003 and 2009. A total of 7046 women participated, with HIV prevalence between 25% and 45% and HIV incidence ranging from 4.5-9.1% per year. Unfortunately none of the interventions tested had any impact on reducing the risk of HIV acquisition; however, extremely valuable experience was gained, lessons learned and capacity built, while the communities gained associated benefits. Experience Our experience in conducting these trials ranged from setting up community partnerships to developing clinical research sites and dissemination of trial results. Community engagement included setting up community-based research sites with approval from both political and traditional leaders, and developing community advisory groups to assist with the research process. Community-wide education on HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention, treatment and care was provided to over 90 000 individuals. Myths and misconceptions were addressed through methods such as anonymous suggestion boxes in clinic waiting areas and intensive education and counselling. Attempts were made to involve male partners to foster support and facilitate recruitment of women. Peer educator programmes were initiated to provide ongoing education and also to facilitate recruitment of women to the trials. Recruitment strategies such as door-to-door recruitment and community group meetings were initiated. Over 90% of women enrolled were retained. Community benefits from the trial included education on HIV prevention, treatment and care and provision of ancillary care (such as Pap smears, reproductive health care and

  4. 13,915 reasons for equity in sexual offences legislation: A national school-based survey in South Africa

    Ho-Foster Ari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Prior to 2007, forced sex with male children in South Africa did not count as rape but as "indecent assault", a much less serious offence. This study sought to document prevalence of male sexual violence among school-going youth. Design A facilitated self-administered questionnaire in nine of the 11 official languages in a stratified (province/metro/urban/rural last stage random national sample. Setting Teams visited 5162 classes in 1191 schools, in October and November 2002. Participants A total of 269,705 learners aged 10–19 years in grades 6–11. Of these, 126,696 were male. Main outcome measures Schoolchildren answered questions about exposure in the last year to insults, beating, unwanted touching and forced sex. They indicated the sex of the perpetrator, and whether this was a family member, a fellow schoolchild, a teacher or another adult. Respondents also gave the age when they first suffered forced sex and when they first had consensual sex. Results Some 9% (weighted value based on 13915/127097 of male respondents aged 11–19 years reported forced sex in the last year. Of those aged 18 years at the time of the survey, 44% (weighted value of 5385/11450 said they had been forced to have sex in their lives and 50% reported consensual sex. Perpetrators were most frequently an adult not from their own family, followed closely in frequency by other schoolchildren. Some 32% said the perpetrator was male, 41% said she was female and 27% said they had been forced to have sex by both male and female perpetrators. Male abuse of schoolboys was more common in rural areas while female perpetration was more an urban phenomenon. Conclusion This study uncovers endemic sexual abuse of male children that was suspected but hitherto only poorly documented. Legal recognition of the criminality of rape of male children is a first step. The next steps include serious investment in supporting male victims of abuse, and in prevention of

  5. GIS-based groundwater vulnerability modelling: A case study of the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld Coalfields in South Africa

    Sakala, E.; Fourie, F.; Gomo, M.; Coetzee, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the popular mineral systems approach has been used successfully for the exploration of various mineral commodities at various scales owing to its scientific soundness, cost effectiveness and simplicity in mapping the critical processes required for the formation of deposits. In the present study this approach was modified for the assessment of groundwater vulnerability. In terms of the modified approach, water drives the pollution migration processes, with various analogies having been derived from the mineral systems approach. The modified approach is illustrated here by the discussion of a case study of acid mine drainage (AMD) pollution in the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields of the Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal Provinces in South Africa. Many AMD cases have been reported in these provinces in recent years and are a cause of concern for local municipalities, mining and environmental agencies. In the Witbank, Ermelo and Highveld coalfields, several areas have been mined out while mining has not yet started in others, hence the need to identify groundwater regions prone to AMD pollution in order to avoid further impacts on the groundwater resources. A knowledge-based fuzzy expert system was built using vulnerability factors (energy sources, ligands sources, pollutant sources, transportation pathways and traps) to generate a groundwater vulnerability model of the coalfields. Highly vulnerable areas were identified in Witbank coalfield and the eastern part of the Ermelo coalfield which are characterised by the presence of AMD sources, good subsurface transport coupled with poor AMD pollution trapping properties. The results from the analysis indicate significant correlations between model values and both groundwater sulphate concentrations as well as pH. This shows that the proposed approach can indeed be used as an alternative to traditional methods of groundwater vulnerability assessment. The methodology only considers the AMD pollution

  6. Insights into site formation at Rose Cottage Cave, South Africa, based on the analysis of sediment peels

    Kloos, Peter; Miller, Christopher E.; Kritikakis, Panagiotis; Wadley, Lyn

    2016-04-01

    Rose Cottage Cave (RCC), in South Africa, has been a key site for explaining the origins of modern human behaviour and movement of early modern humans out of Africa. Nine sediment peels were made previously from the profile sections, preserving original materials that provide a record of cultural and environmental change during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. Here, we present the preliminary results of the study of the RCC sediment peels which aims to investigate site formation processes and the implications for site interpretation. Methods used include micromorphology and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy coupled with detailed observations of the peels. The predominance of geogenic processes is demonstrated by the abundance of silt- and sand-sized quartz grains, which entered the site primarily through a crevice at the back of the cave. RCC lacks rich anthropogenic deposits as noted at other Middle Stone Age sites in southern Africa, but anthropogenic input to the sediment is indicated by the presence of charcoal, burnt bone, lithic fragments, fat-derived char and ashes. Clay coating fragments and chaotic microstructures demonstrate that bioturbation and colluvial reworking homogenised much of the deposit and may explain the absence of preserved bedding and rarity of combustion features. Downward movement of water through the sequence, indicated by clay coatings, is the likely cause for poor bone preservation and near lack of ashes at the site, as well as fluctuations in dose rate that have complicated luminescence dating studies. Evidence for diagenesis at the site is in the form of secondary apatite and gypsum. Sedimentary structures such as channel lag deposits and (silt and sand) laminae observed in peels dating between 60 and 35 ka BP suggest a high-energy sedimentary environment, which experienced flooding events that eroded underlying deposits and deposited large volumes of sediment. This explains why some of the post-Howiesons Poort layers contain

  7. The identification of possible future provincial boundaries for South Africa based on an intramax analysis of journey-to-work data

    JH Nel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available National census data contain information on place of residence and place of work. It is possible to combine this information~and create journey-to-work flows. The process of establishing these flows are presented in this paper. The intramax method is explained and used to identify functional regions based upon these flows. Interesting applications, such as the demarcation of regions in South Africa are considered and solutions to disputed areas are put forward. The process of the creation of the current provincial boundaries are discussed. New boundaries, based on the intramax analysis of the journey-to-work data are proposed for four or five new provinces. Results compare favourably with those from a principal component and cluster analysis, which has previously been used to demarcate the South African space economy into a hierarchy of development regions.

  8. South Africa in African an in the International System

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  9. Application of the critical loads approach in South Africa

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. Abstract. South Africa is the most industrialised country in southern Africa and stands at some risk from negative pollution i apa~ To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first attempt toapply the critical loads approach...

  10. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  11. South Africa's refineries: waiting for Maduna

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A definitive energy policy from the new Energy Minister, Penuell Maduna, is awaited by the petroleum industry in South Africa. Some of the complexities of the South African oil market and past legacies which make the task of producing a policy difficult, are examined here. They include the allegations made initially in 1994 that oil refineries are illegally repatriating profits by paying too much for imported products. Accusations of this transfer pricing have resurfaced in the light of recent figures published by the South African Petroleum Industry Association (SAPIA) which show that the oil industry's profitability is not as high as some had presumed. However, compelling evidence for the allegations has not appeared and it is unlikely that the foreign investors in SAPIA would endanger their operations in this way. SAPIA members are key investors in the national infrastructure and make large tax contributions much needed by the treasury. In its turn, SAPIA is unhappy about the continuation of the payment of large taxpayer funded subsidies to the privatised Sasol, the South African synthetic fuel company, seeing as anti-competitive and having negative implications for the national economy. For its part Sasol argues its entitlement to the same tariff protection enjoyed by 80% of local manufacturing industries in South Africa. Some government action has been taken to reduce the subsidies though. The oil companies in SAPIA require clarity on future energy policy and deregulation before committing themselves to further heavy capital investment and Sasol also requires an end to the present uncertainties. (UK)

  12. Biodiversity intactness score for South Africa

    Biggs, R

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available are to show that the BII can be confidently applied, using available data, at all three gover- nance levels in South Africa (national, provincial, and local), as well as at the ecosystem level. We thereby introduce a tool that could be used to complement... existing methods in reporting on the state of South Africa’s biodiversity, a significant need which has been identified by the Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT).23,38,39 We highlight the implications of our findings for bio...

  13. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  14. Smoothing out the volatility of South Africa's wind and PV energy resources

    Bofinger, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar PV & wind are the cheapest new-build options per kWh in South Africa. By 2020, a mix of PV, wind and flexible gas (LNG-based) costs the same as new coal, even without any value given to excess wind/PV energy. South Africa has abundant solar...

  15. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  16. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge Scale for Adolescents: Item Response Theory Analyses Based on Data from a Study in South Africa and Tanzania

    Aaro, Leif E.; Breivik, Kyrre; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kaaya, Sylvia; Onya, Hans E.; Wubs, Annegreet; Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    A 14-item human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge scale was used among school students in 80 schools in 3 sites in Sub-Saharan Africa (Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). For each item, an incorrect or don't know response was coded as 0 and correct response as 1. Exploratory factor…

  17. South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management

    Lysko, Albert A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available  Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management — PolicyTracker: the spectrum management newsletter https://www.policytracker.com/headlines/south­africa­heading­for­dynamic­spectrum­management/?searchterm=lysko 1/2 South Africa heading for dynamic spectrum management Sep 26, 2016 by Albert Lysko South... characteristic of rural areas, which traditionally lag behind more commercially attractive urban areas. The technology is a bridge towards fully dynamic spectrum management and 5G. The ability to manage spectrum dynamically should significantly improve the utilization and availability of spectrum, especially in rural areas, as well as...

  18. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  19. All projects related to south africa | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    Region: South of Sahara, Angola, Ethiopia, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Uganda, South Africa. Program: Networked Economies. Total Funding: CA$ 503,000.00. Creating a Common Platform for HIV Vaccine Research and HIV Care and Treatment Program. Project. Second only to South Africa in HIV burden, Nigeria's complex ...

  20. South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia

    South Africa's role in the Civil War in Russia. 1918-1920. Cdr W.M. Bisset*. South Africa's role in the Civil War in ... the war or were later to receive awards for their services in Russia. Perhaps the most remarkable ... Bolshevik territory and he was taken prisoner. Another remarkable South African officer who served in North ...

  1. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa ...

    This paper critically evaluates the epistemological basis of the academic discipline of sociology in South Africa. In particular, it contextualises, and therefore subjects to critical scrutiny, the assumptions made (and not made) by South African sociologists in their writings about the discipline of sociology in South Africa.

  2. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  3. Health care waste management in community-based care: experiences of community health workers in low resource communities in South Africa

    Lydia Hangulu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa, community health workers (CHWs working in community-based care (CBC programmes provide care to patients most of whom are living with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB. Although studies have shown that the caregiving activities provided by the CHWs generate health care waste (HCW, there is limited information about the experiences of CHWs on health care waste management (HCWM in CBC. This study explored HCWM in CBC in Durban, South Africa from the perspectives CHWs. Methods We used three ethnographic approaches to collect data: focus group discussions, participant observations and informal discussions. Data was collected from 85 CHWs working in 29 communities in the Durban metropolis, South Africa. Data collection took place from July 2013 to August 2014. Results CHWs provided nursing care activities to patients many of whom were incontinent or bedridden. Some the patients were living with HIV/AIDS/TB, stroke, diabetes, asthma, arthritis and high blood pressure. These caregiving activities generate sharps and infectious waste but CHWs and family members did not segregate HCW according to the risk posed as stipulated by the HCWM policy. In addition, HCW was left with domestic waste. Major barriers to proper HCWM identified by CHWs include, lack of assistance from family members in assisting patients to use the toilet or change diapers and removing HCW from homes, irregular waste collection by waste collectors, inadequate water for practicing hygiene and sanitation, long distance between the house and the toilets and poor conditions of communal toilets and pit latrines. As a result of these barriers, HCW was illegally dumped along roads or in the bush, burnt openly and buried within the yards. Liquid HCW such as vomit, urine and sputum were disposed in open spaces near the homes. Conclusion Current policies on primary health care (PHC and HCWM in South Africa have not paid attention to HCWM. Findings suggest the

  4. Urbanisation and women's health in South Africa.

    Pick, W; Cooper, D

    1997-03-01

    For many decades the migrant labor system and the influx control legislation in South Africa exacerbated male-dominant patterns of migration typical of Africa. In recent years, however, and especially following the easing of influx control legislation in 1986, migration in South Africa has increasingly involved women. This paper reports on a study conducted in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, which explored the relationship between urbanisation and the health of women. The objectives were to relate age, migration, length of stay in urban areas, employment status, and occupation to the health, including reproductive health, of women living in Khayelitsha. Interviews with 659 women (61 households had no senior woman) revealed that women enjoyed considerable social support through their neighbours, church organisations, and women's organisations. Women who lived in the most deprived section of Khayelitsha enjoyed more support from their neighbours but reported less satisfaction with the area in which they lived. Child-care support was poor and a considerable proportion of the women were disempowered by their male partners. More than 90 percent of the women had access to antenatal care. Recent immigrants had more pregnancies, were less aware of screening for cervical cancer, less likely to have had a Pap smear, less knowledgeable about where to have a Pap smear done, and less likely to have heard AIDS. More women were aware of AIDS (86%) than Pap smears (45%). More than half of those of childbearing age used contraception, mainly intramuscular hormones (76%). A significant proportion (53%) of the women reported that they had had their first pregnancy as teenagers and younger, less educated women were more likely to have had adolescent pregnancies. Policy makers are confronted by a compelling need to redress well-known urban-rural inequalities in health care in South Africa. Policy attention must also be given to the increasing urbanisation of women and the growing health care

  5. AIDS in South Africa. Puppet power.

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    Blacks in South Africa see the government campaign promoting condom use to prevent AIDS as a political ruse to control population growth among Blacks. The City Health Department of Johannesburg does not use a government created poster targeted to Blacks because it implies that only Blacks have AIDS. Even though the number of AIDS cases in South Africa is lower (700 reported cases) than that of its neighbors, the number of HIV infected individuals is growing. So nongovernmental organizations are trying to overcome the division between the government and Blacks by finding alternative ways to stem the AIDS epidemic. The African Research and Educational Puppetry Programme uses Puppets Against AIDS to bridge racial, cultural, language, and educational barriers to thus educate Blacks about AIDS. It not only hopes to create and perform educational and socially valuable theater, but also to rediscover performing arts traditions in southern and central Africa. Since about 76% of the black population in rural South Africa is illiterate, the gray skinned puppets constitute an interactive and inoffensive way to communicate a serious message. Someone demonstrates how to put on a condom using a life size model which induces controversy among physicians and educated whites. Blacks in Johannesburg and surrounding townships are not offended, however. In fact, many have never seen condoms before the demonstration. The puppets emphasize that safe sex and having sex with only 1 partner can stop the spread of AIDS. Each performance also includes live African percussion and music. A narrator distributes free condoms and AIDS information brochures to the audience. Videotapes of each performance are used to evaluate audience reactions. Independent evaluation teams evaluate the impact of the performance. 1-4 day workshops on AIDS, puppet making, story development, and performing skills follow each performance.

  6. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  7. All projects related to south africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    Social cohesion: The missing link in overcoming violence and inequality? ... URBAN POLICY, MARGINALITY, Poverty, VIOLENCE, SOCIAL CONFLICTS, URBAN POPULATION, Gender. Region: Brazil, India, South Africa, United Kingdom.

  8. Coal, energy efficiency and environmental issues in South Africa

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Barker, R.; Asamoah, J.K.; Barnard, W.O.

    1997-01-01

    Like China, a large portion of South Africa's primary energy is sourced from coal, and is likely to remain South Africa's major source of energy for the short to medium term. It is imperative to address the environmental dimension as an integral component of coal energy considerations. This issue is discussed through energy efficiency, and South Africa's Low-Smoke Coal Programme as it pertains to the use of coal in households. South Africa is engaged on several other programmes to minimise the impact of coal on the atmospheric environment. Some of those activities have been outlined in this paper. (R.P.)

  9. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  10. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  11. Spent fuel management in South Africa

    Bredell, P.J.; Stott, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Eskom, the South African utility, operates one of the largest electricity networks in the world. However, only 6% of the South African generating capacity is nuclear; the remainder is coal fired and hydroelectric. The nuclear component consists of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Plant, comprising two French supplied PWRs of 920 MWe each, situated approximately 45 kilometres from cape Town. Construction started in 1976 and the two reactors reached criticality in 1984 and 1985 respectively. South Africa also has an Oak Ridge type research reactor, called SAFARI, operated by the South African Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) at their Pelindaba site near Pretoria. This research reactor was commissioned in 1965, and has been in operation ever since. South Africa has a National Radioactive Waste Disposal facility called Vaalputs, some 600 km north of Cape Town. The facility, operated by AEC, is presently licensed only for the disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes. Vaalputs offers unique features as a potential interim spent fuel storage and final disposal site, such as favorable geology (granite), low seismicity, low population density, remoteness from industrial centres and and conditions. Therefore, this site has been investigated by the AEC as a potential interim spent fuel storage site, but has not yet been licensed for this purpose. Hence, all spent fuel is currently stored on the two sites at Koeberg and Pelindaba respectively. The spent fuel storage pools at Koeberg have recently been enlarged to accommodate the lifetime spent fuel arisings of the plant. Since late 1997, the Safari spent fuel is stored in a pipe storage facility, constructed away from the reactor on the Pelindaba site. (author)

  12. Illicit drug use and treatment in South Africa: a review.

    Peltzer, Karl; Ramlagan, Shandir; Johnson, Bruce D; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2010-11-01

    This review synthesizes available epidemiological data on current drug use and substance user treatment admissions in South Africa since 1994, and how changes in the political, economic, and social structures within South Africa, both before and after Apartheid, has made the country more vulnerable to drug use. Based on national surveys, current use of cannabis ranged among adolescents from 2% to 9% and among adults it was 2%, cocaine/crack (0.3%), mandrax/sedatives (0.3%), club drugs/amphetamine-type stimulants (0.2%), opiates (0.1%), and hallucinogens (0.1%). The use of primary illicit substance at admission to South African drug user treatment centers was cannabis 16.9%, methamphetamine (tik) 12.8%, crack/cocaine 9.6%, cannabis and mandrax 3.4%, heroin/opiates 9.2%, and prescription and OTC drugs 2.6%. An increase in substance user treatment admissions has increased. While the prevalence of illicit drug use in South Africa is relatively low compared to the United States and Australia, prevention and intervention policies need to be designed to reduce these levels by targeting the more risky subpopulations identified from this review.

  13. Telerehabilitation In South Africa – Is There A Way Forward?

    Maurice Mars

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa.  Future actions are outlined.

  14. Telerehabilitation in South Africa - is there a way forward?

    Mars, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    South Africa, like the rest of sub-Saharan Africa, has a disproportionate burden of disease and a shortage of health professionals. Telemedicine has been identified as a possible way of overcoming part of the problem but telemedicine has not been widely adopted. In the public sector hospitals in South Africa which serve 82% of the population there are 2.5 physiotherapists and 2 occupational therapists per 100,000 people served. The extent of telerehabilitation in South Africa is unknown. A literature review of telerehabilitation found no papers from South Africa. A survey of the heads of university departments of physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language pathology revealed limited knowledge of telerehabilitation. Telerehabilitation services are confined to follow-up of patients at some institutions by telephone, fax or email. There is need to raise awareness among therapists if telerehabilitation is to become a reality in South Africa. Future actions are outlined.

  15. Sustainability assessment: dressing up SEA - experiences from South Africa

    Govender, K

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available as Sustainability Assessment and how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been conceptualised and promoted in South Africa. This paper therefore investigates the following questions: Could the South African concept and application of SEA be what is required...

  16. prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games

    prospects and challenges for South Africa hosting the Olympic games. ... This article examines the opportunities and challenges that a South African city willing to bid for and host the Games is likely to face. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  17. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    ... on the kinds of investments and interventions needed to address urban violence. ... in Latin America and the Caribbean, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  18. The Case for Adolescent HIV Vaccination in South Africa

    Moodley, Nishila; Gray, Glenda; Bertram, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite comprising 0.7% of the world population, South Africa is home to 18% of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Unyielding HIV subepidemics among adolescents threaten national attempts to curtail the disease burden. Should an HIV vaccine become available, establishing its point of entry into the health system becomes a priority. This study assesses the impact of school-based HIV vaccination and explores how variations in vaccine characteristics affect cost-e...

  19. Study Moessbauer of chromites of South Africa

    Lopez, Ada; Velazquez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Coming natural chromites from South Africa they were studied by spectroscopy Moessbauer and X-rays diffraction. The ionic distribution of the ions of iron is reported in the area tetrahedral and octahedral in the structure showing that the pattern an orderly distribution, the chromites nearby to an inverse spinel. The microanalysis shows a certain variability in the composition in the coming specimen of the same area and could be the cause the apparent evolution of the chromite in the laterization process. We try to compare these results with a similar study coming f rom basaltic rocks of the Nemby Hill in oriental region of Paraguay [es

  20. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    Y. G. Pillay

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS and a national health insurance system (NHIS. While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of each option for the funding and delivery of mental health care.

  1. Geology and engineering geology of roads in South Africa

    Paige-Green, P

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa, South African Journal of Geology, Vol 101 (3), pp 201-214. [3] Partridge, T. 1975. Some geomorphic factors influencing the formation and engineering properties of soil materials in South Africa. Proc 5th... land. 2003. Pretoria: Council for Geosciences and South African Institute of Engineering and Environmental Geologists. [23] Varnes, DJ. 1978. Slope movement types and processes. In: Landslides: analysis and control. Edited by RL Schuster and RJ...

  2. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Ajuruchukwu Obi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN. Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the percentage share of people living below poverty line has now decreased from 11.3 per cent in 2000 to 4.0 per cent in 2011. However, these reports are not reflecting the exact poor’s experiences because at household level there is still an outright poverty. Therefore, if the national poverty report gives a good picture about South African poverty status whereas there is still prevalence of poverty at household level, there are high chances that wrong policies in regard to poverty reduction strategies will be wrought. Hence this paper focuses on the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The sole aim of this paper is to assess the determinants of household poverty in South Africa. The reviewed literature on determinants of poverty in South Africa would enable policy makers to see the effect of demographic characteristics on poverty in South Africa. Thus, strategies and policies aimed at alleviating poverty in South Africa can be directed to the discussed factors.

  3. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    This discussion of the Republic of South Africa focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion of the population, age distribution, housing and households, education, employment, income, and marketing and communication. South Africans, condemmed by the world community for their policy of racial discriminatioon, contend that outsiders fail to understand the system they legalized in 1948. Apartheid calls for developing different political institutions for blacks and whites in preparation for their eventual separation. According to this reasoning, black Africans are not considered permanent residents of South Africa, but rather of the "homelands" to which each tribal group has been assigned by the government. 4 homelands have been made independent, and if the remaining 6 become independent as scheduled, South Africa theoretically will no longer have any black citizens. Under this plan, nearly 90% of the current area of South Africa would go to whites, while the remaining 10% would be divided among the 10 homelands. The UN has condemmed the homelands policy, and no country has recognized their independence. By law South Africa has 4 distinct populations: Africans, whites, coloureds, and asians. Rhe combination of Afrikaners and British makes up the white population. Whites are in the minority and numbered only 4.7 million in 1983, or 15% of the total population. Since whites rule the country, their importance is far disproportionate to their numbers. There were 2.7 million coloureds in 1983, approximately 9% of all South Africans. Black africans, the single largest population group, numbered 22.7 million in 1983, or 73% of the total population. Blacks are divided in 10 subgroups corresponding to the 10 ethnicallyy based homelands. The largest groups are the Zulu (5.9 million in 1981) and the Xhosa (3.1 million). Population growth varies by race. The annual growth rate for the entire country was 2.4% in 1983, but for blacks it was 2.7% and for

  4. Consumer attitudes towards radurisation in South Africa

    Van Olst, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    To gain any insight into consumer attitudes towards radurization in South Africa, it is first of all necessary to pinpoint the consumer. The consumer has to be reached at all levels and must be convinced that radurization is a harmless process. All the indications are there that South African consumer acceptance will come readily once the positive benefits of irradiated food have been adequately publicized. Label and package information create untold problems for the grocery manufacturing and packaging industry. The radiation industry cannot afford to lose consumer confidence. The question is: Must a label be attached to a radurized product or not? The results of the trial marketing campaign have shown that if the correct information is supplied at the right time, the consumer is prepared to accept irradiated food

  5. The feasibility of adapted group-based interpersonal therapy (IPT) for the treatment of depression by community health workers within the context of task shifting in South Africa.

    Petersen, I; Bhana, A; Baillie, K

    2012-06-01

    Within the context of a large treatment gap for depression and a scarcity of specialist resources, there is a need for task shifting to scale up mental health services to address this gap in South Africa. This study assessed the feasibility of an adapted manualized version of grouped based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) for use by supervised community health workers through a pilot study on 60 primary health care clinic users screened as having moderate to severe depression. Retention was good and participants in the group-based IPT intervention showed significant reduction in depressive symptoms on completion of the 12-week intervention as well as 24 weeks post baseline compared to the control group. Qualitative process evaluation suggests that improved social support, individual coping skills and improved personal agency assisted in the reduction of depressive symptoms.

  6. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  7. "Homophobia hurts": Mourning as resistance to violence in South Africa.

    Moreau, Julie

    2017-04-03

    Much has been written on the successful lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex movement in South Africa, and the resulting institutionalization of sexual minority rights. Comparatively less has been written about the forms of activism undertaken specifically by Black lesbians that are not oriented toward legal change. In this article, I assert the need to examine public demonstrations of mourning as an act of Black lesbian resistance to violence in South Africa. Based on in-depth interviews with members of Free Gender, a Black lesbian organization, I argue that members' conceptualizations of mourning as providing community support force a reconsideration of what it means to be human. In order to grasp the decolonial potential of Free Gender's activism, I draw on Sylvia Wynter's argument that a singular Western bourgeois conception of human has come to dominate globally.

  8. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    2010-10-06

    ...-831, and A-583-830] Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan, pursuant to... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on SSPC from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and...

  9. South Africa : tous les projets | Page 7 | CRDI - Centre de ...

    Sujet: Science and Technology, MEDICAL RESEARCH, HUMAN GENETICS, GENETIC ENGINEERING, BIOTECHNOLOGY. Région: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, India, South Africa, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Canada. Programme: Économies en ...

  10. Challenges of locally manufactured vehicle supply chains in South Africa

    Intaher M. Ambe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Locally manufactured vehicles are destined (partly for the export market and thus, global competitiveness  is  important.  This  article  explores  the  challenges  facing  supply  chains  of locally manufactured vehicles in South Africa. The automotive industry is perceived to be the most advanced in supply chain management practices in South Africa. It has embraced technology and management practices that have transformed the manufacturing environment by using cutting-edge design and visualisation tools. However, the industry has fragilities and faces new and emerging supply chain challenges. A survey research design was employed and  the  data  was  collected  through  face-to-face  semi-structured  interview  questionnaires based on the purposive sampling technique. Data analysis and interpretation was based on descriptive  statistics  using  SPSS  software.  The  findings  revealed  that  there  are  challenges hindering  best  supply  chain  practices  of  local  vehicle  manufacturers.  The  research  also revealed that there is a perceived difference in supply chain challenges between the different manufacturers of different origins in South Africa. Asian manufacturers felt much stronger about the adequacy of their information systems compared to the European manufacturers. Asian  manufacturers  tended  to  agree  more  than  their  European  counterparts  that  labour problems were a challenge. European manufacturers, on the other hand, tended to agree more that rail transport is unreliable. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on supply chain practices in South Africa.

  11. Series: Clinical Epidemiology in South Africa. Paper 1: Evidence-based health care and policy in Africa: past, present, and future.

    Young, Taryn; Garner, Paul; Clarke, Mike; Volmink, Jimmy

    2017-03-01

    Africa has high disease burden and health system challenges but is making progress in recognizing, accepting, and adopting evidence-based health care (EBHC). In this article, we reflect on the developments of the past 2 decades and consider further steps that will help with the translation of reliable research results into the decision making process. There has been a rapid growth in various initiatives to promote EBHC in the African region. These include the conduct and reporting of primary and secondary research, research capacity development and supportive initiatives, access to information, and work with decision makers in getting research into clinical guidelines and health policies. Much, however, still needs to be done to improve the impact on health in the region. A multipronged approach consisting of regionally relevant well-conducted research addressing priority health problems, increased uptake of research in health care policy and practice, dedicated capacity development initiatives to support the conduct as well as use of research, facilitated by wider collaboration, and equitable partnerships will be important. Working together in mutually supporting partnerships is key to advancing both evidence-informed health care practices and better health. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  13. South Africa: Current Issues and U.S. Relations

    Ploch, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    .... With Africa's largest Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and a government eager to play an active role in the promotion of regional peace and stability, South Africa is poised to have a substantial impact on the economic and political future of Africa...

  14. Nuclear medicine in South Africa : current status

    Vangu, M.D.T.H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear medicine in South Africa has been a full specialty on its own since 1987. It is practiced in almost all teaching hospitals and within the private sector in larger cities. Most of the routine radiopharmaceuticals are domestically manufactured and the main isotope can be obtained from locally produced technetium generators. All the radionuclide imaging devices used in the country are imported. The main vendors are GE, Siemens and Phillips. The majority of radionuclide imaging comprises work from nuclear cardiology and nuclear oncology. Almost all the routine clinical nuclear medicine procedures are performed and some in vitro work is also done, however. Principal therapeutic agents used in the country include radioactive iodine, radioactive iodine MIBG and yttrium. The country still lacks experience in receptors imaging and radioimmunology work and no PET scanner has been purchased yet. The academic institutions are active with participation in national and international congresses and also with publications. Although much remains to be done, the future of nuclear medicine in South Africa does not appear gloomy. (author)

  15. Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa

    Janine M. Albaugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Eucalyptus genus yields high rates of productivity and can be grown across a wide range of site types and climates for products such as pulp, fuelwood, or construction lumber. In addition, many eucalypts have the ability to coppice, making this genus an ideal candidate for use as a biofuel feedstock. However, the water use of Eucalyptus is a controversial issue, and the impacts of these fast-growing trees on water resources are well documented. Regardless, the demand for wood products and water continues to rise, providing a challenge to increase the productivity of forest plantations within water constraints. This is of particular relevance for water-limited countries such as South Africa which relies on exotic plantations to meet its timber needs. Research results from water use studies in South Africa are well documented and legislation restrictions limit further afforestation. This paper outlines techniques used to quantify the water use of eucalypt plantations and provides recommendations on where to focus future research efforts. Greater insights into the water use efficiency of clonal material are needed, as certain eucalypt clones show fast growth and low water use. To better understand water use efficiency, estimates should be combined with monitoring of stand canopy structure and measurements of physiological processes.

  16. Private sector health reform in South Africa.

    Van Den Heever, A M

    1998-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the trends, debates and policy proposals in relation to the financing of the private health sector in South Africa. The public and private sectors in South Africa are of equivalent size in terms of overall expenditure, but cover substantially different population sizes. Within this context the government has reached the unavoidable conclusion that the private sector has to play some role in ensuring that equity, access and efficiency objectives are achieved for the health system as a whole. However, the private sector is some way off from taking on this responsibility. Substantial increases in per capita costs over the past 15 years, coupled with a degree of deregulation by the former government, have resulted in increasing instability and volatility. The development of a very competitive medical scheme (health insurance) market reinforced by intermediaries with commercial interests has accelerated trends toward excluding high health risks from cover. The approach taken by the government has been to define a new environment which leaves the market open for extensive competition, but removes from schemes the ability to compete by discriminating against high health risks. The only alternatives left to the private market, policy makers hope, will be to go out of business, or to survive through productivity improvements.

  17. Radiation Regulation Bodies in South Africa

    Mavunda, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Tthere are two types Regulatory Bodies in South Africa: department of Health - Radiation Control (DoH) and National Nuclear Regulator (NNR). The function DoH include of Promotion and maintenance of health within the framework of National health plan, Protection against injury or disease caused by technological devises, Protection against injury or disease caused by radiation, Promote safe and legal use of such products. The National Nuclear Regulator authorizes Nuclear Installation License, Nuclear Vessel License, Certificate of Registration and Certificate of Exemption. Some of the Electronic Products include licensing electro-medical products, Import or manufactured License conditions, Radiation workers, Report forms, Use and Radio-nuclides. Nuclear Authorization is the process of granting, by the National Nuclear Regulator, a written approval to applicants or / and operating organizations to perform nuclear related activities as detailed in the scope of the authorization. International Trade Administration Commission of South Africa (ITAC) issue license for import and export of all products including electronic X-Ray products and Radio-nuclides

  18. Differential item functioning of the UWES-17 in South Africa

    Leanne Goliath-Yarde

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: This study assesses the Differential Item Functioning (DIF of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-17 for different South African cultural groups in a South African company. Motivation for the study: Organisations are using the UWES-17 more and more in South Africa to assess work engagement. Therefore, research evidence from psychologists or assessment practitioners on its DIF across different cultural groups is necessary. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted a Secondary Data Analysis (SDA on the UWES-17 sample (n = 2429 that they obtained from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in a South African Information and Communication Technology (ICT sector company (n = 24 134. Quantitative item data on the UWES-17 scale enabled the authors to address the research question. Main findings: The researchers found uniform and/or non-uniform DIF on five of the vigour items, four of the dedication items and two of the absorption items. This also showed possible Differential Test Functioning (DTF on the vigour and dedication dimensions. Practical/managerial implications: Based on the DIF, the researchers suggested that organisations should not use the UWES-17 comparatively for different cultural groups or employment decisions in South Africa. Contribution/value add: The study provides evidence on DIF and possible DTF for the UWES-17. However, it also raises questions about possible interaction effects that need further investigation.

  19. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    Simanga, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Radon remained a chemical curiosity for decades, promoted at some stage as a health giving gas. Mining related history: (based on ICRP 65) dating back to 15 Century when high mortality from lung cancer was observed among miners in Schneeberg. After the Curies had extracted Radium from Jachymov ores (1898), radon was identified. When measurements were done in Schneeberger and Jachymov mines high concentrations of radon were found. Initially a link was assumed between lung cancer and high radon concentration based on the measurements. (The assumption was not generally accepted).In 1953 William F. Bale indicated that the causative agents of lung cancer was the radon progeny and not radon gas. A possible lung cancer risk to members of the public was discovered very recently (first published results were based on the indoor measurements done in Sweden in a study initiated by Rolf Sievert) Much attention has been given to radon as a radiological health hazard: Recently human exposure to radon progeny in buildings has emerged as an important issue. Lung cancer is the principal concern associated with Rn exposure. The principal concern is associated with radon progeny. These species are chemically reactive, and may be deposited on respiratory tract tissues when inhaled. Subsequent alpha particle decay may damage cells near the deposition site, contributing to increased risk of lung cancer Radon: In Occupational Exposure Protection against Rn Exposure is a Techno-Legal Legal Aspects: There has to be a national legislative framework for the protection of workers against radon The legal framework should entail, inter alia: - Set up of regulator, development of regulations and standards to enable compliance assurance and other protection issues, training of technical people. 10 Legislative Framework in South Africa National Nuclear Regulatory Act (1999) Enables the regulator (NNR) to exercise oversight for Rn protection Occupational Exposure is mainly in Mining and Mineral

  20. Student mobility and doctoral education in South Africa | Sehoole ...

    This article analyses doctoral education programmes in South Africa with a particular focus on student mobility. It investigates pull and push factors as a conceptual framework, arguing that the patterns of student mobility in doctoral education programmes in South Africa follow the patterns of international student mobility ...

  1. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  2. The contribution of radurization to food provision in South Africa

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Thomas, A.C.; Hill, N.

    1988-01-01

    The preservation of food by radurization on a limited commercial basis has been practised in South Africa since 1980. High capital costs have, however, had a negative effect on the commercialization of radurization technology. The state of radurization in South Africa is presented. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Government Investment, Growth and Employment in South Africa ...

    This paper focuses on the impact of government investment on growth and employment in South Africa. As a prelude to the analysis, the paper refers to theory and practical evidence which indicates the way investment can influence growth and employment. Also, a review of investment patterns in South Africa in the past ...

  4. Forest management and water in the Republic of South Africa

    Scott, DF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a semi-arid country with a very limited area of natural forest. The early colonial governments encouraged the establishment of plantations to supply wood for local uses, and South Africa consequently has a long history of plantation...

  5. The Corruption Bogey in South Africa: Is Public Education Safe?

    Serfontein, Erika; de Waal, Elda

    2015-01-01

    Corruption is a constant global phenomenon, which is becoming more complex and intense as competition for resources increases. It is even more so amongst those living in developing countries, particularly emerging economies such as South Africa. Acts of corruption directly contest the basic principles of South Africa's Constitution, which aims at…

  6. Real interest rate persistence in South Africa: Evidence and implications

    Das, Sonali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available literature that examines its long-run properties, surprisingly, there does not exist any study that delves into this issue for South Africa. Given this, using quarterly data (1960:Q2-2010:Q4) for South Africa, our paper endeavors to analyze the long...

  7. All projects related to South Africa | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    This study will adopt a groundbreaking approach to understanding and responding to urban ... Region: Brazil, South Africa, United Kingdom ... Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it work? ... DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, Economic and social development, CASE STUDIES, POLICY MAKING, ...

  8. in human Africa South The importance of animals schistosomiasis in

    Africa. South. The importance of animals schistosomiasis in. J. A. VAN WYK. Suinmary. The importance of animals in human schistosomia- sis in South Africa is reviewed. The prevalence of animal schistosome species in humans, the role of animals as reservoir hosts of .... that it is not of pure origin? More work is necessary, ...

  9. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    Taljaard, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  10. Contextual determinants of adolescent mortality in South Africa | De ...

    Objectives: South Africa has a large adolescent population (approximately 20% of the total population). The survival and development of these individuals are a priority among parents and the government. In an effort to better understand the factors contributing to adolescent mortality in South Africa, this study examined the ...

  11. Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the ...

    1995-01-01

    Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa : Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. Couverture du livre Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa. Author(s):. Avril Joffe, David Kaplan, Raphael Kaplinsky et David Lewis. Publisher(s):. UCT Press, CRDI. January 1, 1995. ISBN: Épuisé. 264 pages.

  12. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  13. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa: Thieves at the Dinner ...

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Describing and analyzing competition law in South Africa, this book promotes a deeper understanding of the development of this foundational economic law within its specific national, social and economic context. Enforcing Competition Rules in South Africa draws strongly on case law and enforcement ...

  14. Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of ...

    Informed consent for telemedicine in South Africa: A survey of consent practices among healthcare professionals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal. C Jack, M Mars. Abstract. Background. The Health Professions Council of South Africa is drafting guidelines to regulate the practice of telemedicine. These emphasise the need for ...

  15. Should commercial forestry in South Africa pay for water? Valuing ...

    Water is a limiting input/factor in the production of timber in the commercial forestry industry of South Africa. Being a water-stressed country, South Africa has opted for demand management strategies which suggest pricing of water as a commodity. Since commercial forestry is one of the big users of the country's water ...

  16. South Africa – Safe Haven for Human Traffickers? Employing the ...

    Having ratified the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, South Africa is obliged to adopt legislative measures that criminalise human trafficking and comply with other standards laid down in this international instrument. However, by mid-2011, South Africa had not ...

  17. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  18. Race, Class and Voting Patterns in South Africa's Electoral System ...

    In the run up to South Africa's three national elections both academia and the media advocated that electoral behaviour would be informed by the race census thesis. This article challenges this dominant thesis by using evidence from postapartheid South Africa's three general elections which suggests that the racial census ...

  19. What motivates people to volunteer? the case of volunteer AIDS caregivers in faith-based organizations in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers are increasingly being relied upon to provide home-based care for people living with AIDS in South Africa and this presents several unique challenges specific to the HIV/AIDS context in Africa. Yet it is not clear what motivates people to volunteer as home-based caregivers. Drawing on the functional theory on volunteer motivations, this study uses data from qualitative interviews with 57 volunteer caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS in six semi-rural South African communities to explore volunteer motivations. Findings revealed complex motivations underlying volunteering in AIDS care. Consistent with functional theorizing, most of the volunteers reported having more than one motive for enrolling as volunteers. Of the 11 categories of motivations identified, those relating to altruistic concerns for others and community, employment or career benefits and a desire by the unemployed to avoid idleness were the most frequently mentioned. Volunteers also saw volunteering as an opportunity to learn caring skills or to put their own skills to good use, for personal growth and to attract good things to themselves. A few of the volunteers were heeding a religious call, hoping to gain community recognition, dealing with a devastating experience of AIDS in the family or motivated for social reasons. Care organizations' poor understanding of volunteer motives, a mismatch between organizational goals and volunteer motivations, and inadequate funding meant that volunteers' most pressing motives were not satisfied. This led to discontentment, resentment and attrition among volunteers. The findings have implications for home-based care policies and programmes, suggesting the need to rethink current models using non-stipended volunteers in informal AIDS care. Information about volunteer motivations could help organizations plan recruitment messages, recruit volunteers whose motives match organizational goals and plan how to assist volunteers to satisfy these motives

  20. History of National Economic System Formation in the Republic of South Africa

    Natalya S. Zagrebelnaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses specific historic features of formation of agrarian and industrial sectors of Republic of South Africa since the establishment of Cape Colony. These features resulted from much earlier colonization of South Africa in comparison with other Sub-Saharan African countries on the one hand and from a large-scale influx of Europeans to the South Africa on the other hand. The two most important of these specific features are the following. First. Contrary to other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa development of the agrarian sector of Republic of South Africa was based on private property and western technologies from the start. Second. The sector is not divided into «African» and «European» sub-sectors, and South-African agricultural produce has always been oriented to both: external and internal markets. Development of industrial sector of Republic of South Africa started with creation of extractive industries, namely: extraction of diamonds and of gold. The authors specifically emphasize the role of gold extraction which grace to its effect of multiplicator opened the way for industrial revolution in the South of Africa. Development of manufacturing was mainly based on import-substitution. The article argues that there were several stages of import-substitution and analyses their outcomes. The authors point out to the special importance of import-substitution during the period of I World War and II World War.

  1. The importance of choice in the rollout of ARV-based prevention to user groups in Kenya and South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Mack, Natasha; Evens, Emily M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Brelsford, Kate; Mackenzie, Caroline; Milford, Cecilia; Smit, Jennifer A; Kimani, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Stakeholders continue to discuss the appropriateness of antiretroviral-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among sub-Saharan African and other women. In particular, women need formulations they can adhere to given that effectiveness has been found to correlate with adherence. Evidence from family planning shows that contraceptive use, continuation and adherence may be increased by expanding choices. To explore the potential role of choice in women's use of HIV prevention methods, we conducted a secondary analysis of research with female sex workers (FSWs) and men and women in serodiscordant couples (SDCs) in Kenya, and adolescent and young women in South Africa. Our objective here is to present their interest in and preferences for PrEP formulations - pills, gel and injectable. In this qualitative study, in Kenya we conducted three focus groups with FSWs, and three with SDCs. In South Africa, we conducted two focus groups with adolescent girls, and two with young women. All focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and translated into English as needed. We structurally and thematically coded transcripts using a codebook and QSR NVivo 9.0; generated code reports; and conducted inductive thematic analysis to identify major trends and themes. All groups expressed strong interest in PrEP products. In Kenya, FSWs said the products might help them earn more money, because they would feel safer accepting more clients or having sex without condoms for a higher price. SDCs said the products might replace condoms and reanimate couples' sex lives. Most sex workers and SDCs preferred an injectable because it would last longer, required little intervention and was private. In South Africa, adolescent girls believed it would be possible to obtain the products more privately than condoms. Young women were excited about PrEP but concerned about interactions with alcohol and drug use, which often precede sex. Adolescents did not prefer a particular

  2. Trends in HIV testing and associated factors among men in South Africa: evidence from 2005, 2008 and 2012 national population-based household surveys.

    Makusha, T; Mabaso, M; Richter, L; Desmond, C; Jooste, S; Simbayi, L

    2017-02-01

    In Sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa, uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing among men remains a major challenge. Few studies have explored HIV testing uptake among men and factors that influence their testing behaviours. This article explores trends in HIV testing uptake and associated factors among men aged 15 years and older in South Africa using national HIV population-based household surveys conducted in 2005, 2008 and 2012. A multistage cross-sectional design was used in the three nationally representative household-based surveys. P-trend Chi-squared statistic was used to analyze changes in HIV testing in relation to demographic factors, and HIV-related risk behaviours across the three surveys. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between ever testing for HIV, demographic factors and HIV-related risk behaviours. HIV testing uptake among men was 28% in 2005, 43% in 2008 and 59% in 2012. A trend was also observed in HIV testing by sociodemographic factors, but differences existed within variables. HIV testing uptake was mainly influenced by the effects of selected population characteristics. Reduced likelihood of HIV testing was significantly associated with males aged 15-24 years, Black African race group, being single and unemployed, those residing in urban informal and rural informal areas, and those men who ever had sex. The observed sociodemographic differentials suggest that an effective expansion strategy for HIV testing needs to prioritize those most unlikely to test as identified by the current findings. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex, drugs, and HIV: rapid assessment of HIV risk behaviors among street-based drug using sex workers in Durban, South Africa.

    Needle, Richard; Kroeger, Karen; Belani, Hrishikesh; Achrekar, Angeli; Parry, Charles D; Dewing, Sarah

    2008-11-01

    South Africa is experiencing significant changes in patterns of illicit drug use, including increasing injection and non-injection drug use, and the use of drugs by persons engaged in sex work, both of which could further expand the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In 2005, a rapid ethnographic assessment was conducted in Durban, South Africa, to learn more about patterns of drug use and HIV risk behaviors among drug-using, street-based sex workers. Field teams recruited 52 current injection and non-injection drug users for key informant interviews and focus groups, and they conducted mapping and observation in identified high-risk neighborhoods. Key informants were offered free, voluntary counseling and HIV rapid testing. The results of the assessment indicate that in this population, drugs play an organizing role in patterns of daily activities, with sex work closely linked to the buying, selling, and using of drugs. Participants reported using multiple drugs including crack cocaine, heroin, Ecstasy and Mandrax, and their choices were based on their expectations about the functional role and behavioral and pharmacological properties of the drugs. The organization of sex work and patterns of drug use differ by gender, with males exercising more control over daily routines and drug and sexual transactions than females. Activities of female sex workers are subject to considerable control by individual pimps, many of whom also function as landlords and drug dealers. A strong hold over the overlapping economies of drugs and sex work by a few individuals extends to control of the physical and social settings in which sex is exchanged and drugs are sold and used as well as the terms under which sex work is carried out. The potential for accelerated HIV spread is considerable given the evidence of overlapping drug-using and sexual risk behaviors and the mixing patterns across drug and sexual risk networks.

  4. An exploratory study of the need for curriculum review of Master of Public Health Degree at a Rural-based University in South Africa

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Master of Public Health (MPH training programmes were developed worldwide in response to the crisis in human resources for health. Aim: To determine whether the MPH programme at the selected rural-based university in South Africa enabled students to achieve the MPH core competencies relevant for Lower Middle Income Countries. Setting: The study was carried out at a rural-based University in South Africa. The target population was the 2011 first-year cohort of MPH students who by the beginning of 2014 had just completed their coursework. Methodology: A quantitative cross-sectional descriptive research design was adapted. Eighty-five students were randomly selected to participate in the study. A structured questionnaire comprising seven competency clusters was developed. The selected students completed a self-administered questionnaire. Only those students who signed consent forms participated in this study. The questionnaire was tested for construct validity and reliability using 10 students with similar characteristics to those sampled for the study. Microsoft Excel software was used to analyse the data descriptively in terms of frequency and percentages. Results: The students were confident of their competencies regarding public health science skills. Amongst these were analytical assessment, communication, community and intersectorial competencies as well as ethics. However, the students lacked confidence in contextsensitive issues, planning and management, research and development, and leadership competencies. Yet the latter is the backbone of public health practice. Conclusion and recommendation: There is a need for revamping public health curricula. In this respect, a follow-up study that builds a deeper understanding of the subject is needed.

  5. Dry deposition of sulphur at a high-altitude background station in South Africa

    Zunckel, M

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available station also plays a role in the observed day-to-day variation as pollutants are trapped immediately below this layer. The pressure difference between the base of the absolutely stable layer and the surface pressure at Ben MacDhui is used to indicate... AT A HIGH-ALTITUDE BACKGROUND STATION IN SOUTH AFRICA MARK ZUNCKEL1;2 , STUART PIKETH1 and TALI FREIMAN1 1 Climatology Research Group, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2 CSIR Environmentek, P.O. Box 17001, Congella, South Africa...

  6. Assessing the performance of SIA in the EIA context: A case study of South Africa

    Pisani, Jacobus A. du; Sandham, Luke A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, a theoretical perspective based on a literature study, is a critical evaluation of SIA as part of the EIA process in South Africa against the background of international guidelines and best practices. It includes sections on the historical background of the development of SIA in South Africa, the legal status and requirements of SIA in the country, and a critical evaluation of SIA regulation in South Africa. The conclusion reached in the article is that the persistent problems of SIA practice, experienced in other parts of the world, are also evident in South Africa. Apart from institutional, financial and professional constraints, there are also serious problems associated with approach and methods. This conclusion confirms the findings of empirical studies that SIA in South Africa is neglected, that the practice of SIA in South Africa is not yet on a sound footing, and that it does not receive the professional attention it deserves in a country beset by enormous social challenges. To conclude the article recommendations are made to improve the level of SIA practice in South Africa, and the possible significance of this national case study for international practice is indicated

  7. Making ward-based outreach teams an effective component of human immunodeficiency virus programmes in South Africa

    Nireshni Naidoo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of ward-based outreach teams (WBOTs, comprised of community health workers (CHWs, is one of the three interventions of the South African National Department of Health’s (NDoH Primary Health Care (PHC Re-engineering strategy for improving health outcomes. CHWs provide a necessary structure to contribute to successful implementation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV programme in four ways: (1 prevention of HIV infection by health education, (2 linkage to care by health education and referrals, (3 adherence support and (4 identification of individuals who are failing treatment. However, CHW programme and HIV programme-specific barriers exist that need to be resolved in order to achieve maximum impact. These include a lack of stakeholder and community support for WBOTs, challenging work and operational environments, a lack of in-depth knowledge and skills, and socio-cultural barriers such as HIV-related stigma. Considering its promising structure, documentation of the WBOT contribution to healthcare overall, and the HIV programme in particular, is urgently warranted to successfully and sustainably incorporate it into the South African healthcare system.

  8. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  9. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Rudzani E. Luruli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83% and assurance (80% domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. Keywords: client satisfaction, disability, community-based rehabilitation, community rehabilitation worker

  10. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    Kris Van de Poel; Christine Fourie; Karen Seberechts

    2013-01-01

    South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet t...

  11. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Brynard, H.J.; Ainslie, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  12. Uranium resources, production and demand in South Africa

    Brynard, H J; Ainslie, L C [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd., Pretoria (South Africa)

    1990-06-01

    This paper provides a review of the historical development of the South African uranium market and the current status of uranium exploration, resources and production. A prognosticated view of possible future demand for uranium in South Africa is attempted, taking cognisance of the finite nature of the country's coal resources and estimated world uranium demand. Although well endowed with uranium resources, South Africa could face a shortage of this commodity in the next century, should the predicted electricity growth materials. (author)

  13. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination. Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa. Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African To...

  14. Three dimensional contact stresses under the LINTRACK wide base single tyres, measured with the Vehicle-Road Surface Pressure Transducer Array (VRSPTA) system in South Africa

    De Beer, Morris

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available testing. The vertical, transverse (or lateral) and longitudinal contact stresses between the tyres and the pavement were measured with the Vehicle-Road Surface Pressure Transducer Array (VRSPTA), developed in South Africa as part of the ongoing Accelerated...

  15. Psychoanalysis in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Elda Storck-van Reenen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper seeks to describe the trajectory of psychoanalytic endeavours in South Africa since the political thaw of the 1990s. The first part, written by Elda Storck – van Reenen, centres on the alignment of psychoanalytic training to international standards and the formation of institutions to contain these developments. Encouraging demographic and professional diversity and addressing the deficit of personal therapy – «Selbsterfahrung» – in formal training modalities are of primary importance. The second part, written by Mary-Anne Smith, elaborates on the application of basic psychoanalytic concepts to community and outreach work in an impoverished and traumatized society. In addition, the aspiration of engaging the interest and support of governmental agencies around the value and relevance of psychoanalytic thinking for primary and preventative health care is explored.

  16. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    Human, S.; Bajic, V.

    2000-01-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  17. Matcom 86: Engineering materials in South Africa

    1986-01-01

    The Symposium MATCOM '86 represents a significant departure from the usual format of scientific and engineering conferences. It provides a unique opportunity for industrialists, economists, the engineering and scientific communities, and research and development establishments to be briefed on critical issues relating to engineering materials and the effect of these materials on the manufacturing, service, health, strategic and minerals industries. Profitability and productivity in industry can often be linked to engineering materials and their in-service performance. Major surveys conducted in South Africa and developed countries have revealed the significance of losses to industry due to materials degradation problems such as fracture, wear, corrosion etc. One of the papers delivered at this symposium focus on the nuclear engineering industry, namely the application of materials in the field of uranium enrichment

  18. Modelling Ultraviolet Irradiance in South Africa

    Human, S.; Bajic, V

    2000-07-01

    South Africa (SA) is a country with a variety of climatic regions and topological diversity. The southernmost town in SA, Cape Agulhas (34 S, 19 E), is on about the same latitude as Perth and Sydney in Australia. UV (author)ivity. Hthan 10 are common in SA. This high level of UV radiation potentially causes many health problems resulting in high rates of skin cancer, eye disorders etc. A method is presented for inferring a level of UV irradiance from imprecise measurements. The method uses nine measured or estimated variables to infer the UV index. It employs a system of five artificial neural networks to convert the information contained in measured/estimated data into the UV index. The results obtained are of considerable statistical significance. It should be mentioned that the other statistical techniques used, such as linear and/or non-linear regression, did not produce satisfactory results. (author)

  19. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  20. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  1. Masivukeni: Development of a Multimedia Based Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence Intervention for Counselors and Patients in South Africa

    Remien, Robert H; Mellins, Claude A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Kelsey, Ryan; Rowe, Jessica; Warne, Patricia; Chowdhury, Jenifar; Lalkhen, Nuruneesa; Hoppe, Lara; Abrams, Elaine J.; El-Bassel, Nabila; Witte, Susan; Stein, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    Effective medical treatment for HIV/AIDS requires patients’ optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). In resource-constrained settings, lack of adequate standardized counseling for patients on ART remains a significant barrier to adherence. Masivukeni (“Lets Wake Up” in Xhosa) is an innovative multimedia-based intervention designed to help people living with HIV in resource-limited settings achieve and maintain high levels of ART adherence. Adapted from a couples-based intervention tested in the United States (US), Masivukeni was developed through community-based participatory research with US and South African partners and informed by Ewart’s Social Action Theory. Innovative computer-based multimedia strategies were used to translate a labor- and training-intensive intervention into one that could be readily and widely used by lay counselors with relatively little training with low-literacy patients. In this paper, we describe the foundations of this new intervention, the process of its development, and the evidence of its high acceptability and feasibility. PMID:23468079

  2. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  3. A measure of South Africa's health care.

    de Selincourt, K

    Nurses provide the bulk of health care in South Africa. For example, in 1 of the biggest and poorest townships Khayelitsha, nurses treat malnourished mothers and children and offer primary health care services. Physicians tend to work in township clinics on a part-time basis and supervise nurse-advised treatments over the telephone. Most physicians do not speak the language of the people living in the township which is Xhosa. Thus they often depend on a nurse to serve as interpreter for Xhosa-speaking patients which takes the nurse away from her duties. Some clinics never receive physician supervision or services. Nurses spend much of their time sharing their skills and knowledge with clients. Nutrition workers and other staff back up nurses at the clinics. They sometimes are mothers whose children were at one time malnourished. Since they have the basic skills and knowledge, clinic staff provide treatment for straightforward conditions such as scabies. Nurses working in hospital in Khayelitsha also have many responsibilities. For example, they do the initial psychiatric assessment and decide whether to send a patient immediately to Valkenburg Psychiatric Hospital or to schedule the patient for an appointment with the physician at the satellite psychiatric clinic at Khayelitsha Hospital where psychiatrists come only twice/week. They sometimes make home visits which results in them also providing primary care. Unlike nurses not working in the hospital, the nurses at the hospital have good medical support. Both black and white nurses in South Africa work in the same clinics despite the country's policy of separateness. A shortage of nurses is 1 reason for this integration. Black nurses still encounter discrimination when applying for jobs and, until recently, made less money for the same work than white nurses.

  4. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  5. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  6. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Surridge, A D; Grobbelaar, C J; Asamoah, J K [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  7. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa.

    Fang, Xiangming; Zheng, Xiaodong; Fry, Deborah A; Ganz, Gary; Casey, Tabitha; Hsiao, Celia; Ward, Catherine L

    2017-11-22

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal) in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion)-or 4.3% of South Africa's gross domestic product (GDP) in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion) and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million), respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million) on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa's future.

  8. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-01

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete

  9. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  10. Do gifts increase consent to home-based HIV testing? A difference-in-differences study in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    McGovern, Mark E; Herbst, Kobus; Tanser, Frank; Mutevedzi, Tinofa; Canning, David; Gareta, Dickman; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-12-01

    Despite the importance of HIV testing for controlling the HIV epidemic, testing rates remain low. Efforts to scale up testing coverage and frequency in hard-to-reach and at-risk populations commonly focus on home-based HIV testing. This study evaluates the effect of a gift (a US$5 food voucher for families) on consent rates for home-based HIV testing. We use data on 18 478 individuals (6 418 men and 12 060 women) who were successfully contacted to participate in the 2009 and 2010 population-based HIV surveillance carried out by the Wellcome Trust's Africa Health Research Institute in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Of 18 478 potential participants contacted in both years, 35% (6 518) consented to test in 2009, and 41% (7 533) consented to test in 2010. Our quasi-experimental difference-in-differences approach controls for unobserved confounding in estimating the causal effect of the intervention on HIV-testing consent rates. Allocation of the gift to a family in 2010 increased the probability of family members consenting to test in the same year by 25 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI) 21-30 percentage points; P  < 0.001]. The intervention effect persisted, slightly attenuated, in the year following the intervention (2011). In HIV hyperendemic settings, a gift can be highly effective at increasing consent rates for home-based HIV testing. Given the importance of HIV testing for treatment uptake and individual health, as well as for HIV treatment-as-prevention strategies and for monitoring the population impact of the HIV response, gifts should be considered as a supportive intervention for HIV-testing initiatives where consent rates have been low. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  11. Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and ...

    Reshaping skills policy in South Africa: structures, policies and processes. ... New Agenda: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy ... South African skills development policy since the promulgation of the Skills Development Act of 1998 has undergone a number of different iterations or attempts at accelerating ...

  12. Dilemma of muslim women regarding divorce in South Africa | Gabru ...

    On a daily basis people enquire about the dissolution of Islamic marriages, in terms of South African law In South Africa. There exist no legal grounds for obtaining a divorce in a South African court, for persons married in terms of the Islamic law only. The reason for this is due to the fact that Muslim marriages are currently ...

  13. Perceptions and Misperceptions: The Middle East and South Africa.

    Moore, Michael; Tyson, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Reports findings of a study examining the opinions and awareness level of South African, Israeli, and United States undergraduates about conflicts in either the Middle East or South Africa. Finds religious and racial characteristics determining differences in knowledge level and political support. Reveals South African Blacks and U.S. students…

  14. Regional Dimensions of South Africa's CAADP Process: Lessons from West Africa

    Haggblade, Steven; Staaz, John; Boughton, Duncan; Diallo, Boubacar; Meyer, Ferdinand; Minde, Issac Joseph; Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Tschirley, David

    2015-01-01

    Regional spillovers offer prospects for accelerating Africa’s agricultural productivity growth, market development and food security. West Africa has recognised and embraced the importance of regional technology transfers, agricultural commodity trade, food security monitoring and agricultural planning. In order for the Southern African region to follow suit, South Africa’s country Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) plan will need to recognise the country’s c...

  15. Introduction: popular economies in South Africa

    Elizabeth Hull; Deborah James

    2012-01-01

    African economies have long been a matter of concern to anthropologists, not least in the pages of Africa. These economies are situated, somewhat contradictorily, between global settings of financialized capitalism on the one hand and impoverished local arenas where cash-based economic transfers predominate on the other. The more such economies appear to be tied to wider global arenas and operations that place them beyond the reach of ordinary people, the more necessary it is to explore the l...

  16. Positron emitting radionuclides for South Africa

    Wynchbank, S.; Van der Walt, T.N.; Sharpey-Shafer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In South Africa there are currently two projects underway to supply and utilise positron emitting radionuclides for imaging in clinical nuclear medicine facilities. The advantages and applications of such radio nuclides are numerous and well known. However the premier initial application will be to employ 1BF, at first in the compound fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F)-FDG, for patients with cancers and neoplasms. The two projects are sited at iThemba LABS, where production of a generator supplying 66 Ga and the provision of ( 18 F]-FDG, are in an advanced state of planning; the former already fully financed by the Innovation Fund of the National Research Foundation. The two positron emitting radionuclides, 18 F and 68 Ge, will be produced using a cyclotron induced reaction on 1802 and Ga, respectively, at iThemba LABS. The 68 Ge/ 68 Ga generator consists of an anion exchanger loaded with 68 Ge, which decays to 68 Ga. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals, ( 18 F]-FDG and 68 Ga citrate, will be produced by the Radionuclide Production Group of iThemba LABS, using well described methods. However the structures and processes to be used in the generator to provide 68 Ga are novel and will be explained. Initially provision of the CBF]-FDG will be to selected clinical medicine facilities in the Western Cape and Gauteng. It should be noted that the logistical problems of providing this radiopharmaceutical (which are much complicated by its short half life of 109.7 min) to Gauteng, were shown to be surmountable in the 1970s, by a regular delivery of 18 F between Gauteng and Cape Town, after the advent of a commercial service using jet aircraft. The obvious requirement that there should be appropriate nuclear medicine facilities to image patients, at the sites to which the positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals will be supplied, has been addressed. Proposed solutions will be outlined, in terms of a dedicated positron emission tomography (PET) camera and a gamma

  17. 'When the skies fight': HIV, violence and pathways of precarity in South Africa

    Mills, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence....

  18. The Determinants of Household Poverty in South Africa

    Ajuruchukwu Obi; Sanelise Tafa

    2016-01-01

    South Africa was privileged to be part of the MDGs agenda which was adopted in 2000. One of the aims of MDGs was to reduce extreme poverty by half in 2015. For that reason, South Africa integrated policies and strategies to rid poverty by half to that of United Nations (UN). Through all the combined policy approaches, South Africa has successfully achieved the target of halving the population living below PPP$1.25c per person per day. Whichever threshold used, the results showed that the perc...

  19. Carbon storage in eucalyptus and pine plantations in South Africa

    Christie, SI

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available of such functions, determined from forestry trial data in South Africa, are shown below. Harrison et al. (1994) give the following result for P. patula in Nelshoogte, South Africa: Vste, . = Vf~,,at(1- exp(-0.141 l(1-0.6782exp(-O.OO13TP))i)) 3"°935 with n = 218... an expected life of more than 20 years. In South Africa most construction timber falls into this category, as well as timber destined to be permanently buried underground as mine supports. The C stored in timber products can be calculated as: Cp = ~aVkPk E...

  20. Perceptions of rewards among volunteer caregivers of people living with AIDS working in faith-based organizations in South Africa: a qualitative study.

    Akintola, Olagoke

    2010-06-14

    Volunteer caregivers are a critical source of support for the majority of people living with HIV and AIDS in southern Africa, which has extremely high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates. While studies have shown that volunteer caregiving is associated with negative health and socio-economic outcomes, little is known about the positive experiences of volunteers in the home-based care context in South Africa. The purpose of this study is to explore the perception of rewards among volunteers working in home-based care settings. This study uses a qualitative design. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposively selected sample of 55 volunteer caregivers using an interview schedule containing open-ended questions. Volunteer caregivers derived intrinsic rewards related to self-growth and personal (emotional and psychological) development on the job; they also derived satisfaction from community members taking a liking for them and expressing a need for their services. Volunteers felt gratified by the improvements in their health behaviours, which were a direct consequence of the experiences of caring for terminally ill patients with AIDS. Extrinsic rewards came from appreciation and recognition shown by patients and community members. Extrinsic rewards also accrued to volunteers when the services they rendered made their patients happy. Perhaps the greatest sources of extrinsic rewards are skills and competencies acquired from training and experience while caring for their patients, and volunteers' ability to make a difference in the community. Insights into volunteer caregiver rewards provide opportunities for policy makers and programme managers to develop a model of home-based care that facilitates the accrual of rewards to volunteers alongside volunteers' traditional duties of patient care. Programme managers could employ these insights in recruiting and assisting volunteers to identify and reflect on rewards in the caregiving situation as a means of reducing the

  1. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  2. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  3. Patient experiences and health system responsiveness in South Africa

    Peltzer Karl

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients' views are being given more and more importance in policy-making. Understanding populations' perceptions of quality of care is critical to developing measures to increase the utilization of primary health care services. Using the data from the South African World Health Survey (WHS, the current study aims to evaluate the degree of health care service responsiveness (both out-patient and in-patient and comparing experiences of individuals who used public and private services in South Africa. Methods A population-based survey of 2352 participants (1116 men and 1236 women was conducted in South Africa in 2003, the WHS – as part of a World Health Organization (WHO project focused on health system performance assessment in member countries. Results Health care utilization was among those who attended in-patient care 72.2% attended a public and 24.3% a private facility, and of those who attended out-patient care 58.7% attended a public and 35.7% a private facility. Major components identified for out-patient care responsiveness in this survey were highly correlated with health care access, communication and autonomy, secondarily to dignity, confidentiality and quality of basic amenities, and thirdly to health problem solution. The degree of responsiveness with publicly provided care was in this study significantly lower than in private health care. Overall patient non-responsiveness for the public out-patient service was 16.8% and 3.2% for private care. Discrimination was also one of the principal reasons for non-responsiveness in all aspects of provided health care. Conclusion Health care access, communication, autonomy, and discriminatory experiences were identified as priority areas for actions to improve responsiveness of health care services in South Africa.

  4. Early Childhood Development in South Africa--Progress Since the End of Apartheid

    Atmore, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In April 1994, South Africa held its historic first democratic election. The African National Congress overwhelmingly triumphed and Nelson Mandela became the first president of a free and democratic South Africa. In this review, the situation of South Africa's young children under apartheid and the context of young children in South Africa in 2012…

  5. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experiences of project developers around CDM projects in South Africa

    Thurner, Thomas W.; Varughese, Arun

    2013-01-01

    Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process of evaluating and registering their CDM projects. In addition to other obstacles, we find that South African big businesses are rather reluctant to engage in any new business activities such as CDM projects and municipalities often lack the necessary flexibility. This offers opportunities for small-scale project developers who spot the opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome these difficulties. - Highlights: • First paper analysing the experience of small project developers in South Africa. • Project developers in South Africa are puzzled with the long process. • South African big businesses are reluctant to engage in CDM projects. • Small-scale project developers spot opportunities and find creative solutions to overcome difficulties. • Also, we saw learning processes of South African administration in support of CDM projects

  7. Measuring the impact of marginal tax rate reform on the revenue base of South Africa using a microsimulation tax model

    Yolande Jordaan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is primarily concerned with the revenue and tax efficiency effects of adjustments to marginal tax rates on individual income as an instrument of possible tax reform. The hypothesis is that changes to marginal rates affect not only the revenue base, but also tax efficiency and the optimum level of taxes that supports economic growth. Using an optimal revenue-maximising rate (based on Laffer analysis, the elasticity of taxable income is derived with respect to marginal tax rates for each taxable-income category. These elasticities are then used to quantify the impact of changes in marginal rates on the revenue base and tax efficiency using a microsimulation (MS tax model. In this first paper on the research results, much attention is paid to the structure of the model and the way in which the database has been compiled. The model allows for the dissemination of individual taxpayers by income groups, gender, educational level, age group, etc. Simulations include a scenario with higher marginal rates which is also more progressive (as in the 1998/1999 fiscal year, in which case tax revenue increases but the increase is overshadowed by a more than proportional decrease in tax efficiency as measured by its deadweight loss. On the other hand, a lowering of marginal rates (to bring South Africa’s marginal rates more in line with those of its peers improves tax efficiency but also results in a substantial revenue loss. The estimated optimal individual tax to gross domestic product (GDP ratio in order to maximise economic growth (6.7 per cent shows a strong response to changes in marginal rates, and the results from this research indicate that a lowering of marginal rates would also move the actual ratio closer to its optimum level. Thus, the trade-off between revenue collected and tax efficiency should be carefully monitored when personal income tax reform is being considered.

  8. Impact of Targeted Tuberculosis Vaccination Among a Mining Population in South Africa: A Model-Based Study.

    Shrestha, Sourya; Chihota, Violet; White, Richard G; Grant, Alison D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Dowdy, David W

    2017-12-15

    Optimizing the use of new tools, such as vaccines, may play a crucial role in reaching global targets for tuberculosis (TB) control. Some of the most promising candidate vaccines target adults, although high-coverage mass vaccinations may be logistically more challenging among this population than among children. Vaccine-delivery strategies that target high-risk groups or settings might yield proportionally greater impact than do those that target the general population. We developed an individual-based TB transmission model representing a hypothetical population consisting of people who worked in South African gold mines or lived in associated labor-sending communities. We simulated the implementation of a postinfection adult vaccine with 60% efficacy and a mean effect duration of 10 years. We then compared the impact of a mine-targeted vaccination strategy, in which miners were vaccinated while in the mines, with that of a community-targeted strategy, in which random individuals within the labor-sending communities were vaccinated. Mine-targeted vaccination averted an estimated 0.37 TB cases per vaccine dose compared with 0.25 for community-targeted vaccination, for a relative efficacy of 1.46 (95% range, 1.13-1.91). The added benefit of mine-targeted vaccination primarily reflected the disproportionate demographic burden of TB among the population of adult males as a whole. As novel vaccines for TB are developed, venue-based vaccine delivery that targets high-risk demographic groups may improve both vaccine feasibility and the impact on transmission. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Medics on the Move South Africa: Access to Medical Words

    Kris Van de Poel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available South African medical students who are Cuban-trained and therefore Spanish- speaking, on their return to South Africa need to learn medical vocabulary, terminology, and appropriate interactional discourse in the two major languages of English and Afrikaans, in order to be able to practise professional medicine effectively and efficiently. Indeed, their language problems are further compounded by differences in medical equipment and in medical practices between Cuba and South Africa. To meet these particular students’ needs and provide a communication support tool, the concept of a paper-based pocket-size multi-lingual illustrated dictionary was introduced as an additional component in a blended learning approach, to complement online materials called MoM-SA. The dictionary, to which students are invited to add material, has word lists in English, Afrikaans and Spanish, and offers links to the online materials. Students can add terminology, translations into other African languages and images, so that the dictionary grows and reflects the everyday needs of the students, who, at the same time, become co-owners of the dictionary; thus, process has become content and, as a result, learner motivation has increased.

  10. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in two communities of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Strebel, A; Crawford, M; Shefer, T; Cloete, A; Henda, N; Kaufman, M; Simbayi, L; Magome, K; Kalichman, S

    2006-11-01

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence, and what they believed about the links between gender relations and HIV risk. First we conducted 16 key informant interviews with members of relevant stakeholder organisations. Then we held eight focus group discussions with community members in single-sex groups. Key findings included the perception that although traditional gender roles were still very much in evidence, shifts in power between men and women were occurring. Also, gender-based violence was regarded as a major problem throughout communities, and was seen to be fuelled by unemployment, poverty and alcohol abuse. HIV/AIDS was regarded as particularly a problem of African communities, with strong themes of stigma, discrimination, and especially 'othering' evident. Developing effective HIV/AIDS interventions in these communities will require tackling the overlapping as well as divergent constructions of gender, gender violence and HIV which emerged in the study.

  11. The battle for centre stage: Women's football in South Africa

    Engh, Mari Haugaa

    2010-01-01

    From when the first official South African Women's National Football team was established in 1993, Banyana Banyana have been 'making it happen' for women's football in South Africa. National team players have become inspirational icons and role models for thousands of South African women and girl....... Highlighting examples of battles for power and leadership, homophobic attitudes and attempts to feminise the bodies of women footballers, this Focus illustrates the hard fought victories and disappointing losses in the history of South African women's football....

  12. Sedation for paediatric auditory electrophysiology in South Africa

    emergency departments and nuclear medicine.1 Added to this is the periodic need ... electrophysiology in the paediatric population in South Africa were not found. ..... to inadequate information technology infrastructure as well as limited data ...

  13. Energy security in South America and Southern Africa: synthesis report

    Kiratu, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.

  14. All projects related to South Africa | Page 7 | IDRC - International ...

    Home · What we do / Regions and countries / South Africa ... WOMEN'S RIGHTS, LAND TENURE, GENDER ANALYSIS, GENDER EQUALITY, Gender ... over minor variants of existing products, both in developed and developing countries.

  15. an introduction to the exploration of congregations in south africa

    ... is to describe a framework for doing significant practical theological research, but also ... the research produced through theses, dissertations, journal articles and books make .... The quality of doctoral education in South Africa : A question of.

  16. Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations ...

    Water security in South Africa: perceptions on public expectations and municipal ... will in government, a need to restore citizen trust in government intention and capability ... services, and a failure to up-scale existing water re-use technology.

  17. South Africa's SAFARI From nuclear weapons to nuclear medicine ...

    ... of nuclear energy for peaceful uses, such as power generation and nuclear ... Building on its nuclear expertise, South Africa has become one of the world's ... By converting its nuclear reactor, SAFARI-1, to produce and supply medical ...

  18. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  19. Uptake and early removals of Implanon NXT in South Africa ...

    coverage over the past two decades.[3,4]. In South Africa (SA), .... with dealing with implant side-effects, counselling and management, and removal. ..... social franchising: The experience of Marie Stopes International in Mali. Glob Health: Sci ...

  20. Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ...

    Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa. ... Management of diabetic ketoacidosis · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prediabetes: a focus on the role of diabetes education in prevention of type 2 ...

  1. South Africa. The dawn of the renewable energy industry

    Forder, Stephen

    2012-07-01

    Procurement of renewable energy from Independent Power Producers is well underway in South Africa in a programme that targets 3,725 MW by 2015. Wind and solar feature prominently in the initial phase. (orig.)

  2. Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major ...

    Golf tourism in South Africa: Profiling attendees at a major championship event. ... from the less developed and developing context from an impact perspective. ... participated in various tourism activities that contributed to the local economy.

  3. Addressing tobacco smoking in South Africa: Insights from ...

    Abstract. Behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking contribute significantly to the global and local disease burden. This article surveys three behavioural science interventions that could reduce rates of tobacco smoking in South Africa.

  4. South Africa's vital statistics are currently not suitable for monitoring ...

    Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South Africa ... Cape Town: Centre for Actuarial Research, University of Cape Town, 2004. ... Bradshaw D, Kielkowski D, Sitas F. New birth and death registration forms – A foundation for ...

  5. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system

    In addition, coagulopathy may not be identified until the patient manifests with ... To develop and validate a scoring system for managing snakebites in South Africa (SA). Methods. ... that its greatest value is in identifying those patients who do ...

  6. Perpetration of gross human rights violations in South Africa ...

    ... rights violations, purposeful injury, accidental injury and domestic violence. ... Socio-demographic profiles of perpetrators of HRV and DV in South Africa differ. ... is possible that some HRV and DV perpetrators were themselves once victims.

  7. Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa ...

    Informed consent - a survey of doctors' practices in South Africa. ... whether informed consent as envisioned by the law exists in reality. Cross-cultural research is needed to clarify patients' and parents' expectations of informed consent ...

  8. Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ...

    Shallow waters: social science research in South Africa's marine ... certain issues and social interactions in the marine environment but this work is limited ... Keywords: coastal development, economics, governance, human dimensions, society

  9. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  10. Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?

    psychiatrists in South Africa to meet the country's needs. There are even fewer .... criminal justice system to hospital and or community mental health placements ... administrative meetings, other judicial activities and other clinical services4,9 ...

  11. All projects related to South Africa | Page 9 | IDRC - International ...

    Tax policies in developing countries, and indeed around the world, are under ... Region: China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Turkey, Zambia, Poland, South Africa ... Creating Global Citizens : Impact of Volunteer and Work Abroad Programs.

  12. Industrial heritage tourism at the 'Big Hole', Kimberley, South Africa ...

    , as well as lack of leadership and strategic direction for tourism development at the local government level. These issues must be addressed if heritage tourism in South Africa is to contribute successfully to local economic development.

  13. Waste Management Policy Implementation in South Africa: An ...

    implementation process, and the role of powerful actor networks in the ... Affairs and Tourism indicated his intention to rid South Africa of their 'national flower' when ... broadens policy process analysis to include both the material and social.

  14. LiveDiverse: Case study area, Greater Kruger South Africa

    Nortje, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Livelihoods and Biodiversity in Developing Countries Case study area: Greater Kruger, South Africa January 2011 Kolhapur, India Where are we? HARDSHIP LIVELIHOODS NATURE & BIODIVERSITY BELIEFS & CULTURAL PRACTISE threesansinv foursansinv onesansinv...

  15. Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa | Strydom ...

    Globalisation and higher education studies in South Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Globalisation and its impact on higher education will be discussed, while globalisation as a critical external influence on the ...

  16. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  17. The transformation of municipal development planning in South Africa

    ): Impressions and impasse. ... Town and Regional Planning ... In South Africa, the government's transformation process, which effectively started in 1994, not only resulted in a new democracy, a new governmental dispensation or a 'new ...

  18. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  19. Methods for design flood estimation in South Africa

    2012-07-04

    Jul 4, 2012 ... 1970s and are in need of updating with more than 40 years of additional data ... This paper reviews methods used for design flood estimation in South Africa and .... transposition of past experience, or a deterministic approach,.

  20. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  1. First-order regional seismotectonic model for South Africa

    Singh, M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A first-order seismotectonic model was created for South Africa. This was done using four logical steps: geoscientific data collection, characterisation, assimilation and zonation. Through the definition of subunits of concentrations of earthquake...

  2. Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers ...

    Retaining professional nurses in South Africa: Nurse managers' perspectives. ... This implies that creating a favourable environment in the workplace situation ... Unsafe working environments and a lack of resources threaten the safety and ...

  3. Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ...

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... freshwaters, implemented through a water resource classifica- tion system ... piled for each of South Africa's 19 Water Management Areas, which are ..... et al., 2011) and integrated water and land-use prioritisation. (Nel et al.

  4. Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change ...

    Canada-South Africa trilateral Research Chair in climate change and ... Decreasing food availability for wildlife is likely to exacerbate the impacts of climate change ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  5. Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping ...

    Food and beverage marketing to children in South Africa: mapping the terrain. ... Food marketing to children has in recent years come under scrutiny as one of the putative factors ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Negation and Affirmation: a critique of sociology in South Africa

    2013-12-17

    Dec 17, 2013 ... Eurocentrism, sociology of religion, inter-religious dialogue, Ibn. Khaldun, paper read at ... Unpublished Master's Thesis. University of South Africa. ... Journal of Investigative Psychology, 1(3): 191-206. Lebakeng, T.J., 2000.

  7. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoreticanalysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game ...

    Bargaining for Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa: A Game-Theoretic Analysis. ... Using game-theoretic analysis, the authors model the truth-amnesty game and predict the optimal commission strategy. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. South Africa's hydropolitical history: actors, actions, roles, and responsibilities

    Findlater, KM

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the arrival of the Dutch in 1652, water resource development in South Africa has been driven by political ideology and rising demand for limited resources, forcing major changes in policy and institutional capacity over time. Understanding...

  10. Investigating smallholder farmers’ exclusion from credit markets in South Africa

    Joseph Chisasa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Access to credit by smallholder farmers in South Africa has been empirically observed to be characterised by a variety constraints. This paper examines the demographic, financial and economic characteristics of smallholder farmers in order to gain a better understanding of why smallholder farmers are excluded from formal credit markets. The paper uses survey data collected from 362 smallholder farmers randomly selected from Mpumalanga and North West Provinces of South Africa. Using descriptive analysis, the paper observes that smallholder farmers have low annual turnover, low demand for credit and often with a family culture not to borrow. The paper concludes that smallholder farmers in South Africa are still financially excluded, particularly from the formal banking systems. Results of this paper demonstrate a need for a review of financial policies in favour of increasing the supply of financial services, particularly credit to smallholder farmers if South Africa is to achieve its Millenium Development Goals of employment creation and poverty alleviation.

  11. Performance of autopsies in South Africa: Selected legal and ethical ...

    2012-02-01

    Feb 1, 2012 ... In South Africa, academic and/or anatomical pathology autopsies are conducted in terms ... She is involved in the co-ordination of the academic programme in the department and teaching of undergraduate ... The incidence.

  12. Development of pesticide use maps for South Africa

    Dabrowski, James M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3000 pesticides are registered for use in South Africa. Many studies have highlighted the movement of pesticides to agricultural crops from the point of application into non-target environments, particularly surface and groundwater resources...

  13. A Political and Social History of HIV in South Africa.

    Simelela, Nono; Venter, W D Francois; Pillay, Yogan; Barron, Peter

    2015-06-01

    For the past 25 years, South Africa has had to deal with the inexorable and monumental rise of HIV. From one or two isolated cases, in the late 1980s, South Africa now has an estimated 6.4 million people infected with HIV, with high rates of concomitant tuberculosis, which will profoundly affect the country for decades to come. For nearly 10 years, the South African government's response to the HIV epidemic was described as denialist, which was estimated to have resulted in the deaths of 330,000 people because lifesaving antiretroviral therapy (ART) was not provided (Chigwedere et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 49:410-15, 2008; Heywood 2004). However, the story of the HIV and AIDS response in South Africa over the past 5 years is one of great progress after almost a decade of complex and tragic denialism that united civil society in a way not seen since the opposition to apartheid. Today, South Africa can boast of close to 3 million people on ART, by far the largest number in the world. Prevention efforts appear to be yielding results but there continues to be large numbers of new infections, with a profound peak in incidence in young women aged 15 to 24 years. In addition, infections occur across the gender spectrum in older age groups. As a result of the massive increase in access to ART after 2004 and particularly after 2008 as political will towards the HIV ART programme improved, there has been a marked increase in life expectancy, from 56 to 61 years in the period 2009-2012 alone; the aggressive expansion of the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) to HIV-positive pregnant women has been accompanied by dramatic decrease in HIV transmission to infants; and a 25 % decrease in child and infant mortality rates in the period 2009-2012. This progress in access is significantly due to a civil society movement that was prepared to pose a rights-based challenge to a governing party in denial and to brave health officials, politicians and clinicians

  14. Access to Justice in South Africa: Are there Enough Lawyers?

    David Mcquoid-Mason

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses head on the contention by a prominent legal practitioner in South Africa that there are too many lawyers in the country. It does not canvass the complex issues involved in determining the meaning of access to justice or the relationship between law and society in the context of legal services, and deals with access to justice in the narrow sense of the delivery of legal services in South Africa. The paper analyses the evidence presented to substantiate the contention that...

  15. Some examples of tactical crime mapping in South Africa

    Cooper, Antony K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica AntonyCooperandPeterSchmitz icomtek,CSIR,POBox395,Pretoria,0001,SouthAfrica Email:acooper@csir.co.za,pschmitz@csir.co.za 7January2002 1.Background TheCouncilforScientificandIndustrialResearch(CSIR)isoneofeightstatutoryScienceCouncils in...,especiallyPietByleveld,Andrew Davidson,BarkiesBarkhuizen,GerritRobbertse,KevinRossouwandChrisNaude. 6.References AntonyKCooper,PietByleveldandPeterMUSchmitz,“UsingGIStoreconcilecrimesceneswith thoseindicatedbyserialcriminals”,paperpresentedattheFifthInternationalCrime Mapping...

  16. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  17. Theories of distributive justice and post-apartheid South Africa

    Knight, Carl

    2014-01-01

    South Africa is a highly distributively unequal country, and its inequality continues to be largely along racial lines. Such circumstances call for assessment from the perspective of contemporary theories of distributive justice. Three such theories—Rawlsian justice, utilitarianism, and luck egalitarianism—are described and applied. Rawls' difference principle recommends that the worst off be made as well as they can be, a standard which South Africa clearly falls short of. Utilitarianism rec...

  18. Intellectual capital management in a retail company in South Africa

    2009-01-01

    M.A. The competitive landscape in the retail sector in South Africa is changing, and new models of competitiveness are needed to deal with the challenges ahead. The responses that usually occur in relation to the above statement reveal a new competitive reality, demanding that the organisation’s capabilities will enable the retail company in South Africa to better serve their customers and to differentiate them from competitors. This dissertation is about determining the status of the meas...

  19. Determinants of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years in South Africa: a 2012 population-based national household survey.

    Mabaso, Musawenkosi; Sokhela, Zinhle; Mohlabane, Neo; Chibi, Buyisile; Zuma, Khangelani; Simbayi, Leickness

    2018-01-26

    South Africa is making tremendous progress in the fight against HIV, however, adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 years (AGYW) remain at higher risk of new HIV infections. This paper investigates socio-demographic and behavioural determinants of HIV infection among AGYW in South Africa. A secondary data analysis was undertaken based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Multivariate stepwise backward and forward regression modelling was used to determine factors independently associated with HIV prevalence. Out of 3092 interviewed and tested AGYW 11.4% were HIV positive. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher among young women (17.4%) compared to adolescent girls (5.6%). In the AGYW model increased risk of HIV infection was associated with being young women aged 20-24 years (OR = 2.30, p = 0.006), and condom use at last sex (OR = 1.91, p = 0.010), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.06, p girls model decreased risk of HIV infection was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.01, p < 0.001), being married (OR = 0.07), p = 0.016], and living in less poor household (OR = 0.08, p = 0.002). In the young women's models increased risk of HIV infection was associated with condom use at last sex (OR = 2.09, p = 0.013), and decreased likelihood was associated with other race groups (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), one sexual partner (OR = 0.6, p = 0.014), low risk alcohol use (OR = 0.17, p < 0.001), having a sexual partner within 5 years of age (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022), and having tertiary education (OR = 0.29, p = 0.022). These findings support the need to design combination prevention interventions which simultaneously address socio-economic drivers of the HIV epidemic, promote education, equity and access to schooling, and target age-disparate partnerships

  20. Description of the Friesian Horse population of South Africa and ...

    Data obtained from the Friesian Horse Studbook of Southern Africa and Friesian Horse Breeders\\' Society of South Africa were analyzed to describe and evaluate the population regarding inbreeding and morphological body measurements. Eight different body measurements (height at withers, height of back, height of ...

  1. South Africa: time is ripe for independent power

    Webb, C.

    2009-09-15

    Africa's biggest producer of electricity Eskom, is at a crossroad. Almost 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated by coal-fired power stations. On-off plans for nuclear power seem to be 'on' again and the regulatory red tape that has thwarted independent power producers could be cut. 3 photos.

  2. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  3. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  4. Democratic South Africa in the International Migration–Development ...

    sub-Saharan Africa. However, the country has also experienced defi cits in net international migration relative to the core Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) region of the world system. The tentative conclusion to be drawn from. South Africa's involvement in international migration is that it has ...

  5. Suicide prevention: A proposed national strategy for South Africa ...

    Suicidal behaviour is an important public health problem globally and in Africa. A brief overview of the nature and severity of the problem is provided, but the primary aim of this paper is to identify priorities and prevention strategies for reducing suicidal behaviour in South Africa by discussing a framework for a proposed ...

  6. Twenty years of punishment (and democracy) in South Africa

    in 2004, South Africa has the highest incarceration rate in Africa and one of the highest in the world.2 In. 2013, the number of people serving life imprisonment stood at 11 000, as opposed to 400 in 1994.3. Democratisation has thus brought with it a dramatic increase in long-term prison sentences, ranging from seven years ...

  7. Supporting Child-Headed Households in South Africa: Whose Best Interests?

    Dijk, D.A. van; Driel, F.T.M. van

    2009-01-01

    This article examines assumptions about the provision of support for children and young people in child-headed households in sub-Saharan Africa. The South African example is used to assess appropriate family- and community-based support and assistance. The South African Children's Act proposes that

  8. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  9. The importance of the quality or type of fat in the diet: a food–based dietary guideline for South Africa

    Smuts, C.M.; Wolmarans, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the latest total fat intake data for South Africa, as well as scientific evidence on the effect of the total amount and quality or type of fat in the diet. The total fat intake of South Africans is within the goal of ≤ 30% of total energy, but the quality or type of fat in the diet requires attention. Fats are key nutrients required for early growth and development, and influence the body’s response to nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases late...

  10. Adolescent Linkage to Care After a Large-scale Transfer From a Hospital-based HIV Clinic to the Public Sector in South Africa.

    Ramirez-Avila, Lynn; Regan, Susan; Cloete, Christie; Crankshaw, Tamaryn; Rabideau, Dustin J; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P; Losina, Elena; Bassett, Ingrid V

    2017-03-01

    HIV clinics formerly supported by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief are transferring patients to public-sector clinics. We evaluated adolescent linkage to care after a large-scale transfer from a President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief-subsidized pediatric HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. All adolescents (11-18 years) in care at a pediatric state-subsidized, hospital-based clinic (HBC) were transferred, from May to June 2012, to government sites [primary health care (PHC) clinic; community health center (CHC); and HBCs] or private clinics. Caregivers were surveyed 7-8 months after transfer to assess their adolescents' linkage to care and their reports were validated by clinic record audits in a subset of randomly selected clinics. Of the 309 (91%) caregivers reached, only 5 (2%) reported that their adolescent did not link. Of the 304 adolescents who linked, 105 (35%) were referred to a PHC, 73 (24%) to a CHC and 106 (35%) to a HBC. A total of 146 (48%) linked adolescents attended a different clinic than that assigned. Thirty-five (20%) of the 178 who linked and were assigned to a PHC or CHC ultimately attended a HBC. Based on clinic validation, the estimated transfer success was 88% (95% confidence interval: 77%-97%). The large majority of adolescents successfully transferred to a new HIV clinic, although nearly half attended a clinic other than that assigned.

  11. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  12. Implementation of Adolescent-Friendly Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using a School Based Recruitment Program in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Montague, Carl; Ngcobo, Nelisiwe; Mahlase, Gethwana; Frohlich, Janet; Pillay, Cheryl; Yende-Zuma, Nonhlanhla; Humphries, Hilton; Dellar, Rachael; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from South Africa demonstrate that risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in males increases dramatically after adolescence. Targeting adolescent HIV-negative males may be an efficient and cost-effective means of maximising the established HIV prevention benefits of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in high HIV prevalence-, low circumcision practice-settings. This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting male high school students for...

  13. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  14. Assuming too much? Participatory water resource governance in South Africa.

    Brown, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that participation in natural resource management, which is often coupled with moves for more local ownership of decision making, is based on three sets of assumptions: about the role of the state, the universality of application of such approaches and the transformatory potential of institutional reform. The validity of these assumptions requires investigation in view of the rapid institutionalisation and scaling-up of participatory approaches, particularly in developing country contexts. Post-apartheid South Africa is widely recognised as a pioneer of participatory and devolutionary approaches, particularly in the field of water resources. It is 12 years since the promulgation of the forward-thinking 1998 National Water Act, and thus an opportune moment to reflect on South Africa's experiences of participatory governance. Drawing on empirical research covering the establishment of the first Catchment Management Agency, and the transformation of existing Irrigation Boards into more inclusive Water User Associations in the Inkomati Water Management Area, it emerges that there may be fundamental weaknesses in the participatory model and underlying assumptions, and indeed such approaches may actually reinforce inequitable outcomes: the legacy of long-established institutional frameworks and powerful actors therein continues to exert influence in post-apartheid South Africa, and has the potential to subvert the democratic and redistributive potential of the water reforms. It is argued that a reassessment of the role of the state is necessary: where there is extreme heterogeneity in challenging catchments more, rather than less, state intervention may be required to uphold the interests of marginalised groups and effect redistribution.

  15. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  16. Using catchment areas analysis and GIS based spatial analysis for prioritising spatial investment in non-metro South Africa

    Green, Chéri A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available for social facility provision. A geo-spatially targeted hierarchy of places was also identified to prioritise investment of regional middle order facilities in “Service Malls” located in the most optimal towns to best serve non-metropolitan areas in South...

  17. Community Development as an Approach to Community Engagement in Rural-Based Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Netshandama, V. O.

    2010-01-01

    The premise of this article is that the "jury is still out" to describe what effective Community Engagement entails in South African higher education institutions. The current discussions about community engagement and service learning do not cover the primary objective of adding value to the community, particularly of the rural-based…

  18. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  19. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  20. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  1. Marine fisheries monitoring programmes in South Africa

    M. Mayekiso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was an early leader in multidisciplinary studies of marine resources, particularly with the Benguela Ecology Programme in the 1980s and 1990s and catch records are available for some species dating back more than a century. Resources data have focused on trends in catches, fishing effort and changes in distribution and abundance of harvested resources, which often account for a major part of the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. Data have been collected by means of fishery-dependent and fishery-independent survey techniques appropriate to each particular stock and analysed using traditional single species stock assessment techniques. The data are complemented by comprehensive information on the environment and top predators and have been analysed using trophodynamic models such as Ecopath with Ecosim. Future approaches include a shift to an ecosystem approach to fisheries monitoring and management, in an attempt to reconcile utilisation and biodiversity conservation objectives. Despite these scientific achievements, the single species approach to the management of most resources still persists, with only limited interactions between competing species or predators and prey being formally taken into account when modelling the stock dynamics and providing management advice to the authorities.

  2. Cost analysis of two community-based HIV testing service modalities led by a Non-Governmental Organization in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Meehan, Sue-Ann; Beyers, Nulda; Burger, Ronelle

    2017-12-02

    In South Africa, the financing and sustainability of HIV services is a priority. Community-based HIV testing services (CB-HTS) play a vital role in diagnosis and linkage to HIV care for those least likely to utilise government health services. With insufficient estimates of the costs associated with CB-HTS provided by NGOs in South Africa, this cost analysis explored the cost to implement and provide services at two NGO-led CB-HTS modalities and calculated the costs associated with realizing key HIV outputs for each CB-HTS modality. The study took place in a peri-urban area where CB-HTS were provided from a stand-alone centre and mobile service. Using a service provider (NGO) perspective, all inputs were allocated by HTS modality with shared costs apportioned according to client volume or personnel time. We calculated the total cost of each HTS modality and the cost categories (personnel, capital and recurring goods/services) across each HTS modality. Costs were divided into seven pre-determined project components, used to examine cost drivers. HIV outputs were analysed for each HTS modality and the mean cost for each HIV output was calculated per HTS modality. The annual cost of the stand-alone and mobile modalities was $96,616 and $77,764 respectively, with personnel costs accounting for 54% of the total costs at the stand-alone. For project components, overheads and service provision made up the majority of the costs. The mean cost per person tested at stand-alone ($51) was higher than at the mobile ($25). Linkage to care cost at the stand-alone ($1039) was lower than the mobile ($2102). This study provides insight into the cost of an NGO led CB-HTS project providing HIV testing and linkage to care through two CB-HIV testing modalities. The study highlights; (1) the importance of including all applicable costs (including overheads) to ensure an accurate cost estimate that is representative of the full service implementation cost, (2) the direct link between test

  3. The Economic Burden of Violence against Children in South Africa

    Xiangming Fang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the economic burden of violence against children in South Africa. We assembled summative estimates of lifetime prevalence, calculated the magnitude of associations with negative outcomes, and thereby estimated the economic burden of violence against children. According to our calculations, 2.3 million and 84,287 disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs lost in South Africa in 2015 were attributable to nonfatal and fatal violence against children, respectively. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children (including both fatal and nonfatal in South Africa in 2015 totalled ZAR173 billion (US $13.5 billion—or 4.3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP in 2015. In addition, the reduced earnings attributable to childhood physical violence and emotional violence in South Africa in 2015 were ZAR25.2 billion (US $2.0 billion and ZAR9.6 billion (US $750 million, respectively. In addition, South Africa spent ZAR1.6 billion (US $124 million on child care and protection in fiscal year 2015/2016, many of which costs are directly related to violence against children. This study confirms the importance of prioritising violence against children as a key social and economic concern for South Africa’s future.

  4. Contextualizing South Africa's participation in the SITES 2006 module

    Seugnet Blignaut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA initiated the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES 2006 - a large-scale comparative survey on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in schools. The goal was to understand the pedagogical use of ICTs in schools in 22 education systems. We aim to contextualize South Africa's participation in SITES 2006 on four levels: (i the nature and structure of the South African education system, (ii a review of South Africa's participation in SITES 2006, (iii ICT infrastructure, facilities and equipment, and (iv teachers' use of ICTs for teaching and learning. SITES 2006 administered three questionnaires to school principals, technology coordinators, and mathematics and science teachers. The final sample consisted of 666 mathematics and 622 science teachers. Although most education systems collected data via the internet, South Africa was the only country that used only a paper-and-pencil data collection strategy with an average return rate of 90%. South Africa scored low on most variables, e.g. ICT infrastructure, facilities, and equipment. A large percentage of South African teachers reported their ICT incompetence. South Africa's inability to cross the boundaries of traditional learning towards the development of 21st century teaching and learning skills inhibits social and economic growth for the development of human capital.

  5. WiN-Global 2007 Country Report for South Africa

    Naidoo, Kameshni [South African National Nuclear Regulator, 17 Atlantic Road, Duynefontein, 07441 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using

  6. South Africa. Closure plan of an operation at LILW repository in South Africa

    2001-01-01

    Vaalputs, the South African, National Radioactive Waste Management Facility, is situated in an area of the Northern Cape Province and is operated by the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited. Screening and site selection lasted from 1978-1984, construction took place from 1984 to 1986. The waste received is predominantly from the Koeberg nuclear power station and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste is disposed of in a near surface disposal facility in clay. Two trenches were excavated for use, one is used for concrete containers and one for other waste, mostly compressed trash in 200-liter drums. No capping of trenches has taken place as it was originally anticipated that the trenches would be capped after being filled. Much slower delivery of waste packages and other problems has led to a process of temporary capping

  7. Impact of nurse-delivered community-based CD4 services on facilitating pre-ART care in rural South Africa.

    Kompala, T; Moll, A P; Mtungwa, N; Brooks, R P; Friedland, G H; Shenoi, S V

    2016-08-11

    HIV testing, diagnosis and treatment programs have expanded globally, particularly in resource-limited settings. Diagnosis must be followed by determination of treatment eligibility and referral to care prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). However, barriers and delays along these early steps in the treatment cascade may impede successful ART initiation. New strategies are needed to facilitate the treatment cascade. We evaluated the role of on site CD4+ T cell count phlebotomy services by nurses in facilitating pre-ART care in a community-based voluntary counseling and testing program (CBVCT) in rural South Africa. We retrospectively evaluated CBVCT services during five continuous time periods over three years: three periods when a nurse was present on site, and two periods when the nurse was absent. When a nurse was present, CD4 count phlebotomy was performed immediately after HIV testing to determine ART eligibility. When a nurse was absent, patients were referred to their local primary care clinic for CD4 testing. For each period, we determined the proportion of HIV-positive community members who completed CD4 testing, received notification of CD4 count results, as well as the time to test completion and result notification. Between 2010 and 2013, 7213 individuals accessed CBVCT services; of these, 620 (8.6 %) individuals were HIV-positive, 205 (33.1 %) were eligible for ART according to South African national CD4 count criteria, and 78 (38.0 % of those eligible) initiated ART. During the periods when a professional nurse was available to provide CD4 phlebotomy services, HIV-positive clients were significantly more likely to complete CD4 testing than during periods when these services were not available (85.5 % vs. 37.3 %, p ART care cascade and facilitate timely entry into HIV care.

  8. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    Deon Erasmus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventual outcome that is desired. Both the applicant and the state, in its capacity of the respondent, have a broad consensus about the manner in which the institution should operate or be transformed. There is accordingly agreement regarding the eventual outcome and the shortcomings that should be addressed. The primary issue relates to the details of the implementation of the transformation of the institution in question, in order that the constitutional mandate of the institution in question will be met. An example of this form of litigation can be seen in litigation concerning the conditions in which prisoners are detained in South African prisons. The constitutional mandate for the imprisonment of offenders is contained in the Correctional Services Act. Ongoing human rights violations often take place in prisons. These include staff shortages, shortages of medical staff and facilities, prison overcrowding, inadequate staff development, the prevalence of HIV/AIDS, infrastructure defects and maintenance problems, gangsterism, requests for prisoner transfers and problems associated therewith, the ineffectiveness of parole boards, staff development needs that are not addressed, an excessive focus on security, lack of rehabilitation and vocational training programmes and assaults of prisoners. The courts have on occasion issued a structured interdict as an appropriate remedy. However, problems arise when violations are widespread and no single order can cause the

  9. Household-based prevalence of helminths and parasitic protozoa in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, assessed from faecal vault sampling.

    Trönnberg, Linda; Hawksworth, David; Hansen, Anette; Archer, Colleen; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the family-based prevalence of environmentally persistent parasites in two rural communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Samples were collected from 120 urine-diversion family toilets and screened for selected protozoa and helminths with immunomagnetic separation and the ammonium bicarbonate (AMBIC) protocol respectively. The parasites found were Ascaris lumbricoides (59%), Giardia intestinalis (54%), Trichuris trichiura (48%), Cryptosporidium spp. (21%) and Taenia spp. (18%). Only 14% of the household toilets were negative for these pathogens. The occurrence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was lower (Pparasites per gram was done for each sample and this provided realistic risk assessment data for the reuse of material from urine-diversion toilets. The high occurrence of parasites found in the two communities, in spite of sanitation and hygiene interventions in the areas, suggests an endemicity that will not be reduced without de-worming campaigns. Finally, the study showed that sampling directly from the deposited faecal material may be useful for parasitic prevalence estimations. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Benchmarking criteria for evaluating third-party logistics providers in South Africa

    Claudia Karrapan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, deemed the ‘gateway to Africa’, there is limited evidence of the existence of a survey ranking third-party logistics providers (3PLs. This lack of comparative information of the major 3PLs based on key outsourcing and ranking criteria complicates the selection process for companies that intend to contract 3PLs. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine the critical selection and ranking criteria for the creation of an index to evaluate 3PLs in South Africa for developing a 3PL benchmarking index. Method: Survey data were collected from 103 of the Top 500 Companies in Africa that use 3PLs and operate within the sectors that mostly outsource logistics services in South Africa. A factor analysis method was employed. Results: Three factors for 3PLs selection converged: service quality, information management and compliance, and collaboration. The top three ranked categories for 3PLs selection are cost and price structure, service delivery and the relationship with the 3PL provider. Most respondents (90% confirmed a need for a 3PLs index in South Africa. Conclusion: The results help managers with the strategic selection of 3PLs as these critical logistics outsourcing selection criteria can be used to evaluate and rank 3PLs prior to contracting. Based on the selection criteria for logistics outsourcing identified and ranked in this article, a ranking index for 3PLs in South Africa can be developed.

  11. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  12. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country's infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country's energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry

  13. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa | Mokgoro | Potchefstroom ...

    The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not ... In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a ... Ubuntu can therefore become central to a new South African jurisprudence ...

  14. Competitiveness of South Africa as a tourist destination | Saayman ...

    Sixty-four tour operators participated in this survey and the results showed that the assurance of safety was identified as the most important factor globally in order to be competitive. This research also identified South Africa's strengths and weaknesses as well as its competitive advantages. Safety was indicated as South ...

  15. Medication use by Team South Africa during the XXVIIIth Olympiad ...

    Objective. This descriptive study was undertaken to report the medications used by the athletes and officials of Team South Africa at the 2004 Olympic Games and to provide a model for the estimation of quantities to be used for planning support to future events. Setting. South African medical facility, 2004 Olympic Games, ...

  16. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  17. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  18. All projects related to South Africa | Page 8 | IDRC - International ...

    ... SKILL SHORTAGE, SKILLS DEVELOPMENT, SKILLED WORKERS, GLOBAL ... Region: Brazil, South America, China, Far East Asia, Europe, Russia, North and ... Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... area and makes a substantial contribution to the country's balance of payments.

  19. Experience in marketing irradiated food in South Africa

    Webb, C.P.N.

    1983-01-01

    South Africa is acknowledged as being one of the leaders in the field of food irradiation. This paper will be divided into three major sections: 1. A background of South African radiation facilities, population demographics and the retail market. 2. Commercial marketing trials, reasons and consumer reaction. 3. The future of radiation for possible food processing and its safe introduction to society

  20. Smallholder irrigation schemes in South Africa: A review of ...

    The status and characteristics of the 302 smallholder irrigation schemes found in South Africa are discussed and knowledge on South African smallholder irrigation schemes generated by the Water Research Commission (WRC) over a period of nearly 20 years is reviewed. Themes covered include planning, design and ...