WorldWideScience

Sample records for sources significant benefits

  1. Significance and potential benefits of the CTBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation is based on the Treaty stipulation on international cooperation: 'The States parties undertake to promote cooperation among themselves to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Non-proliferation Treaty in order to enable States to strengthen national implementation of verification measures; and to enable States to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes'. Political significance of the Treaty and the potential benefits of participating in the CTBT regime are exposed. It is concluded that international cooperation under the CTBT regime is an element in broadening Treaty support and participation, thereby contributing to an early establishment and the efficient operation of the Treaty verification regime. The PTS will assist the States Signatories to facilitate and promote cooperation among themselves in the fullest exchange of information relating to verification-related technologies so that they may benefit from participation in the Treaty regime

  2. Microbial Resources and Enological Significance: Opportunities and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Petruzzi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the innovative trends in the wine sector, the continuous exploration of enological properties associated with wine microbial resources represents a cornerstone driver of quality improvement. Since the advent of starter cultures technology, the attention has been focused on intraspecific biodiversity within the primary species responsible for alcoholic fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, subsequently, for the so-called ‘malolactic fermentation’ (Oenococcus oeni. However, in the last decade, a relevant number of studies proposed the enological exploitation of an increasing number of species (e.g., non-Saccharomyces yeasts associated with spontaneous fermentation in wine. These new species/strains may provide technological solutions to specific problems and/or improve sensory characteristics, such as complexity, mouth-feel and flavors. This review offers an overview of the available information on the enological/protechnological significance of microbial resources associated with winemaking, summarizing the opportunities and the benefits associated with the enological exploitation of this microbial potential. We discuss proposed solutions to improve quality and safety of wines (e.g., alternative starter cultures, multistrains starter cultures and future perspectives.

  3. Microbial Resources and Enological Significance: Opportunities and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Capozzi, Vittorio; Berbegal, Carmen; Corbo, Maria R.; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Spano, Giuseppe; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Among the innovative trends in the wine sector, the continuous exploration of enological properties associated with wine microbial resources represents a cornerstone driver of quality improvement. Since the advent of starter cultures technology, the attention has been focused on intraspecific biodiversity within the primary species responsible for alcoholic fermentation (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and, subsequently, for the so-called ‘malolactic fermentation’ (Oenococcus oeni). However, in the last decade, a relevant number of studies proposed the enological exploitation of an increasing number of species (e.g., non-Saccharomyces yeasts) associated with spontaneous fermentation in wine. These new species/strains may provide technological solutions to specific problems and/or improve sensory characteristics, such as complexity, mouth-feel and flavors. This review offers an overview of the available information on the enological/protechnological significance of microbial resources associated with winemaking, summarizing the opportunities and the benefits associated with the enological exploitation of this microbial potential. We discuss proposed solutions to improve quality and safety of wines (e.g., alternative starter cultures, multistrains starter cultures) and future perspectives. PMID:28642742

  4. Can earthquake source inversion benefit from rotational ground motion observations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, H.; Donner, S.; Reinwald, M.; Bernauer, M.; Wassermann, J. M.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the prospects of instruments to observe rotational ground motions in a wide frequency and amplitude range in the near future we engage in the question how this type of ground motion observation can be used to solve seismic inverse problems. Here, we focus on the question, whether point or finite source inversions can benefit from additional observations of rotational motions. In an attempt to be fair we compare observations from a surface seismic network with N 3-component translational sensors (classic seismometers) with those obtained with N/2 6-component sensors (with additional colocated 3-component rotational motions). Thus we keep the overall number of traces constant. Synthetic seismograms are calculated for known point- or finite-source properties. The corresponding inverse problem is posed in a probabilistic way using the Shannon information content as a measure how the observations constrain the seismic source properties. The results show that with the 6-C subnetworks the source properties are not only equally well recovered (even that would be benefitial because of the substantially reduced logistics installing N/2 sensors) but statistically significant some source properties are almost always better resolved. We assume that this can be attributed to the fact the (in particular vertical) gradient information is contained in the additional rotational motion components. We compare these effects for strike-slip and normal-faulting type sources. Thus the answer to the question raised is a definite "yes". The challenge now is to demonstrate these effects on real data.

  5. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  6. Biomass burning: A significant source of nutrients for Andean rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P. F.; Rollenbeck, R.; University Of Marburg, Germany

    2010-12-01

    Regular rain and fogwater sampling in the Podocarpus National Park,on the humid eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes,has been carried out since 2002.The samples,accumulated over about 1-week intervals,were analysed for pH,conductivity,and major ions (K+, Na+, NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, SO4 2-, NO3-, PO4 3- ).Annual deposition rates of these ions which, due to poor acidic soils with low mineralization rates,constitute the dominant nutrient supply to the mountaineous rainforests, and major ion sources could be determined using back trajectories,along with satellite data. While most of the Na, Cl, and K as well as Ca and Mg input was found to originate from natural oceanic and desert dust sources,respectively (P.Fabian et al.,Adv.Geosci.22,85-94, 2009), NO3, NH4, and about 90% of SO4 (about 10 % is from active volcanoes) are almost entirely due to anthropogenic sources,most likely biomass burning. Industrial and transportation emissions and other pollutants,however,act in a similar way as the precursors produced by biomass burning.For quantifying the impacts of biomass burning vs. those of anthropogenic sources other than biomass burning we used recently established emission inventories,along with simplified model calculations on back trajectories.First results yielding significant contributions of biomass burning will be discussed.

  7. Renewable energy sources cost benefit analysis and prospects for Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariemma, A.; Montanino, G.

    1992-01-01

    In light of Italy's over-dependency on imported oil, and due to this nation's commitment to the pursuit of the strict environmental protection policies of the European Communities, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) has become actively involved in research efforts aimed at the commercialization of renewable energy sources - photovoltaic, wind, biomass, and mini-hydraulic. Through the use of energy production cost estimates based on current and near- future levels of technological advancement, this paper assesses prospects for the different sources. The advantages and disadvantages of each source in its use as a suitable complementary energy supply satisfying specific sets of constraints regarding siting, weather, capital and operating costs, maintenance, etc., are pointed out. In comparing the various alternatives, the paper also considers environmental benefits and commercialization feasibility in terms of time and outlay

  8. The Significance of Benefit Perceptions for the Ethics of HIV Research Involving Adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Stuart; Groves, Allison K; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J; Odongo, Fredrick S; Luseno, Winnie K

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of benefits is traditionally regarded as crucial to the ethical evaluation of research involving human participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with health and other professionals engaged with adolescents, caregivers/parents, and adolescents in Siaya County, Kenya, to solicit opinions about appropriate ways of conducting HIV research with adolescents. Our data revealed that many focus group participants have a profoundly positive conception of participation in health research, including studies conferring seemingly few benefits. In this article, we identify and analyze five different but interrelated types of benefits as perceived by Kenyan adolescent and adult stakeholders in HIV research, and discuss their ethical significance. Our findings suggest that future empirical and conceptual research should concentrate on factors that may trigger researcher obligations to improve benefit perceptions among research participants.

  9. [The body as source of significance. Interdisciplinary perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofan, I A; Crumpei, Irina

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns a general theoretical aspect, followed by different examples which discusses the thesis in relation to major connected domains of research: psychology and philosophy. The thesis which we are arguing for is that the body represents a source of significance in the definitions of he self used as theoretical background in moral problems (philosophical aspect) and the explanations of the way the image of the self is constituted (psychological aspect). The philosophical "conclusion" is that the body, in its materiality, cannot be judged by the metaphysical dualism scheme, which assigns it a secondary role in the hierarchy of categories. From a psychological point of view, this paper tends to show that the body does not represent an accident of personality or a "prison of the soul" as Plato refers to it, but rather an element through which personality is built on and develops and similarly, the mental and personality structures are those which allow the forming of corporeality and then the person's reference to it.

  10. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost-benefit assessment of climate policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L; Lenton, Timothy M; Lontzek, Thomas S; Narita, Daiju

    2015-04-14

    Most current cost-benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost-benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost-benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost-benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change.

  11. Environmental tipping points significantly affect the cost−benefit assessment of climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yongyang; Judd, Kenneth L.; Lenton, Timothy M.; Lontzek, Thomas S.; Narita, Daiju

    2015-01-01

    Most current cost−benefit analyses of climate change policies suggest an optimal global climate policy that is significantly less stringent than the level required to meet the internationally agreed 2 °C target. This is partly because the sum of estimated economic damage of climate change across various sectors, such as energy use and changes in agricultural production, results in only a small economic loss or even a small economic gain in the gross world product under predicted levels of climate change. However, those cost−benefit analyses rarely take account of environmental tipping points leading to abrupt and irreversible impacts on market and nonmarket goods and services, including those provided by the climate and by ecosystems. Here we show that including environmental tipping point impacts in a stochastic dynamic integrated assessment model profoundly alters cost−benefit assessment of global climate policy. The risk of a tipping point, even if it only has nonmarket impacts, could substantially increase the present optimal carbon tax. For example, a risk of only 5% loss in nonmarket goods that occurs with a 5% annual probability at 4 °C increase of the global surface temperature causes an immediate two-thirds increase in optimal carbon tax. If the tipping point also has a 5% impact on market goods, the optimal carbon tax increases by more than a factor of 3. Hence existing cost−benefit assessments of global climate policy may be significantly underestimating the needs for controlling climate change. PMID:25825719

  12. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  13. Mushrooms: significant source of internal contamination by radiocaesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Zdenek; Benada, Jaroslav; Horyna, Jan; Klan, Jaroslav

    1990-01-01

    Various species of mushrooms and soils were analyzed for alkali elements (Rb, K) by means of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and for radiocaesium by means of gamma-ray spectrometry. There are differences between uptake of non-radioactive Cs and radiocaesium. Concentration factors for radiocaesium were higher than those for non-radioactive Cs. The highest accumulation of radio-caesium was observed in some species of the Boletus genus, Laccaria spp., Paxillus involutus, Cortinarius spp., Tylopilus felleus and in some species of the Lactarius genus. The consumption of some wild-growing mushrooms can be the most significant contribution to the exposure of population from Chernobyl fallout. (author)

  14. Internet skills, sources of support, and benefiting from internet use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Courtois, Cédric; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study added communication Internet skills to an existing skill framework of operational, formal, information, and strategic skills. The study investigated how people deal with inadequate skill levels by identifying support sources. Furthermore, we investigated which of the Internet skills

  15. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Leo, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants [it

  16. The Significance of Reporting Employee Benefits in Accordance with IFRS in the Czech Business Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Vimrová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research the results of which are presented in this paper, based on an empirical survey of forty financial statements using IFRS by non-financial companies active in the Czech business environment, is to map the process and scope of reporting of employee benefits by Czech companies applying IFRS in the preparation of their consolidated and individual financial statements and to find out the differences in the extent, detail and relevancy of reporting employee benefits in accordance with IFRS among companies whose securities are publicly traded and other companies as well as to measure the differences in the scope, detail and relevancy of reporting employee benefits in accordance with IFRS among companies which are considered the best employers in the Czech Republic and other companies, including the interpretation of results.

  17. Use of data mining to predict significant factors and benefits of bilateral cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Miguel, Angel; Perez-Zaballos, Teresa; Perez, Daniel; Falconb, Juan Carlos; Ramosb, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Data mining (DM) is a technique used to discover pattern and knowledge from a big amount of data. It uses artificial intelligence, automatic learning, statistics, databases, etc. In this study, DM was successfully used as a predictive tool to assess disyllabic speech test performance in bilateral implanted patients with a success rate above 90%. 60 bilateral sequentially implanted adult patients were included in the study. The DM algorithms developed found correlations between unilateral medical records and Audiological test results and bilateral performance by establishing relevant variables based on two DM techniques: the classifier and the estimation. The nearest neighbor algorithm was implemented in the first case, and the linear regression in the second. The results showed that patients with unilateral disyllabic test results below 70% benefited the most from a bilateral implantation. Finally, it was observed that its benefits decrease as the inter-implant time increases.

  18. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  19. Medicinal benefits of marine invertebrates: sources for discovering natural drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, Mahanama

    2012-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are one of the major groups of organisms, which could be diversified under the major taxonomic groups of Porifera, Cnidaria, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and many other minor phyla. To date, range of medicinal benefits and a significant number of marine natural products (MNPs) have been discovered from marine invertebrates. Seafood diet from edible marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans has been linked with various medicinal benefits to improve human health. Among marine invertebrates, spongers from phylum Porifera is the most dominant group responsible for discovering large number of MNPs, which have been used as template to develop therapeutic drugs. MNPs isolated from invertebrates have shown wide range of therapeutic properties including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and immune modulator, and other medicinal effects. Therefore, marine invertebrates are rich sources of chemical diversity and health benefits for developing drug candidates, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, and molecular probes that can be supported to increase the healthy life span of human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 'To give is better than to receive?' Couples massage significantly benefits both partners' wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Sayuri M; Cornelissen, Piers L; Moss, Mark

    2018-03-01

    This experimental study evaluated the differential effects of 'giving' and 'receiving' massage on wellbeing in healthy but stressed couples. Forty-two volunteers started the study and of these, 38 (i.e. 19 couples) completed a 3-week massage course. Emotional stress and mental clarity were assessed before and after mutual massage between each pair of adults belonging to a couple at home. While massage benefitted both parties' wellbeing within a session, critically we found no differences in wellbeing between those 'giving' and 'receiving' massage. These novel findings suggest that home-based massage may be advocated to couples as a 'selves-care', health-promoting behaviour.

  1. Valuing the Potential Benefits of Water Quality Improvements in Watersheds Affected by Non-Point Source Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alvarez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution has been identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA as “the nation’s largest water quality problem”. Urban development, septic systems, and agricultural operations have been identified as the major sources of diffuse pollution in surface and ground water bodies. In recent decades, urban and agricultural Best Management Practices (BMP have been developed in several states to address agricultural water quality and water use impacts, including the reduction of nutrient loads to help meet water quality standards. Compliance with BMPs is associated with some costs to local governments, homeowners, and agricultural operations, but the improvements in water quality associated with BMP adoption are expected to yield significant benefits to society in the form of improved recreational opportunities, navigation, flood control, and ecosystem health. The development of sound policies and decision making processes require balancing the costs of BMP adoption to the agricultural operations with the social benefits to be derived from the improved water quality. In this paper we develop a benefits transfer model to provide estimates of the economic benefits of properly implemented and effective Best Management Practices (BMP throughout the state of Florida. These benefit estimates can be used in a cost-benefit framework to determine the optimal level of BMP adoption throughout the state of Florida and provide a framework for other regions to estimate the potential benefits of BMP-mediated water quality improvements.

  2. Patient Segmentation Analysis Offers Significant Benefits For Integrated Care And Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuik, Sabine I; Mayer, Erik K; Darzi, Ara

    2016-05-01

    Integrated care aims to organize care around the patient instead of the provider. It is therefore crucial to understand differences across patients and their needs. Segmentation analysis that uses big data can help divide a patient population into distinct groups, which can then be targeted with care models and intervention programs tailored to their needs. In this article we explore the potential applications of patient segmentation in integrated care. We propose a framework for population strategies in integrated care-whole populations, subpopulations, and high-risk populations-and show how patient segmentation can support these strategies. Through international case examples, we illustrate practical considerations such as choosing a segmentation logic, accessing data, and tailoring care models. Important issues for policy makers to consider are trade-offs between simplicity and precision, trade-offs between customized and off-the-shelf solutions, and the availability of linked data sets. We conclude that segmentation can provide many benefits to integrated care, and we encourage policy makers to support its use. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. Health Information Sources, Perceived Vaccination Benefits, and Maintenance of Childhood Vaccination Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Juwon; Shah, Dhavan V

    2018-06-05

    Parental concerns over the safety or necessity of childhood vaccination have increased over the past decades. At the same time, there has been a proliferation of vaccine-related information available through a range of health information sources. This study investigates the associations between evaluations of health information sources, parental perceptions of childhood vaccination benefits, and the maintenance of vaccination schedules for their children. Specifically, this study aims to (a) incorporate social media into the battery of health information sources and (b) differentiate households with a childhood autism diagnosis and those without, given unsubstantiated but persistent concerns about vaccine safety and autism. Analyzing a sample of U.S. households, a total of 4,174 parents who have at least one child under the age of 18 were analyzed, including 138 of parents of households with a childhood autism diagnosis. Results show that the more the parents value interpersonal communication and magazines as sources of health information, the more they perceive vaccination benefits, and the more the value they put on television, the better they keep vaccination schedules up-to-date for their children. On the other hand, social media are negatively associated with their perceptions of vaccination benefits. Although parents of children diagnosed with autism are less likely to perceive vaccination benefits, no interaction effects with evaluations of health information sources are found on parental perceptions of vaccination benefits or maintenance of schedules.

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Most Significant Change: Source, Impact, and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, John E.; Rice, Linda J.; Dani, Danielle E.; Weade, Ginger; McKeny, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences among significant changes in the practice of individual teachers. Seventeen US teachers were interviewed about the most successful change in their teaching career. The differences in teacher change were based primarily on the source and impact of the change. The sources of change were divided…

  5. Demonstrating the benefits of fuel cells: further significant progress towards commercialisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1995-01-01

    The fourteenth Fuel Cell Seminar held in San Diego, California in 1994 is reported. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is the closest to widespread commercialization. PAFC cogeneration plants have to be shown to compare favourable in reliability with current mature natural gas-fuelled engine and turbine technologies. Although highly efficient, further development is necessary to produce cost effective generators. Progress is being made on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stationary power plants, too, which may prove to be cost effective. In view of its lower operating temperature, at below 100[sup o]C compared with about 200[sup o]C for the PAFC, the principal use of the PEMFC has been identified as powering vehicles. Fuel cells have significant environmental advantages but further capital cost reductions are necessary if they are to compete with established technologies. (UK)

  6. Electricity generation costs by source, and costs and benefits by substitutions of generation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Keigo; Oda, Junichiro; Sano, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    After Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power accident, the Japanese government assessed the electricity generation costs by source in 2011. However, the conditions have been changing, and this study newly assessed the generation costs by source using new data. The generation costs for coal, oil, gas, nuclear, PV and wind power for 2013 and 2030 were estimated. According to the analysis, coal power is the cheapest when climate change damage costs are not considered, and nuclear power is the cheapest when the climate damage costs are considered. However, under the competitive electricity market in which power companies tend to invest in power plants with short-term payback investment preference, power companies will recognize higher costs of nuclear power particularly under highly uncertain nuclear regulation policies and energy policies. The policies to reduce the uncertainties are very important. (author)

  7. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  8. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any

  9. Sources of innovation, their combinations and strengths – benefits at the NPD project level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjer, Tina Lundø; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2013-01-01

    External sourcing is increasingly seen as important for obtaining new and valuable knowledge and resources for new product development. However, when it comes to the specifics of choosing between sources and types of relationships, little is known on the NPD project level. This paper strengthens...... not only consider the potential benefits of collaboration with external sources but also the downsides, including higher cost and lengthier projects. Firms should look for opportunities in the combination of sources if they are to gain advantages of collaboration, as our analyses show that a mix of market...... and science sources is related to decreased costs. Additionally, if firms are looking for increased market performance, they should aim at collaborating with suppliers that have a similar knowledge base, whereas if the aim is lower project costs, collaboration with a customer with a similar knowledge base...

  10. Patient-specific metrics of invasiveness reveal significant prognostic benefit of resection in a predictable subset of gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Baldock

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are incurable, primary brain neoplasms noted for their potential to extensively invade brain parenchyma. Current methods of clinical imaging do not elucidate the full extent of brain invasion, making it difficult to predict which, if any, patients are likely to benefit from gross total resection. Our goal was to apply a mathematical modeling approach to estimate the overall tumor invasiveness on a patient-by-patient basis and determine whether gross total resection would improve survival in patients with relatively less invasive gliomas.In 243 patients presenting with contrast-enhancing gliomas, estimates of the relative invasiveness of each patient's tumor, in terms of the ratio of net proliferation rate of the glioma cells to their net dispersal rate, were derived by applying a patient-specific mathematical model to routine pretreatment MR imaging. The effect of varying degrees of extent of resection on overall survival was assessed for cohorts of patients grouped by tumor invasiveness.We demonstrate that patients with more diffuse tumors showed no survival benefit (P = 0.532 from gross total resection over subtotal/biopsy, while those with nodular (less diffuse tumors showed a significant benefit (P = 0.00142 with a striking median survival benefit of over eight months compared to sub-totally resected tumors in the same cohort (an 80% improvement in survival time for GTR only seen for nodular tumors.These results suggest that our patient-specific, model-based estimates of tumor invasiveness have clinical utility in surgical decision making. Quantification of relative invasiveness assessed from routinely obtained pre-operative imaging provides a practical predictor of the benefit of gross total resection.

  11. Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Common and Emerging Dietary Sources: Occurrence, Applications, and Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; de Camargo, Adriano Costa

    2016-10-20

    Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e.g., mitochondrial membranes), fat depots, and lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Their health benefits may also be explained by regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, and modulation of cell functions. Potential health benefits of tocols include prevention of certain types of cancer, heart disease, and other chronic ailments. Although deficiencies of tocopherol are uncommon, a continuous intake from common and novel dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols is advantageous. Thus, this contribution will focus on the relevant literature on common and emerging edible oils as a source of tocols. Potential application and health effects as well as the impact of new cultivars as sources of edible oils and their processing discards are presented. Future trends and drawbacks are also briefly covered.

  12. Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Common and Emerging Dietary Sources: Occurrence, Applications, and Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Fereidoon; de Camargo, Adriano Costa

    2016-01-01

    Edible oils are the major natural dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols, collectively known as tocols. Plant foods with low lipid content usually have negligible quantities of tocols. However, seeds and other plant food processing by-products may serve as alternative sources of edible oils with considerable contents of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocopherols are among the most important lipid-soluble antioxidants in food as well as in human and animal tissues. Tocopherols are found in lipid-rich regions of cells (e.g., mitochondrial membranes), fat depots, and lipoproteins such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Their health benefits may also be explained by regulation of gene expression, signal transduction, and modulation of cell functions. Potential health benefits of tocols include prevention of certain types of cancer, heart disease, and other chronic ailments. Although deficiencies of tocopherol are uncommon, a continuous intake from common and novel dietary sources of tocopherols and tocotrienols is advantageous. Thus, this contribution will focus on the relevant literature on common and emerging edible oils as a source of tocols. Potential application and health effects as well as the impact of new cultivars as sources of edible oils and their processing discards are presented. Future trends and drawbacks are also briefly covered. PMID:27775605

  13. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  14. Significance of population centers as sources of gaseous and dissolved PAHs in the lower Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Carrie A; Khairy, Mohammed A; Muir, Derek C G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2014-07-15

    Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) were used to measure concentrations of gaseous and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the air and water throughout the lower Great Lakes during summer and fall of 2011. Atmospheric Σ15PAH concentrations ranged from 2.1 ng/m3 in Cape Vincent (NY) to 76.4 ng/m3 in downtown Cleveland (OH). Aqueous Σ18PAH concentrations ranged from 2.4 ng/L at an offshore Lake Erie site to 30.4 ng/L in Sheffield Lake (OH). Gaseous PAH concentrations correlated strongly with population within 3-40 km of the sampling site depending on the compound considered, suggesting that urban centers are a primary source of gaseous PAHs (except retene) in the lower Great Lakes region. The significance of distant population (within 20 km) versus local population (within 3 km) increased with subcooled liquid vapor pressure. Most dissolved aqueous PAHs did not correlate significantly with population, nor were they consistently related to river discharge, wastewater effluents, or precipitation. Air-water exchange calculations implied that diffusive exchange was a source of phenanthrene to surface waters, while acenaphthylene volatilized out of the lakes. Comparison of air-water fluxes with temperature suggested that the significance of urban centers as sources of dissolved PAHs via diffusive exchange may decrease in warmer months.

  15. Significance of the air moisture source on the stable isotope composition of the precipitation in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuppon, György; Bottyán, Emese; Krisztina, Krisztina; Weidinger, Tamás; Haszpra, László

    2017-04-01

    In the last few years, the analysis of backward trajectories has become a common use for identifying moisture uptake regions for the precipitation of various regions. Hungary is influenced by meteorological (climatological) conditions of Atlantic, Mediterranean and North/East regions therefore this area is sensitive to detect changes in the atmospheric circulation. In this study we present the result of the investigation about the determination of air moisture source regions for six localities in Hungary for more than four years. To reconstruct the path of the air moisture from the source region, we ran the NOAA HYSPLIT trajectory model using the GDAS database with 1° spatial and 6 hours temporal resolution for every precipitation event, for heights of 500, 1500 and 3000 m. We determined the location where water vapour entered into the atmosphere by calculating specific humidity along the trajectories. Five possible moisture source regions for precipitation were defined: Atlantic, North European, East European, Mediterranean and continental (local/convective). Additionally, this study evaluates the regional differences in stable isotope compositions of precipitation based on hydrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of daily rainwater samples. Stable isotope variations show systematic and significant differences between the regions. The variability of moisture source shows also systematic seasonal and spatial distribution. Interestingly, the most dominant among the identified source regions in all stations is the Mediterranean area; while the second is the Atlantic region. The ratio of the precipitations originated in Eastern and Northern Europe seem to correlate with the geographic position of the meteorological station. Furthermore, the ratios of the different moisture sources show intra annual variability. In each location, the amount weighted d-excess values were calculated for the identified moisture sources. The precipitation originated in the Mediterranean

  16. Biosolid stockpiles are a significant point source for greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Ramaprasad; Livesley, Stephen J; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2014-10-01

    The wastewater treatment process generates large amounts of sewage sludge that are dried and then often stored in biosolid stockpiles in treatment plants. Because the biosolids are rich in decomposable organic matter they could be a significant source for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, yet there are no direct measurements of GHG from stockpiles. We therefore measured the direct emissions of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on a monthly basis from three different age classes of biosolid stockpiles at the Western Treatment Plant (WTP), Melbourne, Australia, from December 2009 to November 2011 using manual static chambers. All biosolid stockpiles were a significant point source for CH4 and N2O emissions. The youngest biosolids (nitrate and ammonium concentration. We also modeled CH4 emissions based on a first order decay model and the model based estimated annual CH4 emissions were higher as compared to the direct field based estimated annual CH4 emissions. Our results indicate that labile organic material in stockpiles is decomposed over time and that nitrogen decomposition processes lead to significant N2O emissions. Carbon decomposition favors CO2 over CH4 production probably because of aerobic stockpile conditions or CH4 oxidation in the outer stockpile layers. Although the GHG emission rate decreased with biosolid age, managers of biosolid stockpiles should assess alternate storage or uses for biosolids to avoid nutrient losses and GHG emissions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomass Burning:Significant Source of Nitrate and Sulfate for the Andean Rain Forest in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, P.; Rollenbeck, R.; Spichtinger, N.

    2009-04-01

    Forest fires are significant sources of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen compounds which, along with their photochemically generated reaction products, can be transported over very long distances, even traversing oceans. Chemical analyses of rain and fogwater samples collected on the wet eastern slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes show frequent episodes of high sulfate and nitrate concentration, from which annual deposition rates of about14 kg/ha and 7 kg/ha ,respectively, are derived. These are comparable to those observed in polluted central Europe. Regular rain and fogwater sampling along an altitude profile between 1800 and 3185 m, has been carried out since 2002.The research area located at 30 58'S ,790 5' W is dominated by trade winds from easterly directions. The samples, generally accumulated over 1-week intervals, were analysed for pH, conductivity and major ions(K+,Na+,NH4+,Ca2+,Mg 2+,SO42-,NO3-,PO43-).For all components a strong seasonal variation is observed, while the altitudinal gradient is less pronounced. About 65 % of the weekly samples were significantly loaded with cations and anions, with pH often as low 3.5 to 4.0 and conductivity up to 50 uS/cm. Back trajectories (FLEXTRA) showed that respective air masses had passed over areas of intense biomass burning, sometimes influenced by volcanoes, ocean spray, or even episodic Sahara and/or Namib desert dust interference not discussed here. Enhanced SO4 2-and NO3- were identified, by combining satellite-based fire pixels with back trajectories, as predominantly resulting from biomass burning. For most cases, by using emission inventories, anthropogenic precursor sources other than forest fires play a minor role, thus leaving biomass burning as the main source of nitrate and sulphate in rain and fogwater. Some SO4 2- , about 10 % of the total input, could be identified to originate from active volcanoes, whose plumes were sometimes encountered by the respective back trajectories. While volcanic, oceanic and

  18. Rapid biological oxidation of methanol in the tropical Atlantic: significance as a microbial carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Dixon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Methanol is the second most abundant organic gas in the atmosphere after methane, and is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It plays a significant role in atmospheric oxidant chemistry and is biogeochemically active. Large uncertainties exist about whether the oceans are a source or sink of methanol to the atmosphere. Even less is understood about what reactions in seawater determine its concentration, and hence flux across the sea surface interface. We report here concentrations of methanol between 151–296 nM in parts of the oligotrophic North Atlantic, with corresponding microbial uptake rates between 2–146 nM d−1, suggesting turnover times as low as 1 day (1–25 days in surface waters of the oligotrophic tropical North East Atlantic. Methanol is mainly (≥97% used by microbes for obtaining energy in oligotrophic regions, which contrasts with shelf and coastal areas where between 20–50% can be used for cell growth. Comparisons of microbial methanol oxidation rates with parallel determinations of bacterial leucine uptake suggest that methanol contributes on average 13% to bacterial carbon demand in the central northern Atlantic gyre (maximum of 54%. In addition, the contribution that methanol makes to bacterial carbon demand varies as a power function of chlorophyll a concentrations; suggesting for concentrations <0.2 μg l−1 that methanol can make a significant contribution to bacterial carbon demand. However, our low air to sea methanol flux estimates of 7.2–13 μmol m−2 d−1 suggest that the atmosphere is not a major methanol source. We conclude that there must be a major, as yet unidentified, in situ oceanic methanol source in these latitudes which we suggest is sunlight driven decomposition of organic matter.

  19. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances E; Bell, Thomas G; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J; Steinke, Michael

    2016-10-31

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMS gas ) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMS gas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models.

  20. Planktonic Euryarchaeota are a significant source of archaeal tetraether lipids in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Sara A; Wai, Brenner; Eppley, John M; Church, Matthew J; Summons, Roger E; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-07-08

    Archaea are ubiquitous in marine plankton, and fossil forms of archaeal tetraether membrane lipids in sedimentary rocks document their participation in marine biogeochemical cycles for >100 million years. Ribosomal RNA surveys have identified four major clades of planktonic archaea but, to date, tetraether lipids have been characterized in only one, the Marine Group I Thaumarchaeota. The membrane lipid composition of the other planktonic archaeal groups--all uncultured Euryarchaeota--is currently unknown. Using integrated nucleic acid and lipid analyses, we found that Marine Group II Euryarchaeota (MG-II) contributed significantly to the tetraether lipid pool in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre at shallow to intermediate depths. Our data strongly suggested that MG-II also synthesize crenarchaeol, a tetraether lipid previously considered to be a unique biomarker for Thaumarchaeota. Metagenomic datasets spanning 5 y indicated that depth stratification of planktonic archaeal groups was a stable feature in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The consistent prevalence of MG-II at depths where the bulk of exported organic matter originates, together with their ubiquitous distribution over diverse oceanic provinces, suggests that this clade is a significant source of tetraether lipids to marine sediments. Our results are relevant to archaeal lipid biomarker applications in the modern oceans and the interpretation of these compounds in the geologic record.

  1. [Quantifying the additional clinical benefit of new medicines: little - considerable - significant - 6 remarks from a biometrician's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vach, Werner

    2014-11-01

    According to the German Pharmaceutical Market Reorganisation Act [Arzneimittelmarktneuordnungsgesetz (AMNOG)] of 22.12.2010, the benefit assessment of a new drug should include an evaluation of the "degree of additional benefit". A corresponding regulation of the German Ministry of Health states that the quantification of the degree of additional benefit should be made in the terms "major additional benefit", "considerable additional benefit" and "little additional benefit". In September 2011 the IQWiG undertook and explained in appendix A of the dossier evaluation of Ticagrelor an "operationalisation of the extent of additional benefit according to AM-NutzenV". Therein a distinction was made between the target categories "survival time (mortality)", "serious (or, respectively, severe) symptoms", "quality of life", and "not serious (or, respectively, not severe) symptoms". In the operationalisation of the IQWiG, the categorisation of the additional benefit with regard to mortality was addressed by definition of threshold values for the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the relative risk (RR). The statutory regulations and the operationalisation of the IQWiG will have direct long-term effects on the provision of medical care since they have a say as to which drugs are to be available at which prices. By introduction of terms such as "major additional benefit", "considerable additional benefit" or "desired effects" and linking them to statistical parameters and algorithms, they also open a series of further fundamental questions as to if and how we should handle these terms in the future and what consequences are inherent to the use of statistical criteria in their "definition". In the present article 6 of the questions that arise in this context are discussed: Can a "considerable additional benefit" be defined with statistical methods? Can a classification of the additional benefit on the basis of an estimated RR be reliable? What are the fundamental

  2. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in the rural Northeastern United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. White

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequently, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: (1 increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG content to meet US EPA summertime volatility standards, (2 local industrial emissions and (3 local vegetative emissions. The contribution of fuel evaporation emission to summer toluene mixing ratios was estimated to range from 16 to 30 pptv d−1, and did not fully account for the observed enhancements (20–50 pptv in 2004–2006. Static chamber measurements of alfalfa, a crop at Thompson Farm, and dynamic branch enclosure measurements of loblolly pine trees in North Carolina suggested vegetative emissions of 5 and 12 pptv d−1 for crops and coniferous trees, respectively. Toluene emission rates from alfalfa are potentially much larger as these plants were only sampled at the end of the growing season. Measured biogenic fluxes were on the same order of magnitude as the influence from gasoline evaporation and industrial sources (regional industrial emissions estimated at 7 pptv d−1 and indicated that local vegetative emissions make a significant contribution to summertime toluene enhancements. Additional studies are needed to characterize the variability and factors controlling toluene emissions from alfalfa and other vegetation types throughout the growing season.

  3. Computer input devices: neutral party or source of significant error in manual lesion segmentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James Y; Seagull, F Jacob; Nagy, Paul; Lakhani, Paras; Melhem, Elias R; Siegel, Eliot L; Safdar, Nabile M

    2011-02-01

    Lesion segmentation involves outlining the contour of an abnormality on an image to distinguish boundaries between normal and abnormal tissue and is essential to track malignant and benign disease in medical imaging for clinical, research, and treatment purposes. A laser optical mouse and a graphics tablet were used by radiologists to segment 12 simulated reference lesions per subject in two groups (one group comprised three lesion morphologies in two sizes, one for each input device for each device two sets of six, composed of three morphologies in two sizes each). Time for segmentation was recorded. Subjects completed an opinion survey following segmentation. Error in contour segmentation was calculated using root mean square error. Error in area of segmentation was calculated compared to the reference lesion. 11 radiologists segmented a total of 132 simulated lesions. Overall error in contour segmentation was less with the graphics tablet than with the mouse (P Error in area of segmentation was not significantly different between the tablet and the mouse (P = 0.62). Time for segmentation was less with the tablet than the mouse (P = 0.011). All subjects preferred the graphics tablet for future segmentation (P = 0.011) and felt subjectively that the tablet was faster, easier, and more accurate (P = 0.0005). For purposes in which accuracy in contour of lesion segmentation is of the greater importance, the graphics tablet is superior to the mouse in accuracy with a small speed benefit. For purposes in which accuracy of area of lesion segmentation is of greater importance, the graphics tablet and mouse are equally accurate.

  4. BENEFITS AND SUCCESS FACTORS OF OPEN-SOURCE WEB SERVICES DEVELOPMENT PLATFORMS FOR SMALL SOFTWARE HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter de Assis Moreno Jr.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is usually difficult for companies to keep up with the development of new information technologies and adapt to them in face of the opportunities and threats their advances may represent. This is especially true for small and medium enterprises (SME in emerging economies, where resources tend to be scarce and markets more volatile. This paper describes an action research conducted in a small Brazilian software house that adopted an open-source Web Services development platform in order to improve its software development process. Data analysis revealed critical success factors (CSF in the adoption process, as well as specific benefits and barriers prone to be faced by small software houses in their adoption efforts. In the process of overcoming such barriers, SME may acquire intellectual capital that represents an essential resource to ensure their competitiveness and survival in emerging economies.

  5. Chlorination of cooling water: a source of chlorine-containing organic compounds with possible environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, R.L.; Gehrs, C.W.; Pitt, W.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters may be a source of environmentally significant pollutants. Many water-soluble chlorine-containing organic compounds of low volatility were found in a sample of cooling water chlorinated to a 2-mg/l chlorine concentration in the laboratory. The compounds were separated and detected using a coupled 36 Cl-tracer--high-resolution liquid chromatographic technique developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for determination of chlorinated organics in process effluents. For a chlorination contact time of 75 min at 25 0 C, the yield of chlorine in the form of chloro-organics amounted to 0.78% of the chlorine dosage. It is estimated that the yield is about 0.5% under typical reaction conditions in the electric power plant cooling system chosen for study. Because chlorine is commonly used to remove slime films from the cooling systems of electric power plants, as a means of maintaining high operational efficiency, it is estimated that several hundred tons of chlorinated organics are produced annually in the nation by this antifoulant process. The chromatographic elution positions of some of the separated constituents correspond to those of compounds separated and partially identified from chlorinated sewage treatment plant effluents. The results of this study indicate the formation of chloro-organics during the chlorination of cooling waters should be thoroughly examined, particularly with respect to their identification and determination of possible toxicological properties

  6. Open source tools and toolkits for bioinformatics: significance, and where are we?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajich, Jason E; Lapp, Hilmar

    2006-09-01

    This review summarizes important work in open-source bioinformatics software that has occurred over the past couple of years. The survey is intended to illustrate how programs and toolkits whose source code has been developed or released under an Open Source license have changed informatics-heavy areas of life science research. Rather than creating a comprehensive list of all tools developed over the last 2-3 years, we use a few selected projects encompassing toolkit libraries, analysis tools, data analysis environments and interoperability standards to show how freely available and modifiable open-source software can serve as the foundation for building important applications, analysis workflows and resources.

  7. Why develop open-source software? The role of non-pecuniary benefits, monetary rewards, and open-source licence type

    OpenAIRE

    Robert M. Sauer

    2007-01-01

    A review of the basic theory of optimal open-source software contributions points to three key factors affecting the decision to contribute to the open-source development process: nonpecuniary benefits, future expected monetary returns, and open-source licence type. This paper argues that existing large-scale software developer surveys are inadequate for measuring the relative importance of these three factors. Previous econometric studies that collect their own unique datasets also fall shor...

  8. AUTOMATIC SUMMARIZATION OF WEB FORUMS AS SOURCES OF PROFESSIONALLY SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. I. Buraya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The competitive advantage of a modern specialist is the widest possible coverage of informationsources useful from the point of view of obtaining and acquisition of relevant professionally significant information. Among these sources professional web forums occupy a significant place. The paperconsiders the problem of automaticforum text summarization, i.e. identification ofthose fragments that contain professionally relevant information. Method.The research is based on statistical analysis of texts of forums by means of machine learning. Six web forums were selected for research considering aspects of technologies of various subject domains as their subject-matter. The marking of forums was carried out by an expert way. Using various methods of machine learning the models were designed reflecting functional communication between the estimated characteristics of PSI extraction quality and signs of posts. The cumulative NDCG metrics and its dispersion were used for an assessment of quality of models.Main Results. We have shown that an important role in an assessment of PSI extraction efficiency is played by requestcontext. The contexts of requestshave been selected,characteristic of PSI extraction, reflecting various interpretations of information needs of users, designated by terms relevance and informational content. The scales for their estimates have been designed corresponding to worldwide approaches. We have experimentally confirmed that results of the summarization of forums carried out by experts manually significantly depend on requestcontext. We have shown that in the general assessment of PSI extraction efficiency relevance is rather well described by a linear combination of features, and the informational content assessment already requires their nonlinear combination. At the same time at a relevance assessment the leading role is played by the features connected with keywords, and at an informational content

  9. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggen, Trine, E-mail: Trine.Eggen@bioforsk.no [Bioforsk, Vest Saerheim, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp st. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2010-10-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram ({mu}g) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  10. Municipal landfill leachates: A significant source for new and emerging pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Trine; Moeder, Monika; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    Landfills have historically remained the most common methods of organized waste disposal and still remain so in many regions of the world. Thus, they may contain wastes resulting from several decades of disposal and decomposition with subsequent release of organic compounds that may have environmental, wildlife and human health consequences. Products containing different types of additives with unique beneficial improvement properties are in daily use. However, when these products are decomposed, additives are release into the environment, some of which have been shown to have negative environmental impacts, resulting in the ban or at least restricted application of some chemicals. New and emerging compounds are continuously discovered in the environment. Herein, we report qualitative and quantitative data on the occurrence of new and emerging compounds with increasing environmental and public health concern in water- and particle phase of landfill leachates. Under normal environmental conditions, several of these chemicals are persistent high-volume products. Identified chemicals in the leachates at nanogram (ng) or microgram (μg) per liter levels include - chlorinated alkylphosphates such as tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), N-butyl benzensulfonamide (NBBS), the insect repellent diethyl toluamide (DEET) and personal care products such as the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen and polycyclic musk compounds. Among new and emerging contaminants, perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in the water phase at concentrations up to 6231 ng/L. Compared with the other chemicals, PFCs were primarily distributed in water phase. An effective removal method for PFCs and other polar and persistent compounds from landfill leachates has been a major challenge, since commonly used treatment technologies are based on aeration and sedimentation. Thus, the present study has shown that municipal landfill leachates may represent a significant source of

  11. 75 FR 19567 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...\\ Memorandum from John Rasnic, Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division, OAQPS, to George Czerniak..., Federal & Delegated Air Programs Unit, EPA Region 10, to Grant Cooper et al., Frederickson Power L.P. (Oct...

  12. Slow-spreading submarine ridges in the South Atlantic as a significant oceanic iron source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Saito, MA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of the micronutrient iron limit primary production and nitrogen fixation in large areas of the global ocean. The location and magnitude of oceanic iron sources remain uncertain, however, owing to a scarcity of data, particularly...

  13. New foliage growth is a significant, unaccounted source for volatiles in boreal evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Bäck, J.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests are based on the assumption that foliage has a steady emission potential over its lifetime, and that emissions are mainly modified by short-term variations in light and temperature. However, in many field studies this has been challenged, and high emissions and atmospheric concentrations have been measured during periods of low biological activity, such as in springtime. We conducted measurements during three years, using an online gas-exchange monitoring system to observe volatile organic emissions from a mature (1 year-old) and a growing Scots pine shoot. The emission rates of organic vapors from vegetative buds of Scots pine during the dehardening and rapid shoot growth stages were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from mature foliage; this difference decreased and finally disappeared when the new shoot was maturing in late summer. On average, the springtime monoterpene emission rate of the bud was about 500 times higher than that of the mature needles; during the most intensive needle elongation period, the monoterpene emission rate of the growing needles was 3.5 higher than that of the mature needles, and in September the monoterpene emission rate of the same years' needles was even lower (50%) than that of the previous years' needles. For other measured compounds (methanol, acetone and methylbutenol) the values were of the same order of magnitude, except before bud break in spring, when the emission rates of buds for those compounds were on average about 20-30 times higher than that of mature needles. During spring and early summer the buds and growing shoots are a strong source of several VOCs, and if they are not accounted for in emission modeling a significant proportion of the emissions - from a few percent to even half of the annual cumulative emissions - will remain concealed. The diurnal emission pattern of growing shoots differed from the diurnal cycle in temperature as

  14. Is groundwater discharge a significant source of carbon dioxide in North Creek, NSW, Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, M. L.; Santos, I. R.; Ruiz-Halpern, S.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved carbon dioxide is enriched in groundwater. However, the contribution of groundwater discharge as a source of CO2 to freshwater ecosystems, estuaries and coastal waters is poorly understood. CO2 evasion from waterbodies has been considered a significant contributor to the global carbon cycle. We assessed for radon (natural groundwater tracer), pCO2 and other parameters in the tidal North Creek in northern NSW, Australia. Once a natural wetland area, the floodplain has been extensively drained for agricultural and residential development. A 16km high resolution spatial survey revealed increasing radon (up to 17.3 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (up to 11151 μatm) concentration in the upstream direction. Allocated 24-h time series experiments were performed at two fixed sites downstream and upstream. Creek water was continuously pumped into a shower head equilibrator. A Licor-7000 and RAD7 monitor were connected in series in a closed air loop system incorporating the showerhead exchanger to measure pCO2 and radon at 10 minute intervals. Under normal hydrological conditions, radon (17.5 - 58.7 dpm L-1) and pCO2 (3031 - 14880 μatm) concentrations were high. Upstream measurements demonstrated a strong correlation between pCO2 and radon (r2 = 0.81, n = 142, p standard deviation and median flux for the three time series deployments were 167 mmol m-2 d-1, 44 mmol m-2 d-1 and 154 mmol m-2 d-1 respectively, rendering this aquatic system a major pathway of CO2 to the atmosphere. Our observations imply that groundwater discharge drove CO2 dynamics at the upstream site while mangrove respiration drove CO2 at the downstream site. Overall, groundwater discharge accounted for at least 32% of surface water in North Creek. Our observations demonstrate that groundwater seepage is an important factor driving CO2 supersaturation in this coastal creek. Groundwater should be accounted for in CO2 budgets in coastal waters.

  15. Experimental Evidence that Abrasion of Carbonate Sand is a Significant Source of Carbonate Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trower, L.; Kivrak, L.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    aragonite needles 1-3 µm in length identical to those described in carbonate mud from a range of modern environments. Our results suggest that abrasion during bed load and suspended load transport of carbonate sand, even over small areas, is likely a significant potential source of carbonate mud in both modern and ancient carbonate environments.

  16. Phenolic-enriched foods: sources and processing for enhanced health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Gordon J

    2017-05-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous secondary products present in many plant foods. Their intake has been associated with health benefits ranging from reduced incidence of CVD, diabetes and cancers to improved neurodegenerative outcomes. Major dietary sources include beverages such as coffee, teas and foods such as chocolate. Fruits are also major sources and berries in particular are a palatable source of a diverse range of polyphenol components. There are a number of ways that polyphenol uptake could be increased and healthier polyphenol-rich foods could be produced with specific compositions to target-specific health effects. Firstly, we could exploit the genetic diversity of plants (with a focus on berries) to select varieties that have enhanced levels of specific polyphenols implicated in disease mitigation (e.g. anthocyanins, tannins or flavonols). Working with variation induced by environmental and agronomic factors, modern molecular breeding techniques could exploit natural variation and beneficially alter polyphenol content and composition, although this could be relatively long term. Alternatively, we could employ a synthetic biology approach and design new plants that overexpress certain genes or re-deploy more metabolic effort into specific polyphenols. However, such 'polyphenol-plus' fruit could prove unpalatable as polyphenols contribute to sensorial properties (e.g. astringency of tannins). However, if the aim was to produce a polyphenol as a pharmaceutical then 'lifting' biosynthetic pathways from plants and expressing them in microbial vectors may be a feasible option. Secondly, we could design processing methods to enhance the polyphenolic composition or content of foods. Fermentation of teas, cocoa beans and grapes, or roasting of cocoa and coffee beans has long been used and can massively influence polyphenol composition and potential bioactivity. Simple methods such as milling, heat treatment, pasteurisation or juicing (v. pureeing) can have notable

  17. Oilsands for the USA : while environmental groups ask for a shutdown, new study shows significant resulting economic benefits in America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The United States is beginning to appreciate the value of having massive oil sands resources located in relatively close proximity to their northern border. This article discussed a recent study conducted by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) to assess the impact of Canada's oil sands development on the economy of the United States. The study forecasted that the demand for oil sands-related goods and services from American companies will continue to increase as the industry expands. The top national-level goods and services impacts will be derived from increases in manufacturing; finance; insurance; real estate; and professional, scientific, and technical services. Accommodation and food services in the United States will also benefit from the growth of the oil sands industry. The United States may not risk pushing ahead with strict carbon-cutting legislation targeting the oil sands when policy-makers consider the potential impacts of Canada selling its resources to China. 1 fig.

  18. Are biogenic emissions a significant source of summertime atmospheric toluene in the rural Northeastern United States?

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. White; R. S. Russo; Y. Zhou; J. L. Ambrose; K. Haase; E. K. Frinak; R. K. Varner; O. W. Wingenter; H. Mao; R. Talbot; B. C. Sive

    2009-01-01

    Summertime atmospheric toluene enhancements at Thompson Farm in the rural northeastern United States were unexpected and resulted in a toluene/benzene seasonal pattern that was distinctly different from that of other anthropogenic volatile organic compounds. Consequently, three hydrocarbon sources were investigated for potential contributions to the enhancements during 2004–2006. These included: (1) increased warm season fuel evaporation coupled with changes in reformulated gasoline (RFG) con...

  19. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  20. Is forest management a significant source of monoterpenes into the boreal atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapanala, S.; Hakola, H.; Hellén, H.; Vestenius, M.; Levula, J.; Rinne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including terpenoids are emitted into the atmosphere from various natural sources. Damaging the plant tissue is known to strongly increase their monoterpene release. We measured the terpenoid emissions caused by timber felling, i.e. those from stumps and logging residue. The emissions from stumps were studied using enclosures and those from the whole felling area using an ecosystem-scale micrometeorological method, disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA). The compounds analyzed were isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Strong emissions of monoterpenes were measured from both the stumps and from the whole felling area. The emission rate decreased rapidly within a few months after the logging. In addition to fresh logging residue, the results suggest also other strong monoterpene sources may be present in the felling area. These could include pre-existing litter, increased microbial activity and remaining undergrowth. In order to evaluate the possible importance of monoterpenes emitted annually from cut Scots pine forests in Finland, we conducted a rough upscaling calculation. The resulting monoterpene release was approximated to be on the order of 15 kilotonnes per year, which corresponds to about one tenth of the monoterpene release from intact forests in Finland.

  1. Is forest management a significant source of monoterpenes into the boreal atmosphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs including terpenoids are emitted into the atmosphere from various natural sources. Damaging the plant tissue is known to strongly increase their monoterpene release. We measured the terpenoid emissions caused by timber felling, i.e. those from stumps and logging residue. The emissions from stumps were studied using enclosures and those from the whole felling area using an ecosystem-scale micrometeorological method, disjunct eddy accumulation (DEA. The compounds analyzed were isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Strong emissions of monoterpenes were measured from both the stumps and from the whole felling area. The emission rate decreased rapidly within a few months after the logging. In addition to fresh logging residue, the results suggest also other strong monoterpene sources may be present in the felling area. These could include pre-existing litter, increased microbial activity and remaining undergrowth. In order to evaluate the possible importance of monoterpenes emitted annually from cut Scots pine forests in Finland, we conducted a rough upscaling calculation. The resulting monoterpene release was approximated to be on the order of 15 kilotonnes per year, which corresponds to about one tenth of the monoterpene release from intact forests in Finland.

  2. Ecological significance and complexity of N-source preference in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-10-01

    Plants can utilize two major forms of inorganic N: NO3(-) (nitrate) and NH4(+) (ammonium). In some cases, the preference of one form over another (denoted as β) can appear to be quite pronounced for a plant species, and can be an important determinant and predictor of its distribution and interactions with other species. In many other cases, however, assignment of preference is not so straightforward and must take into account a wide array of complex physiological and environmental features, which interact in ways that are still not well understood. This Viewpoint presents a discussion of the key, and often co-occurring, factors that join to produce the complex phenotypic composite referred to by the deceptively simple term 'N-source preference'. N-source preference is much more complex a biological phenomenon than is often assumed, and general models predicting how it will influence ecological processes will need to be much more sophisticated than those that have been so far developed.

  3. Planting nonlocal seed sources of loblolly pine - managing benefits and risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem Lambeth; Steve Mckeand; Randy Rousseau; Ron Schmidtling

    2005-01-01

    Seed source testing of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which began in the 1920s, has allowed large realized genetic gains from using nonlocal seed sources in operational plantations. Seed source testing continues, and deployment guidlines are being refined. some general effects of seed source movement can be described, but there are still gaps in (1)...

  4. Knowledge Sources and Opinions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers about Possible Risk and Benefit Analysis: Nuclear Energy and Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hakki; Bulut, Ramazan; Yazici, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the trust status of prospective social studies teachers regarding various knowledge sources related to nuclear energy and power stations regarded as a controversial socio-scientific issue and their perceptions on the possible risks and benefits of nuclear energy and power stations. Target population of the…

  5. 75 FR 27643 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... once the delay is no longer necessary. ADDRESSES: Docket: The final rule, the petition for...): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Delay of effective date. SUMMARY: EPA is delaying the effective date of the final rule titled ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and...

  6. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.; Abdel Hady, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

  7. Advanced neutron imaging methods with a potential to benefit from pulsed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, M.; Kardjilov, N.; Hilger, A.; Penumadu, D.; Manke, I.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade neutron imaging has seen significant improvements in instrumentation, detection and spatial resolution. Additionally, a variety of new applications and methods have been explored. As a consequence of an outstanding development nowadays various techniques of neutron imaging go far beyond a two- and three-dimensional mapping of the attenuation coefficients for a broad range of samples. Neutron imaging has become sensitive to neutron scattering in the small angle scattering range as well as with respect to Bragg scattering. Corresponding methods potentially provide spatially resolved and volumetric data revealing microstructural inhomogeneities, texture variations, crystalline phase distributions and even strains in bulk samples. Other techniques allow for the detection of refractive index distribution through phase sensitive measurements and the utilization of polarized neutrons enables radiographic and tomographic investigations of magnetic fields and properties as well as electrical currents within massive samples. All these advanced methods utilize or depend on wavelength dependent signals, and are hence suited to profit significantly from pulsed neutron sources as will be discussed.

  8. Will Venezuelan extra-heavy oil be a significant source of petroleum in the next decades?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Marcelo Fonseca Monteiro de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Szklo, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional oil resources are needed to complement petroleum supply in the next decades. However, given the restrictions that pertain to the production of these resources, this article evaluates the availability of Venezuelan unconventional oil for helping meet the future worldwide petroleum demand. Venezuela has the world's second-largest oil reserves, but the majority of it is unconventional extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt. The perspective of Venezuelan production, the ways in which PDVSA, the state oil company, will raise funds for planned investments and the future oil price predictions are used to assess Venezuela's ability to serve as a source of unconventional oil in the coming years. Findings indicate that Venezuelan crude oil will be increasingly able to provide part of the marginal petroleum supply at a level predicted in global scenarios but short of that predicted by the country's government. Operational difficulties and the effort to raise financial resources for the oil production in the Belt require urgency in overcoming difficulties. As conventional production in Venezuela will stabilise in the coming years and the country is dependent on oil production, Venezuela will rely on extra-heavy oil extraction to ensure increased oil production and the stabilisation of internal accounts. - Highlights: • We analyse the future unconventional oil production capacity of Venezuela. • The study is based on operational capacity, investments capacity and future prices. • The study indicates a production shorter than that predicted by the Venezuelan government. • Venezuela can provide part of the marginal petroleum supply in the coming years

  9. Wind energy as a significant source of electricity for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, R.G.

    1996-06-01

    This paper discusses wind energy and its potential to significantly impact the generation of electricity within the US. The principles and the equipment used to convert wind energy to electricity are described, as is the status of current technology. Markets and production projections are given. There is discussion of the advances required to reduce the selling cost of electricity generated from the wind from today's price of about $0.05 per kilowatt-hour to full cost-competitiveness with gas- and coal-based electricity

  10. Malodorous volatile organic sulfur compounds: Sources, sinks and significance in inland waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Susan B; Jüttner, Friedrich

    2017-03-01

    Volatile Organic Sulfur Compounds (VOSCs) are instrumental in global S-cycling and greenhouse gas production. VOSCs occur across a diversity of inland waters, and with widespread eutrophication and climate change, are increasingly linked with malodours in organic-rich waterbodies and drinking-water supplies. Compared with marine systems, the role of VOSCs in biogeochemical processes is far less well characterized for inland waters, and often involves different physicochemical and biological processes. This review provides an updated synthesis of VOSCs in inland waters, focusing on compounds known to cause malodours. We examine the major limnological and biochemical processes involved in the formation and degradation of alkylthiols, dialkylsulfides, dialkylpolysulfides, and other organosulfur compounds under different oxygen, salinity and mixing regimes, and key phototropic and heterotrophic microbial producers and degraders (bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae) in these environs. The data show VOSC levels which vary significantly, sometimes far exceeding human odor thresholds, generated by a diversity of biota, biochemical pathways, enzymes and precursors. We also draw attention to major issues in sampling and analytical artifacts which bias and preclude comparisons among studies, and highlight significant knowledge gaps that need addressing with careful, appropriate methods to provide a more robust understanding of the potential effects of continued global development.

  11. Ice sheets as a significant source of highly reactive nanoparticulate iron to the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkings, Jon R; Wadham, Jemma L; Tranter, Martyn; Raiswell, Rob; Benning, Liane G; Statham, Peter J; Tedstone, Andrew; Nienow, Peter; Lee, Katherine; Telling, Jon

    2014-05-21

    The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets cover ~ 10% of global land surface, but are rarely considered as active components of the global iron cycle. The ocean waters around both ice sheets harbour highly productive coastal ecosystems, many of which are iron limited. Measurements of iron concentrations in subglacial runoff from a large Greenland Ice Sheet catchment reveal the potential for globally significant export of labile iron fractions to the near-coastal euphotic zone. We estimate that the flux of bioavailable iron associated with glacial runoff is 0.40-2.54 Tg per year in Greenland and 0.06-0.17 Tg per year in Antarctica. Iron fluxes are dominated by a highly reactive and potentially bioavailable nanoparticulate suspended sediment fraction, similar to that identified in Antarctic icebergs. Estimates of labile iron fluxes in meltwater are comparable with aeolian dust fluxes to the oceans surrounding Greenland and Antarctica, and are similarly expected to increase in a warming climate with enhanced melting.

  12. Innovative ion sources for accelerators: the benefits of the plasma technology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Celona, L.; Torrisi, L.; Ando, L.; Presti, M.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Wolowski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, Suppl. C (2004), s. C883-C888 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21./. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : plasma sources * ion sources * proton sources * ECR Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  13. Sources of inter-firm heterogeneity in accessing knowledge-creation benefits within technology clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, A.; Knoben, J.

    2014-01-01

    We build on recent literature to highlight the distinction between knowledge-diffusion and knowledge-creation benefits of technology clustering and argue that firms located in technology clusters will have differential access to the latter. To explain the antecedents of such differential access, we

  14. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived

  15. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals' behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees' SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees' use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23-58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers' OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived negatively

  16. Evidence for Radiative Recombination of O+ Ions as a Significant Source of O 844.6 nm Emission Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, L.; Kerr, R. B.; Huang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Photoelectron (PE) impact on ground-state O(3P) atoms is well known as a major source of twilight 844.6 nm emission in the midlatitude thermosphere. Knowledge of the PE flux can be used to infer thermospheric oxygen density, [O], from photometric measurements of 844.6 nm airglow, provided that PE impact is the dominant process generating the observed emission. During several spring observational campaigns at Arecibo Observatory, however, we have observed significant 844.6 nm emission throughout the night, which is unlikely to arise from PE impact excitation which requires solar illumination of either the local or geomagnetically conjugate thermosphere. Here we show that radiative recombination (RR) of O+ ions is likely responsible for the observed nighttime emission, based on model predictions of electron and O+ ion density and temperature by the Incoherent Scatter Radar Ionosphere Model. The calculated emission brightness produced by O + RR exhibits good agreement with the airglow data, in that both decay approximately monotonically throughout the night at similar rates. We conclude that the conventional assumption of a pure PE impact source is most likely to be invalid during dusk twilight, when RR-generated emission is most significant. Estimation of [O] from measurements of 844.6 nm emission demands isolation of the PE impact source via coincident estimation of the RR source, and the effective cross section for RR-generated emission is found here to be consistent with optically thin conditions.

  17. Comparative risk-benefit-cost effectiveness in nuclear and alternate power sources: methodology, perspective, limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinck, W.; Van Reijen, G.; Maurer, H.; Volta, G.

    1980-01-01

    A critical survey is given of the use of quantitative risk assessment in defining acceptable limits of safety and of its use together with cost-benefit analyses for decision making. The paper indicates uncertainties and even unknowns in risk assessment in particular if the whole fuel cycle for energy production is considered. It is made clear that for decisions on acceptance of risk also the risk perception factor must be considered. A difficult issue here is the potential for low-probability/large consequence accidents. Examples are given, suggestions for improvement are made and perspectives are outlined

  18. Clinical Benefit of Ablating Localized Sources for Human Atrial Fibrillation: The Indiana University FIRM Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M; Kalra, Vikas; Das, Mithilesh K; Jain, Rahul; Garlie, Jason B; Brewster, Jordan A; Dandamudi, Gopi

    2017-03-14

    Mounting evidence shows that localized sources maintain atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear in unselected "real-world" patients if sources drive persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF), long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LPeAF), or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); if right atrial sites are important; and what the long-term success of source ablation is. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of rotors and focal sources in a large academic registry of consecutive patients undergoing source mapping for AF. One hundred seventy consecutive patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years, 79% men) with PAF (37%), PeAF (31%), or LPeAF (32%). Of these, 73 (43%) had undergone at least 1 prior ablation attempt (mean 1.9 ± 0.8; range: 1 to 4). Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM) with an endocardial basket catheter was used in all cases. FIRM analysis revealed sources in the right atrium in 85% of patients (1.8 ± 1.3) and in the left atrium in 90% of patients (2.0 ± 1.3). FIRM ablation terminated AF to sinus rhythm or atrial flutter or tachycardia in 59% (PAF), 37% (PeAF), and 19% (LPeAF) of patients, with 15 of 67 terminations due to right atrial ablation. On follow-up, freedom from AF after a single FIRM procedure for the entire series was 95% (PAF), 83% (PeAF), and 82% (LPeAF) at 1 year and freedom from all atrial arrhythmias was 77% (PAF), 75% (PeAF), and 57% (LPeAF). In the Indiana University FIRM registry, FIRM-guided ablation produced high single-procedure success, mostly in patients with nonparoxysmal AF. Data from mapping, acute terminations, and outcomes strongly support the mechanistic role of biatrial rotors and focal sources in maintaining AF in diverse populations. Randomized trials of FIRM-guided ablation and mechanistic studies to determine how rotors form, progress, and regress are needed. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hord, Norman G; Tang, Yaoping; Bryan, Nathan S

    2009-07-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglobinemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vascular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little attention. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived from vegetable consumption; sources of nitrites include vegetables, fruit, and processed meats. Nitrites are produced endogenously through the oxidation of nitric oxide and through a reduction of nitrate by commensal bacteria in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. As such, the dietary provision of nitrates and nitrites from vegetables and fruit may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. We quantified nitrate and nitrite concentrations by HPLC in a convenience sample of foods. Incorporating these values into 2 hypothetical dietary patterns that emphasize high-nitrate or low-nitrate vegetable and fruit choices based on the DASH diet, we found that nitrate concentrations in these 2 patterns vary from 174 to 1222 mg. The hypothetical high-nitrate DASH diet pattern exceeds the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake for nitrate by 550% for a 60-kg adult. These data call into question the rationale for recommendations to limit nitrate and nitrite consumption from plant foods; a comprehensive reevaluation of the health effects of food sources of nitrates and nitrites is appropriate. The strength of the evidence linking the consumption of nitrate- and nitrite-containing plant foods to beneficial health effects supports the consideration of these compounds as nutrients.

  20. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context.Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB.Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads.Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB.Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is

  1. Economic costs and benefits of the renewable energy sources; Costi e benefici economici delle fonti rinnovabili

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leo, G. A. [Parma Univ., Parma (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali; Rizzi, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Elettronica; Caizzi, A. [Cesi Spa, Business Unit Ambiente, Milan (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    In this work it has been analysed the potential diffusion of renewable energy sources and co-generation in the Italian market on the basis of the level of maturation of the different technologies, predicted market growth and environmental impacts associated to them. A sensitivity analysis on external costs generated by global climate changes has allowed everybody to assess how possible errors in estimating the potential impact of greenhouse gasses can affect the estimate of the economic performances of different scenarios of energetic development. On the basis of these considerations, it can be outlined a potential doubling of energy production by renewable energies in the next 10 years, with specific reference of small hydroelectric, biogass and eolic power plants. [Italian] Viene analizzata la capacita' di penetrazione delle fonti di energia rinnovabile e della cogenerazione nel mercato italiano sulla base dello stato di maturazione delle varie tecnologie e gli impatti ambientali ad esse associate. L'articolo mostra che il rispetto del vincolo di Kyoto comporterebbe in ultima analisi non un aggravio dei costi per la collettivita', ma addirittura un risparmio di 11 lire per ogni kWh prodotto, ovvero oltre il 10% rispetto ai costi totali.

  2. Ammonia oxidation pathways and nitrifier denitrification are significant sources of N2O and NO under low oxygen availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xia; Burger, Martin; Doane, Timothy A; Horwath, William R

    2013-04-16

    The continuous increase of nitrous oxide (N2O) abundance in the atmosphere is a global concern. Multiple pathways of N2O production occur in soil, but their significance and dependence on oxygen (O2) availability and nitrogen (N) fertilizer source are poorly understood. We examined N2O and nitric oxide (NO) production under 21%, 3%, 1%, 0.5%, and 0% (vol/vol) O2 concentrations following urea or ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] additions in loam, clay loam, and sandy loam soils that also contained ample nitrate. The contribution of the ammonia (NH3) oxidation pathways (nitrifier nitrification, nitrifier denitrification, and nitrification-coupled denitrification) and heterotrophic denitrification (HD) to N2O production was determined in 36-h incubations in microcosms by (15)N-(18)O isotope and NH3 oxidation inhibition (by 0.01% acetylene) methods. Nitrous oxide and NO production via NH3 oxidation pathways increased as O2 concentrations decreased from 21% to 0.5%. At low (0.5% and 3%) O2 concentrations, nitrifier denitrification contributed between 34% and 66%, and HD between 34% and 50% of total N2O production. Heterotrophic denitrification was responsible for all N2O production at 0% O2. Nitrifier denitrification was the main source of N2O production from ammonical fertilizer under low O2 concentrations with urea producing more N2O than (NH4)2SO4 additions. These findings challenge established thought attributing N2O emissions from soils with high water content to HD due to presumably low O2 availability. Our results imply that management practices that increase soil aeration, e.g., reducing compaction and enhancing soil structure, together with careful selection of fertilizer sources and/or nitrification inhibitors, could decrease N2O production in agricultural soils.

  3. Comparison of CDOM EEMs Characteristics along F and PN section in Eastern China Sea: significance for sources tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Binbin; Huang, Dasong; Yao, Lingling

    2015-04-01

    ) Although the absorption coefficient of DOC has good instruction significance, CDOM fluorescence intensity can more accurately express the amount of DOC in water than that of absorption coefficient with the source of dissolved organic matter enhanced.3) In general, CDOM fluorescence intensity and DOC show good linear relationship in the study region. But the correlation would change in different sea, and may ignore the rapidly dilution(or possibly sedimentation process) of estuarine waters, which need to be further depth study. Keywords: CDOM; F section; PN section; sources tracing; hydrodynamic environment

  4. Secondary inorganic aerosols in Europe: sources and the significant influence of biogenic VOC emissions, especially on ammonium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoyoglu, Sebnem; Ciarelli, Giancarlo; El-Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2017-06-01

    Contributions of various anthropogenic sources to the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in Europe as well as the role of biogenic emissions on SIA formation were investigated using the three-dimensional regional model CAMx (comprehensive air quality model with extensions). Simulations were carried out for two periods of EMEP field campaigns, February-March 2009 and June 2006, which are representative of cold and warm seasons, respectively. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are known mainly as precursors of ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but their role on inorganic aerosol formation has not attracted much attention so far. In this study, we showed the importance of the chemical reactions of BVOCs and how they affect the oxidant concentrations, leading to significant changes, especially in the formation of ammonium nitrate. A sensitivity test with doubled BVOC emissions in Europe during the warm season showed a large increase in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) concentrations (by about a factor of two), while particulate inorganic nitrate concentrations decreased by up to 35 %, leading to a better agreement between the model results and measurements. Sulfate concentrations decreased as well; the change, however, was smaller. The changes in inorganic nitrate and sulfate concentrations occurred at different locations in Europe, indicating the importance of precursor gases and biogenic emission types for the negative correlation between BVOCs and SIA. Further analysis of the data suggested that reactions of the additional terpenes with nitrate radicals at night were responsible for the decline in inorganic nitrate formation, whereas oxidation of BVOCs with OH radicals led to a decrease in sulfate. Source apportionment results suggest that the main anthropogenic source of precursors leading to formation of particulate inorganic nitrate is road transport (SNAP7; see Table 1 for a description of the categories), whereas combustion in energy and

  5. Phenolic compounds and biological effects of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum: potential sources of natural agents with health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savran, Ahmet; Zengin, Gokhan; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Mocan, Andrei; Glamoćlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina

    2016-07-13

    The present study outlines a chemical characterization and further effects beneficial to health of edible Rumex scutatus and Pseudosempervivum sempervivum, in addition to presenting the antioxidant, enzyme inhibitory effects and antimicrobial properties of different extracts. The phenolic compounds composition of the extracts was assessed by RP-HPLC-DAD, outlining benzoic acid and rutin as major constituents in P. sempervivum and rutin and hesperidin in R. scutatus. Moreover, further biological effects were tested on key enzymes involved in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and skin melanogenesis revealing an important tyrosinase inhibitory effect of Pseudosempervivum water extract. Moreover, both species possessed antimicrobial properties towards bacteria and fungi relevant to public health. Accordingly, we find that R. scutatus and P. sempervivum can be considered as novel functional foods because they are rich sources of biologically active compounds that provide health benefits.

  6. Sources of Inspiration: The role of significant persons in young people's choice of science in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjaastad, Jørgen

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this article were to investigate to which extent and in what ways persons influence students' choice of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in tertiary education, and to assess the suitability of an analytical framework for describing this influence. In total, 5,007 Norwegian STEM students completed a questionnaire including multiple-choice as well as open-ended questions about sources of inspiration for their educational choice. Using the conceptualisation of significant persons suggested by Woelfel and Haller, the respondents' descriptions of parents and teachers are presented in order to elaborate on the different ways these significant persons influence a STEM-related educational choice. Parents engaged in STEM themselves are models, making the choice of STEM familiar, and they help youngsters define themselves through conversation and support, thus being definers. Teachers are models by displaying how STEM might bring fulfilment in someone's life and by giving pupils a positive experience with the subjects. They help young people discover their STEM abilities, thus being definers. Celebrities are reported to have minor influence on STEM-related educational choices. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses indicate that interpersonal relationships are key factors in order to inspire and motivate a choice of STEM education. Implications for recruitment issues and for research on interpersonal influence are discussed. It is suggested that initiatives to increase recruitment to STEM might be aimed at parents and other persons in interpersonal relationships with youth as a target group.

  7. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Addison, Graeme E., E-mail: hincks@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: gaddison@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  8. Sources of benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, J.P.; Breugelmans, R.; Laverman, F.; Hof, B.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Ten large national collection holders have united in a consortium with the aim of digitizing their collections. The Canon of the Netherlands will serve as the guideline. The expectation is that the project, that has been named Netherlands Heritage: Digital! will open up countless new and interesting

  9. Selenium in Paleozoic stone coal (carbonaceous shale) as a significant source of environmental contamination in rural southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Luo, K.

    2012-04-01

    Selenium occurs in high concentrations (typically > 10 and up to 700 ppm) in organic-rich Paleozoic shales and cherts (called "stone coal" - shíméi), in southern China. Stone coals are black shales that formed in anoxic to euxinic environments and typically contain high concentrations of organic carbon, are enriched in various metals such as V, Mo, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Se, etc., and are distinguished from "humic" coal in the Chinese literature. We have examined stone coal from Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou Provinces, People's Republic of China and have focused our study on the mode of occurrence of Se and other elements (e.g. As, Pb, etc.) hazardous to human health. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive analysis and electron microprobe wave-length dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify and determine the composition of host phases observed in the stone coals. Native selenium, Se-bearing pyrite and other sulfides are the hosts for Se, although we cannot preclude an organic or clay-mineral association. Stone coals are an important source of fuel (reserves over 1 billion tonnes), both domestically and in small industry, in some rural parts of southern China and present significant environmental problems for the indigenous population. The stone coals create three main environmental problems related to Se pollution. First, the residual soils formed on stone coal are enriched in Se and other metals contained in the stone coals and, depending on the speciation and bioavailability of the metals, may enrich crops and vegetation grown on them. Second, weathering and leaching of the stone coal contaminates the local ground water and/or surface waters with Se and other metals. Third, the local population uses the stone coal as a source of fuel, which releases the more volatile elements (Se and As) into the atmosphere in the homes. The ash will be extremely enriched with the balance of the heavy metal suite. Disposal of the ash on agricultural lands or near water

  10. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Badlands and the Carbon cycle: a significant source of petrogenic organic carbon in rivers and marine environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Yoann; Eyrolle-Boyer, Frederique; Radakovitch, Olivier; Poirel, Alain; Raimbault, Patrick; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Gairoard, Stéphanie; Di-Giovanni, Christian

    2016-04-01

    A key issue in the study of carbon biogeochemical cycle is to well constrain each carbon origin in term of fluxes between all C-reservoirs. From continental surfaces to oceans, rivers convey particulate organic carbon originate from the biomass (biospheric OC) and /or from the sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC). Existence and importance of this petrogenic OC export to oceans was debated for several decades (see Copard et al., 2007 and ref.), but it is now assumed that 20% of the global carbon export to ocean has a geological origin (Galy et al., 2015). The main current challenge is to constrain the major contributors to this petrogenic OC flux. Amongst the expected sedimentary sources of petrogenic OC in rivers, sedimentary rocks forming badlands can be rightly considered as some viable candidates. Indeed these rocks show a strong erosion rate, may exceed 50 kt km-2 y-1 and in addition, shales, marls and argillaceous rocks, frequently forming badlands (see Nadal-Romero et al., 2011 for the Mediterranean area), contain a significant amount of petrogenic OC (frequently over 0.50 wt. %, Ronov and Yaroshevsky 1976). Our work illustrates the contribution of badlands, mainly distributed within the Durance catchment (a main tributary of the Rhône river), in the petrogenic OC export to the Mediterranean Sea. The approach is based on (i) the use of previous and new data on radiogenic carbon, (ii) bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), (iii) optical quantification of particulate OM (palynofacies), performed on suspended sediments from the Durance, the Rhône rivers and from small rivers draining the badlands. A mean erosion rate of badlands, previously calculated for instrumented catchments (SOERE Draix-Bléone, Graz et al., 2012) was also applied to the badlands disseminated within the Durance catchment. These different methodologies converge to a petrogenic contribution of the OC export to the Mediterranean Sea close to 30 %. Badlands from the Durance catchment

  12. Assessing the Financial Benefits of Faster Development Times: The Case of Single-source Versus Multi-vendor Outsourced Biopharmaceutical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMasi, Joseph A; Smith, Zachary; Getz, Kenneth A

    2018-05-10

    The extent to which new drug developers can benefit financially from shorter development times has implications for development efficiency and innovation incentives. We provided a real-world example of such gains by using recent estimates of drug development costs and returns. Time and fee data were obtained on 5 single-source manufacturing projects. Time and fees were modeled for these projects as if the drug substance and drug product processes had been contracted separately from 2 vendors. The multi-vendor model was taken as the base case, and financial impacts from single-source contracting were determined relative to the base case. The mean and median after-tax financial benefits of shorter development times from single-source contracting were $44.7 million and $34.9 million, respectively (2016 dollars). The after-tax increases in sponsor fees from single-source contracting were small in comparison (mean and median of $0.65 million and $0.25 million). For the data we examined, single-source contracting yielded substantial financial benefits over multi-source contracting, even after accounting for somewhat higher sponsor fees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Recommendations: Introducing the quality system into the use of significant ionizing radiation sources in radiotherapy. Radionuclide irradiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The document is a recommendation which sums up requirements of the State Office for Nuclear Safety of the Czech Republic, IEC and EN Standards and recommendations of the Czech Society for Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics applicable to radionuclide sources used in radiotherapy in the Czech Republic. This document should serve as a tool when developing Quality Assurance programmes, particularly for operating and long-term stability tests. Described are the procedure to inspect the parameter in question, evaluation of results and frequency of parameter inspections. (P.A.)

  14. Endogenously generated DNA nucleobase modifications source, and significance as possible biomarkers of malignant transformation risk, and role in anticancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinski, Ryszard; Gackowski, Daniel; Cooke, Marcus S

    2018-01-01

    The DNA of all living cells undergoes continuous structural and chemical alteration, which may be derived from exogenous sources, or endogenous, metabolic pathways, such as cellular respiration, replication and DNA demethylation. It has been estimated that approximately 70,000 DNA lesions may be generated per day in a single cell, and this has been linked to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. However, it is puzzling why potentially mutagenic DNA modifications, occurring at a similar level in different organs/tissue, may lead to organ/tissue specific cancers, or indeed non-malignant disease - what is the basis for this differential response? We suggest that it is perhaps the precise location of damage, within the genome, that is a key factor. Finally, we draw attention to the requirement for reliable methods for identification and quantification of DNA adducts/modifications, and stress the need for these assays to be fully validated. Once these prerequisites are satisfied, measurement of DNA modifications may be helpful as a clinical parameter for treatment monitoring, risk group identification and development of prevention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New High Voltage Interconnections with Islands in the Mediterranean Sea: Malta and Sicily. Analysis of the Effects on Renewable Energy Sources Integration and Benefits for the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Giuseppe Ippolito

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper shows the benefits coming from the operation of the recent electrical high voltage (HV interconnections between Sicily, Malta and mainland Italy. These new interconnections allow zonal prices of electricity considerably lower than in the past, ensuring greater flexibility to the system and a better integration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES. After briefly illustrating the two high-voltage electrical systems (Sicily and Malta, and having provided a description of the interconnection cable with Malta and its protection devices, the authors hypothesized two modes of operation (Sicily-Malta system islanded or interconnected to the rest of Europe. For the first case (islanded some simulations are performed through the use of an electric network model realized in the Neplan® environment, and for the second case an analysis of one year real data was made. The results of the simulation, thanks to the use of a power flow tracing method, show that this new interconnection between the two islands (Sicily and Malta allows an important improvement in the integration and dispatching of the power generated by RES of the Sicilian territory, better operation of traditional Sicilian generation units, lower electricity zonal prices and a significant reduction in emissions from obsolete fuel oil thermal units located in Malta.

  16. Inversion of lithium heparin gel tubes after centrifugation is a significant source of bias in clinical chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-09-25

    This study was planned to establish whether random orientation of gel tubes after centrifugation may impair sample quality. Eight gel tubes were collected from 17 volunteers: 2 Becton Dickinson (BD) serum tubes, 2 Terumo serum tubes, 2 BD lithium heparin tubes and 2 Terumo lithium heparin tubes. One patient's tube for each category was kept in a vertical, closure-up position for 90 min ("upright"), whereas paired tubes underwent bottom-up inversion every 15 min, for 90 min ("inverted"). Immediately after this period of time, 14 clinical chemistry analytes, serum indices and complete blood count were then assessed in all tubes. Significant increases were found for phosphate and lipaemic index in all inverted tubes, along with AST, calcium, cholesterol, LDH, potassium, hemolysis index, leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets limited to lithium heparin tubes. The desirable quality specifications were exceeded for AST, LDH, and potassium in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Residual leukocytes, erythrocytes, platelets and cellular debris were also significantly increased in inverted lithium heparin tubes. Lithium heparin gel tubes should be maintained in a vertical, closure-up position after centrifugation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ancient settlements are significant sources of nutrients in Eastern Mediterranean ecosystems - the case of Tel Burna, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smejda, Ladislav; Hejcman, Michal; Shai, Itzhaq

    2016-04-01

    Past human settlement activities have caused changes in soil chemical properties that may persist in the cultural soil archive for a very long time and some of them are practically irreversible. We are studying the question if the large-scale mapping of elemental composition based on the surface layer of contemporary soil can reveal spatial patterns corresponding to areas of settlements, which were abandoned even millennia ago. Our case-study is focused on the archaeological site of Tel Burna, located in the Shephelah region, Israel, and its immediate surroundings, making a survey area of 68 ha. The site is known as the town flourishing mainly in the Late Bronze Age and Iron Age (13th-7th centuries BCE). The heyday of the town was during the 10th - 8th centuries BCE, when its summit was enclosed by a massive limestone wall. Later on the significance of the settlement declined, and the architecture vanished. The place has gradually turned to an uninhabited area, used in the recent period as a pasture. We have measured the chemical composition of 350 samples from the surface soil at and around the site by a portable XRF device as part of an on-going interdisciplinary research project studying this site. The results were analysed by standard statistical methods and also in geographical information systems, which were used for calculating models of elemental distribution patterns across the surveyed area. In this paper we discuss the observation that the anthropogenic impact on the chemical composition of soils became quite significant already in times of ancient societies. This human-induced signature was of such magnitude that it can still be detected today, not only in the sub-surface archaeological deposits, but also on the very surface of the present-day landscape. We are able to demonstrate that the nutrients accumulated within the precincts of ancient settlements through the intensive deposition of organic and inorganic waste have been slowly released into local

  18. Integrative Genomics: Quantifying significance of phenotype-genotype relationships from multiple sources of high-throughput data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eGamazon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given recent advances in the generation of high-throughput data such as whole genome genetic variation and transcriptome expression, it is critical to come up with novel methods to integrate these heterogeneous datasets and to assess the significance of identified phenotype-genotype relationships. Recent studies show that genome-wide association findings are likely to fall in loci with gene regulatory effects such as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs, demonstrating the utility of such integrative approaches. When genotype and gene expression data are available on the same individuals, we developed methods wherein top phenotype-associated genetic variants are prioritized if they are associated, as eQTLs, with gene expression traits that are themselves associated with the phenotype. Yet there has been no method to determine an overall p-value for the findings that arise specifically from the integrative nature of the approach. We propose a computationally feasible permutation method that accounts for the assimilative nature of the method and the correlation structure among gene expression traits and among genotypes. We apply the method to data from a study of cellular sensitivity to etoposide, one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs. To our knowledge, this study is the first statistically sound quantification of the significance of the genotype-phenotype relationships resulting from applying an integrative approach. This method can be easily extended to cases in which gene expression data are replaced by other molecular phenotypes of interest, e.g., microRNA or proteomic data. This study has important implications for studies seeking to expand on genetic association studies by the use of omics data. Finally, we provide an R code to compute the empirical FDR when p-values for the observed and simulated phenotypes are available.

  19. Orange-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuni, Victoria; Alhassan, Martha Wunnam; Amagloh, Francis Kweku

    2018-01-01

    Refining food recipes with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP-wheat flour bread recipes-vita butter bread and vita tea bread-were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired-preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers ( n  =   50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β-carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% ( p  bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β-carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans-β-carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.

  20. Meibomian gland dysfunction patients with novel Sjögren’s syndrome biomarkers benefit significantly from a single vectored thermal pulsation procedure: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epitropoulos AT

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alice T Epitropoulos,1,2 Krysta Goslin,2 Raman Bedi,3 Caroline A Blackie4 1Ophthalmic Surgeons and Consultants of Ohio, The Eye Center of Columbus, 2The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Columbus, OH, USA; 3Iris Advanced Eye Centre, Chandigarh, India; 4TearScience Inc., Morrisville, NC, USA Purpose: To measure the effects from a single vectored thermal pulsation treatment of the meibomian glands on dry eye signs and symptoms in patients who tested positively versus negatively for novel Sjögren’s syndrome (SS biomarkers. Methods: The retrospective study included the deidentified data of 102 eyes of 59 patients with dry eye and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD, who were also tested for novel biomarkers for SS and underwent a single 12-minute LipiFlow thermal pulsation procedure. All patients were already being treated with individualized dry eye therapy but remained symptomatic. Meibomian gland secretion (MGS scores, Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness (SPEED questionnaire scores and tear breakup times (TBUTs before and 8 weeks after thermal pulsation treatment were analyzed. Results: Twenty-three patients tested positive for novel biomarkers of SS and 36 patients tested negative. At baseline, MGS, SPEED and TBUT of both SS-positive and SS-negative patients were equivalent. At 8 weeks’ post-treatment, mean MGS score, SPEED and TBUT were 13.0±7.8, 12.5±6.8 and 9.6±4.6, respectively, in SS-positive patients and 15.9±7.9, 10.0±6.3 and 8.3±4.6, respectively, in SS-negative patients (P<0.001. While the post-treatment MGS was significantly better in SS-negative patients than SS-positive (P=0.021, no significant difference between post-treatment SPEED and TBUT was observed between the two groups (P>0.05. Conclusion: LipiFlow treatment in MGD patients who were SS-positive for novel biomarkers of SS demonstrated improvement in signs and symptoms of dry eye. While improvement in MGS scores in SS

  1. Open source home care technology : technical design and development, user research, cost-benefit analysis, and business modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marike Hettinga; Ander de Keijzer; Guido van Alphen; Jan M. Nauta; Elles Gyaltsen-Lohuis; Niels Donninger; Rens Balkenende

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the work in progress for the Hightech@home project. The aim of this project is to develop technology and knowledge concerning open source home care technology, utilizing open standards. Currently, there is limited availability of high tech sensor and communication technology

  2. Strategic water source areas for urban water security: Making the connection between protecting ecosystems and benefiting from their services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic water source areas are those areas that have a relatively high natural runoff in the region of interest, which is made accessible for supporting the region’s population or economy. These areas contribute substantially to development needs...

  3. [Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis on the integrated schistosomiasis control strategies with emphasis on infection source in Poyang Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dan-Dan; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Hong-Gen; Hong, Xian-Lin; Tao, Bo; Li, Yi-Feng; Xiong, Ji-Jie; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit on the integrated schistosomiasis control strategies with emphasis on infection source, and provide scientific basis for the improvement of schistosomiasis control strategy. Aiguo and Xinhe villages in Jinxian County were selected as intervention group where the new comprehensive strategy was implemented, while Ximiao and Zuxi villages in Xinzi County served as control where routine control program was implemented. New strategy of interventions included removing cattle from snail-infested grasslands and providing farmers with farm machinery, improving sanitation by supplying tap water and building lavatories and methane gas tanks, and implementing an intensive health education program. Routine interventions were carried out in the control villages including diagnosis and treatment for human and cattle, health education, and focal mollusciciding. Data were collected from retrospective investigation and field survey for the analysis and comparison of cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit between intervention and control groups. The control effect of the intervention group was better than that of the control. The cost for 1% decrease of infection rate per 100 people, 100 cattle, and 100 snails in intervention group was 480.01, 6 851.24, and 683.63 Yuan, respectively, which were about 2.70, 4.37 and 20.25 times as those in the control respectively. The total cost/benefit ratio (BCR) was lower than 1 (0.94 in intervention group and 0.08 in the control). But the total benefit of intervention group was higher than that of the control from 2005 to 2008. The forecasting analysis indicated that the total BCR in intervention group would be 1.13 at the 4th year and all cost could be recalled. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the BCR in intervention group changed in the range around 1.0 and that of the control ranged blow 0.5. The cost-benefit of intervention group was evidently higher than that of the control. The integrated

  4. Cost benefit indicators associated with the integration of alternative energy sources: A systems approach for Carinthia, Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Studies on how to promote the use of alternative energy sources (AES) typically focus on the relative efficiency and effectiveness of alternative subsidising mechanisms. Positive externalities of an increased AES utilisation are in general not explicitly taken into account. This paper analyses...... of AES use. Analysis of two strategies, "Subsidy" and "High Tax", shows that none of these strategies is dominant with respect to all indicators, i.e., there are conflicting objectives. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  6. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M.; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA. PMID:24858407

  7. DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soressa M. Kitessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of long-chain (≥C20 omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3. However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  8. DHA-containing oilseed: a timely solution for the sustainability issues surrounding fish oil sources of the health-benefitting long-chain omega-3 oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Abeywardena, Mahinda; Wijesundera, Chakra; Nichols, Peter D

    2014-05-22

    Benefits of long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 oils (LC omega-3 oils) for reduction of the risk of a range of disorders are well documented. The benefits result from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); optimal intake levels of these bioactive fatty acids for maintenance of normal health and prevention of diseases have been developed and adopted by national and international health agencies and science bodies. These developments have led to increased consumer demand for LC omega-3 oils and, coupled with increasing global population, will impact on future sustainable supply of fish. Seafood supply from aquaculture has risen over the past decades and it relies on harvest of wild catch fisheries also for its fish oil needs. Alternate sources of LC omega-3 oils are being pursued, including genetically modified soybean rich in shorter-chain stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4ω3). However, neither oils from traditional oilseeds such as linseed, nor the SDA soybean oil have shown efficient conversion to DHA. A recent breakthrough has seen the demonstration of a land plant-based oil enriched in DHA, and with omega-6 PUFA levels close to that occurring in marine sources of EPA and DHA. We review alternative sources of DHA supply with emphasis on the need for land plant oils containing EPA and DHA.

  9. The CTBT regime, significance and potential benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hong-Lae

    2002-01-01

    This presentation briefly outlines the CTBT's background, describes the activities of the Preparatory Commission, the verification regime, the role of the National Data Centres and international coopereation. The objectives of the Nairobi workshop are listed

  10. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT – A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO PALM OIL MILLS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Loan Liew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades the palm oil industry has managed some challen ging environmental concerns regarding land transformation and degradation, increas e in eutrophication, changing habitats of wildlife, pesticides runoff into inland wa tercourses, and probable climate change. Countries producing palm oil desire to do so in a more sustainable way that will leave the environment evergreen. Therefore this paper aims to encourage sustainable management of agro-industrial waste and its potenti al in making financial returns from the same waste. Hence, the study was conducted with the participation of seven local palm oil mills having different capacities and oper ation age. Attention was given to milling waste as they could cause serious environmenta l menace if unattended to properly. Milling waste includ es lignocellulosic palm biomas s namely the empty fruit bunches (EFB, oil palm shell (OPS, mesocarp fibres, pal m oil mill effluent (POME, and palm oil mill sludge (POMS, as well as solid waste generated from the further processing of these biomass into the palm oil fuel ashe s (POFA and palm oil clinkers (POC. The opportunities available to the Malaysian pa lm oil industry and the financial benefits which may accr ue from waste generated during palm oil production process cannot be over emphasized.

  11. An Analysis of the Use of Biosludge as an Energy Source and Its Environmental Benefits in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of energy utilization from biological wastewater treatment sludge (biosludge in Taiwan, a densely populated country (estimate 640 persons/km2 with a high dependence (over 99% on imported energy. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation and its management in the years 2004–2010. Findings showed that the main types of combustible waste (i.e., biosludge produced by the industrial and agricultural sectors of Taiwan included food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge and agricultural sludge which may be reused as auxiliary fuel in the utilities (e.g., generator, boiler and incinerator. Furthermore, two conceptual biosludge-to-energy systems have been addressed with regard to the thermochemical conversion processes. One is to adopt direct combustion for power generation in the combined heat and power system. Another system uses pyrolysis and gasification for producing biochar (solid fuel, bio-oil (liquid fuel and syngas (gas fuel. Based on their thermochemical properties and reported generation quantities, the energy potential and the environmental benefits of mitigating CO2 emissions were also analyzed in the study, showing around 1.1 × 103 TJ/year and 57 Gg CO2/year, respectively.

  12. Combination of Antioxidants from Different Sources Could Offer Synergistic Benefits: A Case Study of Tea and Ginger Blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanjuola, Solomon A; Enujiugha, Victor N; Omoba, Olufunmilayo S; Sanni, David M

    2015-11-01

    Tea and ginger are plants with high antioxidant potential. Combinations of antioxidants from different sources could also produce synergistic antioxidant effects. This study investigated the influence of solvent on antioxidant content of tea, ginger, and tea + ginger blends. Under the investigated extraction conditions, water was the most effective extraction solvent to maximise peroxide scavenging and iron chelating activity of tea, ginger, and their blends. Aqueous ethanol was the most effective solvent to maximise ABTS radical scavenging activity and ethanol was the best solvent to maximise DPPH radical scavenging activity. A good multivariate regression model that explains the relationship between the total flavonoid content of the extracts and their antioxidant activities was obtained (R2 and Q2 of 0.93 and 0.83, respectively). Extracts of tea-ginger blends exhibited synergistic effects in their ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity.

  13. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  14. Response to Letter Regarding the Louisiana Department of Environmental Protection's Position on the PSD Significant Emission Level for ODS at Existing Major Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Cross-correlating Cosmic IR and X-ray Background Fluctuations: Evidence of Significant Black Hole Populations Among the CIB Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelluti, N.; Kashlinsky, A.; Arendt, R. G.; Comastri, A.; Fazio, G. G.; Finoguenov, A.; Hasinger, G.; Mather, J. C.; Miyaji, T; Moseley, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand the nature of the sources producing the recently uncovered cosmic infrared background (CIB) fluctuations, we study cross-correlations between the fluctuations in the source-subtracted CIB from Spitzer/IRAC data and the unresolved cosmic X-ray background from deep Chandra observations. Our study uses data from the EGS/AEGIS field, where both data sets cover an approx = 8' x 45' region of the sky. Our measurement is the cross-power spectrum between the IR and X-ray data. The cross-power signal between the IRAC maps at 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron and the Chandra [0.5-2] keV data has been detected, at angular scales approx >20'', with an overall significance of approx = 3.8 sigma and approx. = 5.6 sigma, respectively. At the same time we find no evidence of significant cross-correlations at the harder Chandra bands. The cross-correlation signal is produced by individual IR sources with 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron magnitudes m(sub AB) approx. > 25-26 and [0.5-2] keV X-ray fluxes black holes than among the known populations. We discuss the various possible origins for the cross-power signal and show that neither local foregrounds nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations. local foregrounds, nor the known remaining normal galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGN) can reproduce the measurements. These observational results are an important new constraint on theoretical modeling of the near-IR CIB fluctuations

  16. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  17. Economic and safe operation of isolated systems with significant contribution from renewable energy sources; Operacao economica e segura de sistemas isolados com grande penetracao de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, M.A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Vlachos, A; Androutsos, A. [NTUA, Atenas (Greece); Bakirtzis, T. [AUTH, Salonica (Greece); Gigantidou, A. [DEI, Heraklio (Greece). E-mail: mmatos@inescn.pt; avlachos@power.ece.ntua.gr; bakiana@eng.auth.gr; deh_kkf@iraklio.netor.gr

    1999-07-01

    Medium and large size isolated systems with a significant contribution from renewable energy sources, specifically eolic energy, are not conveniently operated at the present, neither by the conventional ways of unit commitment/load dispatcher nor by the simplified procedures used in the small isolated power networks. This paper presents a new approaching, in the CARE framework which is financially supported by the European Union through the EEN-JOULE assistance program. The principal idea is to perform unit commitment on-line in the same dispatching cycle, by using the load forecasting and the more recent wind power. The process includes dynamic safety fast evaluation and a module for helping the decision making.

  18. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of BMPs in controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China based on the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Zhang, Peipei; Wang, Xiujuan; Wang, Jiawei; Yu, Wenwen; Shen, Zhenyao

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely used in managing agricultural nonpoint source pollution (ANSP) at the watershed level. Most BMPs are related to land use, tillage management, and fertilizer levels. In total, seven BMP scenarios (Reforest1, Reforest2, No Tillage, Contour tillage, and fertilizer level 1-4) that are related to these three factors were estimated in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of these BMPs on ANSP reduction in a large tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) in China, which are based on the simulation results of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. The results indicated that reforestation was the most economically efficient of all BMPs, and its net benefits were up to CNY 4.36×10(7) years(-1) (about USD 7.08×10(6) years(-1)). Regarding tillage practices, no tillage practice was more environmentally friendly than other tillage practices, and contour tillage was more economically efficient. Reducing the local fertilizer level to 0.8-fold less than that of 2010 can yield a satisfactory environmental and economic efficiency. Reforestation and fertilizer management were more effective in reducing total phosphorus (TP), whereas tillage management was more effective in reducing total nitrogen (TN). When CNY 10,000 (about USD 162) was applied to reforestation, no tillage, contour tillage, and an 0.8-fold reduction in the fertilizer level, then annual TN load can be reduced by 0.08, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.04 t and annual TP load can be reduced by 0.04, 0.02, 0.01 and 0.03 t, respectively. The cost-benefit (CB) ratios of the BMPs were as follows: reforestation (207 %) > contour tillage (129 %) > no tillage (114 %) > fertilizer management (96 and 89 %). The most economical and effective BMPs can be designated as follows: BMP1 (returning arable land with slopes greater than 25° to forests and those lands with slopes of 15-25° to orchards), BMP2 (implementing no tillage

  19. Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach

  20. Development, management and benefit from Internet-based geospatial data sources through knowledge management for GIS-based regional geography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunemann, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The provision of data and information on the Internet is growing daily. For geoscientific applications, especially using geographic information systems (GIS), changing geospacial data are often needed, and thus possibly different data sources. Geospatial data should be easily available. As an increasingly important medium for exchange of geospatial data is the internet. The problem of finding appropriate datasources on the Internet remains to the user. The Internet as a technical basis, which was designed as a tool for information exchange, has changed the practice of dealing with knowledge and information on fundamental and not previously foreseeable manner. From the many individual acts social consequences result, concerning the production and disposal of knowledge. These determine the development of different solutions significantly, which also includes the production, deployment and use of geospatial data, with all its strengths and problems. Various solutions to the provision of geospatial data are available on the Internet, the targeted searching of this geodata sources on the Internet remains a shortcoming. The options of knowledge management, among other solutions, could be a possibility to ease the compilation, storage, connection, popularization and ultimately the application of geodata sources on the Internet. Communication, as a central element of the use of knowledge management, should be used in the form of a communication platform. The present study describes the variety of deployment options of geospatial data and the problems of finding data sources on the Internet. Potential hazards of geospatial data provision (also) via the Internet as well as an option to manage, update and use them for various applications on the Internet are are pointed out. (author) [de

  1. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban

  2. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments — A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    of isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high μg/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. -- Highlights: ► Solid waste management in developing countries ► Solid waste as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern ► Contaminant leaching from solid waste to surrounding environment ► Detection of several contaminants of emerging concern and with endocrine-disrupting activities ► Phthalates are the dominant contaminant group with concentrations that are comparable with other countries.

  3. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: Optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.N.; Thomas, J.V.; Lockhart, M.E.; Berland, L.L.; Morgan, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. Materials and methods: The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Results: Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40–77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas – tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 ke

  4. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high {mu}g/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste management in developing countries Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contaminant leaching from solid waste to surrounding environment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of several contaminants of emerging concern and with endocrine-disrupting activities Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalates are the dominant contaminant group with concentrations that are comparable with other countries.

  5. Tectonic activity as a significant source of crustal tetrafluoromethane emissions to the atmosphere: observations in groundwaters along the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeds, Daniel A.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Muhle, Jens; Weiss, Ray F.

    2015-01-01

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) concentrations were measured in 14 groundwater samples from the Cuyama Valley, Mil Potrero and Cuddy Valley aquifers along the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS) in California to assess whether tectonic activity in this region is a significant source of crustal CF4 to the atmosphere. Dissolved CF4 concentrations in all groundwater samples but one were elevated with respect to estimated recharge concentrations including entrainment of excess air during recharge (CreCre; ∼30 fmol kg−1 H2O), indicating subsurface addition of CF4 to these groundwaters. Groundwaters in the Cuyama Valley contain small CF4 excesses (0.1–9 times CreCre), which may be attributed to an in situ release from weathering and a minor addition of deep crustal CF4 introduced to the shallow groundwater through nearby faults. CF4 excesses in groundwaters within 200 m of the SAFS are larger (10–980 times CreCre) and indicate the presence of a deep crustal flux of CF4 that is likely associated with the physical alteration of silicate minerals in the shear zone of the SAFS. Extrapolating CF4 flux rates observed in this study to the full extent of the SAFS (1300 km × 20–100 km) suggests that the SAFS potentially emits (0.3–1)×10−1 kg(0.3–1)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1 to the Earth's surface. For comparison, the chemical weathering of ∼7.5×104 km2∼7.5×104 km2 of granitic rock in California is estimated to release (0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg(0.019–3.2)×10−1 kg CF4 yr−1. Tectonic activity is likely an important, and potentially the dominant, driver of natural emissions of CF4 to the atmosphere. Variations in preindustrial atmospheric CF4 as observed in paleo-archives such as ice cores may therefore represent changes in both continental weathering and tectonic activity, including changes driven by variations in continental ice cover during glacial–interglacial transitions.

  6. Single-source dual-energy spectral multidetector CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: optimization of energy level viewing significantly increases lesion contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, B N; Thomas, J V; Lockhart, M E; Berland, L L; Morgan, D E

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate lesion contrast in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients using spectral multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) analysis. The present institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)-compliant retrospective study evaluated 64 consecutive adults with pancreatic adenocarcinoma examined using a standardized, multiphasic protocol on a single-source, dual-energy MDCT system. Pancreatic phase images (35 s) were acquired in dual-energy mode; unenhanced and portal venous phases used standard MDCT. Lesion contrast was evaluated on an independent workstation using dual-energy analysis software, comparing tumour to non-tumoural pancreas attenuation (HU) differences and tumour diameter at three energy levels: 70 keV; individual subject-optimized viewing energy level (based on the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio, CNR); and 45 keV. The image noise was measured for the same three energies. Differences in lesion contrast, diameter, and noise between the different energy levels were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Quantitative differences in contrast gain between 70 keV and CNR-optimized viewing energies, and between CNR-optimized and 45 keV were compared using the paired t-test. Thirty-four women and 30 men (mean age 68 years) had a mean tumour diameter of 3.6 cm. The median optimized energy level was 50 keV (range 40-77). The mean ± SD lesion contrast values (non-tumoural pancreas - tumour attenuation) were: 57 ± 29, 115 ± 70, and 146 ± 74 HU (p = 0.0005); the lengths of the tumours were: 3.6, 3.3, and 3.1 cm, respectively (p = 0.026); and the contrast to noise ratios were: 24 ± 7, 39 ± 12, and 59 ± 17 (p = 0.0005) for 70 keV, the optimized energy level, and 45 keV, respectively. For individuals, the mean ± SD contrast gain from 70 keV to the optimized energy level was 59 ± 45 HU; and the mean ± SD contrast gain from the optimized energy level to 45 keV was 31 ± 25 HU (p = 0

  7. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  8. Major and Trace Element Fluxes to the Ganges River: Significance of Small Flood Plain Tributary as Non-Point Pollution Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, V.; Sen, I. S.; Mishra, G.

    2017-12-01

    There has been much discussion amongst biologists, ecologists, chemists, geologists, environmental firms, and science policy makers about the impact of human activities on river health. As a result, multiple river restoration projects are on going on many large river basins around the world. In the Indian subcontinent, the Ganges River is the focal point of all restoration actions as it provides food and water security to half a billion people. Serious concerns have been raised about the quality of Ganga water as toxic chemicals and many more enters the river system through point-sources such as direct wastewater discharge to rivers, or non-point-sources. Point source pollution can be easily identified and remedial actions can be taken; however, non-point pollution sources are harder to quantify and mitigate. A large non-point pollution source in the Indo-Gangetic floodplain is the network of small floodplain rivers. However, these rivers are rarely studied since they are small in catchment area ( 1000-10,000 km2) and discharge (knowledge gap we have monitored the Pandu River for one year between February 2015 and April 2016. Pandu river is 242 km long and is a right bank tributary of Ganges with a total catchment area of 1495 km2. Water samples were collected every month for dissolved major and trace elements. Here we show that the concentration of heavy metals in river Pandu is in higher range as compared to the world river average, and all the dissolved elements shows a large spatial-temporal variation. We show that the Pandu river exports 192170, 168517, 57802, 32769, 29663, 1043, 279, 241, 225, 162, 97, 28, 25, 22, 20, 8, 4 Kg/yr of Ca, Na, Mg, K, Si, Sr, Zn, B, Ba, Mn, Al, Li, Rb, Mo, U, Cu, and Sb, respectively, to the Ganga river, and the exported chemical flux effects the water chemistry of the Ganga river downstream of its confluence point. We further speculate that small floodplain rivers is an important source that contributes to the dissolved chemical

  9. Left-colon water exchange preserves the benefits of whole colon water exchange at reduced cecal intubation time conferring significant advantage in diagnostic colonoscopy - a prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangping; Luo, Hui; Xiang, Yi; Leung, Felix W; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linhui; Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Pan, Yanglin; Guo, Xuegang

    2015-07-01

    Whole-colon water exchange (WWE) reduces insertion pain, increases cecal intubation success and adenoma detection rate, but requires longer insertion time, compared to air insufflation (AI) colonoscopy. We hypothesized that water exchange limited to the left colon (LWE) can speed up insertion with equivalent results. This prospective, randomized controlled study (NCT01735266) allocated patients (18-80 years) to WWE, LWE or AI group (1:1:1). The primary outcome was cecal intubation time. Three hundred subjects were randomized to the WWE (n = 100), LWE (n = 100) or AI group (n = 100). Ninety-four to ninety-five per cent of patients underwent diagnostic colonoscopy. Baseline characteristics were balanced. The median insertion time was shorter in LWE group (4.8 min (95%CI: 3.2-6.2)) than those in WWE (7.5 min (95%CI: 6.0-10.3)) and AI (6.4 min (95%CI: 4.2-9.8)) (both p rates in unsedated patients of the two water exchange methods (WWE 99%, LWE 99%) were significantly higher than that (89.8%) in AI group (p = 0.01). The final success rates were comparable among the three groups after sedation was given. Maximum pain scores and number of patients needing abdominal compression between WWE and LWE groups were comparable, both lower than those in AI group (p higher in WWE group. By preserving the benefits of WWE and reducing insertion time, LWE is appropriate for diagnostic colonoscopy, especially in settings with tight scheduling of patients. The higher PDR in the right colon in WWE group deserves to be further investigated.

  10. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  11. Thallium contamination in arable soils and vegetables around a steel plant-A newly-found significant source of Tl pollution in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Xuwen; Wang, Jin; Xiao, Tangfu; Chen, Diyun; Sheng, Guodong; Yin, Meiling; Lippold, Holger; Wang, Chunlin; Chen, Yongheng

    2017-05-01

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic rare element. Severe Tl poisoning can cause neurological brain damage or even death. The present study was designed to investigate contents of Tl and other associated heavy metals in arable soils and twelve common vegetables cultivated around a steel plant in South China, a newly-found initiator of Tl pollution. Potential health risks of these metals to exposed population via consumption of vegetables were examined by calculating hazard quotients (HQ). The soils showed a significant contamination with Tl at a mean concentration of 1.34 mg/kg. The Tl levels in most vegetables (such as leaf lettuce, chard and pak choy) surpassed the maximum permissible level (0.5 mg/kg) according to the environmental quality standards for food in Germany. Vegetables like leaf lettuce, chard, pak choy, romaine lettuce and Indian beans all exhibited bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) for Tl higher than 1, indicating a hyperaccumulation of Tl in these plants. Although the elevated Tl levels in the vegetables at present will not immediately pose significant non-carcinogenic health risks to residents, it highlights the necessity of a permanent monitoring of Tl contamination in the steel-making areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: → Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. → Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. → The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to 11 fold. → Anthropogenic Ti input lowered by within-river retention. → Up to 79% of Ti colloidal/NP for rural, down to 28% for urban/industrial rivers.

  13. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  14. Using the Internet as a source of information and support: a discussion paper on the risks and benefits for children and young people with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    2014-12-16

    Children and young people who have long-term conditions are likely to seek health-related information via the Internet. Because of their continuing contact with children with such conditions, primary care practitioners may be well placed to discuss with them and their families the risks and benefits of accessing information online. This includes not only the relative merits of particular sites but also more general online safety issues. To achieve this, it may be helpful for primary care practitioners to consider how they view risk in general, the risks associated with the Internet and the vulnerabilities of children and young people, particularly those with long-term conditions.

  15. Does single-source create an added value? Evaluating the impact of introducing x4T into the clinical routine on workflow modifications, data quality and cost-benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruland, Philipp; Forster, Christian; Breil, Bernhard; Ständer, Sonja; Dugas, Martin; Fritz, Fleur

    2014-12-01

    The first objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of integrating a single-source system into the routine patient care documentation workflow with respect to process modifications, data quality and execution times in patient care as well as research documentation. The second one is to evaluate whether it is cost-efficient using a single-source system in terms of achieved savings in documentation expenditures. We analyzed the documentation workflow of routine patient care and research documentation in the medical field of pruritus to identify redundant and error-prone process steps. Based on this, we established a novel documentation workflow including the x4T (exchange for Trials) system to connect hospital information systems with electronic data capture systems for the exchange of study data. To evaluate the workflow modifications, we performed a before/after analysis as well as a time-motion study. Data quality was assessed by measuring completeness, correctness and concordance of previously and newly collected data. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted to estimate the savings using x4T per collected data element and the additional costs for introducing x4T. The documentation workflow of patient care as well as clinical research was modified due to the introduction of the x4T system. After x4T implementation and workflow modifications, half of the redundant and error-prone process steps were eliminated. The generic x4T system allows direct transfer of routinely collected health care data into the x4T research database and avoids manual transcription steps. Since x4T has been introduced in March 2012, the number of included patients has increased by about 1000 per year. The average entire documentation time per patient visit has been significantly decreased by 70.1% (from 1116±185 to 334±83 s). After the introduction of the x4T system and associated workflow changes, the completeness of mandatory data elements raised from 82.2% to 100%. In case of the

  16. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  17. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  18. Health benefits of particle filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, W J

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7% to 25%. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also, reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percent age improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, for example, 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  20. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-10-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and asthma health effects; however, many early studies had weak designs. A majority of recent intervention studies employed strong designs and more of these studies report statistically significant improvements in health symptoms or objective health outcomes, particularly for subjects with allergies or asthma. The percentage improvement in health outcomes is typically modest, e.g., 7percent to 25percent. Delivery of filtered air to the breathing zone of sleeping allergic or asthmatic persons may be more consistently effective in improving health than room air filtration. Notable are two studies that report statistically significant improvements, with filtration, in markers that predict future adverse coronary events. From modeling, the largest potential benefits of indoor particle filtration may be reductions in morbidity and mortality from reducing indoor exposures to particles from outdoor air.

  1. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  2. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W.; Schemmer, P.; Duex, M.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  3. Influence of anthropogenic activities on PAHs in sediments in a significant gulf of low-latitude developing regions, the Beibu Gulf, South China Sea: distribution, sources, inventory and probability risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingyang; Xue, Rui; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-15

    Fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 41 surface sediment samples and a sediment core (50 cm) from the Beibu Gulf, a significant low-latitude developing gulf, were analyzed. PAHs concentrations were 3.01-388 ng g(-)(1) (mean 95.5 ng g(-)(1)) in the surface sediments and 10.5-87.1 ng g(-)(1) (average 41.1 ng g(-)(1)) in the sediment core. Source apportionment indicated that PAHs were generated from coke production and vehicular emissions (39.4%), coal and biomass combustion (35.8%), and petrogenic sources (24.8%). PAHs were mainly concentrated in the industrialized and urbanized regions and the harbor, and were transported by atmospheric deposition to the marine matrix. The mass inventory (1.57-2.62t) and probability risk showed sediments here served as an important reservoir but low PAH risk. Different from oil and natural gas in developed regions, coal combustion has always been a significant energy consumption pattern in this developing region for the past 30 years (56 ± 5%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting Employer's Benefits from Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard L.; Page, Norman R.

    1983-01-01

    Attempts to predict employer benefits resulting from their involvement in cooperative education programs. Benefits include a good source of quality employees, increased worker motivation, and increased respect between students and employers. (JOW)

  5. Significant Benefits from Libraries in Web 3.0 Environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... Keywords- Web 3.0, library 3.0, Web 3.0 Applications, Semantic. Web ... providing virtual information services, and other services cannot be ... web third generation, definition, beginning, and retrieve system. The study ...

  6. Hydration benefits to courtship feeding in crickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivy, T. M.; Johnson, J. C.; Sakaluk, S. K.

    1999-01-01

    The spermatophore transferred by male decorated crickets (Gryllodes sigillatus) at mating includes a large gelatinous spermatophylax that the female consumes after copulation. Although previous studies have shown that G. sigillatus females gain no nutritional benefits from consuming food gifts, there may be other benefits to their consumption. We examined potential hydration benefits to females by experimentally manipulating both the availability of water and the number of food gifts that females consumed, and by measuring their effect on female fitness. Analysis of the number of nymphs produced by females revealed a significant interaction between the number of spermatophylaxes consumed and water availability. When spermatophylaxes were not provided, females given water ad libitum produced significantly more nymphs than females subjected to water stress. Female longevity was significantly affected by water availability, with an increase in the availability of water corresponding to a significant increase in female longevity. These data suggest that female G. sigillatus accrue fitness benefits by consuming spermatophylaxes when alternative sources of water are unavailable. In addition, females appear to allocate water contained in spermatophylaxes towards reproduction as opposed to survival.

  7. Environmental benefit from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, G.; Notarnicola, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a comparative environmental analysis on the electricity production between wind energy system and coal power plant has been made. The methodologies used are the LCA and the Impact Patway Analysis (IPA) - a recent tool to assess the externalities of the energy systems. Both methodologies, even if in different amount, show a remarkable convenience in the production of electricity from wind systems [it

  8. Macroeconomic costs and benefits of a common currency for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It revealed that the costs due to loss of monetary policy autonomy and fiscal policy distortion were significantly higher than the expected trade creation and policy coordination gains. To benefit from economic and monetary integration, the region needed to deal with the sources of fiscal policy distortion through better ...

  9. Deserving social benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmark, Anders; Richardt Schoop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    welfare reforms involving reductions of social benefits in Denmark in 2005 and 2013, the article analyses the frames used by politicians supporting and opposing reform, as well as the frames used by the media. The article shows, first, that political reforms reducing social benefits are followed...... by increased framing of recipients as undeserving. The article finds a strong correlation between the political objective of reducing benefits and the reliance on frames that position recipients as undeserving. Second, the article shows that media framing remains significantly different from political framing......The article contributes to the growing literature on framing of deservingness as an alternative to ‘blame avoidance’ strategies in the politics of welfare retrenchment. In particular, the article focuses on the interplay between political framing and media framing. Based on an analysis of two major...

  10. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  11. Health Benefits of Particle Filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Fisk, William J.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence of health benefits of particle filtration in homes and commercial buildings is reviewed. Prior reviews of papers published before 2000 are summarized. The results of 16 more recent intervention studies are compiled and analyzed. Also reviewed are four studies that modeled health benefits of using filtration to reduce indoor exposures to particles from outdoors. Prior reviews generally concluded that particle filtration is, at best, a source of small improvements in allergy and as...

  12. Managerial Perspective on Open Source Collaboration and Networked Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Henttonen Maaret Katja; Pasi Pussinen; Timo Koivumäki

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the managerial perspectives towards open source software and networked innovation. We analysed six software companies who use open source software as a significant part of their product or service offering. The study found notable differences in managerial attitudes, expected benefits and key challenges related to open source software and its role in innovative activities. While all companies were using same pieces of software with open source communities, there were diffe...

  13. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  14. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  15. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  16. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  17. Benefits of transmission interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, D.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of new power transmission interconnections from Alberta were discussed with reference to the challenges and measures needed to move forward. Alberta's electricity system has had a long period of sustained growth in generation and demand and this trend is expected to continue. However, no new interconnections have been built since 1985 because the transmission network has not expanded in consequence with the growth in demand. As such, Alberta remains weakly interconnected with the rest of the western region. The benefits of stronger transmission interconnections include improved reliability, long-term generation capability, hydrothermal synergies, a more competitive market, system efficiencies and fuel diversity. It was noted that the more difficult challenges are not technical. Rather, the difficult challenges lie in finding an appropriate business model that recognizes different market structures. It was emphasized that additional interconnections are worthwhile and will require significant collaboration among market participants and governments. It was concluded that interties enable resource optimization between systems and their benefits far exceed their costs. tabs., figs

  18. Comparative costs and benefits of hydrogen vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The costs and benefits of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel are compared to gasoline, natural gas, and battery-powered vehicles. Costs, energy, efficiency, and tail-pipe and full fuel cycle emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases were estimated for hydrogen from a broad range of delivery pathways and scales: from individual vehicle refueling systems to large stations refueling 300 cars/day. Hydrogen production from natural gas, methanol, and ammonia, as well as water electrolysis based on alkaline or polymer electrolytes and steam electrolysis using solid oxide electrolytes are considered. These estimates were compared to estimates for competing fuels and vehicles, and used to construct oil use, air pollutant, and greenhouse gas emission scenarios for the U.S. passenger car fleet from 2005-2050. Fuel costs need not be an overriding concern in evaluating the suitability of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger vehicles. The combined emissions and oil import reduction benefits of hydrogen cars are estimated to be significant, valued at up to {approximately}$400/yr for each hydrogen car when primarily clean energy sources are used for hydrogen production. These benefits alone, however, become tenuous as the basis supporting a compelling rationale for hydrogen fueled vehicles, if efficient, advanced fossil-fuel hybrid electric vehicles (HEV`s) can achieve actual on-road emissions at or below ULEV standards in the 2005-2015 timeframe. It appears a robust rationale for hydrogen fuel and vehicles will need to also consider unique, strategic, and long-range benefits of hydrogen vehicles which can be achieved through the use of production, storage, delivery, and utilization methods for hydrogen which are unique among fuels: efficient use of intermittent renewable energy sources, (e,g, wind, solar), small-scale feasibility, fuel production at or near the point of use, electrolytic production, diverse storage technologies, and electrochemical conversion to electricity.

  19. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  20. Wind power planning: assessing long-term costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Scott

    2005-01-01

    In the following paper, a new and straightforward technique for estimating the social benefit of large-scale wind power production is presented. The social benefit is based upon wind power's energy and capacity services and the avoidance of environmental damages. The approach uses probabilistic load duration curves to account for the stochastic interaction between wind power availability, electricity demand, and conventional generator dispatch. The model is applied to potential offshore wind power development to the south of Long Island, NY. If natural gas combined cycle and integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) are the alternative generation sources, wind power exhibits a negative social benefit due to its high capacity cost and the relatively low emissions of these advanced fossil-fuel technologies. Environmental benefits increase significantly if charges for CO 2 emissions are included. Results also reveal a diminishing social benefit as wind power penetration increases. The dependence of wind power benefits on CO 2 charges, and capital costs for wind turbines and IGCC plant is also discussed. The methodology is intended for use by energy planners in assessing the social benefit of future investments in wind power

  1. Food irradiation: benefits and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The benefits and concerns about treating foods with ionizing radiation are reviewed. Radioactivity cannot be induced in foods by treatment with gamma rays from 137 Cs or 60 Co, X-ray sources of 5 MeV or lower energy, or electrons of 10 MeV or lower energy. The evidence supports the safety and efficacy of using ionizing radiation for insect disinfestation of grains; dried spices, vegetables and fruits; and fresh fruit. Species and dose dependent phytotoxic and vitamin changes may occur in some fruits at greater doses than currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Irradiation can inactivate protozoan or helminth parasites and significantly decrease the probability of viable food-borne bacterial pathogens in fish, poultry, and red meats. The titers of amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins of chicken meat sterilized by thermal, electron-beam, or gamma radiation are presented. On the whole, the data support the safely and efficacy of the process

  2. The Commercial Open Source Business Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Dirk

    Commercial open source software projects are open source software projects that are owned by a single firm that derives a direct and significant revenue stream from the software. Commercial open source at first glance represents an economic paradox: How can a firm earn money if it is making its product available for free as open source? This paper presents the core properties of com mercial open source business models and discusses how they work. Using a commercial open source approach, firms can get to market faster with a superior product at lower cost than possible for traditional competitors. The paper shows how these benefits accrue from an engaged and self-supporting user community. Lacking any prior comprehensive reference, this paper is based on an analysis of public statements by practitioners of commercial open source. It forges the various anecdotes into a coherent description of revenue generation strategies and relevant business functions.

  3. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  4. Equilibrium in benefits and hazard risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: benefits of nuclear activities, the concept of operation optimization, concept of risks, hazards index, comparison in production costs of nuclear power generation and others sources of power generation

  5. Employee benefits under IAS/IFRS and the Czech accounting legislation, the tax point of view including

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of employee benefit is limited in the Czech Accounting Legislation. There are only short-term employee benefits – wages, salaries, when employees has rendered services to an entity during a period – month. Entities could create funds from a net profit –fund for social and cultural benefits which could serve as source of social services financing for employees. There are employee benefits defined very extensive in IAS/IFRS. It is IAS 19 – Employee Benefits which defines four Gross of employee benefits: short-term employee benefits, post employment benefits, other long –term employee benefits and termination benefits. There are defined all conditions for employee benefits re­co­gni­tion and treatments for recording and reporting in IAS 19.The paper is concerned with the employee benefits evaluation. The impact on the tax base is eva­lua­ted. There are the most significant types of employee benefits surveyed. They are divided into five groups with the respect to their impact on the tax base. The impact of these benefits is described from their impact on social insurance and health insurance calculation base point of view, as well.

  6. Health benefits of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Ibrahim, Muhammad Din; Kntayya, Saie Brindha

    2014-01-01

    Phytomedicines are believed to have benefits over conventional drugs and are regaining interest in current research. Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose herbal plant used as human food and an alternative for medicinal purposes worldwide. It has been identified by researchers as a plant with numerous health benefits including nutritional and medicinal advantages. Moringa oleifera contains essential amino acids, carotenoids in leaves, and components with nutraceutical properties, supporting the idea of using this plant as a nutritional supplement or constituent in food preparation. Some nutritional evaluation has been carried out in leaves and stem. An important factor that accounts for the medicinal uses of Moringa oleifera is its very wide range of vital antioxidants, antibiotics and nutrients including vitamins and minerals. Almost all parts from Moringa can be used as a source for nutrition with other useful values. This mini-review elaborate on details its health benefits.

  7. RELATIONAL BENEFIT, KEPUASAN, DAN LOYALITAS PELANGGAN PADA BENGKEL PT HONDA DEWATA MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Surya Prayoga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing customer satisfaction consistently could make customers become loyal to the company.  Loyal customers were the source of income and they would help the company to survive in the business com­petition. Relationship marketing was a strategy that can be used to achieve these goals, through re­la­tional benefits strategy. The company could give the benefit from relationship between companies and cus­­tomers. This study analyzed relationship marketing in the workshop of PT Honda Dewata Motor through 153 respon­dents. The results show that confidence benefits and social benefits have positive e­ffect on cus­tomer sa­tis­faction. Special treatment benefits had no significant effect on customer sa­tis­fac­tion and loyalty to workshop. Customer satisfaction had positive impact to customer loyalty significantly.

  8. Advanced spallation neutron sources for condensed matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.; Stirling, G.C.

    1984-03-01

    Advanced spallation neutron sources afford significant advantages over existing high flux reactors. The effective flux is much greater than that currently available with reactor sources. A ten-fold increase in neutron flux will be a major benefit to a wide range of condensed matter studies, and it will realise important experiments that are marginal at reactor sources. Moreover, the high intensity of epithermal neutrons open new vistas in studies of electronic states and molecular vibrations. (author)

  9. Radiation: cost or benefit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, D.

    1988-01-01

    In a previous issue of SCRAM it was argued that the apparent increased incidence of child leukaemia around nuclear power stations could have been caused by radioactive discharges into the environment. The National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) claim that the known levels of contamination could not be responsible for the observed cancer rates. NRPB estimates of radiation risk are, however, considered to be underestimates. The NRPB is criticised for its study of the Sellafield workforce which excluded ex-employees and which revealed, when a statistical mistake was put right, a significant excess of myeloma amongst the Windscale workforce. The radiation protection philosophy of the NRPB is based on a cost benefit analysis which balances the cost of protection against the benefits of power generation. Criticism is made of NRPB, not only for ignoring long-term risks and costs but also for suggesting that some levels of radiation exposure are acceptable. The Board is also accused of not being independent of the nuclear industry. (UK)

  10. Description of data-sources used in SafetyCube, Deliverable 3.1 of the H2020 project SafetyCube (Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagström, L. Thomson, R. Hermitte, T. Weijermars, W. Bos, N. Talbot, R. Thomas, P. Dupont, E. Martensen, H. Bauer, R. Hours, M. Høye, E. Jänsch, M. Murkovic, A. Niewöhner, W. Papadimitriou, E. Pérez, C. Phan, V. Usami, D. & Vázquez-de-Prada, J.

    2017-01-01

    Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate

  11. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword.

  12. Low-level radioactive waste from commercial nuclear reactors. Volume 3. Bibliographic abstracts of significant source documents. Part 1. Open-literature abstracts for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, M.K.; Rodgers, B.R.; Jolley, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The overall task of this program was to provide an assessment of currently available technology for treating commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), to initiate development of a methodology for choosing one technology for a given application, and to identify research needed to improve current treatment techniques and decision methodology. The resulting report is issued in four volumes. Volume 3 of this series is a collection of abstracts of most of the reference documents used for this study. Because of the large volume of literature, the abstracts have been printed in two separate parts. Volume 3, part 1 presents abstracts of the open literature relating to LLRW treatment methodologies. Some of these references pertain to treatment processes for hazardous wastes that may also be applicable to LLRW management. All abstracts have been limited to 21 lines (for brevity), but each abstract contains sufficient information to enable the reader to determine the potential usefulness of the source document and to locate each article. The abstracts are arranged alphabetically by author or organization, and indexed by keyword

  13. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  14. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  15. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  16. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  17. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  18. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  19. Overcoming health inequity: potential benefits of a patient-centered open-source public health infostructure Superando a falta de eqüidade em saúde: benefícios potenciais de uma estrutura de informação em saúde pública, centrada no paciente e de domínio público

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto T. A. Marques Jr.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The past 20 years have witnessed an astonishing increase in computational power and an incredible reduction in the cost of contemporary computer systems, but the public health infostructure in most countries has not changed significantly. This article discusses the potential benefits of applying patient-centered infostructure at the primary medical "points-of-care" services, based on networked integrated open-source technology and programming standards to develop tools to detect and reduce health inequalities. Such systems, which could be implemented from the local to the national level, would enable the expansion of evidence-based medicine, clearer identification of health inequalities, and more accurate cost-benefit analyses. In addition, the public health sector could link such databases to traditional Electronic Patient Record (EPR systems at a greatly reduced cost by promoting the use of standards-based formats for data transfer and storage. Ultimately, the new health infostructure would help decrease health inequity. In fact, developing countries like Brazil, India, and South Africa are well-positioned to take advantage of the open-source movement and "leapfrog" countries burdened by legacy systems.Este artigo discute os benefícios de se desenvolver um sistema de informação em rede, centrado nos pacientes dos serviços médicos primários, usando tecnologias open-source e definições de padrões de programação e o desenvolvimento de ferramentas capazes de detectar desigualdades. Esses sistemas, que podem ser implementados em nível local e gradualmente se expandirem para uso nacional, capacitariam a expansão da prática da medicina baseada em evidência, a identificação mais clara das desigualdades e análises mais precisas de custos-benefícios. Os setores de saúde pública também poderiam interligar esse sistema aos prontuários eletrônicos tradicionais a custos muito reduzidos por meio da promoção do uso dos sistemas padr

  20. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  1. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  2. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  3. Analysis of Employee Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Burešová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The target of this bachelor thesis is to analyze employee benefits from the perspective of employees and to employers suggest possible ideas to improve their provision. The work is divided into two parts: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the overal remuneration of employees, payroll system and employee benefits. Benefits are included in the remuneration system, broken and some of them are defined. The practical part presents a survey among employees in the Czech Repub...

  4. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  5. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  6. Business Process Modeling: Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulska, Marta; Green, Peter; Recker, Jan; Rosemann, Michael

    The process-centered design of organizations and information systems is globally seen as an appropriate response to the increased economic pressure on organizations. At the methodological core of process-centered management is process modeling. However, business process modeling in large initiatives can be a time-consuming and costly exercise, making it potentially difficult to convince executive management of its benefits. To date, and despite substantial interest and research in the area of process modeling, the understanding of the actual benefits of process modeling in academia and practice is limited. To address this gap, this paper explores the perception of benefits derived from process modeling initiatives, as reported through a global Delphi study. The study incorporates the views of three groups of stakeholders - academics, practitioners and vendors. Our findings lead to the first identification and ranking of 19 unique benefits associated with process modeling. The study in particular found that process modeling benefits vary significantly between practitioners and academics. We argue that the variations may point to a disconnect between research projects and practical demands.

  7. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  8. Putting Paid to Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stella Hoff; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; J.M. Wildeboer Schut

    2003-01-01

    Original title: De uitkering van de baan. A good deal of time, money and effort is invested in the reintegration of benefit claimants. What is the result? How many recipients of disability, unemployment or social assistance benefit are in principle capable of working but are currently not

  9. Nanocosmetics: benefits and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Summary Various nanomaterials/nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for the development of cosmetic products - a field so-called nanocosmetic formulations. These advanced materials offer some benefits, while their utilization in the cosmetic formulations may be associated with some risks. The main aim of this editorial is to highlight the benefits and risks of the nanomaterials used in the cosmetic products.

  10. Who Benefits from Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochon, Daniel; Norton, Michael I.; Ariely, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have documented the benefits of religious involvement. Indeed, highly religious people tend to be healthier, live longer, and have higher levels of subjective well-being. While religious involvement offers clear benefits to many, in this paper we explore whether it may also be detrimental to some. Specifically, we examine in detail…

  11. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  12. Geothermy, a significant energy source in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotevski, Georgi; Sutinova, Jagoda; Donev, S.; Novkovski, Todor

    1995-01-01

    According to the recent investigations, it is ascertain that the Republic of Macedonia is one of the richest thermal waters regions. Therefore, the territory of Macedonia is a perspective terrain for geothermal energy exploration. The aim of this paper is to point out the main localities that are priority for further geothermal energy investigations. The chemical analysis of the Macedonian geothermal waters is also presented

  13. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  14. Health benefits, ecological threats of low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibon, Thomas; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Arvesen, Anders; Singh, Bhawna; Verones, Francesca

    2017-03-01

    Stabilizing global temperature will require a shift to renewable or nuclear power from fossil power and the large-scale deployment of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) for remaining fossil fuel use. Non-climate co-benefits of low-carbon energy technologies, especially reduced mortalities from air pollution and decreased ecosystem damage, have been important arguments for policies to reduce CO2 emissions. Taking into account a wide range of environmental mechanisms and the complex interactions of the supply chains of different technologies, we conducted the first life cycle assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts of a global low-carbon electricity scenario. Our assessment indicates strong human health benefits of low-carbon electricity. For ecosystem quality, there is a significant trade-off between reduced pollution and climate impacts and potentially significant ecological impacts from land use associated with increased biopower utilization. Other renewables, nuclear power and CCS show clear ecological benefits, so that the climate mitigation scenario with a relatively low share of biopower has lower ecosystem impacts than the baseline scenario. Energy policy can maximize co-benefits by supporting other renewable and nuclear power and developing biomass supply from sources with low biodiversity impact.

  15. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  16. Identification of radioactive sources and devices. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This publication is intended to be a basic guide and not a comprehensive tool kit to identify and provide detailed emergency handling instructions for radioactive sources, devices and transport containers. In addition, this publication helps to identify sources and highlight the risks they present, and provides information on appropriate action. It is a small but significant step in the international community's continuing efforts to strengthen control of radioactive sources and nuclear material, increase safety and security, and thereby make the benefits of radioactive sources ever more broadly accessible. This publication was partly funded through the Nuclear Security Fund established under the Nuclear Security Plan

  17. Contraceptives with novel benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Lian, Qing-Quan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone receptor (PR) agonists (progestins) and antagonists are developed for female contraceptives. However, non-contraceptive applications of newer progestins and PR modulators are being given more attention. The newer PR agonists including drospirenone, nomegestrol, trimegestone, dienogest and nestorone are being evaluated as contraceptives with health benefits because of their unique pharmacological properties. The selective PR modulators (SPRM; PR antagonists with PR agonistic properties) are under development not only for emergency contraception but also for other health benefits such as the treatment of endometritis and leiomyoma. After searching the literature from PubMed, clinicaltrials.gov and patent database, this review focuses on the effects and mechanisms of these progestins, and SPRMs as contraceptives with other health benefits. PR agonists and antagonists that have novel properties may generate better contraceptive effects with other health benefits.

  18. Benefits of being biased!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Journal of Genetics, Vol. 83, No. 2, August 2004. Keywords. codon bias; alcohol dehydrogenase; Darwinian ... RESEARCH COMMENTARY. Benefits of being biased! SUTIRTH DEY*. Evolutionary Biology Laboratory, Evolutionary & Organismal Biology Unit,. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,.

  19. Benefits of CHP Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the benefits of being a EPA CHP Partner, which include expert advice and answers to questions, CHP news, marketing resources, publicity and recognition, and being associated with EPA through a demonstrated commitment to CHP.

  20. Low Cost Benefit Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyel, Hoyt W.; McMillan, John D.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines eight low-cost employee benefits and summarizes their relative advantages. The eight include a stock ownership program, a sick leave pool, flexible working hours, production incentives, and group purchase plans. (IRT)

  1. Benefits at risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Herbicide resistant GM plants have been promoted as a tool in the development of more environment-friendly agriculture. The environmental benefits here, however, depend not only on farmer's acceptance of GM crops as such, but also on their willingness to use herbicides in accordance with altered ...... spraying plans. In this paper, we will argue that factors driving the spraying practices of Danish farmers may hamper efforts to secure the environmental benefits of the new crops....

  2. Benefits for handicapped children

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The introduction of long-term care benefits within the CERN Health Insurance Scheme requires the coordination of the benefits foreseen for handicapped children. Measures were adopted by the Management following the recommendation made by the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 March 2003. A document clarifying these measures is available on the Web at the following address: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/soc/Social_affairs/social_affairs.asp Social Affairs Service 74201

  3. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  4. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  5. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  6. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  7. Employee benefits in a total rewards framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jane; Hein, Pam

    2013-01-01

    Benefits represent one of the largest investments a company makes in its talent. However, our tendency can be to design, deliver and communicate benefits programs independently, without fully considering how those programs fit within a bigger picture of total rewards. Sure, we need to manage and execute individual benefit programs--but not at the expense of getting a real return on our more significant investment in talent. This article provides employers with perspectives on the value of managing benefits within the broader framework of total rewards, why it works and, most importantly, how to make it work.

  8. Defined contribution health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    2001-03-01

    This Issue Brief discusses the emerging issue of "defined contribution" (DC) health benefits. The term "defined contribution" is used to describe a wide variety of approaches to the provision of health benefits, all of which have in common a shift in the responsibility for payment and selection of health care services from employers to employees. DC health benefits often are mentioned in the context of enabling employers to control their outlay for health benefits by avoiding increases in health care costs. DC health benefits may also shift responsibility for choosing a health plan and the associated risks of choosing a plan from employers to employees. There are three primary reasons why some employers currently are considering some sort of DC approach. First, they are once again looking for ways to keep their health care cost increases in line with overall inflation. Second, some employers are concerned that the public "backlash" against managed care will result in new legislation, regulations, and litigation that will further increase their health care costs if they do not distance themselves from health care decisions. Third, employers have modified not only most employee benefit plans, but labor market practices in general, by giving workers more choice, control, and flexibility. DC-type health benefits have existed as cafeteria plans since the 1980s. A cafeteria plan gives each employee the opportunity to determine the allocation of his or her total compensation (within employer-defined limits) among various employee benefits (primarily retirement or health). Most types of DC health benefits currently being discussed could be provided within the existing employment-based health insurance system, with or without the use of cafeteria plans. They could also allow employees to purchase health insurance directly from insurers, or they could drive new technologies and new forms of risk pooling through which health care services are provided and financed. DC health

  9. Environmental benefits of distributed generation with and without emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsikalakis, A.G.; Hatziargyriou, N.D.

    2007-01-01

    The need for improving energy efficiency and reducing CO 2 emissions and other pollutants, as well as the restructuring of energy markets has favoured the increase of distributed energy resources (DER). The co-ordinated control of these sources comprising renewable energy sources (RES) and distributed generators (DG) characterised by higher efficiencies and lower emissions compared to central thermal generation, when based on coal or oil provide several environmental benefits. These benefits can be quantified based on DER participation in the CO 2 emission trading market. This paper provides a method to calculate emissions savings achieved by the marginal operation of DER in liberalised market conditions using available emissions data. The participation of DER in emissions trading markets is also studied, with respect to profits, pollutants decrease and change in operating schedules. It is shown that the operation of DER can significantly reduce pollutants, provided sufficient remuneration from CO 2 emission trading market participation is provided. Moreover, it is shown that using average emissions values to calculate the environmental benefits of DER might provide misleading results. (author)

  10. Benefits of flexibility from smart electrified transportation and heating in the future UK electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Strbac, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The economic and environmental benefits of smart EVs/HPs are quantified. • This paper implements an advanced stochastic analytical framework. • Operating patterns and potential flexibility of EVs/HPs are sourced from UK trials. • A comprehensive set of case studies across UK future scenarios are carried out. - Abstract: This paper presents an advanced stochastic analytical framework to quantify the benefits of smart electric vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs) on the carbon emission and the integration cost of renewable energy sources (RES) in the future UK electricity system. The typical operating patterns of EVs/HPs as well as the potential flexibility to perform demand shifting and frequency response are sourced from recent UK trials. A comprehensive range of case studies across several future UK scenarios suggest that smart EVs/HPs could deliver measurable carbon reductions by enabling a more efficient operation of the electricity system, while at the same time making the integration of electrified transport and heating demand significantly less carbon intensive. The second set of case studies establish that smart EVs/HPs have significant potential to support cost-efficient RES integration by reducing: (a) RES balancing cost, (b) cost of required back-up generation capacity, and (c) cost of additional low-carbon capacity required to offset lower fuel efficiency and curtailed RES output while achieving the same emission target. Frequency response provision from EVs/HPs could significantly enhance both the carbon benefit and the RES integration benefit of smart EVs/HPs.

  11. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  12. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  13. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  14. Funding source and primary outcome changes in clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov are associated with the reporting of a statistically significant primary outcome: a cross-sectional study [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5bj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeram V Ramagopalan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We and others have shown a significant proportion of interventional trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov have their primary outcomes altered after the listed study start and completion dates. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether changes made to primary outcomes are associated with the likelihood of reporting a statistically significant primary outcome on ClinicalTrials.gov. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of all interventional clinical trials registered on ClinicalTrials.gov as of 20 November 2014 was performed. The main outcome was any change made to the initially listed primary outcome and the time of the change in relation to the trial start and end date. Findings: 13,238 completed interventional trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov that also had study results posted on the website. 2555 (19.3% had one or more statistically significant primary outcomes. Statistical analysis showed that registration year, funding source and primary outcome change after trial completion were associated with reporting a statistically significant primary outcome. Conclusions: Funding source and primary outcome change after trial completion are associated with a statistically significant primary outcome report on clinicaltrials.gov.

  15. Benefit finding and resilience in child caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Tony; Giles, Melanie; McLaughlin, Marian

    2014-09-01

    A substantial number of children are involved in informal caregiving and make a significant contribution to health care delivery. While this places high levels of demand on their coping resources, there is some evidence that these children find benefit in their caring role. A survey design using questionnaire data collection was used with a sample of 442 children (174 boys and 268 girls) between the ages of 12 and 16. The role of benefit finding and resilience was explored within a stress and coping model of the impact of caregiving. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis (HMRA) identified resilience and benefit finding as accounting for significant amounts of variance in positive health and mediating the impact of caregiving. In regard to negative health, only benefit finding played a significant role. Young caregivers do experience benefit finding and exhibit resilience although the relationship with caregiving burden was inverse. Benefit finding seems to be related to social recognition of the caregiving role and to family support. What is already known on this subject? There is some emerging evidence that child caregivers experience some positive effects or benefits from their caring in spite of the demands of the role. However, the main focus has been on reducing negative outcomes rather than on building resilience. What this study adds? This study provides evidence that young caregivers do experience benefit finding in situations where the role demand is not overly excessive and where the role is socially recognized. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  17. BenefitClaimWebServiceBean/BenefitClaimWebService

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — A formal or informal request for a type of monetary or non-monetary benefit. This service provides benefit claims and benefit claim special issues data, allows the...

  18. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices (5-1-030) will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service (tel. 79194 / 72738)

  19. PENSION FUND BENEFITS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Benefits Service

    2002-01-01

    Please note that from now on, our offices will be opened to members and beneficiaries on Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday from 10 to 12 a.m. and from 3 to 5 p.m. We are otherwise available but by appointment only. Benefits Service 5-1-030 tel. 79194 / 72738

  20. Bayesian benefits with JASP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, M.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the Bayesian approach to data analysis using the newly developed statistical software program JASP. With JASP, researchers are able to take advantage of the benefits that the Bayesian framework has to offer in terms of parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. The Bayesian

  1. Studies Highlight Biodiesel's Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Colo., July 6, 1998 — Two new studies highlight the benefits of biodiesel in reducing overall air Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted both studies: An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Life Cycles and Biodiesel Research Progress, 1992-1997. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel

  2. Your Medicare Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... schedule a lung cancer screening counseling and shared decision making visit with your doctor to discuss the benefits ... when they’re available in your MyMedicare.gov account. 58 Section 3: For more information Visit Medicare. gov for general information about Medicare ...

  3. Net energy benefits of carbon nanotube applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Pei; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle net energy benefits are examined. • CNT-enabled and the conventional technologies are compared. • Flash memory with CNT switches show significant positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with MWCNT cathodes show positive net energy benefit. • Lithium-ion batteries with SWCNT anodes tend to exhibit negative net energy benefit. - Abstract: Implementation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various applications can reduce material and energy requirements of products, resulting in energy savings. However, processes for the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are energy-intensive and can require extensive purification. In this study, we investigate the net energy benefits of three CNT-enabled technologies: multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) reinforced cement used as highway construction material, single-walled CNT (SWCNT) flash memory switches used in cell phones and CNT anodes and cathodes used in lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles. We explore the avoided or additional energy requirement in the manufacturing and use phases and estimate the life cycle net energy benefits for each application. Additional scenario analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of parameter uncertainties resulted in probability distributions of net energy benefits, indicating that net energy benefits are dependent on the application with confidence intervals straddling the breakeven line in some cases. Analysis of simulation results reveals that SWCNT switch flash memory and MWCNT Li-ion battery cathodes have statistically significant positive net energy benefits (α = 0.05) and SWCNT Li-ion battery anodes tend to have negative net energy benefits, while positive results for MWCNT-reinforced cement were significant only under an efficient CNT production scenario and a lower confidence level (α = 0.1).

  4. Projected benefits of actinide partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.; Goldstein, M.

    1976-05-01

    Possible benefits that could accrue from actinide separation and transmutations are presented. The time frame for implementing these processes is discussed and the expected benefits are qualitatively described. These benefits are provisionally quantified in a sample computation

  5. Social Security and Medicare Benefits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Cash benefits and rehabilitation benefits paid in each year from the Old-Age and Survivors Insurance, and Disability Insurance Trust Funds, and benefits paid from...

  6. Global Sourcing Flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    the higher costs (but decreased risk for value chain disruption) embedded in a more flexible global sourcing model that allows the firm to replicate and/or relocate activities across multiple locations. We develop a model and propositions on facilitating and constraining conditions of global sourcing...... sourcing flexibility. Here we draw on prior research in the fields of organizational flexibility, international business and global sourcing as well as case examples and secondary studies. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the implications of global sourcing flexibility for firm strategy...... and operations against the backdrop of the theory-based definition of the construct. We discuss in particular the importance of global sourcing flexibility for operational performance stability, and the trade-off between specialization benefits, emerging from location and service provider specialization, versus...

  7. Ionizing radiation: benefits vs. risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    No one has been identifiably injured by radiation within the levels set by the NCRP and ICRP in 1934. This fact and the level of natural radiation (average dose 102 millirems/year) help provide standards against which the authors can view the relative increases in exposure from manmade sources of radiation. Because one person in five in the US will die of cancer from all causes, it is impossible to detect small increases in some types of cancer from radiation. A valid assumption is that any exposure to radiation carries some possibility of harm and should be kept below the level of the expected benefits. More is known about radiation toxicity than about any other potentially toxic substances. An obstacle to progress in the use of radioactive materials in biology and medicine is an exaggerated impression by the public of the risk of radiation. Several studies indicate that the public perceives the risk of radiation to be the greatest of all societal risks and at times does not distinguish peaceful from military uses of radiation. It behooves scientists and physicians to inform the public about the benefits as well as the risks of procedures involving radiation

  8. APPLE PHYTOCHEMICALS FOR HUMAN BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Chakole

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals

  9. The health benefits of wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J B; Walzem, R L

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies from numerous disparate populations reveal that individuals with the habit of daily moderate wine consumption enjoy significant reductions in all-cause and particularly cardiovascular mortality when compared with individuals who abstain or who drink alcohol to excess. Researchers are working to explain this observation in molecular and nutritional terms. Moderate ethanol intake from any type of beverage improves lipoprotein metabolism and lowers cardiovascular mortality risk. The question now is whether wine, particularly red wine with its abundant content of phenolic acids and polyphenols, confers additional health benefits. Discovering the nutritional properties of wine is a challenging task, which requires that the biological actions and bioavailability of the >200 individual phenolic compounds be documented and interpreted within the societal factors that stratify wine consumption and the myriad effects of alcohol alone. Further challenge arises because the health benefits of wine address the prevention of slowly developing diseases for which validated biomarkers are rare. Thus, although the benefits of the polyphenols from fruits and vegetables are increasingly accepted, consensus on wine is developing more slowly. Scientific research has demonstrated that the molecules present in grapes and in wine alter cellular metabolism and signaling, which is consistent mechanistically with reducing arterial disease. Future research must address specific mechanisms both of alcohol and of polyphenolic action and develop biomarkers of their role in disease prevention in individuals.

  10. Nuclear benefits and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, P

    1987-03-01

    The paper reviews the broader issues that affect nuclear power in a world energy context. The importance of nuclear power as an energy source is described, as well as the environmental effects of different energy sources. The risks associated with the nuclear industry are discussed with respect to: risks due to radiation exposure, risks to workers in the nuclear industry, and risks to the public due to discharges from nuclear installations. (U.K.).

  11. Muon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    2001-01-01

    A full high energy muon collider may take considerable time to realize. However, intermediate steps in its direction are possible and could help facilitate the process. Employing an intense muon source to carry out forefront low energy research, such as the search for muon-number non-conservation, represents one interesting possibility. For example, the MECO proposal at BNL aims for 2 x 10 -17 sensitivity in their search for coherent muon-electron conversion in the field of a nucleus. To reach that goal requires the production, capture and stopping of muons at an unprecedented 10 11 μ/sec. If successful, such an effort would significantly advance the state of muon technology. More ambitious ideas for utilizing high intensity muon sources are also being explored. Building a muon storage ring for the purpose of providing intense high energy neutrino beams is particularly exciting.We present an overview of muon sources and example of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Factory at BNL with various detector location possibilities

  12. Natural gas benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The General Auditor in the Netherlands studied the natural gas policy in the Netherlands, as has been executed in the past decades, in the period 1997-1999. The purpose of the study is to inform the Dutch parliament on the planning and the backgrounds of the natural gas policy and on the policy risks with respect to the benefits for the Dutch State, taking into account the developments in the policy environment. The final conclusion is that the proposed liberalization of the national natural gas market will result in a considerable deprivation of income for the State in case the benefit policy is not adjusted. This report includes a reaction of the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs and an afterword of the General Auditor. In the appendix an outline is given of the natural gas policy

  13. Harnessing natural ventilation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2013-04-01

    Making sure that a healthcare establishment has a good supply of clean fresh air is an important factor in keeping patients, staff, and visitors, free from the negative effects of CO2 and other contaminants. John O'Leary of Trend Controls, a major international supplier of building energy management solutions (BEMS), examines the growing use of natural ventilation, and the health, energy-saving, and financial benefits, that it offers.

  14. Incomes and Outcomes: Social Security Disability Benefits in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert A; Estroff, Sue E; Sint, Kyaw; Lin, Haiqun; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Schooler, Nina R; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    Social Security Administration (SSA) disability benefits are an important source of income for people with psychoses and confer eligibility for health insurance. The authors examined the impact of coordinated specialty care on receipt of such benefits in first-episode psychosis, along with the correlates and consequences of receiving them. The Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode-Early Treatment Program (RAISE-ETP) study, a 34-site cluster-randomized trial, compared NAVIGATE, a coordinated specialty care program, to usual community care over 2 years. Receipt of SSA benefits and clinical outcomes were assessed at program entry and every 6 months for 2 years. Piecewise regression analysis was used to identify relative change in outcome trajectories after receipt of disability benefits. Among 399 RAISE-ETP participants, 36 (9%) were receiving SSA disability benefits at baseline; of the remainder, 124 (34.1%) obtained benefits during the 2-year study period. The NAVIGATE intervention improved quality of life, symptoms, and employment but did not significantly reduce the likelihood of receiving SSA disability benefits. Obtaining benefits was predicted by more severe psychotic symptoms and greater dysfunction and was followed by increased total income but fewer days of employment, reduced motivation (e.g., sense of purpose, greater anhedonia), and fewer days of intoxication. A 2-year coordinated specialty care intervention did not reduce receipt of SSA disability benefits. There were some advantages for those who obtained SSA disability benefits over the 2-year treatment period, but there were also some unintended adverse consequences. Providing income supports without impeding recovery remains an important policy challenge.

  15. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  16. Quantifying the costs and benefits of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1975-06-01

    A number of principles which have been developed for cost-benefit assessments in the radiation field are applied to the more general cost-benefit assessment of energy production. Sources of energy may be assessed in relation to a reference practice. If this is done for one and the same electricity production, the main objective is to assess detriments in comparable terms. Detriment rates may be integrated in space and time and might also be expressed in equivalent monetary units. Although there are several practical limitations to any theoretical treatment of the problem, the basic principles may form a useful background to more realistic although more complicated approaches to the task. (author)

  17. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  18. Monetary benefits of preventing childhood lead poisoning with lead-safe window replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick; Jacobs, David / E.; Berg, Michael; Cohen, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Previous estimates of childhood lead poisoning prevention benefits have quantified the present value of some health benefits, but not the costs of lead paint hazard control or the benefits associated with housing and energy markets. Because older housing with lead paint constitutes the main exposure source today in the U.S., we quantify health benefits, costs, market value benefits, energy savings, and net economic benefits of lead-safe window replacement (which includes paint stabilization ...

  19. Response Surface Model (RSM)-based Benefit Per Ton Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tables below are updated versions of the tables appearing in The influence of location, source, and emission type in estimates of the human health benefits of reducing a ton of air pollution (Fann, Fulcher and Hubbell 2009).

  20. Benefiting through partnering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    As a consequence of dramatic changes in the world market in nuclear services over the last decade, BNFL has embarked on a comprehensive strategic review of its business. Central to this review has been the need for the company to achieve cost reduction and improved efficiency in all aspects of its business. An area where substantial benefits can be gained is in improved efficiency in the discharge of the capital expenditure programme. This paper focuses on the opportunity of profiting through partnering in capital project delivery. (author)

  1. Cost-benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of the cost benefit analysis is given for the LMFBR-type reactor development program given in an environmental impact statement of AEC. Several methodological shortcomings are signalled. As compared with a HTGR-type/LWR-type mix of reactors the LMFBR-type reactor will not be competitive until the U 3 O 8 prices reach a level of $ 50/lb which is not likely to happen before the year 2020. It is recommended to review the draft of the ZEC document and include timing as one of the issues. Deferal of the LMFBR-type reactor development program if necessary will not be intolerably costly

  2. STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CHANDRA SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primini, Francis A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He Xiangqun; Karovska, Margarita; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Hall, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ∼95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ∼3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  3. Statistical Characterization of the Chandra Source Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primini, Francis A.; Houck, John C.; Davis, John E.; Nowak, Michael A.; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G.; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger M.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiangqun Helen; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; Van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2011-06-01

    The first release of the Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) contains ~95,000 X-ray sources in a total area of 0.75% of the entire sky, using data from ~3900 separate ACIS observations of a multitude of different types of X-ray sources. In order to maximize the scientific benefit of such a large, heterogeneous data set, careful characterization of the statistical properties of the catalog, i.e., completeness, sensitivity, false source rate, and accuracy of source properties, is required. Characterization efforts of other large Chandra catalogs, such as the ChaMP Point Source Catalog or the 2 Mega-second Deep Field Surveys, while informative, cannot serve this purpose, since the CSC analysis procedures are significantly different and the range of allowable data is much less restrictive. We describe here the characterization process for the CSC. This process includes both a comparison of real CSC results with those of other, deeper Chandra catalogs of the same targets and extensive simulations of blank-sky and point-source populations.

  4. Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This publication presents an investigation on the influence of the design and technical features of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) on predisposal and disposal activities when the sources become disused. The publication also addresses whether design modifications could contribute to safer and/or more efficient management of disused sources without compromising the benefits provided by the use of the sealed sources. This technical publication aims to collect information on the most typical design features and manufacturing techniques of sealed radioactive sources and examines how they affect the safe management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS). The publication also aims to assist source designers and manufacturers by discussing design features that are important from the waste management point of view. It has been identified that most SRS manufacturers use similar geometries and materials for their designs and apply improved and reliable manufacturing techniques e.g. double- encapsulation. These designs and manufacturing techniques have been proven over time to reduce contamination levels in fabrication and handling, and improve source integrity and longevity. The current source designs and materials ensure as well as possible that SRSs will maintain their integrity in use and when they become disused. No significant improvement options to current designs have been identified. However, some design considerations were identified as important to facilitate source retrieval, to increase the possibility of re-use and to ensure minimal contamination risk and radioactive waste generation at recycling. It was also concluded that legible identifying markings on a source are critical for DSRS management. The publication emphasizes the need for a common understanding of the radioactive source's recommended working life (RWL) for manufacturers and regulators. The conditions of use (COU) are important for the determination of RWL. A formal system for specification

  5. Phytosterols: natural compounds with established and emerging health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautwein Elke A.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytosterols (plant sterols and stanols are naturally occurring compounds which are found in all foods of plant origin. The term phytosterols refers to more than 200 different compounds. The most abundant ones in the human diet are sitosterol and campesterol. Their saturated counterparts, sitostanol and campestanol, are found in much lower amounts. Good food sources of phytosterols include vegetable oils, cereal grains, nuts, legumes, and fruits and vegetables. Phytosterols are structurally similar to cholesterol. Despite this structural similarity, they are not absorbed in significant quantities. Absorption is less than 2% for phytosterols, while it is 30-60% for cholesterol. Phytosterols are known to have various bioactive properties, which may have an impact on human health, and as such boosted interest in phytosterols in the past decade. The most important benefit is their blood cholesterol-lowering effect via partial inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption. The recommended daily intake of 2 g of phytosterols reduces cholesterol absorption by 30-40% and LDL-cholesterol by 10% on average. Other claimed benefits of phytosterols are possible anti-atherogenic effects as well as, particularly for beta-sitosterol, immune stimulating and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence suggesting that particularly plant sterols may have beneficial effects against the development of different types of cancers, like colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. It is not clear whether mechanisms other than the established cholesterol-lowering action of phytosterols as such also contribute to these potential health benefits.

  6. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  7. Benefits and challenges of localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Martin

    2009-01-01

    One of the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor's principal design features is its simple modular construction. This feature is suited particularly well for localization and offers a good opportunity to further develop an existing national nuclear industry or as in the case of Romania, establish new nuclear enterprises. When the first commercial 540 MW multi-unit CANDU reactors entered service in 1971, Canada's population of less than 24 million supported only a 'medium' level of industrial development and therefore lacked the heavy industrial capabilities of larger countries and regions such as the USA, Japan and Europe. A key motivation for the government of Canada in developing the CANDU design was to ensure that it would have the autonomous capacity to build and operate nuclear power reactors without depending on foreign sources for key components and supply of enriched uranium. Further examples of successful CANDU technology localization include India, which achieved almost complete localization of the 220 MW CANDU Prototype design in the early 1970s as well as Korea where AECL transferred the CANDU 6 700 MWe reactor design and manufacturing technology enabling the Koreans to supply over 75% of equipment for the fourth unit. In China on the Qinshan Phase 3 CANDU Nuclear Power Plant, Chinese contractors performed most of the construction and AECL has arranged for the transfer of full CANDU fuel processing and fabrication technology. As indicated one of the primary benefits realized from localization has been the creation of a nuclear power program that enables a recipient country in the pursuit of an independent national energy strategy. While a secondary benefit is the generation of wealth and economic activity in countries with strong indigenous nuclear equipment manufacturing capability. (author)

  8. 28 CFR 345.67 - Retention of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Pay and Benefits § 345.67 Retention of benefits. (a) Job retention. Ordinarily, when an inmate is absent from the job for a significant period of time, the SOI will... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Retention of benefits. 345.67 Section 345...

  9. Long-term results of interventional treatment of large unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): significant survival benefit from combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) compared to TACE monotherapy; Langzeitergebnisse der interventionellen Therapie von grossen, inoperablen hepatozellulaeren Karzinomen (HCC): signifikanter Ueberlebensvorteil von transarterieller Chemoembolisation (TACE) und perkutaner Ethanolinjektion (PEI) gegenueber der TACE-Monotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubienski, A.; Bitsch, R.G.; Grenacher, L.; Kauffmann, G.W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg, Abt. Radiodiagnostik, Heidelberg (Germany); Schemmer, P. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Duex, M. [Radiologisches Zentralinstitut Krankenhaus Nordwest Frankfurt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis of long-term efficacy of combined transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and TACE monotherapy was conducted in patients with large, non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with large, unresectable HCC lesions underwent selective TACE. Liver cirrhosis was present in 42 patients, due to alcohol abuse (n = 22) and viral infection (n = 17). In three patients, the underlying cause for liver cirrhosis remained unclear. Child A cirrhosis was found in 22 and Child B cirrhosis in 20 patients. Repeated and combined TACE and PEI were performed in 22 patients and repeated TACE monotherapy was performed in 28 patients. Survival and complication rates were determined and compared. Results: The 6-, 12-, 24- and 36-month survival rates were 61%, 21%, 4%, and 4% for TACE monotherapy and 77%, 55%, 39% and 22% for combined TACE and PEI (Kaplan-Meier method). The kind of treatment significantly affected the survival rate (p=0.002 log-rank test). Severe side effects were present in two patients of the monotherapy group and in three patients of the combination therapy group. (orig.)

  10. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (United Kingdom); School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Pope, Jenny, E-mail: jenny@integral-sustainability.net [Integral Sustainability (Australia); Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute (Australia); Morrison-Saunders, Angus, E-mail: A.Morrison-Saunders@murdoch.edu.au [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Environmental Science, Murdoch University (Australia); Retief, Francois, E-mail: francois.retief@nwu.ac.za [School of Geo and Spatial Sciences, North-West University (South Africa); Gunn, Jill A.E., E-mail: jill.gunn@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning and School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment.

  11. Impact assessment: Eroding benefits through streamlining?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, Alan; Pope, Jenny; Morrison-Saunders, Angus; Retief, Francois; Gunn, Jill A.E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that Governments have sought to streamline impact assessment in recent years (defined as the last five years) to counter concerns over the costs and potential for delays to economic development. We hypothesise that this has had some adverse consequences on the benefits that subsequently accrue from the assessments. This hypothesis is tested using a framework developed from arguments for the benefits brought by Environmental Impact Assessment made in 1982 in the face of the UK Government opposition to its implementation in a time of economic recession. The particular benefits investigated are ‘consistency and fairness’, ‘early warning’, ‘environment and development’, and ‘public involvement’. Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom and Western Australia are the jurisdictions tested using this framework. The conclusions indicate that significant streamlining has been undertaken which has had direct adverse effects on some of the benefits that impact assessment should deliver, particularly in Canada and the UK. The research has not examined whether streamlining has had implications for the effectiveness of impact assessment, but the causal link between streamlining and benefits does sound warning bells that merit further investigation. -- Highlights: • Investigation of the extent to which government has streamlined IA. • Evaluation framework was developed based on benefits of impact assessment. • Canada, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and Western Australia were examined. • Trajectory in last five years is attrition of benefits of impact assessment

  12. Investment decisions with benefits of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Thomas

    This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show that underi......This paper studies how large shareholders with benefits of control affect firms' equity issue behavior and investment decisions. I introduce an explicit agency cost structure based on the large shareholder's benefits of control. In a simple extension of Myers and Majluf [1984], I show...... that underinvestment is aggravated when there are benefits of being in control, and these benefits are diluted if equity is issued to finance the investment project. I assume that large shareholders are constrained from further investments in their firms, and that they maximize their own wealth, which includes...... as a representation of the large shareholders' expected private benefits. Using a large panel of U.S. data, I find that large shareholders' concern with dilution of ownership and control cause firms to issue less equity and to invest less. I also find that it has no significant effect whether new shares are issued...

  13. Economic benefits of the nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The historical and projected benefits of nuclear power are estimated as the cost differential between nuclear power and an alternative baseload generating source times the quantity of electricity generated. From 1976 through 1981 coal and nuclear power were close competitors in most regions, with nuclear power holding a small cost advantage overall in 1976 and 1977 that subsequently eroded. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to coal power costs, national benefits from nuclear power are estimated to be $336 million from 1976 to 1981, with an additional $1.8 billion for the present value of existing plants. Fuel oil has been the dominant source of baseload generation in California, Florida, and New England. When nuclear power costs are contrasted to those of fuel oil, the benefits of nuclear power in these three regions are estimated to be $8.3 billion and $28.1 billion in terms of present value. The present value of benefits of future nuclear plants is estimated to be $8.2 billion under a midcase scenario and $43 billion under an optimistic scenario. 18 references, 10 tables

  14. 28 CFR 104.47 - Collateral sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determining the appropriate collateral source offset for future benefit payments, the Special Master may employ an appropriate methodology for determining the present value of such future benefits. In... compensation, including life insurance, pension funds, death benefits programs, and payments by Federal, State...

  15. Exploring the energy benefits of advanced water metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Michael A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hans, Liesel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Piscopo, Kate [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Recent improvements to advanced water metering and communications technologies have the potential to improve the management of water resources and utility infrastructure, benefiting both utilities and ratepayers. The highly granular, near-real-time data and opportunity for automated control provided by these advanced systems may yield operational benefits similar to those afforded by similar technologies in the energy sector. While significant progress has been made in quantifying the water-related benefits of these technologies, the research on quantifying the energy benefits of improved water metering is underdeveloped. Some studies have quantified the embedded energy in water in California, however these findings are based on data more than a decade old, and unanimously assert that more research is needed to further explore how topography, climate, water source, and other factors impact their findings. In this report, we show how water-related advanced metering systems may present a broader and more significant set of energy-related benefits. We review the open literature of water-related advanced metering technologies and their applications, discuss common themes with a series of water and energy experts, and perform a preliminary scoping analysis of advanced water metering deployment and use in California. We find that the open literature provides very little discussion of the energy savings potential of advanced water metering, despite the substantial energy necessary for water’s extraction, conveyance, treatment, distribution, and eventual end use. We also find that water AMI has the potential to provide water-energy co-efficiencies through improved water systems management, with benefits including improved customer education, automated leak detection, water measurement and verification, optimized system operation, and inherent water and energy conservation. Our findings also suggest that the adoption of these technologies in the water sector has been slow

  16. Making benefit transfers work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, I.J.; Brouwer, R.; Ferrini, S.

    We develop and test guidance principles for benefits transfers. These argue that when transferring across relatively similar sites, simple mean value transfers are to be preferred but that when sites are relatively dissimilar then value function transfers will yield lower errors. The paper also...... provides guidance on the appropriate specification of transferable value functions arguing that these should be developed from theoretical rather than ad-hoc statistical principles. These principles are tested via a common format valuation study of water quality improvements across five countries. Results...... support our various hypotheses providing a set of principles for future transfer studies. The application also considers new ways of incorporating distance decay, substitution and framing effects within transfers and presents a novel water quality ladder....

  17. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  18. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  19. IT benefits management in local government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kenneth Møller Porto; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) is increasingly presented as a driving force for service and efficiency improvement in local governments. However, achieving these goals in creating value from IT investments is a significant challenge for local government organizations. Practitioners and researchers...... have proposed numerous approaches to IT benefits management, but our knowledge of current practices and capabilities in local government IT management is still limited. Thus, in this paper we resent an investigation of what characterizes IT benefits management in local government in order to understand...... and improve current practices. Through a comparative case study of two Danish municipalities, we have analyzed the different characteristics of benefits management. Based on this analysis we propose an initial framework for understanding IT benefits management in local government....

  20. Australian synchrotron light source - (boomerang)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeman, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian National Synchrotron Light Source - (Boomerang) is to be installed at the Monash University in Victoria. This report provides some background to the proposed facility and discusses aspects of a prospective design. Recently, significant effort was devoted to refining the in principle design and a lattice providing an emittance od 18 nm rad was obtained with a distributed dispersion in the straight section of 0.29m. Exhaustive studies have been made of the economic benefits that would accrue to Australia to Australia following the installation of this facility. This design is a refinement of the design concept presented to the SRI -2000, Berlin (Boldeman, Einfeld et al), to the meeting of the 4th Asian Forum and the Preliminary Design Study presented to the Australian Synchrotron Research Program

  1. Landfill Gas Energy Benefits Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the LFG Energy Benefits Calculator to estimate direct, avoided, and total greenhouse gas reductions, as well as environmental and energy benefits, for a landfill gas energy project.

  2. Active and retired public employees' health insurance: potential data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2014-12-01

    Employer-provided health insurance for public sector workers is a significant public policy issue. Underfunding and the growing costs of benefits may hinder the fiscal solvency of state and local governments. Findings from the private sector may not be applicable because many public sector workers are covered by union contracts or salary schedules and often benefit modifications require changes in legislation. Research has been limited by the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently large and representative data on public sector employees. This article highlights data sources researchers might utilize to investigate topics concerning health insurance for active and retired public sector employees. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrmannová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor's study is to describe and analyze the employee motivation and benefits in the payroll system and human recources field. Theoretical part attends to general terms as the employee motivation, the theory of the motivation,the types of the employee benefits, the influence of benefits to the employee's working performance. The practial part focuses on Elanor company, includes introduction of the company, it's history and the present, the offer of the employee benefits. Ne...

  4. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    and Estonia, it was assumed that over 100 collected items 60 would be reused, 30 recycled in other ways and 10 go to final disposal Using these inputs, the LCA showed that the collection, processing and transport of second-hand clothing has insignificant impacts on the environment in comparison to the savings...... of establishing the net benefits from introducing clothes reuse. Indeed, it enables to take into consideration all the activities connected to reusing clothes, including, for instance, recycling and disposal of the collected clothes not suitable for reuse. In addition, the routes followed by the collected clothes....... Conclusions The results of the study show that clothes reuse can significantly contribute to reducing the environmental burden of clothing. Recommendations and perspectives It would be beneficial to apply other methods for estimating the avoided production of new clothes in order to check the validity...

  5. Managerial Perspective on Open Source Collaboration and Networked Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henttonen Maaret Katja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the managerial perspectives towards open source software and networked innovation. We analysed six software companies who use open source software as a significant part of their product or service offering. The study found notable differences in managerial attitudes, expected benefits and key challenges related to open source software and its role in innovative activities. While all companies were using same pieces of software with open source communities, there were different levels of engagement in the development of the software and information flows between companies and communities. A deeper level of involvement enables the exchange of more than just the code: like ideas, influences, opinions and even innovations or parts of them. The differences in managerial views on open source and networked innovation may be explained by industry domains, value chain position and leadership style

  6. Corporate benefits of CSR activities

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Żychlewicz

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the benefits that a company may derive from socially responsible activities. The paper lists various definitions of CSR that indicate the expected benefits stemming from its use. Both in theory and in practice, there is observed the need for strategic connection between the CSR concept and its real-life benefits.

  7. Corporate benefits of CSR activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Żychlewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the benefits that a company may derive from socially responsible activities. The paper lists various definitions of CSR that indicate the expected benefits stemming from its use. Both in theory and in practice, there is observed the need for strategic connection between the CSR concept and its real-life benefits.

  8. Cost benefit analysis vs. referenda

    OpenAIRE

    Martin J. Osborne; Matthew A. Turner

    2007-01-01

    We consider a planner who chooses between two possible public policies and ask whether a referendum or a cost benefit analysis leads to higher welfare. We find that a referendum leads to higher welfare than a cost benefit analyses in "common value" environments. Cost benefit analysis is better in "private value" environments.

  9. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  10. Thermal neutron source study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, T.M.

    1983-05-01

    The value of intense neutron beams for condensed matter research is discussed with emphasis on the complementary nature of steady state and pulsed neutron sources. A large body of information on neutron sources, both existing and planned, is then summarized under four major headings: fission reactors, electron accelerators with heavy metal targets, pulsed spallation sources and 'steady state' spallation sources. Although the cost of a spallation source is expected to exceed that of a fission reactor of the same flux by a factor of two, there are significant advantages for a spallation device such as the proposed Electronuclear Materials Test Facility (EMTF)

  11. How isotopes benefit industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  12. Cardiovascular benefits of exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal SK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health

  13. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  14. Emissions - problems and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.; Hurd, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Air pollution due to emissions arising from the use of biomass in electricity generation is discussed. One of the most attractive aspects of the use of biomass is that there is no net increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. During growth biomass absorbs CO 2 ; during combustion, either directly or as biomass derived fuels, it releases CO 2 , making a closed cycle. Another benefit from the use of biomass is its typically very low sulphur content and the consequent low sulphur oxide emissions from biomass-fired generation plants. Biomass is, however, less satisfactory in relation to nitrogen oxides (NO x ). Control of the nitrogen content of the biomass feedstock, advanced high technology combustion techniques and some post-engine treatment may all be necessary to comply with the legal limits for NO x emissions. The low ash content of biomass, particularly biomass derived oils, makes it possible to limit particulate emission to very low levels. It will be important, though, to bear in mind the need to limit the sodium and potassium content to below 1 ppm by mass in bio-oil to be used in a high temperature gas turbine. Levels of micropollutants will be low if the chlorine content of biomass feedstock is low. However, residence times at peak temperature in typical gas turbines combustors are too short to destroy some micropollutants. (UK)

  15. How isotopes benefit industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-02-15

    The life of bus engines and the time taken to make beer are not at first sight connected with atomic energy. Yet the first has been considerably lengthened and the second even more considerably shortened in different countries as a result of using nuclear techniques and materials. They are only two examples; there are many others which have improved efficiency in factories, oilfields, chemical plants and other industries. They indicate not only the results of ingenuity but the rewards possible from more widespread use of the new methods. At a symposium on radioisotope tracers in industry and geophysics organized by the Agency and held in Prague during November many reports showed not only what is possible but what is actually being accomplished in a number of industries as a matter of daily routine. The economic benefits were also demonstrated, and although the developments have been mainly in countries already highly industrialized, the potential for new industries in developing countries was clear. Research to improve performance of motorcar, aircraft and tractor engines has been directed at establishing the causes of friction, corrosion and wear. In brewing beer it has been possible to accelerate fermentation. Pollution both of water and air can be reduced and methods of waste disposal improved. Many economies have been effected in oil production. Better quality and lower costs have resulted from work in chemical plants and processes such as glass making, metal refining, plastics and many others. Dams and railways were also mentioned among the great variety of subjects suitable for radioisotope techniques

  16. The benefits of visibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; DeWitt, D.

    1994-01-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  17. The benefits of visibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; DeWitt, D

    1994-07-01

    The benefits of visibility improvement (or the damages with additional degradation) refer to increases (or decreases) in utility obtained in three different dimensions. The first of these is associated with the nature of the visibility change. Visual range may be improved so that features of an area become more distinct or the sky becomes clearer. Alternatively, normal features of an area may be marred, say by the site of a power plant or its plume (called plume blight). The second dimension is the location of the change: in an urban area, in a rural setting, or in a recreational area or area of particular beauty, such as the Grand Canyon. The third dimension is the type of value: use or non-use. Thus, a person who visits the Grand Canyon (or may visit it in the future) may hold use values for improving his view of the Canyon or its surroundings and may also old non-use values for improved visibility (whether for altruistic or other reasons) irrespective of present or planned visits. In all, therefore, there are 12 possible combinations of the elements in these three dimension, each of which is logically distinct from the others and which demands attention in the literature to derive willingness to pay (WTP)

  18. A case of carotid dissection having significant benefit from thrombolytic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Güler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke due to carotid artery dissection is more common among young people and it accounts about 2-5% of all strokes. A 56 year old left landed male patient was evaluated for left-sided hemiparesis and aphasia in the emergency department. His cranial CT was assessed normal and NIH score was assessed 24 then he undergone thrombolytic therapy. His NIH score was decreased to 14 after 24 hours. At extracranial dupplex USG, cranial MRI and MR-Angiography, done the same day there were findings for carotid dissection. At MR-anjio repeated 5 days later, partial recanalization were seen. At control cranial CT only striocapsüler infarct was seen. There was no any evidence of bleeding as complication. Here we present a rare case of extracranial carotid artery dissection case undergone IV thrombolytic therapy and want to take attention that in carotid dissection IV thrombolytic therapy is quiet safe and there is no difference of complication such as hemorrhage and the prognosis is no different then those with no carotid dissection.

  19. ECRI audio conference focuses on RFID: the possible benefits are significant, but proceed slowly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This article highlights key points raised during ECRI's May 18, 2005, audio conference, "Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) for Tracking Medical Devices: Planning for Today and Tomorrow." The conference gave attendees the opportunity to hear the experiences of two healthcare professionals managing RFID pilot programs at healthcare facilities. Information on ordering a recording of the event, including presentation materials and our recent Health Devices article on RFID, is provided at the end of this article.

  20. Some conditions for significant contribution from photovoltaics to sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coiante, D.

    1994-03-01

    In medium-long term perspective, the anthropogenic atmospheric pollution, due to fossil fuel burning, could be contained by massively using of renewable energy. Significant improvements are expected to arise from diffusion into use of large scale PV power systems. Considering the situation in Italy as a typical study case, a limit can be individuated, which makes that PV contribution to annual electric energy balance can reach a maximum of about 7%. Such a figure corresponds to about 2% in terms of contribution to total energy balance. Thus, the intermittent energy sources are destined, in Italy, to be confined to a role, just significant (7%) in the electric energy sector, but quite marginal (2%) with reference to expected environmental massive benefits. Apart from numerical results, this disappointing concept can be applied in general to all OCSE countries, wich globally produce the largest amount of world pollutant energy. Consequently, if photovoltaics wants to acquire a real environmental consistence, the limit of PV system diffusion has to be overcome. This can be attained by implementing the present grid-tied reference model for PV system diffusion by including an hydrogen production and storage system

  1. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  2. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  3. Rebates and spreads: pharmacy benefit management practices and corporate citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Garis, Robert I

    2008-10-01

    How ought we determine whether businesses in the health care sector profit fairly? One class of companies in the health care sector, pharmacy benefit managers (PBMs), deserves special consideration. We describe two specific revenue-generating practices--rebates and spread pricing--that account significantly for PBMs' profits but have been neglected in the bioethics and health policy literature as important sources of fiscal waste in our current health care system. We offer analyses of two common cases, consider employers' and employees' vulnerabilities, explore normative assumptions about how markets function, and raise questions about transparency in contract agreements between PBMs and employers. We consider ethical dimensions of PBMs' corporate citizenship in the health care sector and suggest how employers can negotiate more effectively with PBMs.

  4. Supraglottoplasty for Laryngomalacia: Who Will Benefit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azida Zainal

    2011-04-01

    Conclusion: Supraglottoplasty remains an effective method to treat severe laryngomalacia. Patients who will benefit most are those with severe laryngomalacia that is uncomplicated by neurological conditions or multiple medical problems. In our institution, early extubation is the norm, and a significant number of patients can be nursed in the normal wards and be discharged within 48 hours of the procedure.

  5. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Polarized electron sources for high energy accelerators took a significant step forward with the introduction of a new laser-driven photocathode source for the SLC in 1992. With an electron beam polarization of >80% and with ∼99% uptime during continuous operation, this source is a key factor in the success of the current SLC high-energy physics program. The SLC source performance is used to illustrate both the capabilities and the limitations of solid-state sources. The beam requirements for future colliders are similar to that of the SLC with the addition in most cases of multiple-bunch operation. A design for the next generation accelerator source that can improve the operational characteristics and at least minimize some of the inherent limitations of present sources is presented. Finally, the possibilities for producing highly polarized electron beams for high-duty-factor accelerators are discussed

  6. The Gender Pay Gap, Fringe Benefits, and Occupational Crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Eric; Laughlin, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    In estimating earnings equations for seven occupations, when fringe benefits are excluded, women receive significantly lower wages in all but the most female-dominated occupation. Including fringe benefits makes gender significant in only one occupational category. Crowding of one gender into an occupation appears the primary determinant of the…

  7. Conserving critical sites for biodiversity provides disproportionate benefits to people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Frank Wugt; Turner, Will R.; Brooks, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Protecting natural habitats in priority areas is essential to halt the loss of biodiversity. Yet whether these benefits for biodiversity also yield benefits for human well-being remains controversial. Here we assess the potential human well-being benefits of safeguarding a global network of sites......) benefits to maintenance of human cultural diversity - significantly exceeding those anticipated from randomly selected sites within the same countries and ecoregions. Results suggest that safeguarding sites important for biodiversity conservation provides substantial benefits to human well-being....

  8. Brussels benefits Biorafineria's business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2007-01-01

    A chance for a new business. This is one of the ways we can look at the fact, that the European Union has put pressure on member states to replace the consumption of a part of imported oil and natural gas with home-made renewable energy sources. Since the second half of last year, even Slovakia forces its local motor fuel vendors to add biofuel from oil plants or cereals to their fuel. In addition this represents an opportunity, since farmers do not need to rely on a single customer - the food processing industry. Many businessmen now plan to build factories for the production of biomass additives. Slovak developers and suppliers of processing technology are also involved. Biorafineria SK from Liptovsky Mikulas, which has a projection-development centre in Martin, has taken advantage of the new opportunity. Its specialists design and build factories for the production of vegetable oils and the associated production of rape oil methyl ester - MERO. A biofuel already used in Slovakia. The competitive fight with far larger technology suppliers from Western Europe is difficult. The technologies for the only current large-capacity production plant of MERO in Slovakia built a few years ago by Palma-Tumys, Bratislava, was supplied by the German concern, Wesfalia. Nevertheless, the developers from Martin have already achieved success. Their technologies produce bio-oil at several smaller domestic plants and they have built larger factories abroad. Last year, Biorafineria earned almost 200 mil. Sk by supplying 'turnkey' factories. (authors)

  9. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  10. Recent developments in employee benefits law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jonathan G; Adler, Adam

    2005-01-01

    The first part of this article highlights important judicial developments involving employee benefits and the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 ("ERISA"), as amended, during the latter part of 2003 and the first part of 2004, including the most significant U.S. Supreme Court and federal circuit court decisions. The second part covers recent legislative and regulatory developments in employee benefits law. This article is not meant to be exhaustive, but discusses the more important developments during 2003-2004, with particular focus on issues of concern to the insurance industry.

  11. Correlation dynamics and international diversification benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Errunza, Vihang; Jacobs, Kris

    2014-01-01

    that it is possible to model co-movements for many countries simultaneously using BEKK, DCC, and DECO models. Empirically, we find that correlations have trended upward significantly for both DMs and EMs. Based on a time-varying measure of diversification benefits, we find that it is not possible to circumvent...... the increasing correlations in a long-only portfolio by adjusting the portfolio weights over time. However, we do find some evidence that adding EMs to a DM-only portfolio increases diversification benefits....

  12. Correlation Dynamics and International Diversification Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Errunza, Vihang R.; Jacobs, Kris

    that it is possible to model co-movements for many countries simultaneously using BEKK, DCC, and DECO models. Empirically, we find that correlations have significantly trended upward for both DMs and EMs. Based on a time-varying measure of diversification benefit, we find that it is not possible in a long......-only portfolio to circumvent the increasing correlations by adjusting the portfolio weights over time. However, we do find some evidence that adding EMs to a DM-only portfolio increases diversification benefits....

  13. The domestic benefits of tropical forests: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomitz, K M; Kumari, K

    1998-02-01

    This review focuses on forests in the humid tropics and on two of their potentially most important benefits. These include hydrological benefits, such as erosion control and regulation of stream flows, and non-timber forest products, such as rubber, rattan, fruits, and nuts. The first benefit is motivational. Host countries capture only a small proportion of the global benefits, which stem from biodiversity conservation. Demonstration of palpable local benefits could help to build support for biodiversity-oriented projects. The second benefit is the magnitude of domestic benefits that could influence project financing. Sufficiently large net domestic benefits could justify financing of a project on narrow economic grounds, with biodiversity conservation as a by-product. Overall, it is noted that the quantifiable benefits of forest preservation in providing hydrological services and non-timber forest products are highly variable. These classes of domestic benefits may in general be smaller than popularly supposed. In view of this, the need for financing conservation from the Global Environmental Facility or other global sources is emphasized rather than placing the burden on domestic resources.

  14. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  15. Who Benefits from Volunteering? Variations in Perceived Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Hong, Song-Iee; Tang, Fengyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to document the benefits of volunteering perceived by older adults and to explain variation in these self-perceived benefits. Design and Methods: This is a quantitative study of 13 volunteer programs and 401 older adults serving in those programs. Program directors completed telephone interviews, and older…

  16. Cost-benefit analysis for waste segregation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a cost-benefit analysis for the segregation of mixed, hazardous, and nonhazardous wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if current waste segregation practices and additional candidates for waste segregation at LLNL might have the potential for significant waste source reduction and annual savings in treatment and disposal costs. In the following cost-benefit analysis, capital costs and recurring costs of waste segregation practices are compared to the economic benefits of savings in treatment and disposal costs. Indirect or overhead costs associated with these wastes are not available and have not been included. Not considered are additional benefits of waste segregation such as decreased potential for liability to LLNL for adverse environmental effects, improved worker safety, and enhanced LLNL image within the community because of environmental improvement. The economic evaluations in this report are presented on a Lab-wide basis. All hazardous wastes generated by a program are turned over to the Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) group, which is responsible for the storage, treatment, or disposal of these wastes and funded funded directly for this work

  17. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  18. High efficiency combined heat and power facilities - benefits and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, M.

    2001-01-01

    There are important linkages between the economy, energy production, the environment and our health. Where thermal energy is needed, distributed Combined Heat and Power facilities, using gas turbines, reciprocating engines and future fuel cells can provide significant improvements to our long term mix of energy production. Local generation can also have benefits in security of energy supply and economic savings. This paper is intended to discuss the relevant air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from modem CHP plants, the emission prevention and reduction methods available, and their operating experience and cost-effectiveness. Mention is made of recently constructed industrial and commercial plants, and institutional barriers to further development. Solutions described for these barriers include the need for more awareness of opportunities, improved access to the electricity grid, the proper design balance between thermal and electric for CHP systems rather than large combined cycles, improved corporate taxation incentives, and the assessment of all environmental and economic benefits when considering such cleaner sources in a restructured energy market. (author)

  19. Benefits and risks of shared services in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennewell, Suzanne; Baker, Laura

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of staff in a large, public health service involved in transitioning support services to a shared services model. It aims to understand their perceptions of the benefits and risks arising from this change. Design/methodology/approach - Thematic analysis of qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with both service provider and customer agency staff was used to identify, analyze and report patterns of benefits and risks within data. Findings - Staff expressed the need for relevant subject-matter-experts to work within customer agencies to facilitate effective communication between the customer agency and shared services provider, reflecting observations found in out-sourcing literature. Research limitations/implications - Results point to significant challenges continuing to occur for shared services in healthcare. Risks identified suggest a more intimate relationship between clinical and support services than previously discussed. Originality/value - Previous discussion of the shared services model has not considered the skills, knowledge and ability required by staff in the customer agency. This research indicates that in the absence of such consideration, the concepts of the shared services model are weakened.

  20. The application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting the existing buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairi, Muhammad; Jaapar, Aini; Yahya, Zaharah

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable development has been the main topic of debate for years in some countries such as United Kingdom, United State of America and Malaysia. Depletion of natural resources, global warming, economics uncertainty and health issues are some of the reasons behind sustainable development movements, it is not just a political debate in the parliament but more towards collective works among sectors in order to minimizing the negative impact of development to the environment and other living organism. Retrofit an existing building is one of the solutions to reduce the dependency on constructing new buildings. There are huge numbers of existing building stocks that suitable to be retrofitted such as historical buildings, offices, residential, warehouse, factories, vacant buildings and other historical buildings. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide information on the application, benefits and challenges of retrofitting an existing building. Two buildings were chosen as case studies following by site visits and observation to the buildings. The data were then compared in a table form. Primary and secondary sources were also used for this research. The application of retrofit should be promoted across the construction and conservation industries since it has significant tangible and intangible benefits. It is one of the most environmentally friendly and efficient solutions to optimize the energy performance and could also helps to extend the life of the existing building or historical buildings while ensuring optimum thermal comfort for the occupants which leads to higher productivity.

  1. Childcare Programs Benefit Employers, Too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Donald J.; Massengill, Douglas

    1988-01-01

    The person selecting a childcare program should consider how various plans would benefit employers as well as employees. The needs of the employees and the company must be considered and the options, benefits, and drawbacks of programs must be studied. (JOW)

  2. Retrieval Practice Benefits Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglington, Luke G.; Kang, Sean H. K.

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval practice has been shown to benefit learning. However, the benefit has sometimes been attenuated with more complex materials that require integrating multiple units of information. Critically, Tran et al. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22," 135-140 (2015) found that retrieval practice improves sentence memory but not the…

  3. Who Benefits from Pension Enhancements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedel, Cory; Ni, Shawn; Podgursky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    During the late 1990s public pension funds across the United States accrued large actuarial surpluses. The seemingly flush conditions of the pension funds led legislators in most states to substantially improve retirement benefits for public workers, including teachers. In this study we examine the benefit enhancements to the teacher pension…

  4. Safety in relation to risk and benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddall, E.

    1985-01-01

    The proper definition and quantification of human safety is discussed and from this basis the historical development of our present very high standard of safety is traced. It is shown that increased safety is closely associated with increased wealth, and the quantitative relationship between then is derived from different sources of evidence. When this factor is applied to the production of wealth by industry, a safety benefit is indicated which exceeds the asserted risks by orders of magnitude. It is concluded that present policies and attitudes in respect to the safety of industry may be diametrically wrong. (orig.) [de

  5. The benefit of daily photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, Sophie; Fourtanier, Anny M A

    2008-05-01

    It is now recognized that both ultraviolet (UV)-A and UVB wavelengths participate in the generation of photodamaged human skin during sun exposure. During usual daily activities, an appropriate protection against solar UV exposure should prevent clinical, cellular, and molecular changes potentially leading to photoaging. This study was designed to evaluate in human beings the protection afforded by a day cream containing a photostable combination of UVB and UVA filters and thus protect against the UV-induced skin alterations. In solar-simulated radiation exposed and unprotected skin sites we observed melanization. The epidermis revealed a significant increase in stratum corneum and stratum granulosum thickness. In the dermis, an enhanced expression of tenascin and a reduced expression of type I procollagen were evidenced just below the dermoepidermal junction. Although no change in elastic fibers in exposed buttock skin was seen, a slightly increased deposit of lysozyme and alpha-1 antitrypsin on elastin fibers was observed using immunofluorescence techniques. A day cream with photoprotection properties was shown to prevent all of the above-described alterations. This study was performed on a limited number of patients (n = 12) with specific characteristics (20-35 years old and skin type II and III). Two dermal alterations were evaluated by visual assessment and not by computer-assisted image analysis quantification. Our in vivo results demonstrate the benefits of daily photoprotection using a day cream containing appropriate broad-spectrum sunscreens, which prevent solar UV-induced skin damages.

  6. A Case Study on the Implementation of Local Health Insurance Benefit Packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyantoro Supriyantoro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The variation of benefit packages implemented by some local social health insurance schemes (Jamkesda become an important issue in the effort to integrating them into National Health Insurance (JKN. This study aims to describe implementation of Jamkesda’s benefit packages as a basic consideration in integration to JKN. Methods: Design of this study is case study with qualitative and quantitative aproaches, conducted 2013–2014 in all of districts/cities which already have Jamkesda. Primary and secondary data was collected. Primary data has been collected by focus group discussion, interview, observation, and self administered questioner. Secondary data collected from many sources such as articles, journal, official document, statistics data, and others. Results:Of this study show there is no significant relationship between fiscal capacity group and benefit packages (continuity correction, p value = 0.065. But, districts/cities with high fiscal capacity (high and very high seem likely to have probability 1,920 bigger than lower capacity districts/cities in giving equal or more benefit than existing national social health insurance (Jamkesmas (Mantel-Haenszel, Common Odds Ratio Estimates = 1.920; Confidence Interval 95% =1.008–3.658; asymp. Sig 2 sided = 0.047. There is variation of benefit packages between each Jamkesda. Qualitative results show there are many obstacles faced in giving benefit health services, such as limited community accessibility to health facilities, the absence of health workforce, and lack of health infrastructure and equipment. Recomendation: This study recommends to set a national minimum benefit packages and equalizing percetion of local decission maker.

  7. Measuring the benefits from an innovation: an application to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishelson, G

    1979-01-01

    Market imperfections mean that the public has to finance research related to improving technologies of energy usage and the finding of new energy sources. The decision to invest in research has to be based on economic criteria and one such criterion is cost--benefit analysis. Four types of innovation are presented and a way outlined in which to evaluate their social benefits. Specific characteristics, such as exhaustibility of energy resources, are explicitly included in the evaluation framework. 15 references.

  8. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  9. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  10. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  11. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  12. The Impact of Employer-Sponsored Educational Assistance Benefits on Community College Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Henry; Smith, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Studies of community college finance often focus on revenue sources from the state and local government, private foundations, and tuition. While these resources are important, an often-neglected source of revenue is employer-sponsored educational assistance benefits for students. Given the dearth of literature on the benefits of this funding…

  13. Cost benefit analysis for optimization of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1984-01-01

    ICRP recommends three basic principles for radiation protection. One is the justification of the source. Any use of radiation should be justified with regard to its benefit. The second is the optimization of radiation protection, i.e. all radiation exposure should be kept as low as resonably achievable. And the third principle is that there should be a limit for the radiation dose that any individual receives. Cost benefit assessment or cost benefit analysis is one tool to achieve the optimization, but the optimization is not identical with cost benefit analysis. Basically, in principle, the cost benefit analysis for the optimization of radiation protection is to find the minimum sum of the cost of protection and some cost of detriment. (Mori, K.)

  14. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  15. The significance of Newtonian cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galletto, D.; Barberis, B.

    1984-01-01

    Starting from the hypotheses that the physical space is Euclidean, that the Universe is infinite and homogeneous and that with regard to our galaxy its behaviour is isotropic, without resorting to Newton's law of gravitation we deduce Hubble's law, the law of motion of a typical galaxy, the equation of evolution of the Universe, that the force at a distance exerted between any two galaxies is expressed by Newton's law of gravitation, etc. Adding the hypothesis that the velocity of light is independent of its source, we obtain that the metric of spacetime is necessarily given by the Einstein-de Sitter metric, that the tensorial form of the equations of Newtonian cosmology is given by Einstein's gravitational equations, etc. (Auth.)

  16. The Integration of Renewable Energy Sources into Electric Power Distribution Systems, Vol. II Utility Case Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: the local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics, renewable energy source penetration level, whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied, and local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kW-scale applications may be connected to three+phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and y-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms, or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. In any case, the installation of small, distributed renewable energy sources is expected to have a significant impact on local utility distribution primary and secondary system economics. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications. The

  17. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  18. Ion sources for electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellborg, R.

    1998-01-01

    Maybe the most important part of an electrostatic accelerator system, and also often the most tricky part is the ion source. There has been a rapid growth in activity in ion-source research and development during the last two to three decades. Some of these developments have also been of benefit to electrostatic accelerator users. In this report some of the different types of ion sources used in electrostatic accelerators are described. The list is not complete but more an overview of some of the more commonly used sources. The description is divided into two groups; positive ion sources for single stage electrostatic accelerators and negative ion sources for two stages (i.e. tandem) accelerators

  19. Regional and global significance of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Measures to combat poverty and improve the standard of living in countries of the Third World will inevitably boost global demand for energy, and energy conservation measures will not be able to offset this increase. Nuclear energy will regain significance in the framework of approaches adopted to resolve the energy problem, which primarily is an ecologic problem created by an extremely large flow of materials. The extraordinarily high energy density of nuclear fuels can contribute to markedly reduce the flow of materials; and at that, electric energy is an efficient substitute for primary energy forms. Thus nuclear electricity generation is of double benefit to the ecology. Engineering goals in nuclear technology thus gain a service aspect, with progress in power plant engineering and design aiming not only at enhanced engineered safety, but also at regaining public acceptance of and confidence in nuclear power plant technology. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  1. Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is a famous delicacy in some parts of the Asia and also a well-known source of important food hydrocolloids, such as agar, alginates, and carrageenan. In addition to the food value of seaweed, several health benefits have also been reported to be present in this valuable food source. It is presumed that the unique features of the marine environment, where the seaweeds are grown, are mainly responsible for most of its properties. Among the functional effects of the seaweed, nutritional and health-related benefits have been widely studied. Compared to the terrestrial plants and animal-based foods, seaweed is rich in some health-promoting molecules and materials such as, dietary fiber, ω-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, and vitamins A, B, C, and E. In this chapter, the nutritive value of seaweed and the functional effects of its soluble fiber are discussed with a special reference to the digestive health promotion of human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Advanced public transportation systems benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Benefits and cost savings for various Advanced Public Transportation Systems are outlined here. Operational efficiencies are given for Transit Management Systems in different locales, as well as compliant resolution and safety. Electronic Fare Paymen...

  3. 78 FR 76574 - Burial Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ..., Congress' clear motivation was to make burial benefits ``easier to administer, i.e., through existing VA...'' means any action taken to honor the memory of a deceased individual. 38 CFR 38.600. 3.1701 Deceased...

  4. Broadening Your Employee Benefit Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaski, Nancy J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Cost increases and realization of the diverse needs of employees have prompted organizations to review the cost and value of employee benefits. Examines alternatives including "cafeteria plans," managed care programs, and disability income plans. (MLF)

  5. Employee Benefit Reporting After ERISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Wesley W.

    1976-01-01

    The statutory reporting requirements of ERISA and some of the regulations recently promulgated are discussed. All type of employee benefit plans are covered. For journal availability see HE 508 741. (LBH)

  6. Benefits of using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, Elda Vilaca

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present, especially for high school students, the benefits of the use of nuclear energy, promoting a deeper knowledge of this technology, encouraging critical thinking of students and society around them

  7. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  8. RFID Benefits; Looking Beyond ROI

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guilford, Shane; Kutis, Mark C

    2005-01-01

    ...) into the logistics process that are not captured by traditional Return on Investment (ROI) analysis. The authors seek to identify some of these benefits to determine their overall contribution to the value of new technology implementation...

  9. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [4] Those who contribute to scientific research ought to share in its benefits. .... women to form new relationships, social networks and develop a sense of ... or discoveries about the indigenous biological resources before.

  10. Environmental benefits and social cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, H.J.; Kjær, J.; Brüsh, W.

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for introducing interdisciplinary tools and approaches in water management for participatory integrated assessment of water protection costs and environmental benefits for different management scenarios. This is required for the Water Framework Directive. Bayesian belief networks...

  11. The benefits of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This article briefly outlines the benefits of nuclear power. Nuclear electricity generation is compared with fossil-fuel generated electricity in terms of environmental pollution and accidents and disease hazards

  12. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  13. How (not) to Lie with Benefit-Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Farrow

    2013-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis is seen by some as a controversial activity in which the analyst can significantly bias the results. This note highlights some of the ways that analysts can "lie" in a benefit-cost analysis but more importantly, provides guidance on how not to lie and how to better inform public decisionmakers.

  14. The measurement of employment benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, D.

    1994-01-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income

  15. The measurement of employment benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtraw, D

    1994-07-01

    The consideration of employment effects and so-called 'hidden employment benefits' is one of the most confused and contentious issues in benefit-cost analysis and applied welfare economics generally. New investments create new employment opportunities, and often advocates for specific investments cite these employment opportunities as alleged benefits associated with the project. Indeed, from the local perspective, such employment opportunities may appear to be beneficial because they appear to come for free. If there is unemployment in the local area, then new investments create valuable employment opportunities for those in the local community. Even if there is full employment in the local area then new investments create incentives for immigrant from other locations that may have pecuniary benefits locally through increased property values, business revenues, etc. The focus in this study is on net economic benefits from a broad national perspective. From this perspective, many of the alleged employment benefits at the local level are offset by lost benefits at other locales, and do not count as benefits according to economic theory. This paper outlines a methodology for testing this rebuttable presumption with empirical data pertaining to labor markets that would be affected by a specific new investment. The theoretical question that is relevant is whether the social opportunity cost of new employment is less than the market wage. This would be the case, for example, if one expects unemployment or underemployment to persist in a specific region of the economy or occupational category affected by the new investment. In this case, new employment opportunities produce a net increase in social wealth rather than just a transfer of income.

  16. Employees' motivation and emloyees' benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Nedzelská, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is analysing methods how to stimulate and motivate employees. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with the concept of motivation, concepts close to motivation and selected existing theories of motivation. It also deals with employee benefits, function, division and benefits which are frequently offered to employees. The practical part of the thesis, mainly based on written and online questionnaires, concentrates on motivation of employees at Nedcon Boh...

  17. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  18. Co-benefits of global and regional greenhouse gas mitigation for US air quality in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuqiang; Bowden, Jared H.; Adelman, Zachariah; Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Smith, Steven J.; West, J. Jason

    2016-08-01

    Policies to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will not only slow climate change but can also have ancillary benefits of improved air quality. Here we examine the co-benefits of both global and regional GHG mitigation for US air quality in 2050 at fine resolution, using dynamical downscaling methods, building on a previous global co-benefits study (West et al., 2013). The co-benefits for US air quality are quantified via two mechanisms: through reductions in co-emitted air pollutants from the same sources and by slowing climate change and its influence on air quality, following West et al. (2013). Additionally, we separate the total co-benefits into contributions from domestic GHG mitigation vs. mitigation in foreign countries. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to dynamically downscale future global climate to the regional scale and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) program to directly process global anthropogenic emissions to the regional domain, and we provide dynamical boundary conditions from global simulations to the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. The total co-benefits of global GHG mitigation from the RCP4.5 scenario compared with its reference are estimated to be higher in the eastern US (ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 µg m-3) than the west (0–0.4 µg m-3) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with an average of 0.47 µg m-3 over the US; for O3, the total co-benefits are more uniform at 2–5 ppb, with a US average of 3.55 ppb. Comparing the two mechanisms of co-benefits, we find that reductions in co-emitted air pollutants have a much greater influence on both PM2.5 (96 % of the total co-benefits) and O3 (89 % of the total) than the second co-benefits mechanism via slowing climate change, consistent with West et al. (2013). GHG mitigation from foreign countries contributes more to the US O3 reduction

  19. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  20. HYBRID POWER HARVESTER USING ENGINE SOURCE

    OpenAIRE

    Meeran Mydeen, A.Ahmed; Inasu, Kelwin; Venkatesh, M.; Suthesh, C.

    2017-01-01

    In mainly we present a compact, multisource and battery-free energy harvesting from engine source. This battery free generator captures energy from its environment transient thermal gradients as a main source, and vibration as a secondary source allowing early biasing of the generator and stores this energy in ultra-capacitors .In this way, this multi-source architecture benefits from the synergy between energy scavenging and harvesting.

  1. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  2. Including public-health benefits of trees in urban-forestry decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2017-01-01

    Research demonstrating the biophysical benefits of urban trees are often used to justify investments in urban forestry. Far less emphasis, however, is placed on the non-bio-physical benefits such as improvements in public health. Indeed, the public-health benefits of trees may be significantly larger than the biophysical benefits, and, therefore, failure to account for...

  3. Benefits of interrelationships between climate change mitigation and adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lea Ravnkilde; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2014-01-01

    and product 2: climate change adaptation. The production possibilities frontier (PPF) summarises the production benefits of the two products. The case study of the paper is the replanting of mangrove forests in the coastal wetland areas of Peam Krasaob Wildlife Sanctuary in Cambodia. The benefits of climate...... benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation are tested under different climate change scenarios, seeing as the impact and frequency of storms can have a significant effect on coastal wetland areas and the replanting of the mangrove forests and therefore also on the joint benefits of climate change...

  4. Source placement for equalization in small enclosures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    ) but not with those that will deteriorate it (the "undesired" modes). Simulation results in rectangular rooms and in a car cavity show the benefits of source placement in terms of reduced overall error and increased spatial robustness in the equalization process. Additional benefits, which can be derived by proper...

  5. Benefit from the minimally invasive sinus technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, N; Oakley, R J; Skilbeck, C J; Choudhury, N; Jacob, A

    2009-02-01

    Sinus drainage is impeded by the transition spaces that the anterior paranasal sinuses drain into, not the ostia themselves. Addressing the transition spaces and leaving the ostia intact, using the minimally invasive sinus technique, should reverse chronic rhinosinusitis. To assess patient benefit following use of the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. One hundred and forty-three consecutive patients underwent the minimally invasive sinus technique for chronic rhinosinusitis. Symptoms (i.e. blocked nose, poor sense of smell, rhinorrhoea, post-nasal drip, facial pain and sneezing) were recorded using a visual analogue scale, pre-operatively and at six and 12 weeks post-operatively. Patients were also surveyed using the Glasgow benefit inventory, one and three years post-operatively. We found a significant reduction in all nasal symptom scores at six and 12 weeks post-operatively, and increased total quality of life scores at one and three years post-operatively (25.2 and 14.8, respectively). The patient benefits of treatment with the minimally invasive sinus technique compare with the published patient benefits for functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

  6. Benefit-cost analysis of OHER research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesse, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for OHER. Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, included research conducted in another office in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the OHER project that developed high-purity germanium used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appeared to show benefits in excess of costs. They examined in detail one of the marine research program's accomplishments, the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model showed that, environmentally, marine research supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. Finally, the germanium case study indicated that benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant

  7. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  8. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  9. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  14. A Framework for Identifying and Understanding Enterprise Systems Benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Petra; Williams, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Identifying the benefits arising from implementations of enterprise systems and realizing business value remains a significant challenge for both research and industry. This paper aims to consolidate previous work. It presents a framework for investigating enterprise systems benefits...... into aspects and criteria plus an attributed appraisal value. The resulting scheme for the “three-level benefit codes” provides a greater level of detail about the nature of expected and realized benefits. Practical implications – The high level of detail and the code scheme comprising 60 different codes...... and the method for deriving the codes allows companies to identify and define benefits as well as to assess the outcome of enterprise systems implementation projects. Originality/value – The paper empirically develops an applicable benefits framework, which addresses the lack of detail of previous frameworks....

  15. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, B.E.; Cimento, A.; Stuart, R.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  16. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  17. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  18. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  18. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  19. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Californium source transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1995, the receipt of four sealed californium-252 sources from Oak Ridge National Lab was successfully accomplished by a team comprised of Radiological Engineering, Radiological Operations and Health Physics Instrumentation personnel. A procedure was developed and walked-down by the participants during a Dry Run Evolution. Several special tools were developed during the pre-planning phases of the project which reduced individual and job dose to minimal levels. These included a mobile lifting device for attachment of a transfer ball valve assembly to the undercarriage of the Cannonball Carrier, a transfer tube elbow to ensure proper angle of the source transfer tube, and several tools used during emergency response for remote retrieval and handling of an unshielded source. Lessons were learned in the areas of contamination control, emergency preparedness, and benefits of thorough pre-planning, effectiveness of locally creating and designing special tools to reduce worker dose, and methods of successfully accomplishing source receipt evolutions during extreme or inclement weather

  1. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  2. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  3. Solar thermal technologies benefits assessment: Objectives, methodologies and results for 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, W. R.

    1982-07-01

    The economic and social benefits of developing cost competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) were assessed. The analysis was restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high insolation/high energy price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs were considered, reflecting uncertainty over fuel prices and STT cost projections. After considering the numerous benefits of introducing STT into the energy market, three primary benefits were identified and evaluated: (1) direct energy cost savings were estimated to range from zero to $50 billion; (2) oil imports may be reduced by up to 9 percent, improving national security; and (3) significant environmental benefits can be realized in air basins where electric power plant emissions create substantial air pollution problems. STT research and development was found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. The normal risks associated with investments in research and development are accentuated because the OPEC cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut the growth of alternative energy sources.

  4. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A; Hood, C; Harrison, K

    1994-07-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment.

  5. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.; Hood, C.; Harrison, K.

    1994-01-01

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  6. Understanding social acceptance of electricity generation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Jiménez, Raquel B.; Arévalo, Pilar C.; Cifuentes, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.

  7. The benefits of playing video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granic, Isabela; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Video games are a ubiquitous part of almost all children's and adolescents' lives, with 97% playing for at least one hour per day in the United States. The vast majority of research by psychologists on the effects of "gaming" has been on its negative impact: the potential harm related to violence, addiction, and depression. We recognize the value of that research; however, we argue that a more balanced perspective is needed, one that considers not only the possible negative effects but also the benefits of playing these games. Considering these potential benefits is important, in part, because the nature of these games has changed dramatically in the last decade, becoming increasingly complex, diverse, realistic, and social in nature. A small but significant body of research has begun to emerge, mostly in the last five years, documenting these benefits. In this article, we summarize the research on the positive effects of playing video games, focusing on four main domains: cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social. By integrating insights from developmental, positive, and social psychology, as well as media psychology, we propose some candidate mechanisms by which playing video games may foster real-world psychosocial benefits. Our aim is to provide strong enough evidence and a theoretical rationale to inspire new programs of research on the largely unexplored mental health benefits of gaming. Finally, we end with a call to intervention researchers and practitioners to test the positive uses of video games, and we suggest several promising directions for doing so. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantifying the economic water savings benefit of water hyacinth ... Value Method was employed to estimate the average production value of irrigation water, ... invasions of this nature, as they present significant costs to the economy and ...

  9. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  10. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  11. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  12. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  13. Employee Benefit Status from E-Employee Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündüz, Semseddin; Çoklar, Ahmet Naci

    2017-01-01

    The internet is the one of the most important global network and information source in information age. The internet has changed employee's life enormously. The purpose of this study is to clarify the benefitting situations of employees from e-employee services. For this purpose, a 20-item data collection tool, based on the e-employee services put…

  14. Motivation for and Benefits from Attending the AP Statistics Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobbe, Tim; Hartlaub, Bradley A.; Whitaker, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the Advanced Placement® Statistics reading as a source of professional development for teachers. The study was conducted to capture the motivation for and benefits from attending the collective grading. Research has shown that examining student work during professional development has implications for teaching. The premise of…

  15. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

    2012-11-01

    There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Statement to the international conference on security of radioactive sources. Vienna, 11 March 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2003-01-01

    Around the world, radioactive sources have been used for decades to benefit humankind - to diagnose and treat illnesses, to monitor oil wells and water aquifers, to preserve food, as well as for many other uses. Millions of sources have been distributed worldwide over the past 50 years, with hundreds of thousands currently in use. Most of these sources, such as those in smoke detectors, are weakly radioactive and individually pose little radiological risk. However, about 12 000 industrial radiography sources are supplied annually; more than 10 000 medical radiotherapy units are in use. These types of sources - and others such as those contained in thermo-electric generators - are significant from a safety and security standpoint, because they contain potentially lethal quantities of radioactive material. To protect the public from the hazards of ionizing radiation, cradle-to-grave control is essential for these radioactive sources. For many years the IAEA has been helping States to strengthen their national regulatory infrastructures, to ensure that such radioactive sources are appropriately regulated at all times. Until recently, our emphasis has been on the safety of radioactive sources, with source security as one aspect of safety. However, in the wake of the September 2001 terrorist attacks, and the stark awareness of the potential for radioactive sources to be used in malevolent acts, source security has taken on a new urgency. But while a number of countries are stepping up relevant security measures, many others lack the resources or the national structures to effectively control radioactive sources

  17. Overview of Levee Setback Projects and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-31

    other life-history stages of fish and other aquatic organisms . Levees can also increase the frequency of common floods in the floodplain where they...projects is the use of flood- borne sediments to supplement fertilizers in flooded farm fields. Historically, floodwaters were a significant source of

  18. [Air humidifier--benefit or risk?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, A H

    1989-12-01

    Indoor air pollution has become an issue of growing importance for the scientific community. A recent publication of a report of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) showed evidence that portable ultrasonic humidifiers may play a significant role as health hazards as far as indoor air pollution with heavy metal particles is concerned. Especially if the manufacturers' guidelines are not followed strictly and the device is operated with tap water, indoor particle concentrations may reach up to 50 times US outdoor standards for toxic particle concentration. This paper highlights potential risks and benefits of various types of humidifiers, both in private and hospital settings, emphasizing that risks of air humidification in certain situations might outweigh anticipated benefits. The health policy implication of these findings should lead to a more critical application of air humidification in the health care environment and in addition to that, promote better information of the customer about safe operation and useful indications of such devices.

  19. Information Portal Costs and Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All transformations of our society are the product of the large use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT and Internet. ICT are technologies which facilitate communication, processing, and transmission of information by electronic means. It is very important to use the new technologies to the correct value because this determinate an increase of global benefits. Portal provides a consistent way to select, evaluate, prioritize and plan the right information. In research we point the important costs and benefits for an informational portal. The portal for local administrative determinate for citizens the access to information of interest and on the other hand make easier for employer to manage the documents.

  20. Dynamic capabilities and network benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Svare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of publicly funded initiatives to establish or strengthen networks and clusters, in order to enhance innovation, has been increasing. Returns on such investments vary, and the aim of this study is to explore to what extent the variation in benefits for firms participating in networks or clusters can be explained by their dynamic capabilities (DC. Based on survey data from five Norwegian networks, the results suggest that firms with higher DC are more successful in harvesting the potential benefits of being member of a network.

  1. Orphan sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pust, R.; Urbancik, L.

    2008-01-01

    The presentation describes how the stable detection systems (hereinafter referred to as S DS ) have contributed to reveal the uncontrolled sources of ionizing radiation on the territory of the State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) Brno Regional Centre (RC Brno). It also describes the emergencies which were solved by or in which the workers from the Brno. Regional Centre participated in. The contribution is divided into the following chapters: A. SDS systems installed on the territory of SONS RC Brno; B. Selected unusual emergencies; C. Comments to individual emergencies; D. Aspects of SDS operation in term of their users; E. Aspects of SDS operation and related activities in term of radiation protection; F. Current state of orphan sources. (authors)

  2. Tritium sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glodic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium is the only radioactive isotope of hydrogen. It directly follows the metabolism of water and it can be bound into genetic material, so it is very important to control levels of contamination. In order to define the state of contamination it is necessary to establish 'zero level', i.e. actual global inventory. The importance of tritium contamination monitoring increases with the development of fusion power installations. Different sources of tritium are analyzed and summarized in this paper. (author)

  3. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  4. Review of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiti, Shadrack Anthony; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used worldwide for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, environmental science, education and research and military applications. Most of these radioactive sources used are imported therefore trans-boundary movement is a significant factor in consideration of safety and security measures during movement of these sources. It is estimated that 20 million packages of radioactive materials are transported annually worldwide and this number of shipments is expected to increase due to the renaissance of nuclear power generation. The African continent has shown considerable leadership in its advocacy for the safety and security of radioactive sources. The First Africa Workshop on the Establishment of a Legal Framework governing Radiation Protection, the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste held in Ethiopia in 2001 called upon the IAEA to form a forum for African countries to consider the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and give it a legally binding effect so that the peaceful use of nuclear technology is not compromised. Despite these laudable efforts, Africa still faces considerable challenges in the implementation of safety and security of radioactive sources because of weak regulatory control and lack of infrastructure to properly control, manage and secure radiation sources 1 . The purpose of this paper was therefore, to analyze, review, address and share knowledge and experience with regard to safety and security measures of radioactive materials in Africa. This project will benefit IAEA's African member states in creating nuclear safety and security networking in the region

  5. Mono-energy coronary angiography with a compact light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggl, Elena; Mechlem, Korbinian; Braig, Eva; Kulpe, Stephanie; Dierolf, Martin; Günther, Benedikt; Achterhold, Klaus; Herzen, Julia; Gleich, Bernhard; Rummeny, Ernst; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Muenzel, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    While conventional x-ray tube sources reliably provide high-power x-ray beams for everyday clinical practice, the broad spectra that are inherent to these sources compromise the diagnostic image quality. For a monochromatic x-ray source on the other hand, the x-ray energy can be adjusted to optimal conditions with respect to contrast and dose. However, large-scale synchrotron sources impose high spatial and financial demands, making them unsuitable for clinical practice. During the last decades, research has brought up compact synchrotron sources based on inverse Compton scattering, which deliver a highly brilliant, quasi-monochromatic, tunable x-ray beam, yet fitting into a standard laboratory. One application that could benefit from the invention of these sources in clinical practice is coronary angiography. Being an important and frequently applied diagnostic tool, a high number of complications in angiography, such as renal failure, allergic reaction, or hyperthyroidism, are caused by the large amount of iodine-based contrast agent that is required for achieving sufficient image contrast. Here we demonstrate monochromatic angiography of a porcine heart acquired at the MuCLS, the first compact synchrotron source. By means of a simulation, the CNR in a coronary angiography image achieved with the quasi-mono-energetic MuCLS spectrum is analyzed and compared to a conventional x-ray-tube spectrum. The results imply that the improved CNR achieved with a quasi-monochromatic spectrum can allow for a significant reduction of iodine contrast material.

  6. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  7. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  8. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  9. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  10. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  11. 42 CFR 411.204 - Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. 411... benefits secondary to LGHP benefits. (a) Medicare benefits are secondary to benefits payable by an LGHP for services furnished during any month in which the individual— (1) Is entitled to Medicare Part A benefits...

  12. 42 CFR 409.60 - Benefit periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefit periods. 409.60 Section 409.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Scope of Hospital Insurance Benefits § 409.60 Benefit periods. (a) When benefit...

  13. 29 CFR 4022.3 - Guaranteed benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guaranteed benefits. 4022.3 Section 4022.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION COVERAGE AND BENEFITS BENEFITS PAYABLE IN TERMINATED SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions; Guaranteed Benefits § 4022.3 Guaranteed...

  14. 34 CFR 106.56 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 106.56 Section 106.56 Education... benefits. (a) Fringe benefits defined. For purposes of this part, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any profit-sharing or...

  15. The Optimal Time for Claiming Social Security Benefits: A Methodological Note

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Friedman

    2014-01-01

    The optimal age for initiating Social Security benefits and the initiation versus postponement of benefits decision are the subjects of a number of recent papers. It is generally agreed that an initiation versus postponement of benefits decision may have significant consequences, but there is less agreement about how to model the problem or measure its financial implications. By law benefits are paid only to live beneficiaries. Thus, the anticipated future benefits should be weighted by the r...

  16. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Who benefits from the Obio Community Health Insurance Scheme in Rivers State, Nigeria? A benefit incidence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Kelsey; Akwataghibe, Ngozi; Fakunle, Babatunde; Wolmarans, Liezel

    2016-11-01

    A key aspect of monitoring and evaluating health programs is ensuring that benefits are reaching their target population. We conducted a benefit incidence analysis (BIA) of a Shell-sponsored community health insurance scheme in Nigeria to determine the extent to which the target group (the poor) was benefitting. We examined a sample of 616 patients' hospital attendance, financial and administrative records from 2012-2013. We estimated annual utilization rates and average unit costs for inpatient and outpatient services. We multiplied the two to produce a total cost per patient, then deducted annual out-of-pocket expenditures to estimate the total community-based health insurance scheme benefit per person. Benefits were multiplied by the total number of persons in each socioeconomic group to aggregate benefits. We used concentration curves and dominance tests to determine statistical significance at 5% and 10% levels of significance. Collectively, the poorest 20% of the population received 12% of benefits while the richest quintile received the largest share (23%). Inpatient and outpatient benefits are weakly regressive (pro-rich), statistically significant at a 10% level of significance. Although the poor were found to benefit, this BIA revealed a tendency towards pro-rich distributions. Removing co-payments for the poorest, reducing long wait and visit times and using community volunteers to help increase access to health services may improve benefits for the poor. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Laboratory Survey of Significant Bacteriuria in a Family Practice Clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the causative agents of significant bacteriuria and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern. ... high rate of antibiotic resistance suggest that many patients in this population will probably benefit more from treatment of UTI based on routine antibiotic sensitivity testing rather than empiric therapy.

  19. Chandra Source Catalog: User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, Nina; Evans, Ian N.; Rots, Arnold H.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Anderson, Craig S.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Helen; Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph B.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Plummer, David A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    The Chandra Source Catalog (CSC) is intended to be the definitive catalog of all X-ray sources detected by Chandra. For each source, the CSC provides positions and multi-band fluxes, as well as derived spatial, spectral, and temporal source properties. Full-field and source region data products are also available, including images, photon event lists, light curves, and spectra. The Chandra X-ray Center CSC website (http://cxc.harvard.edu/csc/) is the place to visit for high-level descriptions of each source property and data product included in the catalog, along with other useful information, such as step-by-step catalog tutorials, answers to FAQs, and a thorough summary of the catalog statistical characterization. Eight categories of detailed catalog documents may be accessed from the navigation bar on most of the 50+ CSC pages; these categories are: About the Catalog, Creating the Catalog, Using the Catalog, Catalog Columns, Column Descriptions, Documents, Conferences, and Useful Links. There are also prominent links to CSCview, the CSC data access GUI, and related help documentation, as well as a tutorial for using the new CSC/Google Earth interface. Catalog source properties are presented in seven scientific categories, within two table views: the Master Source and Source Observations tables. Each X-ray source has one ``master source'' entry and one or more ``source observation'' entries, the details of which are documented on the CSC ``Catalog Columns'' pages. The master source properties represent the best estimates of the properties of a source; these are extensively described on the following pages of the website: Position and Position Errors, Source Flags, Source Extent and Errors, Source Fluxes, Source Significance, Spectral Properties, and Source Variability. The eight tutorials (``threads'') available on the website serve as a collective guide for accessing, understanding, and manipulating the source properties and data products provided by the catalog.

  20. The Benefits of Grid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Roy

    2005-01-01

    In the article, the author talks about the benefits of grid networks. In speaking of grid networks the author is referring to both networks of computers and networks of humans connected together in a grid topology. Examples are provided of how grid networks are beneficial today and the ways in which they have been used.

  1. Benefits of Multilingualism in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okal, Benard Odoyo

    2014-01-01

    The article gives a brief analytical survey of multilingualism practices, its consequences, its benefits in education and discussions on the appropriate ways towards its achievement in education. Multilingualism refers to speaking more than one language competently. Generally there are both the official and unofficial multilingualism practices. A…

  2. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  3. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  4. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Boomen, R.; Chaudhuri, N.; Heeb, J.; Jenssen, P.; Kalin, M.; Schönborn, A.; Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological

  5. Business benefits protocol: March 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This document sets out guidelines in relation to promoting the business benefits of the Games. In particular it provides guidance in relation to statements, announcements and other comments made publicly about suppliers, contractors or agents etc which are undertaking work in relation to London 2012.

  6. Benefits for People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waste or Abuse Site Map Other Government Websites: Benefits.gov Disability.gov MyMoney.gov Regulations.gov USA.gov Other Government Sites Follow: Twitter Facebook YouTube Blog More Social Media This website is produced and published at U.S. ...

  7. Commercial Vessel Safety Economic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    accidents, including basic steps in conducting cost- benefit analyses. 15 Ill. ASSUMPTIONS AND DEFINITIONS This section is used to define the scope...Analysis. Alexandria: Department of Defense, 1978. Devanney, J. W., et al. "Conference Ratemaking and the West Coast of South America," Journal of Transport

  8. Sourcing from an Enterprise Architecture Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Axél, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Enterprise architecture offers direct input in order to define the appropriate combination of people, components and services used to produce and deliver products and services. Sourcing, as the process of optimally organizing and procuring this inside and outside an organization, is therefore...... a central enterprise architecture concern. In this chapter we will discuss how enterprise architecture can benefit an enterprise’s sourcing strategy....

  9. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  10. Costs and benefits of embedded generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This project sought to evaluate the costs and benefits of embedded generation in the light of the UK government's consultation paper on the future of green generation, the government's aim to increase the levels of generation from renewable energy sources and cogeneration, the current Review of the Electricity Trading Arrangements, and the form of the Distribution Price Control. Definitions are given for embedded, centrally dispatched, and pooled generation, and licensed suppliers, and commercial and economic values. The commercial and economic value of embedded generation is examined in terms of generation prices, costs to electrical suppliers, losses (electrical, transmission, distribution), and effects on the national grid and distribution network. Diagrams showing the cost elements of trading through the Pool and the elements that are avoided by non-Pool embedded generator trading are presented

  11. Inadequate control of world's radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive materials needed to build a 'dirty bomb' can be found in almost any country in the world, and more than 100 countries may have inadequate control and monitoring programs necessary to prevent or even detect the theft of these materials. The IAEA points out that while radioactive sources number in the millions, only a small percentage have enough strength to cause serious radiological harm. It is these powerful sources that need to be focused on as a priority. In a significant recent development, the IAEA, working in collaboration with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Federation's Ministry for Atomic Energy (MINATOM), have established a tripartite working group on 'Securing and Managing Radioactive Sources'. Through its program to help countries improve their national infrastructures for radiation safety and security, the IAEA has found that more than 100 countries may have no minimum infrastructure in place to properly control radiation sources. However, many IAEA Member States - in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Europe - are making progress through an IAEA project to strengthen their capabilities to control and regulate radioactive sources. The IAEA is also concerned about the over 50 countries that are not IAEA Member States (there are 134), as they do not benefit from IAEA assistance and are likely to have no regulatory infrastructure. The IAEA has been active in lending its expertise to search out and secure orphaned sources in several countries. More than 70 States have joined with the IAEA to collect and share information on trafficking incidents and other unauthorized movements of radioactive sources and other radioactive materials. The IAEA and its Member States are working hard to raise levels of radiation safety and security, especially focusing on countries known to have urgent needs. The IAEA has taken the leading role in the United Nations system in establishing standards of safety, the most significant of

  12. 76 FR 2142 - Employee Benefits Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Hearing on Definition of ``Fiduciary'' AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of hearing and extension of comment period. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Employee Benefits Security Administration will...

  13. 29 CFR 1604.9 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., accident, life insurance and retirement benefits; profit-sharing and bonus plans; leave; and other terms... maternity benefits while female employees receive no such benefits. (e) It shall not be a defense under...

  14. Hydropower - internalized costs and externalized benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, F.H.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits of hydropower consist of the minimal level of noxious and greenhouse gas emissions, it's energy security from political instability, and its renewable, non-depletable nature. The costs of hydropower consist of negative effects on the river ecosystem and of social changes in communities in the vicinity of large projects. Public awareness of these costs has increased dramatically during the past two decades, and new hydro projects will not get approval unless adequate mitigation measures are taken to avoid, offset, or compensate for adverse environmental and social effects. To a very large extent, the hydropower industry has internalized what were previously social and environmental externalities. However, hydropower operators do not receive any compensation for the benefits, and to date their competitors (coal, natural gas, oil) have not been required to internalize their adverse environmental externalities. (emissions, depletion of supplies, and sometimes dependence on imported primary energy sources). This creates an uneven playing field, and the hydropower industry enthusiastically welcomes a discussion of this issue, and eventually measures to rectify the situation. The IEA Hydropower Agreement has completed a major international study on the environmental and social impacts of hydropower, and one major component of this study was a Life Cycle Assessment and comparison of all the most important electricity generation technologies. (author)

  15. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF) method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF), lactulose, and resistant starch (RS) meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS), transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS), polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects. PMID:23609775

  16. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Rui

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

  17. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber by the accepted total dietary fiber (TDF method, but on their physiological effects. Inulin, fructo-oligosaccharides, and other oligosaccharides are included as fiber in food labels in the US. Additionally, oligosaccharides are the best known “prebiotics”, “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well-bring and health.” To date, all known and suspected prebiotics are carbohydrate compounds, primarily oligosaccharides, known to resist digestion in the human small intestine and reach the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora. Studies have provided evidence that inulin and oligofructose (OF, lactulose, and resistant starch (RS meet all aspects of the definition, including the stimulation of Bifidobacterium, a beneficial bacterial genus. Other isolated carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing foods, including galactooligosaccharides (GOS, transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, polydextrose, wheat dextrin, acacia gum, psyllium, banana, whole grain wheat, and whole grain corn also have prebiotic effects.

  18. Analysis of employee satisfaction with benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Málková, Eliška

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of providing employee benefits. The first part describes the benefits from a theoretical point of view, here is also mentioned a research about the benefits and an impact of the economic crisis on providing the benefits. The second part is focused on describing the benefits of a particular company, KOMIX Inc., an analysis of an employee satisfaction with the benefits with using a questionnaire survey and suggestion of ways to improve the current sys...

  19. Does global sourcing pay-off? A competitive dynamics perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Frederik Guido Sebastiaan; Scheffler, Paul; Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The supposed benefits of global sourcing in supply chain management remain subject to debate. Here this study investigates the potential benefits of global sourcing using a large dataset obtained from a leading European automotive original equipment manufacturer, spanning a period of five years.

  20. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  1. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  2. The benefit of generating errors during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rosalind; Shanks, David R

    2014-04-01

    Testing has been found to be a powerful learning tool, but educators might be reluctant to make full use of its benefits for fear that any errors made would be harmful to learning. We asked whether testing could be beneficial to memory even during novel learning, when nearly all responses were errors, and where errors were unlikely to be related to either cues or targets. In 4 experiments, participants learned definitions for unfamiliar English words, or translations for foreign vocabulary, by generating a response and being given corrective feedback, by reading the word and its definition or translation, or by selecting from a choice of definitions or translations followed by feedback. In a final test of all words, generating errors followed by feedback led to significantly better memory for the correct definition or translation than either reading or making incorrect choices, suggesting that the benefits of generation are not restricted to correctly generated items. Even when information to be learned is novel, errorful generation may play a powerful role in potentiating encoding of corrective feedback. Experiments 2A, 2B, and 3 revealed, via metacognitive judgments of learning, that participants are strikingly unaware of this benefit, judging errorful generation to be a less effective encoding method than reading or incorrect choosing, when in fact it was better. Predictions reflected participants' subjective experience during learning. If subjective difficulty leads to more effort at encoding, this could at least partly explain the errorful generation advantage.

  3. Exploring the economic significance of small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashenafi Beyene Fanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing a detailed account of economic significance of small and medium enterprises by drawing on the extant body of empirical literature. It has been noted that studies on the link between SME development and economic growth are inconclusive. While modeling growth in the SME sector and its impact on economic development is a matter of ongoing scientific investigation, we emphasized on the most conspicuous economic benefits of SMEs that includes, among others, job creation, contribution to national output, reducing income inequality and poverty. We believe this may help researchers frame their future investigations in line with the benefits discussed in the paper.

  4. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct economic benefits associated with dietetic internships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, M T; Simko, M D

    1994-02-01

    We explored the direct economic benefits of hospital dietetics departments sponsoring an internship for dietetics studies. Forty-five dietetics departments in US hospitals participated in a mail survey that involved comprehensive data collection procedures using three instruments, including activity logs recorded by 298 dietitians and interns. Direct benefits were defined as the net student labor provided to the department during routine and staff relief experiences that released professional labor for other work. Net student productivity during routine assignments was calculated by subtracting the time dietitians spent teaching during a typical work week from the amount of time dietetic interns spent performing professional services without direct supervision. Student productivity during staff relief rotations was calculated by multiplying the number of students assigned to this type of experience by the length of the rotation. While involved in routine learning experiences, dietetic interns provided a direct benefit. The difference between the time interns spent in independent, professional service in the departments and the time dietitians spent in activities designed specifically for teaching was a mean of 29 hours in favor of the students. All departments received a direct benefit from assigning dietetic interns to a staff relief rotation. The median number of weeks of student labor gained by the departments per year was 24. A paired t test was used to analyze the difference between the time dietitians devoted to teaching interns and the time students spent in independent, professional service in the departments. The difference was very highly significant (P impact of their supervised practice program on the sponsoring organization.

  6. Private benefits and board size: International evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Shinozaki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our analyses of 10,390 companies from 51 countries, we find that in countries that have small capital markets free cash flow is positively related to board size. However, this positive relation becomes significantly weak for companies in large securities markets. This result suggests that managers in underdeveloped capital markets have an incentive to construct less effective boards to extract private benefits. However, the distorted managerial incentive is alleviated in developed countries that have various disciplinary mechanisms to ensure good governance practices. We do not find clear evidence that legal protection of shareholder rights mitigates the managerial incentive to construct less effective boards.

  7. High-Energy Compton Scattering Light Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Hartemann, Fred V; Barty, C; Crane, John; Gibson, David J; Hartouni, E P; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    No monochromatic, high-brightness, tunable light sources currently exist above 100 keV. Important applications that would benefit from such new hard x-ray sources include: nuclear resonance fluorescence spectroscopy, time-resolved positron annihilation spectroscopy, and MeV flash radiography. The peak brightness of Compton scattering light sources is derived for head-on collisions and found to scale with the electron beam brightness and the drive laser pulse energy. This gamma 2

  8. Free for All: Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Open source software has become a catchword in libraryland. Yet many remain unclear about open source's benefits--or even what it is. So what is open source software (OSS)? It's software that is free in every sense of the word: free to download, free to use, and free to view or modify. Most OSS is distributed on the Web and one doesn't need to…

  9. Wages, Welfare Benefits and Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennan, John; Walker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Differences in economic opportunities give rise to strong migration incentives, across regions within countries, and across countries. In this paper we focus on responses to differences in welfare benefits across States. We apply the model developed in Kennan and Walker (2008), which emphasizes that migration decisions are often reversed, and that many alternative locations must be considered. We model individual decisions to migrate as a job search problem. A worker starts the life-cycle in some home location and must determine the optimal sequence of moves before settling down. The model is sparsely parameterized. We estimate the model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979). Our main finding is that income differences do help explain the migration decisions of young welfare-eligible women, but large differences in benefit levels provide surprisingly weak migration incentives.

  10. A new emphasis on root traits for perennial grass and legume varieties with environmental and ecological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Athole H; Collins, Rosemary P; Humphreys, Mike W; Scullion, John

    2016-02-01

    Grasslands cover a significant proportion of the agricultural land within the UK and across the EU, providing a relatively cheap source of feed for ruminants and supporting the production of meat, wool and milk from grazing animals. Delivering efficient animal production from grassland systems has traditionally been the primary focus of grassland-based research. But there is increasing recognition of the ecological and environmental benefits of these grassland systems and the importance of the interaction between their component plants and a host of other biological organisms in the soil and in adjoining habitats. Many of the ecological and environmental benefits provided by grasslands emanate from the interactions between the roots of plant species and the soil in which they grow. We review current knowledge on the role of grassland ecosystems in delivering ecological and environmental benefits. We will consider how improved grassland can deliver these benefits, and the potential opportunities for plant breeding to improve specific traits that will enhance these benefits whilst maintaining forage production for livestock consumption. Opportunities for exploiting new plant breeding approaches, including high throughput phenotyping, and for introducing traits from closely related species are discussed.

  11. Wider benefits of adult education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuller, Tom; Desjardins, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the measurement of the social outcomes of learning. It extends the discussion beyond employment and labor market outcomes to consider the impact of adult learning on social domains, with particular focus on health and civic engagement. It emphasizes the distinction between ...... public and private, and monetary and nonmonetary benefits. It reviews methodological issues on measuring outcomes, and identifies a number of channels through which adult learning has its effects....

  12. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. (Author)

  13. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals.

  14. Risk versus benefit in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, E.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radiology may be grouped into a) those inherent in the use of ionizing radiation which today are well known and b) those associated with the use of any scientific method in medicine. Inherent risks of scientific methods like inadequate examination and the interpretation of results are discussed. Radiology brought major benefits in medical care and some of the newer methods are considered

  15. Methodology of cost benefit analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report addresses financial aspects of proposed investments and other steps which are intended to contribute to nuclear safety. The aim is to provide introductory insight into the procedures and potential of cost-benefit analyses as a routine guide when making decisions on costly provisions as one of the tools to assess whether a particular provision is reasonable. The topic is applied to the nuclear power sector. (P.A.)

  16. The failure of community benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John D

    2005-01-01

    Though proponents of tax exemption for health care providers continue to extol the virtues of the community-benefit test, Part II of this article illustrates that the train pretty much has already left the station on this front. Both the federal government and the states increasingly look to uncompensated care as the touchstone of exemption for health care providers. To a great extent, this transition back to a "relief of the poor" standard for exemption is the result of the inherent lack of precision in community benefit standards, along with the general trend of empirical evidence that nonprofit health care providers behave similarly to their for-profit counterparts. Faced with this situation, federal and state policymakers naturally have focused on charity care as the one quantifiable behavioral difference to justify exemption. Nevertheless, some empirical evidence suggests that nonprofits may engage in socially desirable behavior other than simply free care for the poor, and the arguments that a mixed ownership system provides the best overall health care model cannot be dismissed out of hand. Thus, despite my past criticisms of the community benefit formulation, I have come to the view that we should seriously consider the options available beyond complete repeal of the community benefit test or a return to a strict charity-care exemption standard. I continue to believe that we should demand a fairly high level of "accountability" from exemption, however, and that exemption should have some direct causal connection to whatever socially-desirable behavior we are seeking. While one option along these lines is to adopt Nina Crimm's approach of rewarding specific behaviors through a deduction or credit system, using "enhancing access" as a test of exemption may provide the best combination of flexibility and verifiable behavioral differences to support continued exemption for health care providers.

  17. Nuclear power: the environmental benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, R.; Turner, W. (Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    There are many environmental benefits arising from the generation of electricity from nuclear power. These are accompanied by a minimal detrimental environmental impact, which is strictly regulated and monitored to a far greater degree than any other comparable industry. Because it does not produce greenhouse gases or acid rain emissions, the generation of electricity from nuclear energy is a vital component of a sustainable energy future for our planet. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Heavy ion fusion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.; Westenskow, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Heavy-Fusion and in other applications, there is a need for high brightness sources with both high current and low emittance. The traditional design with a single monolithic source, while very successful, has significant constraints on it when going to higher currents. With the Child-Langmuir current-density limit, geometric aberration limits, and voltage breakdown limits, the area of the source becomes a high power of the current, A ∼ I 8/3 . We are examining a multi-beamlet source, avoiding the constraints by having many beamlets each with low current and small area. The beamlets are created and initially accelerated separately and then merged to form a single beam. This design offers a number of potential advantages over a monolithic source, such as a smaller transverse footprint, more control over the shaping and aiming of the beam, and more flexibility in the choice of ion sources. A potential drawback, however, is the emittance that results from the merging of the beamlets. We have designed injectors using simulation that have acceptably low emittance and are beginning to examine them experimentally

  19. 20 CFR 416.421 - Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of benefits; computation of prorated benefits. 416.421 Section 416.421 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Amount of Benefits § 416.421 Determination of benefits...

  20. Optimal real time cost-benefit based demand response with intermittent resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareen, N.; Mustafa, M.W.; Sultana, U.; Nadia, R.; Khattak, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Ever-increasing price of conventional energy resources and related environmental concern enforced to explore alternative energy sources. Inherent uncertainty of power generation and demand being strongly influenced by the electricity market has posed severe challenges for DRPs (Demand Response Programs). Definitely, the success of such uncertain energy systems under new market structures is critically decided by the advancement of innovative technical and financial tools. Recent exponential growth of DG (distributed generations) demanded both the grid reliability and financial cost–benefits analysis for deregulated electricity market stakeholders. Based on the SGT (signaling game theory), the paper presents a novel user-aware demand-management approach where the price are colligated with grid condition uncertainties to manage the peak residential loads. The degree of information disturbances are considered as a key factor for evaluating electricity bidding mechanisms in the presence of independent multi-generation resources and price-elastic demand. A correlation between the cost–benefit price and variable reliability of grid is established under uncertain generation and demand conditions. Impacts of the strategies on load shape, benefit of customers and the reduction of energy consumption are inspected and compared with Time-of-Used based DRPs. Simulation results show that the proposed DRP can significantly reduce or even eliminate peak-hour energy consumption, leading to a substantial raise of revenues with 18% increase in the load reduction and a considerable improvement in system reliability is evidenced. - Highlights: • Proposed an optimal real time cost-benefit based demand response model. • Used signaling game theory for the information disturbances in deregulated market. • Introduced a correlation between the cost–benefit price and variable grid reliability. • Derive robust bidding strategies for utility/customers successful participation.

  1. International Experiences with Quantifying the Co-Benefits of Energy-Efficiency and Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Programs and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hasanbeigi, Ali [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Grace [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-30

    Improving the efficiency of energy production and consumption and switching to lower carbon energy sources can significantly decrease carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reduce climate change impacts. A growing body of research has found that these measures can also directly mitigate many non-climate change related human health hazards and environmental damage. Positive impacts of policies and programs that occur in addition to the intended primary policy goal are called co-benefits. Policy analysis relies on forecasting and comparing the costs of policy and program implementation and the benefits that accrue to society from implementation. GHG reduction and energy efficiency policies and programs face political resistance in part because of the difficulty of quantifying their benefits. On the one hand, climate change mitigation policy benefits are often global, long-term, and subject to large uncertainties, and subsidized energy pricing can reduce the direct monetary benefits of energy efficiency policies to below their cost. On the other hand, the co-benefits that accrue from these efforts’ resultant reductions in conventional air pollution (such as improved health, agricultural productivity, reduced damage to infrastructure, and local ecosystem improvements) are generally near term, local, and more certain than climate change mitigation benefits and larger than the monetary value of energy savings. The incorporation of co-benefits into energy efficiency and climate mitigation policy and program analysis therefore might significantly increase the uptake of these policies. Faster policy uptake is especially important in developing countries because ongoing development efforts that do not consider co-benefits may lock in suboptimal technologies and infrastructure and result in high costs in future years. Over the past two decades, studies have repeatedly documented that non-climate change related benefits of energy efficiency and fuel conversion efforts, as a part

  2. Source localization with an advanced gravitational wave detector network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairhurst, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We derive an expression for the accuracy with which sources can be localized using a network of gravitational wave detectors. The result is obtained via triangulation, using timing accuracies at each detector and is applicable to a network with any number of detectors. We use this result to investigate the ability of advanced gravitational wave detector networks to accurately localize signals from compact binary coalescences. We demonstrate that additional detectors can significantly improve localization results and illustrate our findings with networks comprised of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and LCGT. In addition, we evaluate the benefits of relocating one of the advanced LIGO detectors to Australia.

  3. Organizational support and volunteering benefits for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Choi, Eunhee; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-10-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of volunteering benefits and examined the mechanism through which volunteering benefits older adults. This is a 2-wave study of 253 older adult volunteers serving in 10 volunteer programs. Older volunteers completed the mailed surveys in 2005 and 2006. Structural equation modeling was used to define the latent variables and to test direct and indirect relationships among organizational support, socioemotional benefits, and self-reported health. Organizational support (measured by choice of volunteer activity, training, and ongoing support) had significant direct associations with 2 latent factors of socioemotional benefits, that is, perceived contribution and personal benefits. Perceived contribution was significantly related to mental health. Additionally, older volunteers with lower socioeconomic status (SES) committed more hours and perceived more personal benefits than higher SES peers. These findings suggest that volunteer programs can provide various organizational supports to older volunteers, especially to low-SES volunteers, in order to promote the socioemotional and health benefits of volunteering to older adults. Psychological well-being of older adults can be improved through engagement in meaningful volunteer activities and contribution to others.

  4. 20 CFR 229.45 - Employee benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee benefit. 229.45 Section 229.45 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.45 Employee benefit. The original...

  5. Improving Employee Benefits: Doing the Right Thing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Joe

    1990-01-01

    With some exceptions, child care workers receive fewer employee benefits than workers in other occupations. The employer's and the employee's point of view on employee benefits are discussed. Also considers availability of benefits in child care and the obstacles to improved benefits for workers. (DG)

  6. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Benefits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  7. Employment effects of the Danish rehabilitation benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Palle B; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Social benefits aim to bring marginalised citizens back into the labour force. As benefits constitute a burden for tax payers, attention has been given to measure the effect. We used register data to assess the employment effect of rehabilitation benefit; the most liberal social benefit in Denmark....

  8. 22 CFR 191.21 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 191.21 Section 191.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF HOSTAGE RELIEF ASSISTANCE Medical Benefits § 191.21 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part shall be eligible for authorized medical...

  9. 36 CFR 1211.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 1211.525... Prohibited § 1211.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  10. 22 CFR 192.31 - Applicable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable benefits. 192.31 Section 192.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Medical Benefits for Captive Situations § 192.31 Applicable benefits. A person eligible for benefits under this part...

  11. 18 CFR 1317.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 1317... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  12. 38 CFR 9.14 - Accelerated Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accelerated Benefits. 9...' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.14 Accelerated Benefits. (a) What is an Accelerated Benefit? An Accelerated Benefit is a payment of a portion of your Servicemembers' Group Life...

  13. 45 CFR 148.220 - Excepted benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excepted benefits. 148.220 Section 148.220 Public... FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Preemption; Excepted Benefits § 148.220 Excepted benefits... provision of the benefits described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section (or any combination of the...

  14. 5 CFR 630.1209 - Health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Health benefits. 630.1209 Section 630... LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1209 Health benefits. An employee enrolled in a health benefits plan under the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (established under chapter 89 of title 5...

  15. 22 CFR 192.52 - Disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability benefits. 192.52 Section 192.52... Disability or Death § 192.52 Disability benefits. (a) Principals who qualify for benefits under § 192.1 and... benefits may not be received from both OWCP and the local organizational authority for the same claim...

  16. 28 CFR 104.22 - Advance Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance Benefits. 104.22 Section 104.22... Filing for Compensation; Application for Advance Benefits § 104.22 Advance Benefits. (a) Advance Benefits. Eligible Claimants may apply for immediate “Advance Benefits” in a fixed amount as follows: (1) $50,000 for...

  17. 13 CFR 113.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 113.525 Section... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  18. 42 CFR 422.102 - Supplemental benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental benefits. 422.102 Section 422.102... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Benefits and Beneficiary Protections § 422.102 Supplemental benefits. (a) Mandatory supplemental benefits. (1) Subject to CMS approval, an MA organization may...

  19. 32 CFR 196.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 196.525 Section 196.525... Prohibited § 196.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  20. 38 CFR 23.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fringe benefits. 23.525... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  1. 22 CFR 20.4 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 20.4 Section 20.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.4 Retirement benefits. (a) Type of benefits. (1) A former spouse who meets the qualification requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  2. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  3. 7 CFR 1430.204 - Requesting benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting benefits. 1430.204 Section 1430.204... Program § 1430.204 Requesting benefits. (a) A request for benefits or contract application, under this... MILC benefits must certify the accuracy and truthfulness of the information in their contract...

  4. 45 CFR 2555.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 2555.525 Section 2555.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  5. 22 CFR 20.5 - Survivor benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 20.5 Section 20.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN FORMER SPOUSES § 20.5 Survivor benefits. (a) Type of benefits. A former spouse who meets the eligibility requirements of § 20.3 is entitled to...

  6. 29 CFR 36.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Fringe benefits. 36.525 Section 36.525 Labor Office of the... Activities Prohibited § 36.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit...

  7. 20 CFR 633.306 - Retirement benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement benefits. 633.306 Section 633.306 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR MIGRANT AND SEASONAL FARMWORKER PROGRAMS Program Design and Administrative Procedures § 633.306 Retirement benefits. No funds...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1805 - Paying benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits. 404.1805 Section 404.1805 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payment Procedures § 404.1805 Paying benefits. (a) As soon as possible after we have made a determination...

  9. 45 CFR 618.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fringe benefits. 618.525 Section 618.525 Public... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  10. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA, and...

  11. 24 CFR 3.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fringe benefits. 3.525 Section 3... benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement benefit, service, policy or plan, any...

  12. Research Update. The Benefits of Leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, B. L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the state of scientific knowledge and research regarding the benefits of leisure. The review focuses on physiological, psychophysiological, economic, environmental, psychological, and sociocultural benefits. It discusses the need for documentation on the magnitude of benefits leisure provides as well as lists of benefits to compete for…

  13. Students' benefits and barriers to mental health help-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-rela...

  14. [Respiratory handicap. Recognition, evaluation and social benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsac, J; Pujet, J C

    1983-01-01

    The medico-social aspects of respiratory handicap pose some perplexing problems, notably in their recognition, rigorous evaluation and in the granting of social security benefits. The clinical and respiratory function data should be standardised and classified according to type and significance of respiratory disease and also according to the degree of co-operation and understanding of the patient. The respiratory handicap should be evaluated after considering the functional disability engendered by the disorder and their socio-professional repercussions. The abnormality in the lungs should be measured by resting tests; the degree of disability by exercise studies; the socio-professional handicap by ergonometric tests to assess the scale of the demands and requirements of family and social and professional life, indeed the cultural and economic style of the individual concerned. Such combined studies would enable recognition of severe chronic respiratory handicap leading to decisions for exemption certificates, such as cases of severe respiratory failure in patients requiring supplementary treatment for oxygen therapy or assisted ventilation. The benefits and grants offered to those with respiratory handicaps would involve a number of rights relating to: care, work, costs of replacement of workers in the event of prolonged sick leave or the benefits of an invalidity pension. There will be other allowances such as invalidity cards, lodging special studies and other rights particularly relating to lodging and special equipment. The present scale is difficult to use both because of its lack of specificity and its ill-chosen terminology. For better balance between the handicap and the benefits offered, a common and more flexible system, with a printed table should be at hand for the doctor to use for certain decisions: long term illness, period of invalidity or early retirement because of medical incapacity. Within each table a sub-section should exist to allow for

  15. Consumers’ willingness to pay for health benefits in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona

    2018-01-01

    . Hypothetical methods significantly positively affect MWTP. The most popular product category “dairy” negatively influences MWTP. The popular health claim of “lowering cholesterol” has a significantly positive influence on MWTP. In addition, our review highlights that existing studies significantly differ......This article analyzes the existing literature on consumers’ marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) for health benefits in food products. Results indicate that the presence of a health claim does not only increase MWTP for health benefits in foods but also reduces heterogeneity among MWTP estimates...

  16. Motivation of employees and employee benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Haninger, David

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis examines the subject of employee motivation and employee benefits. The basic terms and theories needed to comprehend the subject are explained in the theoretical part of the work. The theoretical part of the work also focuses on employee benefits, mainly the goal of employee benefits and listing of currently available employee benefits. In the practical part of the work is an analysis and comparison of employee benefits used in two companies that are representing privat...

  17. Equilibrium in benefits and hazard risk; Keseimbangan manfaat dan risiko kemudaratan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: benefits of nuclear activities, the concept of operation optimization, concept of risks, hazards index, comparison in production costs of nuclear power generation and others sources of power generation.

  18. Control of sealed radioactive sources in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the inventory of radioactive sources in Peru and assesses the control. Three groups of source conditions are established: controlled sources, known sources, and lost and orphan sources. The potential risk, described as not significant, for producing accidents is established and the needed measures are discussed. The paper concludes that, while the control on sealed sources is good, there is still room for improvement. (author)

  19. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  20. Enactments in Psychoanalysis: Therapeutic Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Stanley

    The therapeutic benefits of enactments are addressed. Relevant literature reveals disparate conceptions about the nature and use of enactments. Clarification of the term is discussed. This analyst's theoretical and technical evolution is addressed; it is inextricably related to using enactments. How can it not be? A taxonomy of enactments is presented. The article considers that enactments may be fundamental in the evolution from orthodox to contemporary analytic technique. Assumptions underlying enactments are explored, as are guidelines for using enactments. Finally, the article posits that enactments have widened the scope of analysis and contributed to its vitality.