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Sample records for sources diamond xe-hl

  1. Presolar Diamond in Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Amari, Sachiko

    2009-01-01

    Presolar diamond, the carrier of the isotopically anomalous Xe component Xe-HL, was the first mineral type of presolar dust that was isolated from meteorites. The excesses in the light, p-process only isotopes 124Xe and 126Xe, and in the heavy, r-process only isotopes 134Xe and 136Xe relative to the solar ratios indicate that Xe-HL was produced in supernovae: they are the only stellar source where these two processes are believed to take place. Although these processes occur in supernovae, th...

  2. Diamond Light Source: status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materlik, Gerhard; Rayment, Trevor; Stuart, David I

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source, a third-generation synchrotron radiation (SR) facility in the UK, celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2012. A private limited company was set up in April 2002 to plan, construct and operate the new user-oriented SR facility, called in brief Diamond. It succeeded the Synchrotron Radiation Source in Daresbury, a second-generation synchrotron that opened in 1980 as the world's first dedicated X-ray-providing facility, closing finally in 2008, by which time Diamond's accelerators and first beamlines were operating and user experiments were under way. This theme issue of Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A gives some examples of the rich diversity of research done in the initial five years, with some glimpses of activity up to 2014. Speakers at the 10 year anniversary symposium were drawn from a small number of major thematic areas and each theme was elaborated by a few speakers whose contributions were placed into a broader context by a leading member of the UK academic community in the role of rapporteur. This introduction gives a summary of the design choices and strategic planning of Diamond as a coherent user facility, a snapshot of its present status and some consideration of future perspectives. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. A Test Beamline on Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawhney, K. J. S.; Dolbnya, I. P.; Tiwari, M. K.; Alianelli, L.; Scott, S. M.; Preece, G. M.; Pedersen, U. K.; Walton, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    A Test beamline B16 has been built on the 3 GeV Diamond synchrotron radiation source. The beamline covers a wide photon energy range from 2 to 25 keV. The beamline is highly flexible and versatile in terms of the available beam size (a micron to 100 mm) and the range of energy resolution and photon flux; by virtue of its several operational modes, and the different inter-changeable instruments available in the experiments hutch. Diverse experimental configurations can be flexibly configured using a five-circle diffractometer, a versatile optics test bench, and a suite of detectors. Several experimental techniques including reflectivity, diffraction and imaging are routinely available. Details of the beamline and its measured performance are presented.

  4. Tracing the Source of Borneo's Cempaka Diamond Deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Graham, I.; Armstrong, R. A.; Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Several gem quality diamond deposits are found in paleo-alluvial deposits across Borneo. The source of the diamonds and their origin are enigmatic. They could have formed in Borneo and be derived from local sources, or they could be related to diamond deposits in NW Australia, and carried with the Southwest Borneo Block after it rifted from Australia in the Late Jurassic. We collected U-Pb isotopic data from detrital zircons from the Cempaka alluvial diamond deposit in southeast Borneo. Two thirds of the zircons that were dated crystallized between 75 Ma and 110 Ma. The other third are Triassic or older (223 Ma, 314-319 Ma, 353-367 Ma, 402-414 Ma, 474 Ma, 521 Ma, 549 Ma, 1135-1176 Ma, 1535 Ma, 2716 Ma). All of the Cretaceous zircons are angular, euhedral grains with minor evidence of mechanical abrasion. Considering their age and morphology they were likely derived from the nearby Schwaner Granites. The Triassic and older grains are rounded to semi-rounded and were likely derived from Australia before Borneo rifted from Gondwana. Some of the zircons have ages that resemble those of the Merlin and Argyle diamond deposits of Australia. The diamonds themselves have delicate resorption features and overgrowths that would potentially be destroyed with prolonged transport. Geochemical data collected from the diamonds implies they were associated with lamproite intrusions. Deep seismic lines and zircons from igneous rocks suggest SE Borneo, the East Java Sea and East Java are largely underlain by thick lithosphere rifted from NW Australia. Based on several lines of evidence, we propose that diamond-bearing lamproites intruded before rifting of SW Borneo from Australia, or after collision with Sundaland of SW Borneo and the East Java-West Sulawesi Blocks during the Cretaceous. Exposure of the source after the Late Cretaceous led to diamond accumulation in river systems that flowed from the Schwaner Mountains.

  5. Diamonds on Diamond: structural studies at extreme conditions on the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, M I

    2015-03-06

    Extreme conditions (EC) research investigates how the structures and physical and chemical properties of materials change when subjected to extremes of pressure and temperature. Pressures in excess of one million times atmospheric pressure can be achieved using a diamond anvil cell, and, in combination with high-energy, micro-focused radiation from a third-generation synchrotron such as Diamond, detailed structural information can be obtained using either powder or single-crystal diffraction techniques. Here, I summarize some of the research drivers behind international EC research, and then briefly describe the techniques by which high-quality diffraction data are obtained. I then highlight the breadth of EC research possible on Diamond by summarizing four examples from work conducted on the I15 and I19 beamlines, including a study which resulted in the first research paper from Diamond. Finally, I look to the future, and speculate as to the type of EC research might be conducted at Diamond over the next 10 years. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Diamond Light Source - A Next Generation SR Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    2004-01-01

    After the very successful start and the by now almost 10 years operation of the 3rd generation x-ray sources ESRF, APS and Spring-8 smaller storage rings are being planned and constructed with properties emphasising applications with photon energies around the 10 keV spectral region. In the UK the Government and the medical foundation Wellcome Trust have decided to build the Diamond Light Source Facility in the South of Oxfordshire right next to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The joint venture company Diamond Light Source Limited has been created to plan, construct, and operate this facility. (author)

  7. The Pre-Injector Linac for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, C

    2004-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is a new medium-energy high brightness synchrotron light facility which is under construction on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory site in the U.K. The accelerator facility can be divided into three major components; a 3 GeV 561 m circumference storage ring, a full-energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV pre-injector linac. This paper describes the linac design and plans for operation. The linac is supplied by ACCEL Instruments GmbH under a turn-key contract, with Diamond Light Source Ltd. providing linac beam diagnostics, control system hardware and standard vacuum components. Commissioning of the linac will take place in early 2005 and user operation of the facility will commence in 2007.

  8. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  9. Experimental stations at I13 beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pešić, Z D; Fanis, A De; Wagner, U; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    The I13 beamline of Diamond Light Source has been operational since December 2011. The beamline encompass two fully independent branches devoted to coherent imaging experiments (coherent x-ray diffraction, coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography) and x-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast imaging, tomography and full-field microscopy). This paper gives an overview of the current status of experimental stations on both branches and outlines planned developments.

  10. Circular dichroism beamline B23 at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well established technique in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline, dedicated to circular dichroism, at Diamond Light Source Ltd, a third-generation synchrotron facility in south Oxfordshire, UK, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein the main characteristics of the B23 SRCD beamline, the ancillary facilities available for users, and some of the recent advances achieved are summarized.

  11. Diamond carbon sources: a comparison of carbon isotope models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkley, M.B.; Otter, M.L.; Gurney, J.J.; Hill, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    The carbon isotope compositions of approximately 500 inclusion-bearing diamonds have been determined in the past decade. 98 percent of these diamonds readily fall into two broad categories on the basis of their inclusion mineralogies and compositions. These categories are peridotitic diamonds and eclogitic diamonds. Most peridotitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -10 and -1 permil, whereas eclogitic diamonds have δ 13 C values between -28 and +2 permil. Peridotitic diamonds may represent primordial carbon, however, it is proposed that initially inhomogeneous δ 13 C values were subsequently homogenized, e.g. during melting and convection that is postulated to have occurred during the first billion years of the earth's existence. If this is the case, then the wider range of δ 13 C values exhibited by eclogitic diamonds requires a different explanation. Both the fractionation model and the subduction model can account for the range of observed δ 13 C values in eclogitic diamonds. 16 refs., 2 figs

  12. Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L; Sawhney, K J S; Tiwari, M K; Dolbnya, I P; Stevens, R; Jenkins, D W K; Loader, I M; Wilson, M C; Malik, A

    2009-05-01

    The unprecedented brilliance achieved by third-generation synchrotron sources and the availability of improved optics have opened up new opportunities for the study of materials at the micrometre and nanometre scale. Focusing the synchrotron radiation to smaller and smaller beams is having a huge impact on a wide research area at synchrotrons. The key to the exploitation of the improved sources is the development of novel optics that deliver narrow beams without loss of brilliance and coherence. Several types of synchrotron focusing optics are successfully fabricated using advanced miniaturization techniques. Kinoform refractive lenses are being developed for hard X-ray beamlines, and the first test results at Diamond are discussed in this paper.

  13. ROLE OF DIAMOND SECONDARY EMITTERS IN HIGH BRIGHTNESS ELECTRON SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the possibility of using diamond secondary emitter in a high average current electron injector to amplify the current from the photocathode and to isolate the cathode and the injector from each other to increase the life time of the cathode and preserve the performance of the injector. Secondary electron yield of 225 and current density of 0.8 a/cm 2 have been measured in the transmission mode from type 2 a natural diamond. Although the diamond will be heated during normal operation in the injector, calculations indicate that by cryogenically cooling the diamond, the temperature gradient along the diamond can be maintained within the acceptable range. The electron energy and temporal distributions are expected to be narrow from this device resulting in high brightness beams. Plans are underway to measure the SEY in emission mode, fabricate photocathode-diamond capsule and test diamond and capsule in superconducting RF injector

  14. Integrating Gigabit ethernet cameras into EPICS at Diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, T.

    2012-01-01

    At Diamond Light Source a range of cameras are used to provide images for diagnostic purposes in both the accelerator and photo beamlines. The accelerator and existing beamlines use Point Grey Flea and Flea2 Firewire cameras. We have selected Gigabit Ethernet cameras supporting GigE Vision for our new photon beamlines. GigE Vision is an interface standard for high speed Ethernet cameras which encourages inter-operability between manufacturers. This paper describes the challenges encountered while integrating GigE Vision cameras from a range of vendors into EPICS. GigE Vision cameras appear to be more reliable than the Firewire cameras, and the simple cabling makes much easier to move the cameras to different positions. Upcoming power over Ethernet versions of the cameras will reduce the number of cables still further

  15. Diamond Light Source Booster fast orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayadeen, S.; Duncan, S.R.; Christou, C.; Heron, M.T.; Rowland, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fast Orbit Feedback system that has been installed on the Diamond Light Source Storage ring has been replicated on the Booster synchrotron in order to provide a test bed for the development of the Storage Ring controller design. To realise this the Booster is operated in DC mode. The electron beam is regulated in two planes using the Fast Orbit Feedback system, which takes the beam position from 22 beam position monitors for each plane, and calculates offsets to 44 corrector power supplies at a sample rate of 10 kHz. This paper describes the design and realization of the controller for the Booster Fast Orbit Feedback, presents results from the implementation and considers future development

  16. Handling high data rate detectors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, U. K.; Rees, N.; Basham, M.; Ferner, F. J. K.

    2013-03-01

    An increasing number of area detectors, in use at Diamond Light Source, produce high rates of data. In order to capture, store and process this data High Performance Computing (HPC) systems have been implemented. This paper will present the architecture and usage for handling high rate data: detector data capture, large volume storage and parallel processing. The EPICS area Detector frame work has been adopted to abstract the detectors for common tasks including live processing, file format and storage. The chosen data format is HDF5 which provides multidimensional data storage and NeXuS compatibility. The storage system and related computing infrastructure include: a centralised Lustre based parallel file system, a dedicated network and a HPC cluster. A well defined roadmap is in place for the evolution of this to meet demand as the requirements and technology advances. For processing the science data the HPC cluster allow efficient parallel computing, on a mixture of ×86 and GPU processing units. The nature of the Lustre storage system in combination with the parallel HDF5 library allow efficient disk I/O during computation jobs. Software developments, which include utilising optimised parallel file reading for a variety of post processing techniques, are being developed in collaboration as part of the Pan-Data EU Project (www.pan-data.eu). These are particularly applicable to tomographic reconstruction and processing of non crystalline diffraction data.

  17. The Nanoscience Beamline (I06) at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhesi, S. S.; Cavill, S. A.; Potenza, A.; Marchetto, H.; Mott, R. A.; Steadman, P.; Peach, A.; Shepherd, E. L.; Ren, X.; Wagner, U. H.; Reininger, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Nanoscience beamline (I06) is one of seven Diamond Phase-I beamlines which has been operational since January 2007 delivering polarised soft x-rays, for a PhotoEmission Electron Microscope (PEEM) and branchline, in the energy range 80-2100 eV. The beamline is based on a collimated plane grating monochromator with sagittal focusing elements, utilising two APPLE II helical undulator sources, and has been designed for high flux density at the PEEM sample position. A ∼5 μm (σ) diameter beam is focussed onto the sample in the PEEM allowing a range of experiments using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) and x-ray magnetic linear dichroism (XMLD) as contrast mechanisms. The beamline is also equipped with a branchline housing a 6T superconducting magnet for XMCD and XMLD experiments. The magnet is designed to move on and off the branchline which allows a diverse range of experiments.

  18. Design and application of CVD diamond windows for x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaski, Y.; Cookson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Two types of directly cooled, 0.2-mm-thick, 8-mm-diameter clear aperture CVD diamond windows have been designed and successfully fabricated by two different vendors for use at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Both windows contain a direct braze joint between the diamond and the cooled OFHC copper. These windows can be used to replace the front-end beryllium windows in high-heat-load applications and can be used as white beam windows in the beamlines. This paper presents the detailed design of the diamond windows, the thermal analysis of the diamond window under different thermal load configurations, as well as a complete list of the existing APS front-end beryllium window configurations and replacement scenarios. Small-angle scattering experiments have been conducted on both diamond windows and a polished beryllium window, and the results are presented.

  19. Spallation Neutron Source SNS Diamond Stripper Foil Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Robert W.; Plum, Michael A.; Wilson, Leslie L.; Feigerle, Charles S.; Borden, Michael J.; Irie, Y.; Sugai, I.; Takagi, A.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond stripping foils are under development for the SNS. Freestanding, flat 300 to 500 (micro)g/cm 2 foils as large as 17 x 25 mm 2 have been prepared. These nano-textured polycrystalline foils are grown by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition in a corrugated format to maintain their flatness. They are mechanically supported on a single edge by a residual portion of their silicon growth substrate; fine foil supporting wires are not required for diamond foils. Six foils were mounted on the SNS foil changer in early 2006 and have performed well in commissioning experiments at reduced operating power. A diamond foil was used during a recent experiment where 15 (micro)C of protons, approximately 64% of the design value, were stored in the ring. A few diamond foils have been tested at LANSCE/PSR, where one foil was in service for a period of five months (820 C of integrated injected charge) before it was replaced. Diamond foils have also been tested in Japan at KEK (640 keV H - ) where their lifetimes slightly surpassed those of evaporated carbon foils, but fell short of those for Sugai's new hybrid boron carbon (HBC) foils.

  20. Source assemblage types for cratonic diamonds from X-ray synchrotron diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestola, F.; Alvaro, M.; Casati, M. N.; Wilhelm, H.; Kleppe, A. K.; Jephcoat, A. P.; Domeneghetti, M. C.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    Three single crystals of clinopyroxene trapped within three different gem-quality diamonds from the Udachnaya kimberlite (Siberia, Russia) were analysed in situ by single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction in order to obtain information on their chemical composition and infer source assemblage type. A non-destructive approach was used with high-energy (≈ 60 keV; λ ≈ 0.206 Å) at I15, the extreme-conditions beamline at Diamond Light Source. A dedicated protocol was used to center the mineral inclusions located deep inside the diamonds in the X-ray beam. Our results reveal that two of the inclusions can be associated with peridotitic paragenesis whereas the third is eclogitic. This study also demonstrates that this non-destructive experimental approach is extremely efficient in evaluating the origin of minerals trapped in their diamond hosts.

  1. Concepts for a low emittance-high capacity storage ring for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal; Zegenhagen, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source is investigating several paths for a possible machine upgrade to Diamond II. The exercise is driven by a joint assessment of the science capabilities opened by a very low emittance ring and the machine design that will underpin them. The consultation is made on a beamline-by-beamline basis and has highlighted a significant preference for lattices that combine both a low emittance and large capacity for IDs.

  2. Commissioning of the diamond light source storage ring vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, M P; Boussier, B; Bryan, S; Macdonald, B F; Shiers, H S

    2008-01-01

    The Diamond storage ring has been operating with a 3 GeV electron beam since September 2006 and 190 A.h of beam dose have been accumulated. The pressure in the storage ring is 4.2 10 -10 mbar without beam, rising to 7.9 10 -10 mbar with 125 mA of stored beam. Data on the storage ring vacuum performance and experience from commissioning and beam conditioning are presented

  3. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.; Prawer, S.; Legge, G.J.F.; Kostidis, L.I. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  4. The potential use of diamond coated tungsten tips as a field ionisation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A; Prawer, S; Legge, G J.F.; Kostidis, L I [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Tungsten tips are convenient for use in a high brightness gaseous phase field ionisation source. However, the lifetime of these tips is not adequate for practical use. The authors are investigating whether coating tungsten tips with diamond using Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) will improve the practicality of using these tips by an improvement in longevity of the source and/or an improvement in brightness due to the effects of the property of negative electron affinity which has been observed on CVD diamond. 1 ref.

  5. Dosimetric measurements of an 192Ir HDR source with a diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustgi, Surendra N.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of using a diamond detector for the dosimetry of a high dose rate (HDR) 192 Ir source and to compare the measurement results with published data and calculations from a commercial treatment planning system. Materials and methods: The sensitive volume of the diamond detector consists of a disk of 0.26 mm thickness and 3 mm diameter. The detector was applied an external bias of +100 V and was preirradiated to a dose of 500 cGy to stabilize its response. The 192 Ir source from the Nucletron microSelectron unit has an active diameter of 0.6 mm and a length of 3.5 mm. Photon fluence anisotropy factors in air were measured at distances of 5 and 10 cm from two sources and compared with TLD measurements. Dose profiles and isodose distributions were measured at several distances from the source and compared with calculations from a Nucletron treatment planning system. These dose calculations in water use a point source approximation with the anisotropy factors independent of the radial distance from the source. Results: The photon fluence around the 192 Ir HDR source, measured with a diamond detector at distances of 5 and 10 cm from the source, is very anisotropic. Compared to the source transverse direction, the photon fluence intensity along the source axis reduces to approximately 60%. Measurements performed on two sources indicate that the photon anisotropy does not change with distance in air. Within experimental uncertainty, similar results were obtained with TLD rods and are in excellent agreement with published anisotropy factors 1 . Dose profiles, measured with the diamond detector in a water phantom, at distances of 1,2,3 and 5 cm from the source, are found to be in excellent agreement with the Nucletron planning system calculations. Similar excellent agreement is observed between the measured and calculated isodose curves in planes parallel to the source plane. Conclusion: The diamond detector has been demonstrated to be suitable

  6. Test results of a diamond double-crystal monochromator at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Krasnicki, S.; Lee, W.; Mills, D.M.; Rogers, C.S.; Assoufid, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the first diamond double-crystal monochromator at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). The monochromator consisted of two synthetic type 1b (111) diamond plates in symmetric Bragg geometry. We tested two pairs of single-crystal plates: the first pair was 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.25 mm and 6 mm by 5 mm by 0.37 mm; the second set was 7 mm by 5.5 mm by 0.44 mm. The monochromator first crystal was indirectly cooled by edge contact with a water-cooled copper holder. We studied the performance of the monochromator under the high-power x-ray beam delivered by the APS undulator A. We found no indication of thermal distortions or strains even at the highest incident power (280 watts) and power density (123W/mm 2 at normal incidence). The calculated maximum power and power density absorbed by the first crystal were 37 watts and 4.3W/mm 2 , respectively. We also compared the maximum intensity delivered by the diamond monochromator and by a silicon (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator. For energies in the range of 6 to 10 keV, the flux through the diamond monochromator was about a factor of two less than through the silicon monochromator, in good agreement with calculations. We conclude that water-cooled diamond monochromators can handle the high-power beams from the undulator beamlines at the APS. As single-crystal diamond plates of larger size and better quality become available, the use of diamond monochromators will become a very attractive option. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N.; Helsby, W. I.

    2016-01-01

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  8. Overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors for XAFS experiments at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterji, S.; Dennis, G. J.; Dent, A.; Diaz-Moreno, S.; Cibin, G.; Tartoni, N. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Helsby, W. I. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    An overview of multi-element monolithic germanium detectors being used at the X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) beam lines at Diamond Light Source (DLS) is being reported. The hardware details and a summary of the performance of these detectors have also been provided. Recent updates about various ongoing projects being worked on to improve the performance of these detectors are summarized.

  9. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressu...

  10. Overview of Accelerator Physics Studies and High Level Software for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Belgroune, Mahdia; Christou, Chris; Holder, David J; Jones, James; Kempson, Vince; Martin, Ian; Rowland, James H; Singh, Beni; Smith, Susan L; Varley, Jennifer Anne; Wyles, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND is a 3 GeV synchrotron light source under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire (UK). The accelerators complex consists of a 100 MeV LINAC, a full energy booster and a 3GeV storage ring with 22 straight sections available for IDs. Installation of all three accelerators has begun, and LINAC commissioning is due to start in Spring 2005. This paper will give an overview of the accelerator physics activity to produce final layouts and prepare for the commissioning of the accelerator complex. The DIAMOND facility is expected to be operational for users in 2007

  11. Experience with low-alpha lattices at the Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. S. Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the experience at Diamond Light Source in the design, implementation, and operation of low momentum compaction factor lattices for the generation of short x-ray pulses and coherent THz radiation. The effects of higher-order terms in the expansion of the momentum compaction factor on beam dynamics are reviewed from a theoretical point of view, and the details of both high- and low-emittance solutions at Diamond are discussed. Measurements taken to characterize the lattices under a variety of machine conditions are presented, along with the practical limitations that exist as the momentum compaction factor is made to approach zero.

  12. High dose-rate brachytherapy source localization: positional resolution using a diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, T; Suchowerska, N; Bilek, M M; McKenzie, D R; Ng, N; Kron, T

    2003-01-01

    A potential real-time source position verification process for high dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment is described. This process is intended to provide immediate confirmation that a treatment is proceeding according to plan, so that corrective action can be taken if necessary. We show that three dosimeters are in principle sufficient and demonstrate the feasibility of the process using a diamond detector and an Ir-192 source. An error analysis including all identified sources of error shows that this detector is capable of locating the distance to the source to within 2 mm for distances up to 12 cm. This positional accuracy is less than the diameter of typical HDR catheters indicating that a diamond detector can be used to accurately determine the distance to the source. The uncertainty in the distance is found to increase with distance

  13. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor; Martin, Ian; Fielder, Richard; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  14. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Smaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  15. Synchrotron applications of pixel and strip detectors at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.; Nave, C.

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of position-sensitive X-ray detectors have been commissioned on the synchrotron X-ray beamlines operating at the Diamond Light Source in UK. In addition to mature technologies such as image-plates, CCD-based detectors, multi-wire and micro-strip gas detectors, more recent detectors based on semiconductor pixel or strip sensors coupled to CMOS read-out chips are also in use for routine synchrotron X-ray diffraction and scattering experiments. The performance of several commercial and developmental pixel/strip detectors for synchrotron studies are discussed with emphasis on the image quality achieved with these devices. Examples of pixel or strip detector applications at Diamond Light Source as well as the status of the commissioning of these detectors on the beamlines are presented. Finally, priorities and ideas for future developments are discussed.

  16. Study of hard diamond-like carbon films deposited in an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shiji; Ma Tengcai

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition of the hard diamond-like carbon (DLC) films was achieved using an inductively coupled plasma source (ICPS). The microscopy, microhardness, deposition rate and structure characteristic of the DLC films were analyzed. It is shown that the ICPS is suitable for the hard DLC film deposition at relatively low substrate negative bias voltage, and the substrate negative bias voltage greatly affects chemical vapor deposition of the DLC film and its quality

  17. I20; the Versatile X-ray Absorption spectroscopy beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Moreno, S; Hayama, S; Amboage, M; Freeman, A; Sutter, J; Duller, G

    2009-01-01

    The Versatile Spectroscopy beamline at Diamond Light Source, I20, is currently under construction and aims to begin operation in late 2009 and early 2010. The beamline aims to cover applications from physics, chemistry and biology through materials, environmental and geological science. Three very distinctive modes of operation will be offered at the beamline: scanning X-ray Absorption spectroscopy (XAS), XAS in dispersive mode, and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES). To achieve this, the beamline has been designed around two independent experimental end-stations operating from a pair of canted wigglers located in a 5m diamond straight section. One branch of the beamline will deliver monochromatic x-ray radiation of high spectral purity to one of the experimental hutches, whilst the other branch will constitute an energy dispersive spectrometer. The novel design of the beamline allows both branches to operate simultaneously.

  18. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Lemke, Henrik T.; Fritz, David M.; Chollet, Matthieu; Glownia, J. M.; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sébastien; Robert, Aymeric; Stoupin, Stanislav; Shvyd'ko, Yuri V.; Terentyev, Sergey A.; Blank, Vladimir D.; Driel, Tim B. van

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressure High-Temperature grown type-IIa diamond crystal plates with the (111) orientation. The first crystal has a thickness of ∼100 μm to allow high reflectivity within the Bragg bandwidth and good transmission for the other wavelengths for downstream use. The second crystal is about 300 μm thick and makes the exit beam of the monochromator parallel to the incoming beam with an offset of 600 mm. Here we present details on the monochromator design and its performance

  19. Single Photon Source with a Diamond Nanocrystal on an Optical Nanofiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lars Liebermeister

    2014-01-01

    The development of high yield single photon sources is crucial for applications in quantum information science as well as for experiments on the foundations of quantum physics. The NV-center in diamond is a promising solid state candidate. By using nanodiamonds the single photon emission can easily be coupled to integrated nano-optical and plasmonic structures. Our approach is to utilize efficient coupling of fluorescence of a single NV-center to the evanescent field of an optical nanofiber. A hybrid microscope (confocal microscope combined with an AFM) allows to optically characterize and preselect diamond nanocrystals and then to apply an AFM nanomanipulation technique to move a selected nanodiamond deterministically onto the tapered optical fiber. We report on first results with single diamond nanocrystals containing several NV-centers positioned on a tapered optical fiber. We observe fluorescence emission in the guided mode of the fiber. The second order correlation recorded between the free-space and the guided fluorescence shows pronounced antibunching. This demonstrated efficient evanescent coupling with low background. (author)

  20. Development of at-wavelength metrology using grating-based shearing interferometry at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-01-01

    The grating-based shearing interferometer has been established and further developed on B16 at Diamond Light Source. The beamline performances of both an X-ray plane mirror and a compound refractive lens (CRL) have been investigated using this technique. The slope error of the X-ray mirror was retrieved from the wavefront phase gradient, which was measured using two different processing schemes: phase stepping and moiré fringe analysis. The interferometer has demonstrated a high sensitivity with sub-microradian accuracy. Some of the advantages, disadvantages and limitations for the two approaches will also be presented.

  1. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.; Bartolini, R.; Boorman, G.; Karataev, P.; Lyapin, A.; Puntree, J.; Rehm, G.

    2012-05-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  2. Development of at-wavelength metrology using grating-based shearing interferometry at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sawhney, Kawal

    2013-03-01

    The grating-based shearing interferometer has been established and further developed on B16 at Diamond Light Source. The beamline performances of both an X-ray plane mirror and a compound refractive lens (CRL) have been investigated using this technique. The slope error of the X-ray mirror was retrieved from the wavefront phase gradient, which was measured using two different processing schemes: phase stepping and moiré fringe analysis. The interferometer has demonstrated a high sensitivity with sub-microradian accuracy. Some of the advantages, disadvantages and limitations for the two approaches will also be presented.

  3. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users' progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software.

  4. Microbunch Instability Observations from a THz Detector at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, W; Boorman, G; Karataev, P; Lyapin, A; Bartolini, R; Rehm, G; Puntree, J

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light source is a third generation synchrotron facility dedicated to producing radiation of outstanding brightness, ranging from infra-red to x-rays. The short electron bunches that are accelerated around the storage ring are susceptible to the phenomenon of microbunching instabilities when the bunch charge exceeds a threshold. The primary feature of the microbunch instabilities is the onset of bursts of radiation in the THz range. The high frequencies involved in the emissions make detection and analysis challenging. A 60-90 GHz Schottky Barrier Diode detector was installed to investigate turn by turn evolution of the instabilities.

  5. Carbon and nitrogen in Type 2 supernova diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Eleid, Mounib; Brown, Lawrence E.

    1993-03-01

    Abundant diamonds found in meteorites seem either to have condensed within supernova interiors during their expansions and coolings or to have been present around those explosions. Either alternative allows implantation of Xe-HL prior to interstellar mixing. A puzzling feature is the near normalcy of the carbon isotopes, considering that the only C-rich matter, the He-burning shell, is pure C-12 in that region. That last fact has caused many to associate supernova carbon with C-12 carbon, so that its SUNOCONS have been anticipated as very C-12-rich. We show that this expectation is misleading because the C-13-rich regions of Type 2's have been largely overlooked in this thinking. We here follow the idea that the diamonds nucleated in the C-12-rich He shell, the only C-rich site for nucleation, but then attached C-13-rich carbon during turbulent encounters with overlying C-13-rich matter. That is, the initial diamonds continued to grow during the same collisional encounters that cause the Xe-HL implantation. Instead of interacting with the small carbon mass having 13/12 = 0.2 in the upper He zone, however, we have calculated the remnants of the initial H-burning core, which left behind C-13-rich matter as it receded during core hydrogen burning. Howard et al. described why the velocity mixing would be essential to understanding the implantation of both the Xe-H and Xe-L components. Velocity mixing is now known to occur from the X-ray and gamma-ray light curves of supernova 1987A. Using the stellar evolution code developed at Goettingen, we calculated at Clemson the evolution of a grid of massive stars up to the beginning of core He burning. We paid attention to all H-burning reactions throughout the star, to the treatment of both convection and semiconvection, and to the recession of the outer boundary of the convective H-burning core as the star expands toward a larger redder state. This program was to generate a careful map of the CNO isotope distribution as He

  6. Method to fabricate portable electron source based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Divan, Ralu; Posada, Chrystian M.; Castano, Carlos H.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.

    2016-03-29

    A source cold cathode field emission array (FEA) source based on ultra-nanocrystalline diamond (UNCD) field emitters. This system was constructed as an alternative for detection of obscured objects and material. Depending on the geometry of the given situation a flat-panel source can be used in tomography, radiography, or tomosynthesis. Furthermore, the unit can be used as a portable electron or X-ray scanner or an integral part of an existing detection system. UNCD field emitters show great field emission output and can be deposited over large areas as the case with carbon nanotube "forest" (CNT) cathodes. Furthermore, UNCDs have better mechanical and thermal properties as compared to CNT tips which further extend the lifetime of UNCD based FEA.

  7. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-05-01

    I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50-150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics.

  8. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-01-01

    JEEP is a high-energy (50–150 keV) multi-purpose beamline offering polychromatic and monochromatic modes. It can accommodate large samples and experimental rigs, enabling in situ studies using radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50–150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics

  9. Launch of the I13-2 data beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodey, A J; Rau, C

    2017-01-01

    Users of the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 commonly spend many months analysing the large volumes of tomographic data generated in a single beamtime. This is due to the difficulties inherent in performing complicated, computationally-expensive analyses on large datasets with workstations of limited computing power. To improve productivity, a ‘data beamline’ was launched in January 2016. Users are scheduled for visits to the data beamline in the same way as for regular beamlines, with bookings made via the User Administration System and provision of financial support for travel and subsistence. Two high-performance graphics workstations were acquired, with sufficient RAM to enable simultaneous analysis of several tomographic volumes. Users are given high priority on Diamond’s central computing cluster for the duration of their visit, and if necessary, archived data are restored to a high-performance disk array. Within the first six months of operation, thirteen user visits were made, lasting an average of 4.5 days each. The I13-2 data beamline was the first to be launched at Diamond Light Source and, to the authors’ knowledge, the first to be formalised in this way at any synchrotron. (paper)

  10. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, A.; Bikis, C.; Schulz, G.; Zdora, M.-C.; Zanette, I.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Schweighauser, G.; Hench, J.; Hieber, S. E.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers (Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology.

  11. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khimchenko, A; Bikis, C; Schulz, G; Hieber, S E; Deyhle, H; Thalmann, P; Müller, B; Zdora, M-C; Zanette, I; Vila-Comamala, J; Schweighauser, G; Hench, J

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers ( Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum ), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology. (paper)

  12. Launch of the I13-2 data beamline at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodey, A. J.; Rau, C.

    2017-06-01

    Users of the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 commonly spend many months analysing the large volumes of tomographic data generated in a single beamtime. This is due to the difficulties inherent in performing complicated, computationally-expensive analyses on large datasets with workstations of limited computing power. To improve productivity, a ‘data beamline’ was launched in January 2016. Users are scheduled for visits to the data beamline in the same way as for regular beamlines, with bookings made via the User Administration System and provision of financial support for travel and subsistence. Two high-performance graphics workstations were acquired, with sufficient RAM to enable simultaneous analysis of several tomographic volumes. Users are given high priority on Diamond’s central computing cluster for the duration of their visit, and if necessary, archived data are restored to a high-performance disk array. Within the first six months of operation, thirteen user visits were made, lasting an average of 4.5 days each. The I13-2 data beamline was the first to be launched at Diamond Light Source and, to the authors’ knowledge, the first to be formalised in this way at any synchrotron.

  13. Fast X-ray imaging at beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanis, A De; Pešić, Z D; Wagner, U; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    The imaging branch of the dual-branch beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source has been operational since April 2012. This branch is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast radiography and tomography, and full-field microscopy), with energies in the ranges 6-30keV. At present we aim to achieve spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm over a field of view of l-20mm 2 . This branch aims to excel at imaging experiment of fast dynamic processes, where it is of interest to have short exposure times and high frame rates. To accommodate for this, we prepared for the beamline to operate with 'pink' beam to provide higher flux, an efficient detection system, and rapid data acquisition, transfer, and saving to storage. This contributed paper describes the present situation and illustrate the author's goal for the mid-future.

  14. A time resolved microfocus XEOL facility at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosselmans, J F W; Taylor, R P; Quinn, P D; Cibin, G; Gianolio, D; Finch, A A; Sapelkin, A V

    2013-01-01

    We have constructed a Time-Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) detection system at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at the Diamond Light Source. Using the synchrotron in h ybrid bunch mode , the data collection is triggered by the RF clock, and we are able to record XEOL photons with a time resolution of 6.1 ps during the 230 ns gap between the hybrid bunch and the main train of electron bunches. We can detect photons over the range 180-850 nm using a bespoke optical fibre, with X-ray excitation energies between 2 and 20 keV. We have used the system to study a range of feldspars. The detector is portable and has also been used on beamline B18 to collect Optically Determined X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (OD-XAS) in QEXAFS mode.

  15. A time resolved microfocus XEOL facility at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselmans, J. F. W.; Taylor, R. P.; Quinn, P. D.; Finch, A. A.; Cibin, G.; Gianolio, D.; Sapelkin, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    We have constructed a Time-Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) detection system at the Microfocus Spectroscopy beamline I18 at the Diamond Light Source. Using the synchrotron in "hybrid bunch mode", the data collection is triggered by the RF clock, and we are able to record XEOL photons with a time resolution of 6.1 ps during the 230 ns gap between the hybrid bunch and the main train of electron bunches. We can detect photons over the range 180-850 nm using a bespoke optical fibre, with X-ray excitation energies between 2 and 20 keV. We have used the system to study a range of feldspars. The detector is portable and has also been used on beamline B18 to collect Optically Determined X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (OD-XAS) in QEXAFS mode.

  16. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomer, Chris, E-mail: chris.bloomer@diamond.ac.uk; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  17. Performance of the Lancelot Beam Position Monitor at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagani, H.; Garcia-Nathan, T. B.; Jiang, C.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.; Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancelot beam position and profile monitor records the scattered radiation off a thin, low-density foil, which passes through a pinhole perpendicular to the path of the beam and is detected by a Medipix3RX sensor. This arrangement does not expose the detector to the direct beam at synchrotrons and results in a negligible drop in flux downstream of the module. It allows for magnified images of the beam to be acquired in real time with high signal-to-noise ratios, enabling measurements of tiny displacements in the position of the centroid of approximately 1 μm. It also provides a means for independently measuring the photon energy of the incident monoenergetic photon beam. A constant frame rate of up to 245 Hz is achieved. The results of measurements with two Lancelot detectors installed in different environments at the Diamond Light Source are presented and their performance is discussed.

  18. I18--the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D; Dent, Andrew J; Cavill, Stuart A; Moreno, Sofia Diaz; Peach, Andrew; Leicester, Peter J; Keylock, Stephen J; Gregory, Simon R; Atkinson, Kirk D; Rosell, Josep Roque

    2009-11-01

    The design and performance of the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source are described. The beamline is based on a 27 mm-period undulator to give an operable energy range between 2 and 20.7 keV, enabling it to cover the K-edges of the elements from P to Mo and the L(3)-edges from Sr to Pu. Micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-EXAFS and micro-X-ray diffraction have all been achieved on the beamline with a spot size of approximately 3 microm. The principal optical elements of the beamline consist of a toroid mirror, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled double-crystal monochromator and a pair of bimorph Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The performance of the optics is compared with theoretical values and a few of the early experimental results are summarized.

  19. I19, the small-molecule single-crystal diffraction beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Harriott; Barnett, Sarah A; Christensen, Kirsten E; Teat, Simon J; Allan, David R

    2012-05-01

    The dedicated small-molecule single-crystal X-ray diffraction beamline (I19) at Diamond Light Source has been operational and supporting users for over three years. I19 is a high-flux tunable-wavelength beamline and its key details are described in this article. Much of the work performed on the beamline involves structure determination from small and weakly diffracting crystals. Other experiments that have been supported to date include structural studies at high pressure, studies of metastable species, variable-temperature crystallography, studies involving gas exchange in porous materials and structural characterizations that require analysis of the diffuse scattering between Bragg reflections. A range of sample environments to facilitate crystallographic studies under non-ambient conditions are available as well as a number of options for automation. An indication of the scope of the science carried out on the beamline is provided by the range of highlights selected for this paper.

  20. Fast X-ray imaging at beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fanis, A.; Pešić, Z. D.; Wagner, U.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    The imaging branch of the dual-branch beamline I13L at Diamond Light Source has been operational since April 2012. This branch is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging (in-line phase contrast radiography and tomography, and full-field microscopy), with energies in the ranges 6-30keV. At present we aim to achieve spatial resolution of the order of 1 μm over a field of view of l-20mm2. This branch aims to excel at imaging experiment of fast dynamic processes, where it is of interest to have short exposure times and high frame rates. To accommodate for this, we prepared for the beamline to operate with "pink" beam to provide higher flux, an efficient detection system, and rapid data acquisition, transfer, and saving to storage. This contributed paper describes the present situation and illustrate the author's goal for the mid-future.

  1. An experimental evaluation of monochromatic x-ray beam position monitors at diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomer, Chris; Rehm, Guenther; Dolbnya, Igor P.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining the stability of the X-ray beam relative to the sample point is of paramount importance for beamlines and users wanting to perform cutting-edge experiments. The ability to detect, and subsequently compensate for, variations in X-ray beam position with effective diagnostics has multiple benefits: a reduction in commissioning and start-up time, less ‘down-time’, and an improvement in the quality of acquired data. At Diamond Light Source a methodical evaluation of a selection of monochromatic X-ray Beam Position Monitors (XBPMs), using a range of position detection techniques, and from a range of suppliers, was carried out. The results of these experiments are presented, showing the measured RMS noise on the position measurement of each device for a given flux, energy, beam size, and bandwidth. A discussion of the benefits and drawbacks of each of the various devices and techniques is also included.

  2. Deposition of diamond-like carbon films by plasma source ion implantation with superposed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.

    2003-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared on silicon wafer substrate by plasma source ion implantation with superposed negative pulse. Methane and acetylene gases were used as working gases for plasma. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from 0 to -18 kV. The surface of DLC films was very smooth. The deposition rate of DLC films increased with increasing in superposed DC bias voltage. Carbon ion implantation was confirmed for the DLC film deposited from methane plasma with high pulse voltage. I D /I G ratios of Raman spectroscopy were around 1.5 independent on pulse voltage. The maximum hardness of 20.3 GPa was observed for the film prepared with high DC and high pulse voltage

  3. The contribution of Diamond Light Source to the study of strongly correlated electron systems and complex magnetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, P G; Dhesi, S S

    2015-03-06

    We review some of the significant contributions to the field of strongly correlated materials and complex magnets, arising from experiments performed at the Diamond Light Source (Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, UK) during the first few years of operation (2007-2014). We provide a comprehensive overview of Diamond research on topological insulators, multiferroics, complex oxides and magnetic nanostructures. Several experiments on ultrafast dynamics, magnetic imaging, photoemission electron microscopy, soft X-ray holography and resonant magnetic hard and soft X-ray scattering are described. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of the Diamond Light Source on research in Earth and environmental sciences: current work and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ian T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Shaw, Samuel; Peacock, Caroline L; Benning, Liane G; Coker, Victoria S

    2015-03-06

    Diamond Light Source Ltd celebrated its 10th anniversary as a company in December 2012 and has now accepted user experiments for over 5 years. This paper describes the current facilities available at Diamond and future developments that enhance its capacities with respect to the Earth and environmental sciences. A review of relevant research conducted at Diamond thus far is provided. This highlights how synchrotron-based studies have brought about important advances in our understanding of the fundamental parameters controlling highly complex mineral-fluid-microbe interface reactions in the natural environment. This new knowledge not only enhances our understanding of global biogeochemical processes, but also provides the opportunity for interventions to be designed for environmental remediation and beneficial use.

  5. Friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon films grown in various source gas plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, A.; Nilufer, I.B.; Eryilmaz, O.L.; Beschliesser, M.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.

    1999-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various source gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene) on the friction and wear performance of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films prepared in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system. Films were deposited on AISI H13 steel substrates and tested in a pin-on-disk machine against DLC-coated M50 balls in dry nitrogen. We found a close correlation between friction coefficient and source gas composition. Specifically, films grown in source gases with higher hydrogen-to-carbon ratios exhibited lower friction coefficients and a higher wear resistance than films grown in source gases with lower hydrogen-to-carbon (H/C) ratios. The lowest friction coefficient (0.014) was achieved with a film derived from methane with an H/C ratio of 4, whereas the coefficient of films derived from acetylene (H/C=1) was 0.15. Similar correlations were observed for wear rates. Specifically, films derived from gases with lower H/C values were worn out, and the substrate material was exposed, whereas films from methane and ethane remained intact and wore at rates that were almost two orders of magnitude lower than films obtained from acetylene. (orig.)

  6. Test of a high-heat-load double-crystal diamond monochromator at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.B.; Graber, T.; Lee, W.-K.; Mills, D.M.; Rogers, C.S.; Assoufid, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have tested the first diamond double-crystal monochromator at the advanced photon source (APS). The monochromator consisted of two synthetic type 1b (111) diamond plates in symmetric Bragg geometry. The single-crystal plates were 6 mm x 5 mm x 0.25 mm and 6 mm x 5 mm x 0.37 mm and showed a combination of mosaic spread/strain of the order of 2-4 arcsec over a central 1.4 mm-wide strip. The monochromator first crystal was indirectly cooled by edge contact with a water-cooled copper holder. We studied the performance of the monochromator under the high-power X-ray beam delivered by the APS undulator A. By changing the undulator gap, we varied the power incident on the first crystal and found no indication of thermal distortions or strains even at the highest incident power (200 W) and power density (108 W/mm 2 in normal incidence). The calculated maximum power and power density absorbed by the first crystal were 14.5 W and 2.4 W/mm 2 , respectively. We also compared the maximum intensity delivered by this monochromator and by a silicon (111) cryogenically cooled monochromator. For energies in the range 6-10 keV, the flux through the diamond monochromator was about a factor of two less than through the silicon monochromator, in good agreement with calculations. We conclude that water-cooled diamond monochromators can handle the high-power beams from the undulator beamlines at the APS. As single-crystal diamond plates of larger size and better quality become available, the use of diamond monochromators will become a very attractive option. (orig.)

  7. Coherence Length and Vibrations of the Coherence Beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.H.; Parson, A.; Rau, C.

    2017-01-01

    I13 is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline for imaging and coherent diffraction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) comprises two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques [1]. In particular the coherence experiments pose very high demands on the performance on the beamline instrumentation, requiring extensive testing and optimisation of each component, even during the assembly phase. Various aspects like the quality of optical components, the mechanical design concept, vibrations, drifts, thermal influences and the performance of motion systems are of particular importance. In this paper we study the impact of the front-end slit size (FE slit size), which determines the horizontal source size, onto the coherence length and the detrimental impact of monochromator vibrations using in-situ x-ray metrology in conjunction with fringe visibility measurements and vibration measurements, based on centroid tracking of an x-ray pencil beam with a photon-counting detector. (paper)

  8. Coherence Length and Vibrations of the Coherence Beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Parson, A.; Rau, C.

    2017-06-01

    I13 is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline for imaging and coherent diffraction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) comprises two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques [1]. In particular the coherence experiments pose very high demands on the performance on the beamline instrumentation, requiring extensive testing and optimisation of each component, even during the assembly phase. Various aspects like the quality of optical components, the mechanical design concept, vibrations, drifts, thermal influences and the performance of motion systems are of particular importance. In this paper we study the impact of the front-end slit size (FE slit size), which determines the horizontal source size, onto the coherence length and the detrimental impact of monochromator vibrations using in-situ x-ray metrology in conjunction with fringe visibility measurements and vibration measurements, based on centroid tracking of an x-ray pencil beam with a photon-counting detector.

  9. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  10. Remote Access Revolution: Chemical Crystallographers Enter a New Era at Diamond Light Source Beamline I19

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie T. Johnson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of the use of synchrotron radiation in the structural characterisation of crystalline materials by single-crystal diffraction in the late 20th century, the field has undergone an explosion of technological developments. These cover all aspects of the experiments performed, from the construction of the storage rings and insertion devices, to the end user functionalities in the experimental hutches. Developments in automation have most frequently been driven by the macromolecular crystallography community. The drive towards greater access to ever-brighter X-ray sources has benefited the entire field. Herein, we detail the revolution that is now occurring within the chemical crystallography community, utilising many of the tools developed by their more biologically oriented colleagues, along with specialised functionalities that are tailored to the small-molecule world. We discuss the benefits of utilising the advanced features of Diamond Light Source beamline I19 in the newly developed remote access mode and the step-change in productivity that can be established as a result.

  11. Diamonds from Zarnitsa and Dalnaya Kimberlites (Yakutia); their nature, growth history, and lithospheric mantle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanova, G.P.; Davies, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study of diamonds from two pipes of the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field (Yakutia). Zarnitsa ('Flash of Summer Lightning'), the first kimberlite discovered in Siberia, is located 15 km E of Udachnaya. Dalnaya is a small pipe in the southern part of the Daldyn Field. No information on diamond parageneses from these late Devonian pipes has been published previously. About 45 diamonds (-4+2 and -8+4 mm) with mineral inclusions were selected from each pipe and their morphology and surface features were studied using a binocular microscope. Cathodoluminescence (CL) images and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements were done on the whole stones first. 22 stones from Dalnaya and 32 from Zarnitsa were then sawn by laser or polished mechanically parallel to the planes (110) or (100). Polished central plates have been prepared for some stones; others were polished down to expose inclusions. The internal morphology of the diamonds and the location of inclusions were studied by birefringence (BR) and CL. Inclusions were analysed in situ on the polished diamond surfaces for major element composition by electron microprobe and for trace elements by proton and laser microprobes. A few central inclusions (seeds) were studied by SEM imagery and analysis. Hydrogen and nitrogen concentrations and N aggregation state were investigated in the central diamond plates by FTIR. Carbon isotopic composition was determined by mass spectrometry for 20 stones, using fragments of diamond off-cuts

  12. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, E. C.; Bencok, P.; Dobrynin, A.; Rial, E. C. M.; Rose, A.; Steadman, P.; Thompson, C.; Thomson, A.; Wang, H.

    2013-03-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  13. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-08-01

    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  14. Development of the Diamond light source PSS in conformance with EN 61508

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.C.; Price, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light Source is constructing a third phase (Phase III) of photon beamlines and experiment stations. Experience gained in the design, realization and operation of the Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) on the first two phases of beamlines is being used to improve the design process for this development. Information on the safety functionality of Phase I and Phase II photon beamlines is maintained in a hazard database. The database is built using Microsoft Access 2007, it consists of table hazards, safeguards, frequencies of opportunity and outcome severities. Reports can be generated to support the EN 61508 process. These reports are used to assist in the design, verification and validation of the new PSSs. The data is used to make comparisons between beamlines, to validate safety functions and to record documentation for each beamline. The ability of the database to produce reports sorted and filtered on different criteria allows the production of reports tailored for specific stages of the EN 61508 process. The database is a useful tool but should not be employed blindly

  15. Developments in Polarization and Energy Control of APPLE-II Undulators at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhi, E C; Bencok, P; Dobrynin, A; Rial, E C M; Rose, A; Steadman, P; Thompson, C; Thomson, A; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    A pair of 2m long APPLE-II type undulators have been built for the I10 BLADE beamline at Diamond Light Source. These 48mm period devices have gap as well as four moveable phase axes which provide the possibility to produce the full range of elliptical polarizations as well as linear polarization tilted through a full 180deg. The mechanical layout chosen has a 'master and slave' arrangement of the phase axes on the top and bottom. This arrangement allows the use of symmetries to provide operational ease for both changing energy using only the master phase while keeping fixed linear horizontal or circular polarization, as well as changing linear polarization angle while keeping fixed energy [1]. The design allows very fast motion of the master phase arrays, without sacrifice of accuracy, allowing the possibility of mechanical polarization switching at 1Hz for dichroism experiments. We present the mechanical design features of these devices, as well as the results of magnetic measurements and shimming from before installation. Finally, we present the results of characterization of these devices by the beamline, including polarimetry, which has been done on the various modes of motion to control energy and polarization. These modes of operation have been available to users since 2011.

  16. Fusion Neutronic Source deuterium endash tritium neutron spectrum measurements using natural diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A.V.; Kaneko, J.; Isobe, M.; Maekawa, F.; Nishitani, T.

    1997-01-01

    Two natural diamond detectors (NDDs) operating at room temperature were used for Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) deuterium endash tritium (DT) neutron spectra measurements at different points around the tritium target and for different deuteron beam energies. Energy resolution of both NDDs were measured, with values 1.95% and 2.8%. Due to the higher energy resolution of one of the two NDDs studied it was possible to measure the shape of the DT neutron energy distribution and its broadening due to deuteron scattering inside the target. The influence of pulse pileup on the energy resolution of the combined system (NDD+electronics) at count rates up to 3.8x10 5 counts/s was investigated. A 3.58% energy resolution for the spectrometric system based on NDD and a 0.25 μs shaping time amplifier has been measured at a count rate of 5.7x10 5 counts/s. It is shown that special development of a fast pulse signal processor is necessary for NDD based spectrometry at count rates of approximately 10 6 counts/s. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  17. The current status of small-angle x-ray scattering beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsuaki; Doutch, James; Terrill, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) covers the major disciplines of biology, chemistry and physics delivering structural and dynamic information in nanoscience, mesoscopic architectures, supramolecular structures, and nucleation/growth of crystals. SAXS is also proving to be important in archaeological, environmental, and conservation sciences, and has further indicated its ability to span wide-ranging scientific disciplines. Thus, strong needs for SAXS studies are increasing significantly in a broad range of scientific fields year by year. Based on such a background, the demand for high throughput SAXS experiments is increasing. At the synchrotron facility, Diamond Light Source, one SAXS beamline, Non-crystalline diffraction I22 is now operational and highly automated throughput small-angle X-ray scattering (HATSAXS) beamline B21 is now under construction. I22 is the Undulator beamline and wide varieties of experiments, including time-resolved experiments are attempted. Based on the concept of HATSAXS, the key feature of B21 will focuses on the automation of end-station equipment. A automated sample changer has been purchased for solution SAXS measurements on biomolecules. A robotic-arm-type automated sample changer that is capable of handling several kinds of samples in material science is also being constructed. B21 is expected to successfully provide all users highly automated throughput measurements with the highest possible reliability and accuracy. Construction of this beamline will end in the second half of 2012, and will be open for users in the early summer of 2013 after commissioning. (author)

  18. GDA and EPICS: working in unison for science driven data acquisition and control at Diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, E.P.; Heron, M.T.; Rees, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Diamond Light Source has recently received funding for an additional 10 photon beamlines, bringing the total to 32 beamlines and around 40 end-stations. These all use EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) for the control of the underlying instrumentation associated with photon delivery, the experiment and most of the data acquisition hardware. For the scientific users Diamond has developed the Generic Data Acquisition (GDA) application framework to provide a consistent science interface across all beamlines. While each application is customized to the science of its beamline, all applications are built from the framework and predominantly interface to the underlying instrumentation through the EPICS abstraction. We will describe the complete system, illustrate how it can be configured for a specific beamline application, and how other synchrotrons are, and can, adapt these tools for their needs. (authors)

  19. Mechanical and electrical properties of diamond-like carbon films deposited by plasma source ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, K.; Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by a plasma source ion implantation method with superposed negative pulse and negative DC voltage. Acetylene gas was used as working gas for plasma formation. A negative DC voltage and a negative pulse voltage were superposed and applied to the substrate holder. The DC voltage was changed in the range from 0 to -4.8 kV and the pulse voltage was changed from -18 to -13.2 kV. The films were annealed in the range of 200-450 deg. C for 1 h. The surface morphology of the films and the film thickness were observed by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The hardness of DLC films was evaluated by an indentation method. Measurement of the electrical resistivity was performed using a four-point probe station. Furthermore, a ball-on-disc test with 2 N load was employed to obtain information about the friction properties and sliding wear resistance of the films. The surface of the DLC films was very smooth and featureless. The deposition rate was changed with the DC voltage and pulse conditions. Integrated intensity ratios I D /I G of Raman spectroscopy and electrical resistivity of the DLC films changed with DC voltage. The electrical resistivity decreased with increasing I D /I G ratio. The I D /I G ratio was increased and the electrical resistivity was decreased with annealing temperature owing to graphitization. Very low friction coefficients around 0.05 were obtained for as-deposited films.

  20. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Pešić, Z. D.; De Fanis, A.; Rau, C.

    2013-03-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  1. Beamline Design and Instrumentation for the Imaging and Coherence Beamline I13L at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U H; Pešić, Z D; Fanis, A De; Rau, C

    2013-01-01

    I13L is a 250 m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. In this paper we will discuss the fundamental design concepts of the beamline and explain their implications for the civil engineering of the endstation building and the beamline instrumentation. For the latter this paper will focus on the beamline mirror systems and monochromators.

  2. First Results of the IOT Based 300 kW 500 MHz Amplifier for the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Morten; Maddock, Matt; Müller, Marc; Rains, Simon; Watkins, Alun V

    2005-01-01

    We present the first RF measurements of the IOT based 300 kW 500 MHz amplifier for the Diamond Light Source. Four 80 kW IOTs are combined using a waveguide combiner to achieve the RF requirement of up to 300 kW for each of three superconducting cavities for the main storage ring. The IOTs are protected by a full power circulator and a 300 kW ferrite RF load. This is the first time IOTs will be used for a synchrotron light source. This paper gives an overview of the design of the Thales amplifiers and IOTs with commissioning results including measurements of key components and overall RF performance following factory tests and the installation of the first unit

  3. Diamond Based DDR IMPATTs: Prospects and Potentiality as Millimeter-Wave Source at 94 GHz Atmospheric Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Acharyya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Large-signal simulation is carried out in this paper to investigate the prospects and potentiality of Double-Drift Region (DDR Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT device based on semiconducting type-IIb diamond as millimeter-wave source operating at 94 GHz atmospheric window frequency. Large-signal simulation method developed by the authors and presented in this paper is based on non-sinusoidal voltage excitation. The simulation is carried out to obtain the large-signal characteristics such as RF power output, DC to RF conversion efficiency etc. of DDR diamond IMPATT device designed to operate at 94 GHz. The results show that the device is capable of delivering a peak RF power output of 7.01 W with 10.18% DC to RF conversion efficiency for a bias current density of 6.0×10^8 A m^-2 and voltage modulation of 60% at 94 GHz; whereas for the same voltage modulation 94 GHz DDR Si IMPATT can deliver only 693.82 mW RF power with 8.74 efficiency for the bias current density of 3.4×10^8 A m^-2.

  4. Calibration of the nonlinear ring model at the Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bartolini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear beam dynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of a storage ring. The beam lifetime, the injection efficiency, and the dynamic and momentum apertures available to the beam are optimized during the design phase by a proper optimization of the linear lattice and of the distribution of sextupole families. The correct implementation of the design model, especially the nonlinear part, is a nontrivial accelerator physics task. Several parameters of the nonlinear dynamics can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these parameters are extracted from the analysis of turn-by-turn data after the excitation of betatron oscillations of the particles in the ring. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond storage ring to characterize the nonlinear beam dynamics. A combination of frequency map analysis with the detuning with momentum measurements has allowed for a precise calibration of the nonlinear model that can accurately reproduce the nonlinear beam dynamics in Diamond.

  5. Ultra-high performance mirror systems for the imaging and coherence beamline I13 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, U. H.; Alcock, S.; Ludbrook, G.; Wiatryzk, J.; Rau, C.

    2012-05-01

    I13L is a 250m long hard x-ray beamline (6 keV to 35 keV) currently under construction at the Diamond Light Source. The beamline comprises of two independent experimental endstations: one for imaging in direct space using x-ray microscopy and one for imaging in reciprocal space using coherent diffraction based imaging techniques. To minimise the impact of thermal fluctuations and vibrations onto the beamline performance, we are developing a new generation of ultra-stable beamline instrumentation with highly repeatable adjustment mechanisms using low thermal expansion materials like granite and large piezo-driven flexure stages. For minimising the beam distortion we use very high quality optical components like large ion-beam polished mirrors. In this paper we present the first metrology results on a newly designed mirror system following this design philosophy.

  6. Measuring circular dichroism in a capillary cell using the b23 synchrotron radiation CD beamline at diamond light source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jávorfi, Tamás; Hussain, Rohanah; Myatt, Daniel; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD) is a well-established method in structural biology. The first UV-VIS beamline dedicated to circular dichroism at Diamond Light Source, a third generation synchrotron facility in South Oxfordshire, has recently become operational and it is now available for the user community. Herein we present an important application of SRCD: the CD measurement of protein solutions in fused silica rectangular capillary cells. This was achieved without the use of any lens between the photoelastic modulator and the photomultiplier tube detectors by exploiting the high photon flux of the collimated beam that can be as little as half a millimeter squared. Measures to minimize or eliminate vacuum-UV protein denaturation effects are discussed. The CD spectra measured in capillaries is a proof of principle to address CD measurements in microdevice systems using the new B23 SRCD beamline. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Design, Build & Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 & I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J.; Lee, T.; Alcock, S.; Patel, H.

    2013-03-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 - 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  8. Calibration of the nonlinear ring model at the Diamond Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R; Rehm, G; Martin, I P S

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear beam dynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of a storage ring. The beam lifetime, the injection efficiency, and the dynamic and momentum apertures available to the beam are optimized during the design phase by a proper optimization of the linear lattice and of the distribution of sextupole families. The correct implementation of the design model, especially the nonlinear part, is a nontrivial accelerator physics task. Several parameters of the nonlinear dynamics can be used to compare the real machine with the model and eventually to correct the accelerator. Most of these parameters are extracted from the analysis of turn-by-turn data after the excitation of betatron oscillations of the particles in the ring. We present the experimental results of the campaign of measurements carried out at the Diamond storage ring to characterize the nonlinear beam dynamics. A combination of frequency map analysis with the detuning with momentum measurements has allowed for a precise calibration ...

  9. Development of refractive X-ray focusing optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Loader, I. M.; Jenkins, D. W. K.; Stevens, R.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2007-09-01

    The Diamond Optics & Metrology Group and the collaborators at the STFC Central Microstructure Facility have initiated a program for the design and fabrication of in-line micro- and nano-focusing optics for synchrotron radiation beamlines. The first type of optics fabricated is a kinoform lens in silicon on the same model proposed by K. Evans- Lutterodt et al [Opt. Expr. 11 (2003) 919.]. The fabrication utilised ultra high resolution electron beam lithographic patterning of an electron sensitive SU8 polymer and deep reactive ion etching of silicon. The first test of the focusing properties was performed at the ESRF BM5 optics beamline. In this paper we present details on the design and fabrication, and discuss the test results.

  10. Diamond identifaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    X-ray topography on diamonds allows for unique identification of diamonds. The method described consists of the registration of crystal defects, inclusions etc. of a diamond, resulting in a 'finger print' of the individual jewel which can only be changed by its complete destruction

  11. Nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond based field emitter array for a flat-panel x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posada, Chrystian M.; Grant, Edwin J.; Lee, Hyoung K.; Castaño, Carlos H.; Divan, Ralu; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Stan, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    A field emission based flat-panel transmission x-ray source is being developed as an alternative for medical and industrial imaging. A field emitter array (FEA) prototype based on nitrogen incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond film has been fabricated to be used as the electron source of this flat panel x-ray source. The FEA prototype was developed using conventional microfabrication techniques. The field emission characteristics of the FEA prototype were evaluated. Results indicated that emission current densities of the order of 6 mA/cm 2 could be obtained at electric fields as low as 10 V/μm to 20 V/μm. During the prototype microfabrication process, issues such as delamination of the extraction gate and poor etching of the SiO 2 insulating layer located between the emitters and the extraction layer were encountered. Consequently, alternative FEA designs were investigated. Experimental and simulation data from the first FEA prototype were compared and the results were used to evaluate the performance of alternative single and double gate designs that would yield better field emission characteristics compared to the first FEA prototype. The best simulation results are obtained for the double gate FEA design, when the diameter of the collimator gate is around 2.6 times the diameter of the extraction gate

  12. Photo-illuminated diamond as a solid-state source of solvated electrons in water for nitrogen reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Di; Zhang, Linghong; Ruther, Rose E; Hamers, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    The photocatalytic reduction of N₂ to NH₃ is typically hampered by poor binding of N₂ to catalytic materials and by the very high energy of the intermediates involved in this reaction. Solvated electrons directly introduced into the reactant solution can provide an alternative pathway to overcome such limitations. Here we demonstrate that illuminated hydrogen-terminated diamond yields facile electron emission into water, thus inducing reduction of N₂ to NH₃ at ambient temperature and pressure. Transient absorption measurements at 632 nm reveal the presence of solvated electrons adjacent to the diamond after photoexcitation. Experiments using inexpensive synthetic diamond samples and diamond powder show that photocatalytic activity is strongly dependent on the surface termination and correlates with the production of solvated electrons. The use of diamond to eject electrons into a reactant liquid represents a new paradigm for photocatalytic reduction, bringing electrons directly to reactants without requiring molecular adsorption to the surface.

  13. Speckle-based portable device for in-situ metrology of x-ray mirrors at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Zhou, Tunhe; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-09-01

    For modern synchrotron light sources, the push toward diffraction-limited and coherence-preserved beams demands accurate metrology on X-ray optics. Moreover, it is important to perform in-situ characterization and optimization of X-ray mirrors since their ultimate performance is critically dependent on the working conditions. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop a portable metrology device, which can be easily implemented on a range of beamlines for in-situ metrology. An X-ray speckle-based portable device for in-situ metrology of synchrotron X-ray mirrors has been developed at Diamond Light Source. Ultra-high angular sensitivity is achieved by scanning the speckle generator in the X-ray beam. In addition to the compact setup and ease of implementation, a user-friendly graphical user interface has been developed to ensure that characterization and alignment of X-ray mirrors is simple and fast. The functionality and feasibility of this device is presented with representative examples.

  14. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutta, R.; Gerstl, S.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2016-05-01

    The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS). In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014)]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  15. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakins, D. E.; Chapman, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology.

  16. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Voutta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS. In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  17. X-ray imaging of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, D. E.; Chapman, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new approach enabling study of subsurface dynamics in high-Z materials using the unique combination of high-energy synchrotron X-rays, a hybrid bunch structure, and a new dynamic loading platform. We detail the design and operation of the purpose-built, portable small bore gas-gun, which was installed on the I12 high-energy beamline at the Diamond Light Source and used to drive compression waves into solid and porous metal targets. Using a hybrid bunch structure and broadband X-ray pulses of up to 300 keV, radiographic snapshots were captured during various dynamic deformation processes in cm-scale specimens, thereby contributing to a more complete understanding of the evolution of mesoscale damage. Importantly, we highlight strategies for overcoming the challenges associated with using high-energy X-rays, and suggest areas for improvement needed to advance dynamic imaging through large-scale samples of relevance to engineering scenarios. These preliminary measurements demonstrate the feasibility of probing highly transient phenomena using the presented methodology

  18. The development of a XEOL and TR XEOL detection system for the I18 microfocus beamline Diamond light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.P.; Finch, A.A.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.; Quinn, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the design and capabilities of a new Continuous Wave X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (CW-XEOL) and Time Resolved X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (TR-XEOL) facility on the I18 beamline at the DIAMOND light source, the UK national synchrotron facility. Experimental data from a suite of framework silicates are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system. Experiments studied include simple (CW-XEOL) spectroscopy, (TR XEOL) lifetime experiments dose and dose rate dependence (CW-XEOL) experiments, spatial (TR XEOL) on heterogeneous sample, wavelength resolved (TR XEOL), Optically Derived X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, (OD XAS). - Highlights: ► We describe the capabilities of a new CW-XEOL and TR-XEOL detection system for a hard X-ray beamline. ► We model TR XEOL with luminescence lifetimes from ∼25 ps to ∼400 ps from framework silicates. ► CW XEOL, 200–900 nm with a resolution of ∼0.9 nm is used to complete dose and dose rate experiments. ► Micro-beam high spatial resolution XEOL within X-ray excitation energies 2–20 keV.

  19. Diamond identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods of producing sets of records of the internal defects of diamonds as a means of identification of the gems by x-ray topography are described. To obtain the records one can either use (a) monochromatic x-radiation reflected at the Bragg angle from crystallographically equivalent planes of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections from each such plane being recorded from a number of directions of view, or (b) white x-radiation incident upon the diamond in directions having a constant angular relationship to each equivalent axis of symmetry of the diamond lattice structure, Bragg reflections being recorded for each direction of the incident x-radiation. By either method an overall point-to-point three dimensional representation of the diamond is produced. (U.K.)

  20. Transparent nanocrystalline diamond coatings and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumant, Anirudha V.; Khan, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method for coating a substrate comprises producing a plasma ball using a microwave plasma source in the presence of a mixture of gases. The plasma ball has a diameter. The plasma ball is disposed at a first distance from the substrate and the substrate is maintained at a first temperature. The plasma ball is maintained at the first distance from the substrate, and a diamond coating is deposited on the substrate. The diamond coating has a thickness. Furthermore, the diamond coating has an optical transparency of greater than about 80%. The diamond coating can include nanocrystalline diamond. The microwave plasma source can have a frequency of about 915 MHz.

  1. Deposition and properties of Al-containing diamond-like carbon films by a hybrid ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Wang Aiying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Weak carbide former, Al element, was incorporated into DLC films using a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. → The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms doping, which resulted in the distinct reduction of the film internal stress and hardness, but the internal stress dropped faster than the hardness. → The DLC films with low internal stress and high hardness can be acquired by Al incorporation. - Abstract: Metal incorporation is one of the most effective methods for relaxing internal stress in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. It was reported that the chemical state of the incorporated metal atoms has a significant influence on the film internal stress. The doped atoms embedding in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms can reduce the structure disorder of the DLC films through bond angle distortion and thus relax the internal stress of the films. In present paper, Al atoms, which are inert to carbon, were incorporated into the DLC films deposited by a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. The film composition, microstructure and atomic bond structure were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The internal stress, mechanical properties and tribogoical behavior were studied as a function of Al concentration using a stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester, respectively. The results indicated that the incorporated Al atoms were dissolved in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms and the films exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon. The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms incorporation. This resulted in the distinct reduction of the internal stress in the films. All Al-DLC films exhibited a lower friction coefficient compared with pure DLC film. The formation of the

  2. Diamond nanophotonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Beha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the coupling of single color centers in diamond to plasmonic and dielectric photonic structures to realize novel nanophotonic devices. Nanometer spatial control in the creation of single color centers in diamond is achieved by implantation of nitrogen atoms through high-aspect-ratio channels in a mica mask. Enhanced broadband single-photon emission is demonstrated by coupling nitrogen–vacancy centers to plasmonic resonators, such as metallic nanoantennas. Improved photon-collection efficiency and directed emission is demonstrated by solid immersion lenses and micropillar cavities. Thereafter, the coupling of diamond nanocrystals to the guided modes of micropillar resonators is discussed along with experimental results. Finally, we present a gas-phase-doping approach to incorporate color centers based on nickel and tungsten, in situ into diamond using microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The fabrication of silicon–vacancy centers in nanodiamonds by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is discussed in addition.

  3. Design, development and use of the spectrometer for investigating coherent THz radiation produced by micro-bunching instabilities at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Aiveen; Karataev, Pavel; Rehm, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are known for their low noise, ultra-fast response and excellent sensitivity. They are often implemented as detectors in the millimetre wavelength regime. Micro-bunch instabilities (MBI) have been detected at many light sources around the world including the Diamond Light Source, UK. These MBI can result in bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with millimetre wavelengths. More research needs to be carried out with regards to the dynamics of MBI in order to confirm the simulations and to eventually harness the power of the CSR bursts. A single shot spectrometer has been designed and is under operation at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). It is composed of eight SBDs ranging from 33-1000 GHz. Unlike previous measurements carried out, each of the SBDs has been individually characterised thus making the results obtained comparable to simulations. In this paper, we present the assessment of each SBD in the spectrometer and the first results of the spectrometer's use in the beam.

  4. Design, development and use of the spectrometer for investigating coherent THz radiation produced by micro-bunching instabilities at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, Aiveen; Karataev, Pavel; Rehm, Guenther

    2016-01-01

    Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) are known for their low noise, ultra-fast response and excellent sensitivity. They are often implemented as detectors in the millimetre wavelength regime. Micro-bunch instabilities (MBI) have been detected at many light sources around the world including the Diamond Light Source, UK. These MBI can result in bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) with millimetre wavelengths. More research needs to be carried out with regards to the dynamics of MBI in order to confirm the simulations and to eventually harness the power of the CSR bursts. A single shot spectrometer has been designed and is under operation at the Diamond Light Source (DLS). It is composed of eight SBDs ranging from 33-1000 GHz. Unlike previous measurements carried out, each of the SBDs has been individually characterised thus making the results obtained comparable to simulations. In this paper, we present the assessment of each SBD in the spectrometer and the first results of the spectrometer's use in the beam. (paper)

  5. Micron-scale variations in coupled δ13C-N abundance core-rim traverses in octahedral diamonds: insights into the processes and sources of episodic diamond formation beneath the Siberian craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers de Vries, D.F.; Bulanova, G.; de Corte, K.; Pearson, D.G.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    The internal structure and growth history of six macro-diamonds from kimberlite pipes in Yakutia (Russia) were investigated with cathodoluminescence imaging and coupled carbon isotope and nitrogen abundance analyses along detailed core to rim traverses. The diamonds are characterised by octahedral

  6. Evidence of young, proximal and primary (YPP diamond source occurring in alluviums in the Santo Antônio do Bonito, Santo Inácio and Douradinho rivers in Coromandel region, Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Silvestre Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatism associated with the Alto Paranaíba structural high comprises kimberlites, kamafugites, and alkaline complexes, forming an approximately 400 x 150 km NW-SE belt in the southern São Francisco Craton. Dating of some intrusions reveals ages between 120 and 75 Ma. Chemical analyses of garnet recovered in alluvium from traditional diamond digging areas indicate peridotitic garnet windows in Três Ranchos and Coromandel. Six hundred and eighty (680 diamonds acquired or recovered during mineral exploration in the digging areas of Romaria, Estrela do Sul, Três Ranchos and Coromandel show unique characteristics, certain populations indicating young, proximal and primary sources (YPP. Analyses of 201 stones from Santo Antônio do Bonito, Santo Inácio and Douradinho rivers alluvium, Coromandel, present no evidence of transport, characterizing a proximal source. Within these river basins, exposures of the Late Cretaceous Capacete Formation basal conglomerate contain mainly small rounded and/or angular quartzite pebbles and of basic and ultrabasic rocks, as well as kimberlite minerals (garnet, ilmenite, spinel, sometimes diamond. A magnetotelluric profile between the Paraná and Sanfranciscana basins shows that the thick underlying lithosphere in the Coromandel region coincides with the peridotitic garnet window and with a diamond population displaying proximal source characteristics. Diamond-bearing kimberlite intrusions occur in different areas of Alto Paranaíba.

  7. A novel radial anode layer ion source for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification--hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coatings from butane gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murmu, Peter P; Markwitz, Andreas; Suschke, Konrad; Futter, John

    2014-08-01

    We report a new ion source development for inner wall pipe coating and materials modification. The ion source deposits coatings simultaneously in a 360° radial geometry and can be used to coat inner walls of pipelines by simply moving the ion source in the pipe. Rotating parts are not required, making the source ideal for rough environments and minimizing maintenance and replacements of parts. First results are reported for diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on Si and stainless steel substrates deposited using a novel 360° ion source design. The ion source operates with permanent magnets and uses a single power supply for the anode voltage and ion acceleration up to 10 kV. Butane (C4H10) gas is used to coat the inner wall of pipes with smooth and homogeneous DLC coatings with thicknesses up to 5 μm in a short time using a deposition rate of 70 ± 10 nm min(-1). Rutherford backscattering spectrometry results showed that DLC coatings contain hydrogen up to 30 ± 3% indicating deposition of hydrogenated DLC (a-C:H) coatings. Coatings with good adhesion are achieved when using a multiple energy implantation regime. Raman spectroscopy results suggest slightly larger disordered DLC layers when using low ion energy, indicating higher sp(3) bonds in DLC coatings. The results show that commercially interesting coatings can be achieved in short time.

  8. Three-energy focusing Laue monochromator for the diamond light source x-ray pair distribution function beamline I15-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, John P., E-mail: john.sutter@diamond.ac.uk; Chater, Philip A.; Hillman, Michael R.; Keeble, Dean S.; Wilhelm, Heribert [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Tucker, Matt G. [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    The I15-1 beamline, the new side station to I15 at the Diamond Light Source, will be dedicated to the collection of atomic pair distribution function data. A Laue monochromator will be used consisting of three silicon crystals diffracting X-rays at a common Bragg angle of 2.83°. The crystals use the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes to select 40, 65, and 76 keV X-rays, respectively, and will be bent meridionally to horizontally focus the selected X-rays onto the sample. All crystals will be cut to the same optimized asymmetry angle in order to eliminate image broadening from the crystal thickness. Finite element calculations show that the thermal distortion of the crystals will affect the image size and bandpass.

  9. Design, Build and Test of a Double Crystal Monochromator for Beamlines I09 and I23 at the Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J; Lee, T; Alcock, S; Patel, H

    2013-01-01

    A high stability Double Crystal Monochromator has been developed at The Diamond Light Source for beamlines I09 and I23. The design specification was a cryogenic, fixed exit, energy scanning monochromator, operating over an energy range of 2.1 – 25 keV using a Si(111) crystal set. The novel design concepts are the direct drive, air bearing Bragg axis, low strain crystal mounts and the cooling scheme. The instrument exhibited superb stability and repeatability on the B16 Test Beamline. A 20 keV Si(555), 1.4 μrad rocking curve was demonstrated. The DCM showed good stability without any evidence of vibration or Bragg angle nonlinearity.

  10. Three-energy focusing Laue monochromator for the diamond light source x-ray pair distribution function beamline I15-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, John P.; Chater, Philip A.; Hillman, Michael R.; Keeble, Dean S.; Wilhelm, Heribert; Tucker, Matt G.

    2016-01-01

    The I15-1 beamline, the new side station to I15 at the Diamond Light Source, will be dedicated to the collection of atomic pair distribution function data. A Laue monochromator will be used consisting of three silicon crystals diffracting X-rays at a common Bragg angle of 2.83°. The crystals use the (1 1 1), (2 2 0), and (3 1 1) planes to select 40, 65, and 76 keV X-rays, respectively, and will be bent meridionally to horizontally focus the selected X-rays onto the sample. All crystals will be cut to the same optimized asymmetry angle in order to eliminate image broadening from the crystal thickness. Finite element calculations show that the thermal distortion of the crystals will affect the image size and bandpass.

  11. Bunch by bunch beam monitoring in 3rd and 4th generation light sources by means of single crystal diamond detectors and quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2012-10-01

    New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.

  12. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  13. Detection and analysis of diamond fingerprinting feature and its application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xin; Huang Guoliang; Li Qiang; Chen Shengyi, E-mail: tshgl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, the School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Before becoming a jewelry diamonds need to be carved artistically with some special geometric features as the structure of the polyhedron. There are subtle differences in the structure of this polyhedron in each diamond. With the spatial frequency spectrum analysis of diamond surface structure, we can obtain the diamond fingerprint information which represents the 'Diamond ID' and has good specificity. Based on the optical Fourier Transform spatial spectrum analysis, the fingerprinting identification of surface structure of diamond in spatial frequency domain was studied in this paper. We constructed both the completely coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by laser and the partially coherent diamond fingerprinting detection system illuminated by led, and analyzed the effect of the coherence of light source to the diamond fingerprinting feature. We studied rotation invariance and translation invariance of the diamond fingerprinting and verified the feasibility of real-time and accurate identification of diamond fingerprint. With the profit of this work, we can provide customs, jewelers and consumers with a real-time and reliable diamonds identification instrument, which will curb diamond smuggling, theft and other crimes, and ensure the healthy development of the diamond industry.

  14. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films

  15. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  16. Synthetic diamond in electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskov, Yurii V

    1999-01-01

    The results of studies on the electrochemistry of diamond carried out during the last decade are reviewed. Methods for the preparation, the crystalline structure and the main electrophysical properties of diamond thin films are considered. Depending on the doping conditions, the diamond behaves as a superwide-gap semiconductor or as a semimetal. It is shown that the 'metal-like' diamond is corrosion-resistant and can be used advantageously as an electrode in the electrosynthesis (in particular, for the electroreduction of compounds that are difficult to reduce) and electroanalysis. Kinetic characteristics of some redox reactions and the impedance parameters for diamond electrodes are presented. The results of comparative studies of the electrodes made of diamond single crystals, polycrystalline diamond and amorphous diamond-like carbon, which reveal the effect of the crystalline structure (e.g., the influence of intercrystallite boundaries) on the electrochemical properties of diamond, are presented. The bibliography includes 99 references.

  17. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  19. Diamond semiconducting devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polowczyk, M.; Klugmann, E.

    1999-01-01

    Many efforts to apply the semiconducting diamond for construction of electronic elements: resistors, thermistors, photoresistors, piezoresistors, hallotrons, pn diodes, Schottky diodes, IMPATT diodes, npn transistor, MESFETs and MISFETs are reviewed. Considering the possibilities of acceptor and donor doping, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of diamond as well as high electric-field breakdown points, that diamond devices could be used at about 30-times higher frequency and more then 8200 times power than silicon devices. Except that, due to high heat resistant of diamond, it is concluded that diamond devices can be used in environment at high temperature, range of 600 o C. (author)

  20. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  1. Transmission diamond imaging detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

  2. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  3. A high-throughput system for high-quality tomographic reconstruction of large datasets at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Robert C; Bodey, Andrew J; Price, Stephen W T; Basham, Mark; Drakopoulos, Michael

    2015-06-13

    Tomographic datasets collected at synchrotrons are becoming very large and complex, and, therefore, need to be managed efficiently. Raw images may have high pixel counts, and each pixel can be multidimensional and associated with additional data such as those derived from spectroscopy. In time-resolved studies, hundreds of tomographic datasets can be collected in sequence, yielding terabytes of data. Users of tomographic beamlines are drawn from various scientific disciplines, and many are keen to use tomographic reconstruction software that does not require a deep understanding of reconstruction principles. We have developed Savu, a reconstruction pipeline that enables users to rapidly reconstruct data to consistently create high-quality results. Savu is designed to work in an 'orthogonal' fashion, meaning that data can be converted between projection and sinogram space throughout the processing workflow as required. The Savu pipeline is modular and allows processing strategies to be optimized for users' purposes. In addition to the reconstruction algorithms themselves, it can include modules for identification of experimental problems, artefact correction, general image processing and data quality assessment. Savu is open source, open licensed and 'facility-independent': it can run on standard cluster infrastructure at any institution.

  4. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Robert P [Kingwood, TX

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  5. Diamond Microchannel Heat Sink Designs For High Heat Flux Thermal Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corbin, Michael

    2002-01-01

    .... Many investigators have suggested the use of diamond heat spreaders to reduce flux levels at or near to its source, and some have suggested that diamond microchannel heat sinks ultimately may play...

  6. Development and application of a labmade apparatus using open-source “arduino” hardware for the electrochemical pretreatment of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Thalles Ramon; Betim, Fernando Silva; Ferreira, Rafael de Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes use an electrochemical pretreatment (anodic and/or cathodic) to restore their original characteristics and promote the reproduction of previous voltammograms; • Automatic system can carefully reproduce the electrochemical pretreatment of BDD electrode quickly and efficiently; • Open source platform “Arduino” can be used to developed a labmade apparatus to control a BDD electrode pretreatment system for analytical purposes; • The main advantages of this labmade apparatus are: low supporting electrolyte consumption (20 mL), a total time for each pretreatment of 80 seconds and an average cost of production below US$ 200. - Abstract: Every day, new electroanalytical methodologies are developed to supplant the established spectrometric and chromatographic methods due to their versatility, low cost and ability to perform measurements without sample treatment. Electroanalytical techniques have provided an alternative to quantify substances due to the direct relationship between the analyte concentration and some electrical property of the system. However, this ratio between the concentration and peak current is valid only if the electrochemically active area of the working electrode is constant in each electrochemical test. For years, classic polarography ensured the reproducibility of the mercury electrode surface due to its liquid state at room temperature. However, this metal has a high toxicity, driving the search for new inert materials for their replacement, most notably boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. This electrode material has, among other attractive advantages for electroanalysis, a potential range higher than that of the mercury working electrode under the same conditions. Solid electrodes are, in general, polished to promote the reproducibility of their electrochemical performance. For BDD, the use of an electrochemical pretreatment (anodic and/or cathodic) has been sufficient to restore their original

  7. Diamond deposition using a planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, S. P.; Tucker, D. A.; Stoner, B. R.; Glass, J. T.; Hooke, W. M.

    1995-06-01

    A planar radio frequency inductively coupled plasma has been used to deposit diamond onto scratched silicon. This plasma source has been developed recently for use in large area semiconductor processing and holds promise as a method for scale up of diamond growth reactors. Deposition occurs in an annulus which coincides with the area of most intense optical emission from the plasma. Well-faceted diamond particles are produced when the substrate is immersed in the plasma.

  8. Diamond-based structures to collect and guide light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelletto, S [Centre for Micro-Photonics, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Mail H 34 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Harrison, J P; Marseglia, L; Stanley-Clarke, A C; Hadden, J P; Ho, Y-L D; O' Brien, J L; Rarity, J G [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H H Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Gibson, B C; Fairchild, B A; Ganesan, K; Huntington, S T; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne VIC 3010 (Australia); Hiscocks, M P; Ladouceur, F, E-mail: scastelletto@swin.edu.au, E-mail: luca.marseglia@bristol.ac.uk [School of EE and T, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2011-02-15

    We examine some promising photonic structures for collecting and guiding light in bulk diamond. The aim of this work is to optimize single photon sources and single spin read-out from diamond color centers, specifically NV{sup -} centers. We review the modeling and fabrication (by focused ion beam and reactive ion etching) of solid immersion lenses, waveguides and photonic crystal cavities in monolithic diamond.

  9. Tracing the depositional history of Kalimantan diamonds by zircon provenance and diamond morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueter, Nico; Soesilo, Joko; Fedortchouk, Yana; Nestola, Fabrizio; Belluco, Lorenzo; Troch, Juliana; Wälle, Markus; Guillong, Marcel; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Driesner, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Diamonds in alluvial deposits in Southeast Asia are not accompanied by indicator minerals suggesting primary kimberlite or lamproite sources. The Meratus Mountains in Southeast Borneo (Province Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia) provide the largest known deposit of these so-called "headless" diamond deposits. Proposals for the origin of Kalimantan diamonds include the adjacent Meratus ophiolite complex, ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes, obducted subcontinental lithospheric mantle and undiscovered kimberlite-type sources. Here we report results from detailed sediment provenance analysis of diamond-bearing Quaternary river channel material and from representative outcrops of the oldest known formations within the Alino Group, including the diamond-bearing Campanian-Maastrichtian Manunggul Formation. Optical examination of surfaces of diamonds collected from artisanal miners in the Meratus area (247 stones) and in West Borneo (Sanggau Area, Province Kalimantan Barat; 85 stones) points toward a classical kimberlite-type source for the majority of these diamonds. Some of the diamonds host mineral inclusions suitable for deep single-crystal X-ray diffraction investigation. We determined the depth of formation of two olivines, one coesite and one peridotitic garnet inclusion. Pressure of formation estimates for the peridotitic garnet at independently derived temperatures of 930-1250 °C are between 4.8 and 6.0 GPa. Sediment provenance analysis includes petrography coupled to analyses of detrital garnet and glaucophane. The compositions of these key minerals do not indicate kimberlite-derived material. By analyzing almost 1400 zircons for trace element concentrations with laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) we tested the mineral's potential as an alternative kimberlite indicator. The screening ultimately resulted in a small subset of ten zircons with a kimberlitic affinity. Subsequent U-Pb dating resulting in Cretaceous ages plus a detailed chemical reflection make

  10. The Geopolitical Setting of Conflict Diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, S. E.

    2002-05-01

    September 11, 2001 will live in infamy. Ideological differences have also led to senseless atrocities in Angola, Congo Republic, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Hundreds of thousands have died, scores mutilated, and millions displaced. These have gone virtually unnoticed for decades. Unnoticed that is until it became evident that these barbaric acts were fueled by the sale or bartering of diamonds for arms, or by more ingenious ways that are less traceable. There is no end in sight. Industry has long recognized that about 20% of diamonds reaching the open market are smuggled from operating mines, and more recently that an additional 4% originates from conflict diamond sources. Diamond identification by laser inscription, ion implantation, or certification protocols are subject to fraudulent tampering. And these applied methods are thwarted if cutting and polishing centers are infiltrated, or if terrorist facilities are independently established. Mark ups are substantial (40-60%) from raw material to finished product. Tracking the paths of rough stones from mines to faceted gems is impractical because some 30-50 million cts of top quality material, or about 100 million stones, would require branding each year. Moreover, the long standing tradition of site-holdings and the bourse system of mixing or matching diamonds, inadvertently ensures regional anonymity. Conflict diamonds are mined in primary kimberlites and from widely dispersed alluvial fields in tropical jungle. Landscapes, eroded by 1-5 vertical km over 100 Ma, have transformed low grade primary deposits into unconsolidated sedimentary bonanzas. The current value of stones retrieved, by motivated diggers and skillful jiggers, in rebel held territories, is impossible to determine, but in 1993 amounted to tens of millions USD. Diamonds over 100 cts continue to surface at premier prices. Borders are porous, diamonds flow easily, and armed networks are permeable and mobile. Diamonds form at great depths (over 200 km

  11. Detection of diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.; Blondeel, E.J.G.; Taylor, G.T.

    1991-01-01

    Diamond particles are distinguished from non-diamond, associated particles on the basis of their higher refractive index. The particles are brought to a specific location, typically in a stream of water flowing full in a vertical duct, and a beam of collimated electromagnetic radiation is directed at them. An array of radiation detectors is provided to detect refracted and/or reflected radiation. The array is so configured that the responses of the detectors, considered collectively, will be indicative of the presence of a diamond when a diamond is in fact present. However, when a particle having a substantially lower refractive index is present, the responses of the detectors will not be so indicative. The diamond and non-diamond particles can subsequently be sorted from one another

  12. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  13. Diamond-cleaning investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    Four parcels of diamonds which either had or had not been cleaned using the usual techniques, chiefly involving etch in molten potassium nitrate were supplied by De Beers Diamond Research Laboratories. Each parcel contained about 40 stones, amounting to about 10 carats. Half the diamonds in each parcel were cleaned by a standard procedure involving half an hours ultrasonic agitation in a 20% solution of the commercial detergent 'Contrad' which is effectively a surfactant and chelating agent. Visual comparisons by a number of observers who were not told the stones' histories, established that these diamonds generally had a more sparkling appearance after the cleaning procedure had been applied

  14. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R

    2013-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  15. Kankan diamonds (Guinea) III: δ13C and nitrogen characteristics of deep diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachel, T.; Harris, J. W.; Aulbach, S.; Deines, P.

    Diamonds from the Kankan area in Guinea formed over a large depth profile beginning within the cratonic mantle lithosphere and extending through the asthenosphere and transition zone into the lower mantle. The carbon isotopic composition, the concentration of nitrogen impurities and the nitrogen aggregation level of diamonds representing this entire depth range have been determined. Peridotitic and eclogitic diamonds of lithospheric origin from Kankan have carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C: peridotitic -5.4 to -2.2‰ eclogitic -19.7 to -0.7‰) and nitrogen characteristics (N: peridotitic 17-648 atomic ppm; eclogitic 0-1,313 atomic ppm; aggregation from IaA to IaB) which are generally typical for diamonds of these two suites worldwide. Geothermobarometry of peridotitic and eclogitic inclusion parageneses (worldwide sources) indicates that both suites formed under very similar conditions within the cratonic lithosphere, which is not consistent with a derivation of diamonds with light carbon isotopic composition from subducted organic matter within subducting oceanic slabs. Diamonds containing majorite garnet inclusions fall to the isotopically heavy side (δ13C: -3.1‰ to +0.9‰) of the worldwide diamond population. Nitrogen contents are low (0-126 atomic ppm) and one of the two nitrogen-bearing diamonds shows such a low level of nitrogen aggregation (30% B-centre) that it cannot have been exposed to ambient temperatures of the transition zone (>=1,400 °C) for more than 0.2 Ma. This suggests rapid upward transport and formation of some Kankan diamonds pene-contemporaneous to Cretaceous kimberlite activity. Similar to these diamonds from the asthenosphere and the transition zone, lower mantle diamonds show a small shift towards isotopic heavy compositions (-6.6 to -0.5‰, mode at -3.5‰). As already observed for other mines, the nitrogen contents of lower mantle diamonds were below detection (using FTIRS). The mutual shift of sublithospheric diamonds towards

  16. Investigation of defects in CVD diamond: Influence for radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, M.J.; Tromson, D.; Bergonzo, P.; Barrett, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present the potentialities of CVD diamond as an ionisation chamber for radiotherapy applications. Trapping levels present in CVD diamond are characterised using Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) method with X-ray sources. The influence of the corresponding defects on the detector response is investigated and compared to those observed in natural diamond. Also, their spatial distribution across a large area polycrystalline diamond ionisation chamber is discussed. Results show the relative influence of two different populations of trapping levels in CVD diamond whose effect is crucial for radiotherapy applications. To partially overcome the defect detrimental effects, we propose to use CVD diamond ionisation chambers at moderate temperatures from 70 to 100 deg. C that could be provided by self heating of the device, for a dramatically improved stability and reproducibility

  17. Diamond Nucleation Using Polyethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor); Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Weiner, Brad (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The invention presents a simple, non-destructive and non-abrasive method of diamond nucleation using polyethene. It particularly describes the nucleation of diamond on an electrically viable substrate surface using polyethene via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique in a gaseous environment.

  18. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  19. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles

  20. Diamond Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foster, J.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Gobbi, B.; Grim, G.P.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Lander, R.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Lynne, L.M.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L. E-mail: perera@physics.rutgers.edu; Pirollo, S.; Plano, R.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rott, C.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2001-06-01

    Diamond based pixel detectors are a promising radiation-hard technology for use at the LHC. We present first results on a CMS diamond pixel sensor. With a threshold setting of 2000 electrons, an average pixel efficiency of 78% was obtained for normally incident minimum ionizing particles.

  1. Investing in Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual nominal USD

  2. Friction and wear properties of diamonds and diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, I.P.

    1991-01-01

    The recent development of chemical vapor deposition techniques for diamond growth enables bearings to be designed which exploit diamond's low friction and extreme resistance to wear. However, currently produced diamond coatings differ from natural diamond surfaces in that they are polycrystalline and faceted, and often contain appreciable amounts of non-diamond material (i.e. graphitic or amorphous carbon). Roughness, in particular, influences the friction and wear properties; rough coatings severely abrade softer materials, and can even wear natural diamond sliders. Nevertheless, the best available coatings exhibit friction coefficients as low as those of natural diamond and are highly resistant to wear. This paper reviews the tribological properties of natural diamond, and compares them with those of chemical vapor deposited diamond coatings. Emphasis is placed on the roles played by roughness and material transfer in controlling frictional behavior. (orig.)

  3. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  4. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  5. Diamond Jubilee Meeting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1994-10-01

    Oct 1, 1994 ... Science, Bangalore, the Diamond Jubilee Annual. Meeting will be held in ... "The fascination of statistics" .... on post Hartree-Fock methods, highly correlated systems ..... Gold Medal of the National Institute of Social. Sciences ...

  6. Quantum Computing in Diamond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prawer, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to demonstrate the key elements needed to construct a logical qubit in diamond by exploiting the remarkable quantum properties of the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) optical centre...

  7. Diamond Beamline I16 (Materials and Magnetism)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, S. P.; Bombardi, A.; Marshall, A. R.; Williams, J. H.; Barlow, G.; Day, A. G.; Pearson, M. R.; Woolliscroft, R. J.; Walton, R. D.; Beutier, G.; Nisbet, G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the key features and performance specifications of a facility for high-resolution single-crystal x-ray diffraction at Diamond Light Source. The scientific emphasis of the beamline is materials- and x-ray-physics, including resonant and magnetic scattering. We highlight some of the more novel aspects of the beamline design.

  8. FTIR-spectroscopic measurements of beryls of various sources and the geological mineralogical and gemmological characterization of diamonds of the Espinhago-range (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banko, A. G.

    1997-09-01

    In this work international material of beryl was analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, electron microprobe, analytical scanning microscopy, moisture evolution analyzer and fluorine sensitive electrode. The FTIR-spectroscopic measurements and the determination of analytical water content reveal a logarithmic correlation between the beryl water content and the intensity of the H 2 O-combination band at 5275 cm -1 , using unpolarized IR-light. In addition, the intensities of the 3990 - 3970 cm -1 ,-, 3234 cm -1 and 3345 cm -1 -bands, measured with polarized IR-light parallel to the c-axis, are linearly correlated to the content of the alkali metals. Probably these bands correspond to fundamental (1st overtone of H 2 O-II/3234 cm -1 - and 3345 cm -1 ) and combination (alkaliO-H...OH 2 -II/ 3990 - 3970 cm -1 ) modes of bending vibrations. Beryl was deuterated at various temperature. No absorption were detected in the region at around 2390 cm -1 , 2470 cm -1 and 2940 cm -1 , which would prove an assignment related to the present of hydrogen. If alkali-hydroxide grouping in beryl-channel-positions is indeuterable, the model of fundamental and combination modes seems to be valid. The band at 3990 - 3970 cm -1 can also be assigned to the combination mode of alkali-oxygen (alkali (6),(12) -O-bonds) vibrations and the normal modes of the H 2 O- II -molecule. The three integral absorption coefficients - α 5267 (H 2 O-II)t α 5275 (H 2 O-I) and α 2358 (CO 2 ) - were used to subdivide the beryls into groups. The Espinhago-Diamond-Province reflects an interesting geologic history from Precambrian placer- to recent alluvial deposits. Mineralogical and gemmological features, in combination with geological aspects reflect the many reworking processes which affected Espinhago diamonds in time and space: the characteristics of diamond populations in their specific geologic environment represent the natural selection, which eliminated stones of low quality during geologic history. (author)

  9. A Novel Dual Air-Bearing Fixed-χ Diffractometer for Small-Molecule Single-Crystal X-ray Diffraction on Beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David . R Allan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the development of a novel dual air-bearing fixed-χ diffractometer for beamline I19 at Diamond Light Source. The diffractometer is designed to facilitate the rapid data collections possible with a Dectris Pilatus 2M pixel-array photon-counting detector, while allowing remote operation in conjunction with a robotic sample changer. The sphere-of-confusion is made as small as practicably possible, through the use of air-bearings for both the ω and φ axes. The design and construction of the new instrument is described in detail and an accompanying paper by Johnson et al. (also in this issue will provide a user perspective of its operation.

  10. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Friedl, M; Bauer, C; Berfermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2*4 cm/sup 2/ have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a beta source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5*10/sup 15/ cm/sup -2/ to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (16 refs).

  11. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M. E-mail: markus.friedl@cern.ch; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2x4 cm{sup 2} have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a {beta} source or in a test beam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics. (author)

  12. CVD diamond detectors for ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-10-01

    In future HEP accelerators, such as the LHC (CERN), detectors and electronics in the vertex region of the experiments will suffer from extreme radiation. Thus radiation hardness is required for both detectors and electronics to survive in this harsh environment. CVD diamond, which is investigated by the RD42 Collaboration at CERN, can meet these requirements. Samples of up to 2×4 cm2 have been grown and refined for better charge collection properties, which are measured with a β source or in a testbeam. A large number of diamond samples has been irradiated with hadrons to fluences of up to 5×10 15 cm-2 to study the effects of radiation. Both strip and pixel detectors were prepared in various geometries. Samples with strip metallization have been tested with both slow and fast readout electronics, and the first diamond pixel detector proved fully functional with LHC electronics.

  13. Diamond Windows for High Powered Microwave Transmission. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, R.

    2011-01-01

    This phase II SBIR developed technology for manufacturing diamond windows for use in high energy density photon transmission e.g. microwave or laser light photons. Microwave sources used in fusion research require microwave extraction windows with high thermal conductivity, low microwave absorption, and low resistance to thermal cracking. Newly developed, man made diamond windows have all three of these properties, but these windows are prohibitively expensive. This limits the natural progress of these important technologies to higher powers and slows the development of additional applications. This project developed a lower cost process for manufacturing diamond windows using microwave plasma. Diamond windows were deposited. A grinding process was used to provide optical smoothness for 2 cm diameter diamond windows that met the parallelism specifications for fusion beam windows. The microwave transmission performance (loss tangent) of one of the windows was measured at 95GHz to be less than 10-4, meeting specifications for utilization in the ITER tokamak.

  14. Diamond-based single-photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharonovich, I; Castelletto, S; Simpson, D A; Su, C-H; Greentree, A D; Prawer, S

    2011-01-01

    The exploitation of emerging quantum technologies requires efficient fabrication of key building blocks. Sources of single photons are extremely important across many applications as they can serve as vectors for quantum information-thereby allowing long-range (perhaps even global-scale) quantum states to be made and manipulated for tasks such as quantum communication or distributed quantum computation. At the single-emitter level, quantum sources also afford new possibilities in terms of nanoscopy and bio-marking. Color centers in diamond are prominent candidates to generate and manipulate quantum states of light, as they are a photostable solid-state source of single photons at room temperature. In this review, we discuss the state of the art of diamond-based single-photon emitters and highlight their fabrication methodologies. We present the experimental techniques used to characterize the quantum emitters and discuss their photophysical properties. We outline a number of applications including quantum key distribution, bio-marking and sub-diffraction imaging, where diamond-based single emitters are playing a crucial role. We conclude with a discussion of the main challenges and perspectives for employing diamond emitters in quantum information processing.

  15. Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ryo; Yamashita, Aichi; Hara, Hiroshi; Irifune, Tetsuo; Adachi, Shintaro; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Diamond anvil cells using boron-doped metallic diamond electrodes covered with undoped diamond insulating layers have been developed for electrical transport measurements under high pressure. These designed diamonds were grown on a bottom diamond anvil via a nanofabrication process combining microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition and electron beam lithography. The resistance measurements of a high-quality FeSe superconducting single crystal under high pressure were successfully demonstrated by just putting the sample and gasket on the bottom diamond anvil directly. The superconducting transition temperature of the FeSe single crystal was increased to up to 43 K by applying uniaxial-like pressure.

  16. Diamond pixel modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asner, D.; Barbero, M.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Brom, J-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Cristinziani, M.; Costa, S.; D'Alessandro, R.; Boer, W. de; Dobos, D.; Dolenc, I.; Dulinski, W.; Duris, J.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Frais-Koelbl, H.

    2011-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10 16 protons/cm 2 illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  17. Diamond pixel modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, D. [Carleton University, Ottawa (Canada); Barbero, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Bellini, V. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); Belyaev, V. [MEPHI Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Brom, J-M. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Bruzzi, M. [INFN/University of Florence (Italy); Chren, D. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Cindro, V. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Claus, G. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Cristinziani, M. [Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Costa, S. [INFN/University of Catania (Italy); D' Alessandro, R. [Department of Energetics/INFN Florence (Italy); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Dobos, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dulinski, W. [IPHC, Strasbourg (France); Duris, J. [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Eremin, V. [Ioffe Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Eusebi, R. [FNAL, Batavia (United States); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fachhochschule fuer Wirtschaft und Technik, Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2011-04-21

    With the commissioning of the LHC in 2010 and upgrades expected in 2015, ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle, CDF and all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as a sensor material for use very close to the interaction region where the most extreme radiation conditions exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences expected at the super-LHC. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8x10{sup 16} protons/cm{sup 2} illustrating that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve. We also present beam test results of irradiated complete diamond pixel modules.

  18. Ion implantation into diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Susumu

    1994-01-01

    The graphitization and the change to amorphous state of diamond surface layer by ion implantation and its characteristics are reported. In the diamond surface, into which more than 10 16 ions/cm 2 was implanted, the diamond crystals are broken, and the structure changes to other carbon structure such as amorphous state or graphite. Accompanying this change of structure, the electric conductivity of the implanted layer shows two discontinuous values due to high resistance and low resistance. This control of structure can be done by the temperature of the base during the ion implantation into diamond. Also it is referred to that by the base temperature during implantation, the mutual change of the structure between amorphous state and graphite can be controlled. The change of the electric resistance and the optical characteristics by the ion implantation into diamond surface, the structural analysis by Raman spectroscopy, and the control of the structure of the implanted layer by the base temperature during implantation are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for machining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, M.; Breidt, D.; Cremer, R. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This history of CVD diamond synthesis goes back to the fifties of the last century. However, the scientific and economical potential was only gradually recognized. In the eighties, intensive worldwide research on CVD diamond synthesis and applications was launched. Industrial products, especially diamond-coated cutting tools, were introduced to the market in the middle of the nineties. This article shows the latest developments in this area, which comprises nanocrystalline diamond coating structures. (orig.)

  20. PREFACE: Science's gem: diamond science 2009 Science's gem: diamond science 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwood, Alison; Newton, Mark E.; Stoneham, Marshall

    2009-09-01

    diamond's exceptional properties for quantum information processing [2], a topic on which there have been many recent papers, and where a diamond colour centre single photon source is already commercially available. Biomedical applications of diamond are recognised, partly tribological and partly electrochemical, but lie outside the present group of papers. Processing and controlling diamond surfaces and interfaces with other materials in their environment are critical steps en route to exploitation. Boron-doped diamond has already found application in electro-analysis and in the bulk oxidation of dissolved species in solution [3]. Energy-related applications—ranging from high-power electronics [3] to a potential first wall of fusion reactors [4]—are further exciting potential applications. Even small and ugly diamonds have value. Their mechanical properties [5] dominate, with significant niche applications such as thermal sinks. The major applications for diamond to date exploit only a fraction of diamond's special properties: visual for status diamonds, and mechanical for working diamonds. Diamond physics reaches well beyond the usual laboratory, to the geological diamond formation processes in the Earth's mantle. Characterization of natural gem diamonds [6, 7] is one part of the detective story that allows us to understand the conditions under which they formed. It was only half a century ago that the scientific and technological challenges of diamond synthesis were met systematically. Today, most of the recent research on diamond has concentrated on synthetics, whether created using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) techniques or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The HPHT synthesis of diamond has advanced dramatically [8, 9] to the extent that dislocation birefringence [10] can be largely eliminated. In silicon technology, the elimination of dislocations was a major step in microelectronics. Now, even diamond can be synthesised containing virtually no

  1. D.C. Arcjet Diamond Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Derrek Andrew

    1995-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films synthesized by a D.C. (direct current) arcjet device was reported for the first time in 1988. This device is capable of higher diamond growth rates than any other form of diamond CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process due to its inherent versatility with regard to the enthalpy and fluid properties of the diamond-depositing vapor. Unfortunately, the versatility of this type of device is contrasted by many difficulties such as arc stability and large heat fluxes which make applying it toward diamond deposition a difficult problem. The purpose of this work was to convert the dc arcjet, which is primarily a metallurgical device, into a commercially viable diamond CVD process. The project was divided into two parts: process development and diagnostics. The process development effort concentrated on the certain engineering challenges. Among these was a novel arcjet design that allowed the carbon-source gas to be injected downstream of the tungsten cathode while still facilitating mixture with the main gas feed. Another engineering accomplishment was the incorporation of a water -cooled substrate cooler/spinner that maintained the substrate at the proper temperature, provided the substrate with a large thermal time constant to reduce thermal shock of the diamond film, and enabled the system to achieve a four -inch diameter growth area. The process diagnostics effort concentrated on measurements aimed at developing a fundamental understanding of the properties of the plasma jet such as temperature, plasma density, Mach number, pressure at the substrate, etc. The plasma temperature was determined to be 5195 K by measuring the rotational temperature of C _2 via optical emission spectroscopy. The Mach number of the plasma jet was determined to be ~6.0 as determined by the ratio of the stagnation pressures before and after the shock wave in the plasma jet. The C_2 concentration in the plasma jet was determined to be {~10 }^{12} cm^ {-3} by

  2. Biofunctionalization of diamond microelectrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitinger, Andreas Adam; Lud, Simon Quartus; Stutzmann, Martin; Garrido, Jose Antonio [Walter Schottky Institut, TU Muenchen (Germany); Hutter, Naima Aurelia; Richter, Gerhard; Jordan, Rainer [WACKER-Chair of Macromolecular Chemistry, TU Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present two main routes for the biofunctionalization of nanocrystalline diamond films, aiming at the application of diamond microelectrodes as amperometric biosensors. We report on direct covalent grafting of biomolecules on nanocrystalline diamond films via diazonium monophenyls and biphenyls as well as other linker molecules, forming self-assembled monolayers on the diamond surface. Monolayers with different functional head groups have been characterized. Patterning of the available functional groups using electron beam-induced chemical lithography allows the selective preparation of well-localized docking sites for the immobilization of biomolecules. Furthermore, polymer brushes are expected to enable novel paths for designing more advanced biosensing schemes, incorporating multifunctional groups and a higher loading capacity for biomolecules. Here, we focus on the preparation of polymer grafts by self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization. Further chemical modification of the grafted polymer brushes results in the introduction of additional functional molecules, paving the way for the incorporation of more complex molecular structures such as proteins. In a comparative study we investigate the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches.

  3. CVD diamond - fundamental phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, W.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams addresses the basic physical processes involved in the chemical vapor deposition of diamond. Different methods of deposition are illustrated. For each method, observations are made of the prominent advantages and disadvantages of the technique. Chemical mechanisms of nucleation are introduced.

  4. Nanofocusing optics for synchrotron radiation made from polycrystalline diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, O J L; Alianelli, L; Malik, A M; Pape, I; May, P W; Sawhney, K J S

    2014-04-07

    Diamond possesses many extreme properties that make it an ideal material for fabricating nanofocusing x-ray optics. Refractive lenses made from diamond are able to focus x-ray radiation with high efficiency but without compromising the brilliance of the beam. Electron-beam lithography and deep reactive-ion etching of silicon substrates have been used in a transfer-molding technique to fabricate diamond optics with vertical and smooth sidewalls. Latest generation compound refractive lenses have seen an improvement in the quality and uniformity of the optical structures, resulting in an increase in their focusing ability. Synchrotron beamline tests of two recent lens arrays, corresponding to two different diamond morphologies, are described. Focal line-widths down to 210 nm, using a nanocrystalline diamond lens array and a beam energy of E = 11 keV, and 230 nm, using a microcrystalline diamond lens at E = 15 keV, have been measured using the Diamond Light Source Ltd. B16 beamline. This focusing prowess is combined with relatively high transmission through the lenses compared with silicon refractive designs and other diffractive optics.

  5. Highly charged ion impact induced nanodefects in diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makgato, T.N., E-mail: thuto.makgato@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Microscopy and Microanalysis Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Sideras-Haddad, E. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, Physics Building, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Shrivastava, S. [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Schenkel, T. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ritter, R.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F. [Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien-Vienna University of Technology, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.; Bernitt, S.; Beilmann, C.; Ginzel, R. [Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the interaction of slow highly charged ion (SHCI) beams with insulating type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces. Bismuth and Xenon SHCI beams produced using an Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) and an Electron Cyclotron Resonance source (ECR) respectively, are accelerated onto type Ib diamond (1 1 1) surfaces with impact velocities up to ≈0.4 υ{sub Bohr}. SHCIs with charge states corresponding to potential energies between 4.5 keV and 110 keV are produced for this purpose. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis (AFM) of the diamond surfaces following SHCI impact reveals surface morphological modifications characterized as nanoscale craters (nano-craters). To interpret the results from Tapping Mode AFM analysis of the irradiated diamond surfaces we discuss the interplay between kinetic and potential energy in nano-crater formation using empirical data together with Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) Monte Carlo Simulations.

  6. Structure and properties of diamond and diamond-like films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is broken into four parts: (1) introduction, (2) natural IIa diamond, (3) importance of structure and composition, and (4) control of structure and properties. Conclusions of this discussion are that properties of chemical vapor deposited diamond films can compare favorably with natural diamond, that properties are anisotropic and are a strong function of structure and crystal perfection, that crystal perfection and morphology are functions of growth conditions and can be controlled, and that the manipulation of texture and thereby surface morphology and internal crystal perfection is an important step in optimizing chemically deposited diamond films for applications.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Diamond-Blackfan anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Diamond-Blackfan anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Diamond-Blackfan anemia is a disorder of the bone marrow . The ...

  8. Diamond turning of glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackley, W.S.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the critical cutting depth concepts for single point diamond turning of brittle, amorphous materials. Inorganic glasses and a brittle, thermoset polymer (organic glass) are the principal candidate materials. Interrupted cutting tests similar to those done in earlier research are Ge and Si crystals will be made to obtain critical depth values as a function of machining parameters. The results will provide systematic data with which to assess machining performance on glasses and amorphous materials

  9. Fast diamond photoconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results on the response of type Ib and IIa diamond photodetectors to fast laser pulse exposures at 265 and 530 nm are presented. The influence of the applied bias, the laser wavelengths and the light intensity on the detector sensitivity is studied. Also, recent measurements with 1.25 MeV gamma ray pulses are reported. (authors). 13 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Design of Alpha Voltaic Power Source Using Americium 241 (241Am) and Diamond with a Power Density of 10 mW/cm3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Carroll JJ , Bayne S. Alpha Schottky junction energy source. SPIE; 2012. 29. Summers GP, Burke EA, Shapiro P, Messenger SR, Walters RJ. Damage...Elec Dev. 1694;11(1):2–8. 38. Loferski JJ , Rappaport P. Radiation damage in Ge and Si detected by carrier lifetime changes: damage thresholds. Phys

  11. Ion channelling in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derry, T.E.

    1978-06-01

    Diamond is one of the most extreme cases from a channelling point of view, having the smallest thermal vibration amplitude and the lowest atomic number of commonly-encountered crystals. These are the two parameters most important for determining channelling behaviour. It is of consiberable interest therefore to see how well the theories explaining and predicting the channeling properties of other substance, succeed with diamond. Natural diamond, although the best available form for these experiments, is rather variable in its physical properties. Part of the project was devoted to considering and solving the problem of obtaining reproducible results representative of the ideal crystal. Channelling studies were performed on several good crystals, using the Rutherford backscattering method. Critical angles for proton channelling were measured for incident energies from 0.6 to 4.5 MeV, in the three most open axes and three most open planes of the diamond structure, and for α-particle channelling at 0.7 and 1.0 MeV (He + ) in the same axes and planes. For 1.0 MeV protons, the crystal temperature was varied from 20 degrees Celsius to 700 degrees Celsius. The results are presented as curves of backscattered yield versus angle in the region of each axis or plane, and summarised in the form of tables and graphs. Generally the critical angles, axial minimum yields, and temperature dependence are well predicted by the accepted theories. The most valuable overall conclusion is that the mean thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms in a crytical determines the critical approach distance to the channel walls at which an ion can remain channelled, even when this distance is much smaller than the Thomas-Fermi screening distance of the atomic potential, as is the case in diamond. A brief study was made of the radiation damage caused by α-particle bombardment, via its effect on the channelling phenomenon. It was possible to hold damage down to negligible levels during the

  12. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengui, U.A.; Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F.; Hamanaka, M.H.M.O.; Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films

  13. Combined effect of nitrogen doping and nanosteps on microcrystalline diamond films for improvement of field emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengui, U.A., E-mail: ursulamengui@gmail.com [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Campos, R.A.; Alves, K.A.; Antunes, E.F. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Hamanaka, M.H.M.O. [Centro de Tecnologia da Informação Renato Archer, Divisão de Superfícies de Interação e Displays, Rodovia D. Pedro I (SP 65) km 143.6, CP 6162, CEP 13089-500, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Corat, E.J.; Baldan, M.R. [INPE – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais – LAS, Av. dos Astronautas 1758, CP 515, CEP 12.245-970, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Hot filament chemical vapor deposition using methane, hydrogen and a solution of urea in methanol produced nitrogen-doped diamond films. • Diamonds had the grain morphology changed for long growth time (28 h), and the nitrogen doping were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. • Field emission characterization shows a decrease up to 70% in threshold field, related to reference diamond layer. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped microcrystalline diamond (N-MCD) films were grown on Si substrates using a hot filament reactor with methanol solution of urea as N source. Electrostatic self-assembly seeding of nanocrystalline diamond were used to obtain continuous and uniform films. Simultaneous changes in grains morphology and work function of diamond by nitrogen doping decreased the threshold field and the angular coefficient of Fowler–Nordhein plots. The field emission properties of our N-MCD films are comparable to carbon nanotube films.

  14. Diamond Pixel Detectors and 3D Diamond Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturi, N.

    2016-01-01

    Results from detectors of poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposited (pCVD) diamond are presented. These include the first analysis of data of the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM). The DBM module consists of pCVD diamond sensors instrumented with pixellated FE-I4 front-end electronics. Six diamond telescopes, each with three modules, are placed symmetrically around the ATLAS interaction point. The DBM tracking capabilities allow it to discriminate between particles coming from the interaction point and background particles passing through the ATLAS detector. Also, analysis of test beam data of pCVD DBM modules are presented. A new low threshold tuning algorithm based on noise occupancy was developed which increases the DBM module signal to noise ratio significantly. Finally first results from prototypes of a novel detector using pCVD diamond and resistive electrodes in the bulk, forming a 3D diamond device, are discussed. 3D devices based on pCVD diamond were successfully tested with test beams at CERN. The measured charge is compared to that of a strip detector mounted on the same pCVD diamond showing that the 3D device collects significantly more charge than the planar device.

  15. The Diamond machine protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heron, M.T.; Lay, S.; Chernousko, Y.; Hamadyk, P.; Rotolo, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Diamond Light Source Machine Protection System (MPS) manages the hazards from high power photon beams and other hazards to ensure equipment protection on the booster synchrotron and storage ring. The system has a shutdown requirement, on a beam mis-steer of under 1 msec and has to manage in excess of a thousand interlocks. This is realised using a combination of bespoke hardware and programmable logic controllers. The MPS monitors a large number of interlock signals from diagnostics instrumentation, vacuum instrumentation, photon front ends and plant monitoring subsystems. Based on logic it can then remove the source of the energy to ensure protection of equipment. Depending on requirements, interlocks are managed on a Local or a Global basis. The Global system is structured as two layers, and supports fast- and slow-response-time interlock requirements. A Global MPS module takes the interlock permits for a given interlock circuit from each of the cells of the accelerator, and, subject to all interlocks being good, produces a permit to operate the source of energy: the RF amplifier for vessel protection and the PSU for magnet protection. The Local MPS module takes fast Interlock inputs from one cell of the Storage Ring or one quadrant of the Booster. Fast interlocks are those that must drop the beam in under 400 μsec (the maximum speed of the interlock) in the event of failure. EPIC provides the user interface to the MPS system

  16. Classroom Demonstration: Combustion of Diamond to Carbon Dioxide Followed by Reduction to Graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Takuya; Kamata, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    An educational demonstration shows the combustion of carbon to carbon dioxide and then the reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon. A melee diamond is the source of the carbon and the reaction is carried out in a closed flask. The demonstration helps students to realize that diamonds are made of carbon and that atoms do not change or vanish in…

  17. An all-optical system designed for the heating and temperature measurement of the diamond tool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available and then subsequent temperature measurement of the diamond tool. A laser beam was used as the source to raise the temperature of the diamond tool, and the resultant temperature was measured by using the blackbody principle. In this poster, we have successfully...

  18. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte-Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometer for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. Also other neutron related applications have been suggested. (author)

  19. CVD polycrystalline diamond. A novel neutron detector and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mongkolnavin, R.

    1998-07-01

    Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) Polycrystalline Diamond film has been investigated as a low noise sensor for beta particles, gammas and neutrons using High Energy Physics technologies. Its advantages and disadvantages have been explored in comparison with other particle detectors such as silicon detector and other plastic scintillators. The performance and characteristic of the diamond detector have been fully studied and discussed. These studies will lead to a better understanding of how CVD diamonds perform as a detector and how to improve their performance under various conditions. A CVD diamond detector model has been proposed which is an attempt to explain the behaviour of such an extreme detector material. A novel neutron detector is introduced as a result of these studies. A good thermal and fast neutron detector can be fabricated with CVD diamond with new topologies. This detector will perform well without degradation in a high neutron radiation environment, as diamond is known to be radiation-hard. It also offers better neutrons and gammas discrimination for high gamma background applications compared to other semiconductor detectors. A full simulation of the detector has also been done using GEANT, a Monte Carlo simulation program for particle detectors. Simulation results show that CVD diamond detectors with this novel topology can detect neutrons with great directionality. Experimental work has been done on this detector in a nuclear reactor environment and accelerator source. A novel neutron source which offers a fast pulse high-energy neutrons has also been studied. With this detector, applications in neutron spectrometry for low-Z material have been pursued with various neutron detection techniques. One of these is a low-Z material identification system. The system has been designed and simulated for contraband luggage interrogation using the detector and the novel neutron source. (author)

  20. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G; Griffin, W L; Win, T T [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Study of Electron Transport and Amplification in Diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Muller, Erik [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2015-01-05

    The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary electron amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current electron sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been transported through diamond material. The transport has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge transport for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge transport is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge transport is as expected. Electron emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both electron and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for electron-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted electrons has been measured, providing insight into the electron affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping

  3. Surface temperature measurements of diamond

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masina, BN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond has the highest thermal conductivity among known materials, and as such finds uses as an industrial tool in areas where dissipation of excess heat is a requirement. In this investigation we set up a laser system to heat a diamond sample...

  4. Electrochemical applications of CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastor-Moreno, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    Diamond technology has claimed an important role in industry since non-expensive methods of synthesis such as chemical vapour deposition allow to elaborate cheap polycrystalline diamond. This fact has increased the interest in the scientific community due to the outstanding properties of diamond. Since Pleskov published in 1987 the first paper in electrochemistry, many researchers around the world have studied different aspects of diamond electrochemistry such as reactivity, electrical structure, etc. As part of this worldwide interest these studies reveal new information about diamond electrodes. These studies report investigation of diamond electrodes characterized using structural techniques like scanning electrode microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. A new electrochemical theory based on surface states is presented that explains the metal and the semiconductor behaviour in terms of the doping level of the diamond electrode. In an effort to characterise the properties of diamond electrodes the band edges for hydrogen and oxygen terminated surface are located in organic solvent, hence avoiding possible interference that are present in aqueous solution. The determination of the band edges is performed by Mott-Schottky studies. These allow the calculation of the flat band potential and therefore the band edges. Additional cyclic voltammetric studies are presented for both types of surface termination. Mott-Schottky data and cyclic voltammograms are compared and explained in terms of the band edge localisation. Non-degenerately p-type semiconductor behaviour is presented for hydrogen terminated boron doped diamond. Graphitic surface states on oxidised surface boron doped diamond are responsible for the electrochemistry of redox couples that posses similar energy. Using the simple redox couple 1,4-benzoquinone effect of surface termination on the chemical behaviour of diamond is presented. Hydrogen sublayers in diamond electrodes seem to play an important role for the

  5. Diamond lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitmaa, J.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate ground-state and high-temperature properties of the nearest-neighbour Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the three-dimensional diamond lattice, using series expansion methods. The ground-state energy and magnetization, as well as the magnon spectrum, are calculated and found to be in good agreement with first-order spin-wave theory, with a quantum renormalization factor of about 1.13. High-temperature series are derived for the free energy, and physical and staggered susceptibilities for spin S  =  1/2, 1 and 3/2, and analysed to obtain the corresponding Curie and Néel temperatures.

  6. Diamonds in the Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, M.

    2004-12-01

    My first science fiction novel, Star Dragon, just recently available in paperback from Tor, features a voyage to the cataclysmic variable star system SS Cygni. My second novel, Spider Star, to appear early in 2006, takes place in and around a dark matter ``planet'' orbiting a neutron star. Both novels are ``hard'' science fiction, relying on accurate physics to inform the tales. It's possible to bring to life abstract concepts like special relativity, and alien environments like accretion disks, by using science fiction. Novels are difficult to use in a science class, but short stories offer intriguing possibilities. I'm planning to edit an anthology of hard science fiction stories that contain accurate science and emphasize fundamental ideas in modern astronomy. The working title is Diamonds in the Sky. The collection will be a mix of original stories and reprints, highlighting challenging concepts covered in a typical introductory astronomy course. Larry Niven's classic story, ``Neutron Star," is an excellent demonstration of extreme tidal forces in an astronomical context. Diamonds in the Sky will include forewards and afterwards to the stories, including discussion questions and mathematical formulas/examples as appropriate. I envision this project will be published electronically or through a print-on-demand publisher, providing long-term availabilty and keeping low cost. I encourage interested parties to suggest previously published stories, or to suggest which topics must be included.

  7. Thermal applications of low-pressure diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubner, R.; Lux, B.

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade several applications of low-pressure diamond were developed. Main products are diamond heat-spreaders using its high thermal conductivity, diamond windows with their high transparency over a wide range of wavelengths and wear resistant tool coatings because of diamonds superhardness. A short description of the most efficient diamond deposition methods (microwave, DC-glow discharge, plasma-jet and arc discharge) is given. The production and applications of diamond layers with high thermal conductivity will be described. Problems of reproducibility of diamond deposition, the influence of impurities, the heat conductivity in electronic packages, reliability and economical mass production will be discussed. (author)

  8. Investigation of the physics of diamond MEMS : diamond allotrope lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalizniak, I.; Olivero, P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Prawer, S.; Reichart, P.; Rubanov, S.; Petriconi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel lithography process in which ion induced phase transfomations of diamond form sacrificial layers allowing the fabrication of small structures including micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS). We have applied this novel lithography to the fabrication of diamond microcavities, cantilevers and optical waveguides. In this paper we present preliminary experiments directed at the fabrication of suspended diamond disks that have the potential for operation as optical resonators. Such structures would be very durable and resistant to chemical attack with potential applications as novel sensors for extreme environments or high temperature radiation detectors. (author). 3 refs., 3 figs

  9. Diamond: a material for acoustic devices

    OpenAIRE

    MORTET, Vincent; WILLIAMS, Oliver; HAENEN, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Diamond has been foreseen to replace silicon for high power, high frequency electronic applications or for devices that operates in harsh environments. However, diamond electronic devices are still in the laboratory stage due to the lack of large substrates and the complexity of diamond doping. On another hand, surface acoustic wave filters based on diamond are commercially available. Diamond is especially suited for acoustic applications because of its exceptional mechanical properties. The ...

  10. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraimovitch, D., E-mail: dimitryf@mail.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Lefeuvre, G. [Micron Semiconductor Ltd. Royal Buildings, Marlborough Road, Lancing Business Park, BN15 8SJ (United Kingdom); Ruzin, A. [Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2017-02-11

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  11. CVD diamond metallization and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraimovitch, D.; Adelberd, A.; Marunko, S.; Lefeuvre, G.; Ruzin, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we compared three diamond substrate grades: polycrystalline, optical grade single crystal, and electronic grade single crystal for detector application. Beside the bulk type, the choice of contact material, pre-treatment, and sputtering process details have shown to alter significantly the diamond detector performance. Characterization of diamond substrate permittivity and losses indicate grade and crystallinity related, characteristic differences for frequencies in 1 kHz–1 MHz range. Substantial grade related variations were also observed in surface electrostatic characterization performed by contact potential difference (CPD) mode of an atomic force microscope. Study of conductivity variations with temperature reveal that bulk trap energy levels are also dependent on the crystal grade.

  12. Diamond and Diamond-Like Materials as Hydrogen Isotope Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreman, L.R.; Barbero, R.S.; Carroll, D.W.; Archuleta, T.; Baker, J.; Devlin, D.; Duke, J.; Loemier, D.; Trukla, M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop diamond and diamond-like thin-films as hydrogen isotope permeation barriers. Hydrogen embrittlement limits the life of boost systems which otherwise might be increased to 25 years with a successful non-reactive barrier. Applications in tritium processing such as bottle filling processes, tritium recovery processes, and target filling processes could benefit from an effective barrier. Diamond-like films used for low permeability shells for ICF and HEDP targets were also investigated. Unacceptable high permeabilities for hydrogen were obtained for plasma-CVD diamond-like-carbon films

  13. Trapezoidal diffraction grating beam splitters in single crystal diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Marcell; Graziosi, Teodoro; Quack, Niels

    2018-02-01

    Single Crystal Diamond has been recognized as a prime material for optical components in high power applications due to low absorption and high thermal conductivity. However, diamond microstructuring remains challenging. Here, we report on the fabrication and characterization of optical diffraction gratings exhibiting a symmetric trapezoidal profile etched into a single crystal diamond substrate. The optimized grating geometry diffracts the transmitted optical power into precisely defined proportions, performing as an effective beam splitter. We fabricate our gratings in commercially available single crystal CVD diamond plates (2.6mm x 2.6mm x 0.3mm). Using a sputter deposited hard mask and patterning by contact lithography, the diamond is etched in an inductively coupled oxygen plasma with zero platen power. The etch process effectively reveals the characteristic {111} diamond crystal planes, creating a precisely defined angled (54.7°) profile. SEM and AFM measurements of the fabricated gratings evidence the trapezoidal shape with a pitch of 3.82μm, depth of 170 nm and duty cycle of 35.5%. Optical characterization is performed in transmission using a 650nm laser source perpendicular to the sample. The recorded transmitted optical power as function of detector rotation angle shows a distribution of 21.1% in the 0th order and 23.6% in each +/-1st order (16.1% reflected, 16.6% in higher orders). To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of diffraction gratings with trapezoidal profile in single crystal diamond. The fabrication process will enable beam splitter gratings of custom defined optical power distribution profiles, while antireflection coatings can increase the efficiency.

  14. Diamonds from Myanmar and Thailand: Characteristics and possible origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, W.L.; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, North Ryde, NSW; Win, T.T.; Andrew, A.S.; Davies, R.; Wathanakul, P.; Metcalfe, I.

    2000-01-01

    Alluvial diamonds with no obvious sources ('headless placers') are found in several areas of SE Asia and Oceania, including Myanmar, southern Thailand (Phuket), Sumatra, Kalimantan and eastern Australia. These deposits occur in relatively young geological terrains, in contrast to the Archaean or Proterozoic terrains that host most primary diamond deposits and their associated alluvial workings. Significant quantities of diamonds have been recovered from two areas in Myanmar, Momeik in the northern part of the country, and Theindaw in the southern part, and from the Phuket-Takuapa area of SW Thailand. Smaller quantities have been found in several other localities, notably in the Taungoo-Htantabin area of Myanmar. The Momeik diamonds are recovered during mining of gemstone gravels; the Theindaw and Phuket diamonds are by-products of tin dredging. To understand the origin of these enigmatic diamonds and to provide an improved exploration model, we are carrying out detailed studies of the morphology, mineral inclusions, internal growth structures and growth history, nitrogen concentration and aggregation state, and carbon isotopic composition of diamonds from Myanmar, Thailand and eastern Australia. We have examined >40 stones from Phuket, >110 from Theindaw and >25 from Momeik; these range in size from <0.1 ct to 3.5 ct, averaging ca 0.2 ct. While there are differences among the samples from different areas, the small sample size means these may not be representative and the similarities among the samples are striking. They are therefore described together here. More detailed data are given by Win et al., (1998) and Wathanakul et al., (1998)

  15. Method of dehalogenation using diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcasiu, Malvina; Kaufman, Phillip B.; Ladner, Edward P.; Anderson, Richard R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing olefins and halogenated olefins is provided comprising contacting halogenated compounds with diamonds for a sufficient time and at a sufficient temperature to convert the halogenated compounds to olefins and halogenated olefins via elimination reactions.

  16. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko; Faraon, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has

  17. CVD diamond detectors and dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredotti, C.; Fizzotti, F.; LoGiudice, A.; Paolini, C.; Oliviero, P.; Vittone, E.; Torino Univ., Torino

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond, because of its well-known properties of tissue-equivalence, has recorded a wide spreading use in radiotherapy planning with electron linear accelerators. Artificial diamond dosimeters, as obtained by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) could be capable to offer the same performances and they can be prepared in different volumes and shapes. The dosimeter sensitivity per unit volume may be easily proved to be better than standard ionization microchamber. We have prepared in our laboratory CVD diamond microchamber (diamond tips) in emispherical shape with an external diameter of 200 μm, which can be used both as X-ray beam profilometers and as microdosimeters for small field applications like stereotaxy and also for in vivo applications. These dosimeters, which are obtained on a wire substrate that could be either metallic or SiC or even graphite, display good performances also as ion or synchrotron X-rays detectors

  18. DIAMONDS: Engineering Distributed Object Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Evan

    1997-01-01

    This report describes DIAMONDS, a research project at Syracuse University, that is dedicated to producing both a methodology and corresponding tools to assist in the development of heterogeneous distributed software...

  19. Flexible diamond-like carbon film coated on rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Pal, J.P. van der; Martinez-Martinez, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin films by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  20. NANODIAMOND - diamond nano-powder reflectors for very cold neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvizhevsky, V.V.

    2011-01-01

    The present proposal is based on recent observation of two new phenomena, related to the interaction of neutrons with nano-dispersed medium, in particular from powder of diamond nanoparticles with a characteristic size of ∼ 5 nm: -) efficient (close to 100%) reflection of slow neutrons (above 10-20 Angstroms) at any incidence angle; -) quasi-specular reflection of cold neutrons (above ∼ 5 Angstroms) at small grazing angles. We propose to implement such diamond nano-powder reflectors into sources of cold neutrons (where appropriate) as well as around upstream sections of neutron guides in order to increase fluxes of slow neutrons available for experiments. (authors)

  1. Structure of the cyanobactin oxidase ThcOx from Cyanothece sp. PCC 7425, the first structure to be solved at Diamond Light Source beamline I23 by means of S-SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Andrew F; Mann, Greg; Houssen, Wael E; Mykhaylyk, Vitaliy; Duman, Ramona; Thomas, Louise; Jaspars, Marcel; Wagner, Armin; Naismith, James H

    2016-11-01

    Determination of protein crystal structures requires that the phases are derived independently of the observed measurement of diffraction intensities. Many techniques have been developed to obtain phases, including heavy-atom substitution, molecular replacement and substitution during protein expression of the amino acid methionine with selenomethionine. Although the use of selenium-containing methionine has transformed the experimental determination of phases it is not always possible, either because the variant protein cannot be produced or does not crystallize. Phasing of structures by measuring the anomalous diffraction from S atoms could in theory be almost universal since almost all proteins contain methionine or cysteine. Indeed, many structures have been solved by the so-called native sulfur single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (S-SAD) phasing method. However, the anomalous effect is weak at the wavelengths where data are normally recorded (between 1 and 2 Å) and this limits the potential of this method to well diffracting crystals. Longer wavelengths increase the strength of the anomalous signal but at the cost of increasing air absorption and scatter, which degrade the precision of the anomalous measurement, consequently hindering phase determination. A new instrument, the long-wavelength beamline I23 at Diamond Light Source, was designed to work at significantly longer wavelengths compared with standard synchrotron beamlines in order to open up the native S-SAD method to projects of increasing complexity. Here, the first novel structure, that of the oxidase domain involved in the production of the natural product patellamide, solved on this beamline is reported using data collected to a resolution of 3.15 Å at a wavelength of 3.1 Å. The oxidase is an example of a protein that does not crystallize as the selenium variant and for which no suitable homology model for molecular replacement was available. Initial attempts collecting anomalous

  2. Modeling of diamond radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, L.; Mainwood, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have built up a computer simulation of the detection mechanism in the diamond radiation detectors. The diamond detectors can be fabricated from a chemical vapour deposition polycrystalline diamond film. In this case, the trapping-detrapping and recombination at the defects inside the grains and at the grain boundaries degrade the transport properties of the material and the charge induction processes. These effects may strongly influence the device's response. Previous simulations of this kind of phenomena in the diamond detectors have generally been restricted to the simple detector geometries and homogeneous distribution of the defects. In our model, the diamond film (diamond detector) is simulated by a grid. We apply a spatial and time discretization, regulated by the grid resolution, to the equations describing the charge transport and, by using the Shockley-Ramo theorem, we calculate the signal induced on the electrodes. In this way, we can simulate the effects of the nonhomogeneous distributions of the trapping, recombination, or scattering centers and can investigate the differences observed when different particles, energies, and electrode configurations are used. The simulation shows that the efficiency of the detector increases linearly with the average grain size, that the charge collection distance is small compared to the dimensions of a single grain, and that for small grains, the trapping at the intragrain defects is insignificant compared to the effect of the grain boundaries

  3. Quantum photonic networks in diamond

    KAUST Repository

    Lončar, Marko

    2013-02-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the opportunity to fabricate nanoscale optical devices and chip-scale systems in diamond that can generate, manipulate, and store optical signals at the single-photon level. In particular, nanophotonics has emerged as a powerful interface between optical elements such as optical fibers and lenses, and solid-state quantum objects such as luminescent color centers in diamond that can be used effectively to manipulate quantum information. While quantum science and technology has been the main driving force behind recent interest in diamond nanophotonics, such a platform would have many applications that go well beyond the quantum realm. For example, diamond\\'s transparency over a wide wavelength range, large third-order nonlinearity, and excellent thermal properties are of great interest for the implementation of frequency combs and integrated Raman lasers. Diamond is also an inert material that makes it well suited for biological applications and for devices that must operate in harsh environments. Copyright © Materials Research Society 2013.

  4. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15 /cm 2 ) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10 15 p/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10 15 π/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations

  5. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B

    2002-01-11

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a {beta}-source and the performance before and after intense (>10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10{sup 15} {pi}/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  6. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a $\\beta$-source and the performance before and after intense ($>10^{15}/{\\rm cm^2}$) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiations increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiations with protons ($2.2\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions ($2.9\\times 10^{15}~\\pi/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  7. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S. V.; Thomson, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15/cm 2) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2×10 15 p/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9×10 15 π/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  8. Diamonds: Exploration, mines and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, George H.; Janse, A. J. A. (Bram)

    2009-11-01

    The beauty, value and mystique of exceptional quality diamonds such as the 603 carat Lesotho Promise, recovered from the Letseng Mine in 2006, help to drive a multi-billion dollar diamond exploration, mining and marketing industry that operates in some 45 countries across the globe. Five countries, Botswana, Russia, Canada, South Africa and Angola account for 83% by value and 65% by weight of annual diamond production, which is mainly produced by four major companies, De Beers, Alrosa, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton (BHPB), which together account for 78% by value and 72% by weight of annual diamond production for 2007. During the last twelve years 16 new diamond mines commenced production and 4 re-opened. In addition, 11 projects are in advanced evaluation and may begin operations within the next five years. Exploration for diamondiferous kimberlites was still energetic up to the last quarter of 2008 with most work carried out in Canada, Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Botswana. Many kimberlites were discovered but no new economic deposits were outlined as a result of this work, except for the discovery and possible development of the Bunder project by Rio Tinto in India. Exploration methods have benefitted greatly from improved techniques of high resolution geophysical aerial surveying, new research into the geochemistry of indicator minerals and further insights into the formation of diamonds and the relation to tectonic/structural events in the crust and mantle. Recent trends in diamond marketing indicate that prices for rough diamonds and polished goods were still rising up to the last quarter of 2008 and subsequently abruptly sank in line with the worldwide financial crisis. Most analysts predict that prices will rise again in the long term as the gap between supply and demand will widen because no new economic diamond discoveries have been made recently. The disparity between high rough and polished prices and low share prices of publicly

  9. Eclogitic inclusions in diamonds: Evidence of complex mantle processes over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.; Snyder, Gregory A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine; Sobolev, Vladimir N.; Yefimova, Emiliya S.; Sobolev, Nikolai V.

    1996-08-01

    and host eclogites. This is probably due to the rapid diffusion of trace elements in garnet under mantle temperatures and consequent alteration of the garnet, and not due to juvenile diamonds 'locking in' source heterogeneities (c.f., [3]). Trace element compositions of clinopyroxenes included in diamonds are generally similar to those in the host eclogite. However, one host clinopyroxene does show enrichment in the LREE compared to that in the inclusion and may be attributed to mantle metasomatism, not related to kimberlite transport. In another eclogite, M-46, the host clinopyroxene is depleted in the LREE and Fe, and enriched in the HREE and Mg, relative to the inclusion and is consistent with partial melting of the eclogite subsequent to diamond formation. Sm/Nd ratios in clinopyroxenes appear to be little affected by these processes for most samples, allowing SmNd isotopic studies to yield important information about ancient protoliths. Eclogitic mineral inclusions in Yakutian diamonds appear consanguineous with the diamonds, a contention supported by the observations of Bulanova [2]. Therefore, ReOs whole-rock and Sm/Nd clinopyroxene age determinations of the Udachnaya eclogites also yield the time of diamond formation, approximately 2.9 Ga [32,33].

  10. Ion and electron beam studies and applications of natural and synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellschop, J.P.F.; Connell, S.H.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Stemmet, M.C.; Naidoo, S.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Haricharun, H.

    1992-01-01

    'Nuclear' probes are shown to be powerful diagnostic analytical tools for the interrogation of diamond, whether natural or synthetic. The full sweep of such probes ranges from electrons to heavy ions, and spans energies over the keV to GeV range. Neutrons are singularly appropriate for the bulk trace element analysis of diamond, while charged particle (activation) analysis is appropriate for lighter element determination, and for surface and depth profiling specification. Energetic ions are effectively deployed for the study of the amorpisation and extrusion of diamond, and for ion implantation with the view to the production of devices in diamond. Resonant nuclear reactions are used effectively in establishing the 'macroscopic' distribution of dopants, while the used of pulsed ion beams in time dependent perturbed angular distribution studies gives information on 'microscopic' lattice location of impurities. Ion channeling in diamond sets near-theoretical parameterization of Lindhard channeling theory. Electron and positron channeling is interesting in its own right, and in the former case is shown to give rise to channeling radiation for few-MeV electron energies. At GeV electron energies, channeling is important as a powerful, polarized monochromatic photon source. Muons are an elegant tool in diamond studies, and the formation of muonium permits of (radiation damage-free) hydrogen-equivalent studies. Two relatively unused nuclear techniques, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Positron Annihilation, are shown to give unique information on diamond. Finally the use of diamond as a detector of radiation is indicated. (author)

  11. Indigenous development of diamond detectors for monitoring neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Arvind; Amit Kumar; Topkar, Anita; Pithawa, C.K.

    2013-01-01

    High purity synthetic chemically vapor deposited (CVD) diamond has several outstanding characteristics that make it as an important material for detector applications specifically for extreme environmental conditions like high temperature, high radiation, and highly corrosive environments. Diamond detectors are especially considered promising for monitoring fast neutrons produced by the D-T nuclear fusion reactions in next generation fusion facilities such as ITER. When fast neutrons interact with carbon, elastic, inelastic and (n,α) type reactions can occur. These reactions can be employed for the detection of fast neutrons using diamond. We have initiated the development of diamond detectors based on synthetic CVD substrates. In this paper, the first test of a polycrystalline CVD diamond detector with fast neutrons is reported. The test results demonstrate that this detector can be used for monitoring fast neutrons. The diamond detectors have been fabricated using 5 mm x 5 mm, 300 μm polycrystalline diamond substrates. Aluminum metallization has been used on both sides of the detector to provide electrical contacts. The performance of fabricated detectors was first evaluated using current and capacitance measurements. The leakage current was observed to be stable and about a few pAs for voltages up to 300V. The capacitance-voltage characteristics showed a constant capacitance which is as expected. To confirm the response of the detector to charged particles, the pulse height spectrum (PHS) was obtained using 238 Pu- 239 Pu dual α- source. The PHS showed a continuum without any peak due to polycrystalline nature of diamond film. The response of the detector to fast neutrons has been studied using the fast neutron facility at NXF, BARC. The PHS obtained for a neutron yield of 4 x 10 8 n/s is shown. The average counts per second (cps) measured for diamond detector for different neutron yields is shown. The plot shows linearity with coefficient of determination R

  12. Are diamond nanoparticles cytotoxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Huang, Houjin; Carlson, Cataleya; Schlager, John J; Omacr Sawa, Eiji; Hussain, Saber M; Dai, Liming

    2007-01-11

    Finely divided carbon particles, including charcoal, lampblack, and diamond particles, have been used for ornamental and official tattoos since ancient times. With the recent development in nanoscience and nanotechnology, carbon-based nanomaterials (e.g., fullerenes, nanotubes, nanodiamonds) attract a great deal of interest. Owing to their low chemical reactivity and unique physical properties, nanodiamonds could be useful in a variety of biological applications such as carriers for drugs, genes, or proteins; novel imaging techniques; coatings for implantable materials; and biosensors and biomedical nanorobots. Therefore, it is essential to ascertain the possible hazards of nanodiamonds to humans and other biological systems. We have, for the first time, assessed the cytotoxicity of nanodiamonds ranging in size from 2 to 10 nm. Assays of cell viability such as mitochondrial function (MTT) and luminescent ATP production showed that nanodiamonds were not toxic to a variety of cell types. Furthermore, nanodiamonds did not produce significant reactive oxygen species. Cells can grow on nanodiamond-coated substrates without morphological changes compared to controls. These results suggest that nanodiamonds could be ideal for many biological applications in a diverse range of cell types.

  13. A new route to process diamond wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Filgueira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an original route to process diamond wires, denominated In Situ Technology, whose fabrication involves mechanical conformation processes, such as rotary forging, copper tubes restacking, and thermal treatments, such as sintering and recrystallisation of a bronze 4 wt.% diamond composite. Tensile tests were performed, reaching an ultimate tensile strength (UTS of 230 MPa for the diameter of Æ = 1.84 mm. Scanning electron microscopy showed the diamond crystals distribution along the composite rope during its manufacture, as well as the diamond adhesion to the bronze matrix. Cutting tests were carried out with the processed wire, showing a probable performance 4 times higher than the diamond sawing discs, however its probable performance was about 5 to 8 times less than the conventional diamond wires (pearl system due to the low abrasion resistance of the bronze matrix, and low adhesion between the pair bronze-diamond due to the use of not metallised diamond single crystals.

  14. High vacuum tribology of polycrystalline diamond coatings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polycrystalline diamond coatings; hot filament CVD; high vacuum tribology. 1. Introduction .... is a characteristic of graphite. We mark the (diamond ... coefficient of friction due to changes in substrate temperature. The average coefficient of.

  15. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Narayan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Carbon is light-weight, strong, conductive and able to mimic natural materials within the body, making it ideal for many uses within biomedicine. Consequently a great deal of research and funding is being put into this interesting material with a view to increasing the variety of medical applications for which it is suitable. Diamond-based materials for biomedical applications presents readers with the fundamental principles and novel applications of this versatile material. Part one provides a clear introduction to diamond based materials for medical applications. Functionalization of diamond particles and surfaces is discussed, followed by biotribology and biological behaviour of nanocrystalline diamond coatings, and blood compatibility of diamond-like carbon coatings. Part two then goes on to review biomedical applications of diamond based materials, beginning with nanostructured diamond coatings for orthopaedic applications. Topics explored include ultrananocrystalline diamond for neural and ophthalmologi...

  16. Ohmic contacts to semiconducting diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, James R.; Taylor, M. J.; Zeisse, Carl R.; Hewett, C. A.; Delahoussaye, Paul R.

    1990-10-01

    Work was carried out to improve the electron beam evaporation system in order to achieve better deposited films. The basic system is an ion pumped vacuum chamber, with a three-hearth, single-gun e-beam evaporator. Four improvements were made to the system. The system was thoroughly cleaned and new ion pump elements, an e-gun beam adjust unit, and a more accurate crystal monitor were installed. The system now has a base pressure of 3 X 10(exp -9) Torr, and can easily deposit high-melting-temperature metals such as Ta with an accurately controlled thickness. Improved shadow masks were also fabricated for better alignment and control of corner contacts for electrical transport measurements. Appendices include: A Thermally Activated Solid State Reaction Process for Fabricating Ohmic Contacts to Semiconducting Diamond; Tantalum Ohmic Contacts to Diamond by a Solid State Reaction Process; Metallization of Semiconducting Diamond: Mo, Mo/Au, and Mo/Ni/Au; Specific Contact Resistance Measurements of Ohmic Contracts to Diamond; and Electrical Activation of Boron Implanted into Diamond.

  17. Organophosphonate biofunctionalization of diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caterino, R; Csiki, R; Wiesinger, M; Sachsenhauser, M; Stutzmann, M; Garrido, J A; Cattani-Scholz, A; Speranza, Giorgio; Janssens, S D; Haenen, K

    2014-08-27

    The modification of the diamond surface with organic molecules is a crucial aspect to be considered for any bioapplication of this material. There is great interest in broadening the range of linker molecules that can be covalently bound to the diamond surface. In the case of protein immobilization, the hydropathicity of the surface has a major influence on the protein conformation and, thus, on the functionality of proteins immobilized at surfaces. For electrochemical applications, particular attention has to be devoted to avoid that the charge transfer between the electrode and the redox center embedded in the protein is hindered by a thick insulating linker layer. This paper reports on the grafting of 6-phosphonohexanoic acid on OH-terminated diamond surfaces, serving as linkers to tether electroactive proteins onto diamond surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the formation of a stable layer on the surface. The charge transfer between electroactive molecules and the substrate is studied by electrochemical characterization of the redox activity of aminomethylferrocene and cytochrome c covalently bound to the substrate through this linker. Our work demonstrates that OH-terminated diamond functionalized with 6-phosphonohexanoic acid is a suitable platform to interface redox-proteins, which are fundamental building blocks for many bioelectronics applications.

  18. Methodology for in situ synchrotron X-ray studies in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mezouar, M.; Giampaoli, R.; Garbarino, G.

    2017-01-01

    A review of some important technical challenges related to in situ diamond anvil cell laser heating experimentation at synchrotron X-ray sources is presented. The problem of potential chemical reactions between the sample and the pressure medium or the carbon from the diamond anvils is illustrated...

  19. Nanocrystalline diamond films for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Alcaide, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films, which comprise the so called nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), represent a class of biomaterials possessing outstanding mechanical, tribological, and electrical properties, which include high surface smoothness, high corrosion...... performance of nanocrystalline diamond films is reviewed from an application-specific perspective, covering topics such as enhancement of cellular adhesion, anti-fouling coatings, non-thrombogenic surfaces, micropatterning of cells and proteins, and immobilization of biomolecules for bioassays. In order...

  20. Medical applications of diamond particles & surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Roger J Narayan; Ryan D. Boehm; Anirudha V. Sumant

    2011-01-01

    Diamond has been considered for use in several medical applications due to its unique mechanical, chemical, optical, and biological properties. In this paper, methods for preparing synthetic diamond surfaces and particles are described. In addition, recent developments involving the use of diamond in prostheses, sensing, imaging, and drug delivery applications are reviewed. These developments suggest that diamond-containing structures will provide significant improvements in the diagnosis and...

  1. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  2. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  3. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds

  4. Diamonds at the golden point

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Alongside the CMS Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) – installed last month (see here) – lie diamond detectors. No ordinary gems, these lab-grown diamonds will be playing a vital role in Run 2: differentiating signals from collision products with those from the beam background.   The BCM detector's green "c-shaped" printed circuit board is mounted on the PLT/BCM carbon-fibre carriage ready for installation. Earlier this year, the CMS BRIL project installed beam condition monitors (BCM) at the heart of the CMS detector. Designed to measure the online luminosity and beam background as close as possible to the LHC beam pipe, the BCMs use radiation-hard diamonds to differentiate between background and collision signals. The BCM also protects the CMS silicon trackers from damaging beam losses, by aborting the beam if the signal currents measured are above an acceptable threshold. These new BCMs are designed with Run 2 bunches in mind. &ldq...

  5. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; LeNormand, F.; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Re, V.; Riester, G. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.

    1998-11-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given.

  6. Pulsed laser deposition of metallic films on the surface of diamond particles for diamond saw blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Chao; Luo Fei; Long Hua; Hu Shaoliu; Li Bo; Wang Youqing

    2005-01-01

    Ti or Ni films have been deposited on the diamond particle surfaces by pulsed laser deposition. Compressive resistance of the uncoated and coated diamond particles was measured, respectively, in the experiments. The compressive resistance of the Ti-coated diamonds particles was found much higher than that of the uncoated ones. It increased by 39%. The surface morphology is observed by the metallography microscope. The surface of the uncoated diamonds particles had many hollows and flaws, while the surface of Ni-coated diamond particles was flat and smooth, and the surface of Ti-coated diamond particles had some metal masses that stood out of the surface of the Ti-coated film. The components of the metallic films of diamond particles were examined by X-ray diffractometry (XRD). TiC was found formed on the Ti-coated diamond surface, which resulted in increased surface bonding strength between the diamond particles and the Ti films. Meanwhile, TiC also favored improving the bonding strength between the coated diamond particles and the binding materials. Moreover, the bending resistance of the diamond saw blade made of Ti-coated diamond was drastically higher than that of other diamond saw blades, which also played an important role in improving the blade's cutting ability and lifetime. Therefore, it was most appropriate that the diamond saw blade was made of Ti-coated diamond particles rather than other materials

  7. Large-acceptance diamond planar refractive lenses manufactured by laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikarpov, Maxim; Snigireva, Irina; Morse, John; Yunkin, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Snigirev, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, single-crystal diamond planar refractive lenses have been fabricated by laser micromachining in 300 µm-thick diamond plates which were grown by chemical vapour deposition. Linear lenses with apertures up to 1 mm and parabola apex radii up to 500 µm were manufactured and tested at the ESRF ID06 beamline. The large acceptance of these lenses allows them to be used as beam-conditioning elements. Owing to the unsurpassed thermal properties of single-crystal diamond, these lenses should be suitable to withstand the extreme flux densities expected at the planned fourth-generation X-ray sources.

  8. Graphene grown out of diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhi; Li, Wuxia; Xu, Jing; Xu, Shicong; Lu, Chao; Xu, Lifang; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Shengbai

    2016-10-01

    Most applications of graphene need a suitable support substrate to present its excellent properties. But transferring graphene onto insulators or growing graphene on foreign substrates could cause properties diminishing. This paper reports the graphene growth directly out of diamond (111) by B doping, guided by first-principles calculations. The spontaneous graphene formation occurred due to the reconstruction of the diamond surface when the B doping density and profile are adequate. The resulting materials are defect free with high phase purity/carrier mobility, controllable layer number, and good uniformity, which can be potentially used directly for device fabrication, e.g., high-performance devices requiring good thermal conductivity.

  9. Development of CVD Diamond for Industrial Applications Final Report CRADA No. TC-2047-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jory, H. [Communications and Power Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Vikharov, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-08

    This project was a collaborative effort to develop and demonstrate a new millimeter microwave assisted chemical vapor deposition(CVD) process for manufacturing large diamond disks with greatly reduced processing times and costs from those now available. In the CVD process, carbon based gases (methane) and hydrogen are dissociated into plasma using microwave discharge and then deposited layer by layer as polycrystalline diamond onto a substrate. The available low frequency (2.45GHz) microwave sources used elsewhere (De Beers) result in low density plasmas and low deposition rates: 4 inch diamond disks take 6-8 weeks to process. The new system developed in this project uses a high frequency 30GHz Gyrotron as the microwave source and a quasi-optical CVD chamber resulting in a much higher density plasma which greatly reduced the diamond processing times (1-2 weeks)

  10. Diamond radiation detectors II. CVD diamond development for radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in radiation detectors has supplied some of the impetus for improving the electronic properties of CVD diamond. In the present discussion, we will restrict our attention to polycrystalhne CVD material. We will focus on the evolution of these materials over the past decade and the correlation of detector performance with other properties of the material

  11. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  12. Diamond Sensors for Energy Frontier Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Schnetzer, Steve

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of diamond sensors in high-energy, high-i ntensity collider experiments. Re- sults from diamond sensor based beam conditions monitors in the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are presented and pla ns for diamond based luminosity monitors for the upcoming LHC run are described. We describe recent measurements on single crystal diamond sensors that indicate a polarization effec t that causes a reduction of charge col- lection efficiency as a function of particle flux. We conclude by describing new developments on the promising technology of 3D diamond sensors.

  13. Lateral overgrowth of diamond film on stripes patterned Ir/HPHT-diamond substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Feng; Chang, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhangcheng; Liu, Zongchen; Fu, Jiao; Zhao, Dan; Shao, Guoqing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Shaopeng; Liang, Yan; Zhu, Tianfei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Xing

    2018-05-01

    Epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) of diamond films on patterned Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates have been carried out by microwave plasma CVD system. Ir/(0 0 1)HPHT-diamond substrates are fabricated by photolithographic and magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology of the as grown ELO diamond film is characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The quality and stress of the ELO diamond film are investigated by surface etching pit density and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Two ultraviolet photodetectors are fabricated on ELO diamond area and non-ELO diamond area prepared on same substrate, and that one on ELO diamond area indicates better photoelectric properties. All results indicate quality of ELO diamond film is improved.

  14. Homogenisation of sulphide inclusions within diamonds: A new approach to diamond inclusion geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Iain; Hughes, Hannah S. R.; Butler, Ian B.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Muir, Duncan

    2017-11-01

    widening the scope for multiple methods for quantitative analysis, even on 'flakes' of single BMS inclusions. Finally we show that the trace elements present in peridotite (P-type) and eclogitic (E-type) BMS are distinct, with P-type diamonds having systematically higher total platinum-group element (particularly Os, Ir, Ru) and Te and As concentrations. These distinctions suggest that the PGE and semi-metal budgets of mantle-derived partial melts will be significantly dependent upon the type(s) and proportions of sulphides present in the mantle source.

  15. CVD diamond windows for infrared synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussmann, R.S.; Pickles, C.S.J.; Brandon, J.R.; Wort, C.J.H.; Coe, S.E.; Wasenczuk, A.; Dodge, C.N.; Beale, A.C.; Krehan, A.J.; Dore, P.; Nucara, A.; Calvani, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the attributes that make diamond a unique material for infrared synchrotron beam experiments. New developments in diamond synthesised by Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) promise to extend the range of applications which have been hitherto limited by the availability and cost of large-size single-crystal diamond. Polycrystalline CVD diamond components such as large (100 mm) diameter windows with extremely good transparency over a wide spectral range are now commercially available. Properties of CVD diamond of relevance to optical applications, such as mechanical strength, thermal conductivity and absolute bulk absorption, are discussed. It is shown that although some of the properties of CVD diamond (similar to other polycrystalline industrial ceramics) are affected by the grain structure, currently produced CVD diamond optical components have the quality and performance required for numerous demanding applications

  16. The Many Facets of Diamond Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Palyanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This special issue is intended to serve as a multidisciplinary forum covering broad aspects of the science, technology, and application of synthetic and natural diamonds. This special issue contains 12 papers, which highlight recent investigations and developments in diamond research related to the diverse problems of natural diamond genesis, diamond synthesis and growth using CVD and HPHT techniques, and the use of diamond in both traditional applications, such as mechanical machining of materials, and the new recently emerged areas, such as quantum technologies. The results presented in the contributions collected in this special issue clearly demonstrate that diamond occupies a very special place in modern science and technology. After decades of research, this structurally very simple material still poses many intriguing scientific questions and technological challenges. It seems undoubted that diamond will remain the center of attraction for many researchers for many years to come.

  17. Recent Advances in Diamond Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trischuk, W.

    2008-01-01

    With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2012, ATLAS and CMS are planning for detector upgrades for their innermost layers requiring radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is now planned for all LHC experiments. This material is now being considered as an alternate sensor for use very close to the interaction region of the super LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Recently the RD42 collaboration constructed, irradiated and tested polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamond sensors to the highest fluences available. We present beam test results of chemical vapor deposition diamond up to fluences of 1.8 x 10^16 protons/cm^2 showing that both polycrystalline and single-crystal chemical vapor deposition diamonds follow a single damage curve allowing one t...

  18. Natural occurrence of pure nano-polycrystalline diamond from impact crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Irifune, Tetsuo; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Yamashita, Tomoharu; Isobe, Futoshi; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.

    2015-10-01

    Consolidated bodies of polycrystalline diamond with grain sizes less than 100 nm, nano-polycrystalline diamond (NPD), has been experimentally produced by direct conversion of graphite at high pressure and high temperature. NPD has superior hardness, toughness and wear resistance to single-crystalline diamonds because of its peculiar nano-textures, and has been successfully used for industrial and scientific applications. Such sintered nanodiamonds have, however, not been found in natural mantle diamonds. Here we identified natural pure NPD, which was produced by a large meteoritic impact about 35 Ma ago in Russia. The impact diamonds consist of well-sintered equigranular nanocrystals (5-50 nm), similar to synthetic NPD, but with distinct [111] preferred orientation. They formed through the martensitic transformation from single-crystal graphite. Stress-induced local fragmentation of the source graphite and subsequent rapid transformation to diamond in the limited time scale result in multiple diamond nucleation and suppression of the overall grain growth, producing the unique nanocrystalline texture of natural NPD. A huge amount of natural NPD is expected to be present in the Popigai crater, which is potentially important for applications as novel ultra-hard material.

  19. Silicon-vacancy centre as an artificial atom in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachlan Rogers

    2014-01-01

    A transition at 738 nm in diamond has been attributed to the silicon vacancy (SiV) colour centre. Much less is known about this defect site than the famous nitrogen-vacancy centre, but it appears to have advantages for some applications It is particularly promising as a single-photon source, due to a bright optical transition which has most of its intensity in the zero-phonon-line and only a small phonon sideband. A number of results will be reported for single SiV sites in bulk diamond, complementing recent activity on SiV in nanodiamonds. Individual SiV sites in the low-strain environment of bulk diamond show almost no variation in photoluminescence spectra. By fabricating a solid-immersion lens in the diamond over a SiV site we have enhanced the photon collection rate by nearly a factor of ten. In order to identify whether the SiV centre could be useful for broader quantum information processing application, it is first necessary to establish its electronic structure. Recent experimental developments in this direction will be discussed. (author)

  20. Beta Radiation Enhanced Thermionic Emission from Diamond Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Croot

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-based thermionic emission devices could provide a means to produce clean and renewable energy through direct heat-to-electrical energy conversion. Hindering progress of the technology are the thermionic output current and threshold temperature of the emitter cathode. In this report, we study the effects on thermionic emission caused by in situ exposure of the diamond cathode to beta radiation. Nitrogen-doped diamond thin films were grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition on molybdenum substrates. The hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond was studied using a vacuum diode setup with a 63Ni beta radiation source-embedded anode, which produced a 2.7-fold increase in emission current compared to a 59Ni-embedded control. The emission threshold temperature was also examined to further assess the enhancement of thermionic emission, with 63Ni lowering the threshold temperature by an average of 58 ± 11 °C compared to the 59Ni control. Various mechanisms for the enhancement are discussed, with a satisfactory explanation remaining elusive. Nevertheless, one possibility is discussed involving excitation of preexisting conduction band electrons that may skew their energy distribution toward higher energies.

  1. Diamond-based photoconductors for deep UV detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducci, A.; Bruzzi, M.; De Sio, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pace, E.; Pucella, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Scuderi, S.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work reports on the development and characterization of bi-dimensional deep-UV sensor arrays based on synthetic diamond to address the requirements of space-born astrophysical experiments. The material was synthesized at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata' where both heteroepitaxial polycrystalline diamond films and homoepitaxial single-crystal diamonds are grown using a tubular MWCVD reactor. The quality of chemical vapour deposited diamond was characterized by cathodoluminescence, photoluminescence, Raman spectroscopy and thermally stimulated currents. Then, suitable samples were selected and used to fabricate photoconductive single-pixel and 2D array devices by evaporating metal contacts on the growth surface. The electro-optical characterization of the devices was carried out in a wide spectral region, ranging from 120 to 2400 nm. A deuterium lamp and a 0.5 m vacuum monochromator were used to measure the detector responsivity under continuous monochromatic irradiation in the 120-250 nm spectral range, while an optical parametric oscillator tunable laser producing 5 ns pulses was used as light source from 210 up to 2400 nm. Time response, signal-to-noise ratio, responsivity and visible rejection factor were evaluated and the results are hereafter summarized

  2. X-ray diffraction study of the mineralogy of microinclusions in fibrous diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Evan; Kopylova, Maya; Dubrovinksy, Leonid

    2010-05-01

    Fibrous diamond, occurring both as cuboids and as coatings over non-fibrous diamond nuclei, is translucent due to the presence of millions of sub-micron-sized mineral and fluid inclusions. Diamond is strong and relatively inert, making it an excellent vessel to preserve trapped materials. These microinclusions represent direct samples of natural diamond-forming mantle fluids, and are critical for our understanding of diamond genesis. Traditionally, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron microprobe, and FIB-TEM techniques have proven to be effective for the study of microinclusions in diamond. The abundance and random orientation of included minerals in fibrous diamond make them amenable to a powder-type X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. This technique provides an accurate way to identify included minerals. It also has the advantage of analyzing thousands of inclusions simultaneously, rather than analyzing one inclusion at a time, as with common FIB-TEM techniques. XRD provides a bulk analysis, giving a superior measure of relative abundances of included minerals, as well as potentially accounting for small quantities of minerals that might otherwise be overlooked. We studied fibrous cuboid diamonds with microinclusions from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) (23 samples), Brazil (4 samples), Jericho (1 sample), and Wawa conglomerates (9 samples). XRD analysis was performed at the Bayerisches Geoinstitut (BGI), University of Bayreuth, Germany. The unique XRD setup consists of a RIGAKU FR-D high-brilliance source, OSMIC Inc. Confocal Max-Flux optics, and a SMART APEX 4K CCD area detector. Preliminary XRD studies of microinclusions 8 fibrous diamonds from the DRC showed a prevalence of silicates with structural and coordinated H2O. Sheet silicates constituted 9 out of 13 detected minerals, with phlogopite-biotite micas being present in 4 out of 8 samples. Other detected minerals were 2 chlorite minerals, 2 clay

  3. Diamond photodiodes for x-ray application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Distel, James R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smedley, John [BNL; Keister, Jeffrey W [BNL; Muller, Erik [STONY BROOK UNIV.; Jordan - Sweet, Jean [WATSON RESEARCH CENTER; Bohon, Jen [CASE WESTERN RESERVE UNIV.; Dong, Bin [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    Single crystal high purity CVD diamonds have been metallized and calibrated as photodiodes at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). Current mode responsivity measurements have been made over a wide range (0.2-28 keV) of photon energies across several beamlines. Linear response has been achieved over ten orders of magnitude of incident flux, along with uniform spatial response. A simple model of responsivity has been used to describe the results, yielding a value of 13.3 {+-} 0.5 eV for the mean pair creation energy. The responsivity vs. photon energy data show a dip for photon energies near the carbon edge (284 eV), indicating incomplete charge collection for carriers created less than one micron from the metallized layer.

  4. Low-Energy, Hydrogen-Free Method of Diamond Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Deepak (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor); Makarov, Vladimir (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Diamond thin films were deposited on copper substrate by the Vapor Solid (VS) deposition method using a mixture of fullerene C(sub 60) and graphite as the source material. The deposition took place only when the substrate was kept in a narrow temperature range of approximately 550-650 C. Temperatures below and above this range results in the deposition of fullerenes and other carbon compounds, respectively.

  5. Measurement of the Fermi potential of diamond-like carbon and other materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Blau, B.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Geltenbort, P.; Gupta, M.; Henneck, R.; Heule, S.; Kasprzak, M.; Knecht, A.; Kuzniak, M.; Kirch, K.; Meier, M.; Pichlmaier, A.; Reiser, R.; Theiler, B.; Zimmer, O.; Zsigmond, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Fermi potential V f of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings produced with laser-controlled vacuum arc deposition and that of diamond, Al, Si, Be, Cu, Fe and Ni was measured using two different methods, (i) transmission of slow neutrons through foils in a time-of-flight experiment and (ii) cold neutron reflectometry (CNR). For diamond-like carbon in transmission we obtain V f = (249 ± 14) neV. This is approximately the same as for beryllium and consistent with the theoretical expectations for the measured diamond (sp 3 ) content of 45%. For an sp 3 -content of 67%, we find V f (271 ± 13) neV from reflectometry, again in agreement with theory. These findings open new perspectives in using DLC as storage volume and neutron guide coatings for ultracold neutron sources

  6. Formation of diamonds out of hydrocarbon gas in the earth's mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krason, J.; Szymanski, A.; Savkevitch, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of formation of polycrystalline diamonds being discussed dint he context of a very rapid, dynamic decomposition of the hydrocarbon gas, initially biogenic or thermogenic condensed in gas hydrates, naturally locked and highly compressed in the hosting rocks. Gas hydrates are of solid, ice-like composition, mostly of hydrocarbon. Gas hydrates, composed of polyhedral cages, may have two types of structural forms: the body-centered structure or Structure I (small molecules) and diamond lattice or Structure II (large molecules). The crystal structure of the gas hydrate depends on the geometry of gas molecules. The thermodynamic conditions required for stabilization and preservation of the gas hydrates can be changed. Thus, in this concept, the principal source for at least some diamond deposits can originally be highly condensed hydrocarbons. In this case, if all the above indicated thermodynamic conditions and processes are met, naturally precondensed hydrocarbons can be directly converted into polycrystalline, extremely coherent diamonds

  7. Trace elements in diamonds from the Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein mines, and their petrogenetic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesq, H.W.; Bibby, D.M.; Erasmus, C.S.; Kable, E.J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron-activation studies of the impurity chemistry of more than 1500 natural diamonds from three South African kimberlite sources, Premier, Finsch, and Jagersfontein, provide evidence for the presence of submicroscopic inclusions of a quenched (or temperature re-equilibrated) melt from which these diamonds crystallized. These microscopic inclusions of parental magma contain variable amounts of fluids rich in water and carbon dioxide, as well as iron-nickelcopper-cobalt sulphides, and a major silicate phase, which is remarkably constant in composition irrespective of the source of the diamonds and the age of emplacement of their host kimberlite. These microscopic inclusions are present in varying amounts in all the diamonds that were analysed, and may even dominate the impurity chemistry of diamonds having observable mineral inclusions. An estimate of the composition of the major elements in the silicate melt indicates that the diamonds that were investigated crystallized from picritic magma rich in water and carbon dioxide in the presence of immiscible iron-nickel-copper-cobalt sulphides [af

  8. Physical sciences at Diamond: past achievements and future opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, D F

    2015-03-06

    The start of user operation at the Diamond Light Source in January 2007 marks a major milestone for the physical sciences in the UK. The routine delivery to the UK community of ultra-bright X-ray beams from the third-generation source has provided us with capabilities that were available previously only at international sources, and indeed has created some that are unique. Here, a personal view is given of some of the achievements to date, and possible future opportunities outlined. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  10. Copper-micrometer-sized diamond nanostructured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, D; Livramento, V; Fernandes, H; Silva, C; Carvalho, P A; Shohoji, N; Correia, J B

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement of a copper matrix with diamond enables tailoring the properties demanded for thermal management applications at high temperature, such as the ones required for heat sink materials in low activated nuclear fusion reactors. For an optimum compromise between thermal conductivity and mechanical properties, a novel approach based on multiscale diamond dispersions is proposed: a Cu-nanodiamond composite produced by milling is used as a nanostructured matrix for further dispersion of micrometer-sized diamondDiamond). A series of Cu-nanodiamond mixtures have been milled to establish a suitable nanodiamond fraction. A refined matrix with homogeneously dispersed nanoparticles was obtained with 4 at.% μDiamond for posterior mixture with microdiamond and subsequent consolidation. Preliminary consolidation by hot extrusion of a mixture of pure copper and μDiamond has been carried out to define optimal processing parameters. The materials produced were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and microhardness measurements.

  11. Diamond nanowires: fabrication, structure, properties, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuan; Wu, Liangzhuan; Zhi, Jinfang

    2014-12-22

    C(sp(3) )C-bonded diamond nanowires are wide band gap semiconductors that exhibit a combination of superior properties such as negative electron affinity, chemical inertness, high Young's modulus, the highest hardness, and room-temperature thermal conductivity. The creation of 1D diamond nanowires with their giant surface-to-volume ratio enhancements makes it possible to control and enhance the fundamental properties of diamond. Although theoretical comparisons with carbon nanotubes have shown that diamond nanowires are energetically and mechanically viable structures, reproducibly synthesizing the crystalline diamond nanowires has remained challenging. We present a comprehensive, up-to-date review of diamond nanowires, including a discussion of their synthesis along with their structures, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Toucan's Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Southern constellation Tucana (the Toucan) is probably best known as the home of the Small Magellanic Cloud, one of the satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. But Tucana also hosts another famous object that shines thousands of lights, like a magnificent, oversized diamond in the sky: the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. More popularly known as 47 Tuc, it is surpassed in size and brightness by only one other globular cluster, Omega Centauri. Globular clusters are gigantic families of stars, comprising several tens of thousands of stars, all thought to be born at the same time from the same cloud of gas [1]. As such, they constitute unique laboratories for the study of how stars evolve and interact. This is even more so because they are located at the same distance, so the brightness of different types of stars, at different stages in their evolution can be directly compared. The stars in globular clusters are held together by their mutual gravity which gives them their spherical shape, hence their name. Globular clusters are thought to be among the oldest objects in our Milky Way galaxy, and contain therefore mostly old, low-mass stars. ESO PR Photo 20/06 ESO PR Photo 20/06 Globular Cluster 47 Tuc 47 Tucanae is an impressive globular cluster that is visible with the unaided eye from the southern hemisphere. It was discovered in 1751 by the French astronomer Nicholas Louis de Lacaille who cataloged it in his list of southern nebulous objects. Located about 16 000 light years away, it has a total mass of about 1 million times the mass of the Sun and is 120 light years across, making it appear on the sky as big as the full moon. The colour image of 47 Tucanae presented here was taken with FORS1 on ESO's Very Large Telescope in 2001. The image covers only the densest, very central part of the cluster. The globular cluster extends in reality four times further away! As can be seen however, the density of stars rapidly drops off when moving away from the centre. The red

  13. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  14. Conductive diamond electrodes for water purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Martínez-Huitle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, synthetic diamond has been studied for its application in wastewater treatment, electroanalysis, organic synthesis and sensor areas; however, its use in the water disinfection/purification is its most relevant application. The new electrochemistry applications of diamond electrodes open new perspectives for an easy, effective, and chemical free water treatment. This article highlights and summarizes the results of a selection of papers dealing with electrochemical disinfection using synthetic diamond films.

  15. Characterization of diamond amorphized by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, W.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal diamond has been implanted at 1 MeV with 2 x 10 20 Ar/m 2 . Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in a channeled geometry revealed a broad amorphized region underlying a thin, partially crystalline layer. Raman spectroscopy disclosed modifications in the bonding characteristic of the appearance of non-diamond carbon. The complementary nature of the two analysis techniques is demonstrated. The Knoop hardness of the implanted diamond was reduced by implantation

  16. Modifying thin film diamond for electronic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, B.

    1999-01-01

    The unique combination of properties that diamond possesses are being exploited in both electronic and mechanical applications. An important step forward in the field has been the ability to grow thin film diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods and to control parameters such as crystal orientation, dopant level and surface roughness. An extensive understanding of the surface of any potential electronic material is vital to fully comprehend its behaviour within device structures. The surface itself ultimately controls key aspects of device performance when interfaced with other materials. This study has provided insight into important chemical reactions on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces, addressing how certain surface modifications will ultimately affect the properties of the material. A review of the structure, bonding, properties and potential of diamond along with an account of the current state of diamond technology and CVD diamond growth is provided. The experimental chapter reviews bulk material and surface analytical techniques employed in this work and is followed by an investigation of cleaning treatments for polycrystalline CVD diamond aimed at removing non-diamond carbon from the surface. Selective acid etch treatments are compared and contrasted for efficacy with excimer laser irradiation and hydrogen plasma etching. The adsorption/desorption kinetics of potential dopant-containing precursors on polycrystalline CVD diamond surfaces have been investigated to compare their effectiveness at introducing dopants into the diamond during the growth stage. Both boron and sulphur-containing precursor compounds have been investigated. Treating polycrystalline CVD diamond in various atmospheres / combination of atmospheres has been performed to enhance electron field emission from the films. Films which do not emit electrons under low field conditions can be modified such that they emit at fields as low as 10 V/μm. The origin of this enhancement

  17. Surface Structure of Aerobically Oxidized Diamond Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Diamond. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000, 84, 5160−5163. (31) Ownby, P. D.; Yang, X.; Liu, J. Calculated X-Ray-Diffraction Data for Diamond Polytypes. J. Am. Ceram...Surfaces from Ab-Initio Calculations . Phys. Rev. B 1995, 51, 14669−14685. (39) Ferrari, A. C.; Robertson, J. Raman Spectroscopy of Amorphous, Nanostructured...Y.; Takami, S.; Kubo , M.; Belosludov, R. V.; Miyamoto, A.; Imamura, A.; Gamo, M. N.; Ando, T. First-Principle Study on Reactions of Diamond (100

  18. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Haehl, Felix M.; Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C.

    2016-08-01

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be reorganized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2 d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglemententropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  19. Entanglement, holography and causal diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boer, Jan de [Institute of Physics, Universiteit van Amsterdam,Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haehl, Felix M. [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Heller, Michal P.; Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2016-08-29

    We argue that the degrees of freedom in a d-dimensional CFT can be re-organized in an insightful way by studying observables on the moduli space of causal diamonds (or equivalently, the space of pairs of timelike separated points). This 2d-dimensional space naturally captures some of the fundamental nonlocality and causal structure inherent in the entanglement of CFT states. For any primary CFT operator, we construct an observable on this space, which is defined by smearing the associated one-point function over causal diamonds. Known examples of such quantities are the entanglement entropy of vacuum excitations and its higher spin generalizations. We show that in holographic CFTs, these observables are given by suitably defined integrals of dual bulk fields over the corresponding Ryu-Takayanagi minimal surfaces. Furthermore, we explain connections to the operator product expansion and the first law of entanglement entropy from this unifying point of view. We demonstrate that for small perturbations of the vacuum, our observables obey linear two-derivative equations of motion on the space of causal diamonds. In two dimensions, the latter is given by a product of two copies of a two-dimensional de Sitter space. For a class of universal states, we show that the entanglement entropy and its spin-three generalization obey nonlinear equations of motion with local interactions on this moduli space, which can be identified with Liouville and Toda equations, respectively. This suggests the possibility of extending the definition of our new observables beyond the linear level more generally and in such a way that they give rise to new dynamically interacting theories on the moduli space of causal diamonds. Various challenges one has to face in order to implement this idea are discussed.

  20. Thermal Conductivity of Diamond Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor M. Shakhov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A major problem challenging specialists in present-day materials sciences is the development of compact, cheap to fabricate heat sinks for electronic devices, primarily for computer processors, semiconductor lasers, high-power microchips, and electronics components. The materials currently used for heat sinks of such devices are aluminum and copper, with thermal conductivities of about 250 W/(m·K and 400 W/(m·K, respectively. Significantly, the thermal expansion coefficient of metals differs markedly from those of the materials employed in semiconductor electronics (mostly silicon; one should add here the low electrical resistivity metals possess. By contrast, natural single-crystal diamond is known to feature the highest thermal conductivity of all the bulk materials studied thus far, as high as 2,200 W/(m·K. Needless to say, it cannot be applied in heat removal technology because of high cost. Recently, SiC- and AlN-based ceramics have started enjoying wide use as heat sink materials; the thermal conductivity of such composites, however, is inferior to that of metals by nearly a factor two. This prompts a challenging scientific problem to develop diamond-based composites with thermal characteristics superior to those of aluminum and copper, adjustable thermal expansion coefficient, low electrical conductivity and a moderate cost, below that of the natural single-crystal diamond. The present review addresses this problem and appraises the results reached by now in studying the possibility of developing composites in diamond-containing systems with a view of obtaining materials with a high thermal conductivity.

  1. Diamond turning of thermoplastic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    Single point diamond turning studies were made using a series of thermoplastic polymers with different glass transition temperatures. Variations in surface morphology and surface roughness were observed as a function of cutting speed. Lower glass transition temperatures facilitate smoother surface cuts and better surface finish. This can be attributed to the frictional heating that occurs during machining. Because of the very low glass transition temperatures in polymeric compared to inorganic glasses, the precision machining response can be very speed sensitive.

  2. Diamond coating in accelerator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, X.E.

    1998-08-01

    The future accelerators with 1 GeV/m gradient will give rise to hundreds of degrees instantaneous temperature rise on the copper surface. Due to its extraordinary thermal and electric properties, diamond coating on the surface is suggested to remedy this problem. Multi-layer structure, with the promise of even more temperature reduction, is also discussed, and a proof of principle experiment is being carried out

  3. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  4. Anisotropic diamond etching through thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masatsugu; Nakanishi, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hiraku; Kato, Hiromitsu; Makino, Toshiharu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Tsubasa; Inokuma, Takao; Tokuda, Norio

    2018-04-27

    Diamond possesses excellent physical and electronic properties, and thus various applications that use diamond are under development. Additionally, the control of diamond geometry by etching technique is essential for such applications. However, conventional wet processes used for etching other materials are ineffective for diamond. Moreover, plasma processes currently employed for diamond etching are not selective, and plasma-induced damage to diamond deteriorates the device-performances. Here, we report a non-plasma etching process for single crystal diamond using thermochemical reaction between Ni and diamond in high-temperature water vapour. Diamond under Ni films was selectively etched, with no etching at other locations. A diamond-etching rate of approximately 8.7 μm/min (1000 °C) was successfully achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this rate is considerably greater than those reported so far for other diamond-etching processes, including plasma processes. The anisotropy observed for this diamond etching was considerably similar to that observed for Si etching using KOH.

  5. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft Service... GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems: Docket No...

  6. Comparison between beryllium and diamond-backing plates in diamond-anvil cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periotto, Benedetta; Nestola, Fabrizio; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2011-01-01

    A direct comparison between two complete intensity datasets, collected on the same sample loaded in two identical diamond-anvil pressure cells equipped, respectively, with beryllium and diamond backing plates was performed. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of diamond-backing plates...

  7. Wetting of the diamond surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The surface conditions which lead to a wide variation in the wettability of diamond surfaces have been investigated using macroscopic surfaces to allow for the crystal anisotropy. A wetting balance method of calculating adhesion tension and hence contact angle has been used for diamonds having major faces near the [111] and [110] lattice planes. Three classes of behaviour have been identified. Surface analyses by Rutherford Backscattering of helium ions, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) have been used to define the role of the oxygen coverage of the surface in the transition I → O → H. Ferric ion has a hydrophilizing effect on the diamond surface, thought to be the consequence of attachment to the hydroxyl groups at the surface by a ligand mechanism. Other transition metal ions did not show this effect. The phenomenon of hydration of the surface, i.e. progressively more hydrophilic behaviour on prolonged exposure to liquid water, has been quantified. Imbibition or water penetration at microcracks are thought unlikely, and a water cluster build-up at hydrophilic sites is thought to be the best explanation. Dynamic studies indicate little dependence of the advancing contact angle on velocity for velocities up to 10 -4 m/s, and slight dependence of the receding contact angle. Hence advancing angles by this technique are similar to equilibrated contact angles found by optical techniques, but the receding angles are lower than found by other non-dynamic measurements

  8. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorisek, A. [CERN (Switzerland)]. E-mail: andrej.gorisek@cern.ch; Cindro, V. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [Fotec (Austria); Griesmayer, E. [Fotec (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Korpar, S. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Kramberger, G. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Mandic, I. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Meyer, M. [CERN (Switzerland); Mikuz, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia); Pernegger, H. [CERN (Switzerland); Smith, S. [Ohio State University, OH (United States); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [J. Stefan Institute (Slovenia)

    2007-03-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm{sup 2} area and 500{mu}m thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented.

  9. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorisek, A.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Korpar, S.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Meyer, M.; Mikuz, M.; Pernegger, H.; Smith, S.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at z=+/-183.8cm. Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam-beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of 1cm 2 area and 500μm thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test beam setup at KEK. Results from the test beams and bench measurements are presented

  10. Status of diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterr. Akademie d. Wissenschaften, Nikolsdorferg. 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bauer, C. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S. [University of Florence, Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R. [LEPSI, CRN Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M. [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E. [LEPES, Grenoble (France); Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Foulon, F. [Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M. [The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T. [MPI fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Hall-Wilton, R. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Han, S.; Ziock, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Research Division, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kania, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V. [Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Elettronica, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Mishina, M. [FNAL, Batavia, IL (United States); Pan, L.S. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J. [Bristol University, Bristol (United Kingdom); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-11-21

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  11. Status of diamond particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krammer, M.; Adam, W.; Friedl, M.; Hrubec, J.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Stelzer, H.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Sciortino, S.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Husson, D.; LeNormand, F.; Riester, G.L.; Turchetta, R.; Conway, J.; Fish, D.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G.B.; Walsh, A.M.; Dabrowski, W.; Kaplon, J.; Meier, D.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Delpierre, P.; Hallewell, G.; Deneuville, A.; Cheeraert, E.; Eijk, B.V.; Hartjes, F.; Fallou, A.; Foulon, F.; Gan, K.K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trawick, M.; Zoeller, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Ziock, H.; Kania, D.; Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Mishina, M.; Pan, L.S.; Roff, D.; Tapper, R.J.; Trischuk, W.

    1998-01-01

    To continue the exciting research in the field of particle physics new accelerators and experiments are under construction. In some of these experiments, e.g. ATLAS and CMS at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN or HERA-B at DESY, the detectors have to withstand an extreme environment. The detectors must be radiation hard, provide a very fast signal, and be as thin as possible. The properties of CVD diamond allow to fulfill these requirements and make it an ideal material for the detectors close to the interaction region of these experiments, i.e. the vertex detectors or the inner trackers. The RD42 collaboration is developing diamond detectors for these applications. The program of RD42 includes the improvement of the charge collection properties of CVD diamond, the study of the radiation hardness and the development of low-noise radiation hard readout electronics. An overview of the progress achieved during the last years will be given. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  12. ATLAS diamond Beam Condition Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Gorišek, A; Dolenc, I; Frais-Kölbl, H; Griesmayer, E; Kagan, H; Korpar, S; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Meyer, M; Mikuz, M; Pernegger, H; Smith, S; Trischuk, W; Weilhammer, P; Zavrtanik, M

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has chosen to use diamond for its Beam Condition Monitor (BCM) given its radiation hardness, low capacitance and short charge collection time. In addition, due to low leakage current diamonds do not require cooling. The ATLAS Beam Condition Monitoring system is based on single beam bunch crossing measurements rather than integrating the accumulated particle flux. Its fast electronics will allow separation of LHC collisions from background events such as beam gas interactions or beam accidents. There will be two stations placed symmetrically about the interaction point along the beam axis at . Timing of signals from the two stations will provide almost ideal separation of beam–beam interactions and background events. The ATLAS BCM module consists of diamond pad detectors of area and thickness coupled to a two-stage RF current amplifier. The production of the final detector modules is almost done. A S/N ratio of 10:1 has been achieved with minimum ionizing particles (MIPs) in the test bea...

  13. Direct Coating of Nanocrystalline Diamond on Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Kazuo; Kawaki, Shyunsuke; Ishihara, Masatou; Hasegawa, Masataka

    2012-09-01

    Nanocrystalline diamond films have been successfully deposited on stainless steel substrates without any substrate pretreatments to promote diamond nucleation, including the formation of interlayers. A low-temperature growth technique, 400 °C or lower, in microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using a surface-wave plasma has cleared up problems in diamond growth on ferrous materials, such as the surface graphitization, long incubation time, substrate softening, and poor adhesion. The deposited nanocrystalline diamond films on stainless steel exhibit good adhesion and tribological properties, such as a high wear resistance, a low friction coefficient, and a low aggression strength, at room temperature in air without lubrication.

  14. Ultimate Atomic Bling: Nanotechnology of Diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, Jeremy

    2010-05-25

    Diamonds exist in all sizes, from the Hope Diamond to minuscule crystals only a few atoms across. The smallest of these diamonds are created naturally by the same processes that make petroleum. Recently, researchers discovered that these 'diamondoids' are formed in many different structural shapes, and that these shapes can be used like LEGO blocks for nanotechnology. This talk will discuss the discovery of these nano-size diamonds and highlight current SLAC/Stanford research into their applications in electronics and medicine.

  15. Undoped CVD diamond films for electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinska, Lidia; Fabisiak, Kazimierz; Paprocki, Kazimierz; Kowalska, Magdalena; Popielarski, Pawel; Szybowicz, Miroslaw

    2013-01-01

    By using different deposition conditions, the CVD diamond films with different qualities and orientation were grown by the hot-filament CVD technique. The object of this article is to summarize and discuss relation between structural, physical and electrochemical properties of different diamond electrodes. The physical properties of the Hot Filament CVD microcrystalline diamond films are analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In presented studies two different electrodes were used of the diamond grain sizes around 200 nm and 10 μm, as it was estimated from SEM picture. The diamond layers quality was checked on basis of FWHM (Full width at Half Maximum) of 1332 cm −1 diamond Raman peak. The ratio of sp 3 /sp 2 carbon bonds was determined by 1550 cm −1 G band and 1350 cm −1 D band in the Raman spectrum. The electrochemical properties were analyzed using (CV) cyclic voltammetry measurements in aqueous solutions. The sensitivity of undoped diamond electrodes depends strongly on diamond film quality and concentration of amorphous carbon phase in the diamond layer

  16. CVD diamond substrates for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzer, H.

    1996-03-01

    In this study the applicability of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond as a material for heat spreaders was investigated. Economical evaluations on the production of heat spreaders were also performed. For the diamond synthesis the hot-filament and microwave method were used respectively. The deposition parameters were varied in a way that free standing diamond layers with a thickness of 80 to 750 microns and different qualities were obtained. The influence of the deposition parameters on the relevant film properties was investigated and discussed. With both the hot-filament and microwave method it was possible to deposit diamond layers having a thermal conductivity exceeding 1200 W/mK and therefore to reach the quality level for commercial uses. The electrical resistivity was greater than 10 12 Ωcm. The investigation of the optical properties was done by Raman-, IR- and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. Because of future applications of diamond-aluminium nitride composites as highly efficient heat spreaders diamond deposition an AIN was investigated. An improved substrate pretreatment prior to diamond deposition showed promising results for better performance of such composite heat spreaders. Both free standing layers and diamond-AIN composites could be cut by a CO2 Laser in Order to get an exact size geometry. A reduction of the diamond surface roughness was achieved by etching with manganese powder or cerium. (author)

  17. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  18. Measurements and Studies of Secondary Electron Emission of Diamond Amplified Photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu,Q.

    2008-10-01

    The Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) is a novel approach to generating electrons. By following the primary electron beam, which is generated by traditional electron sources, with an amplifier, the electron beam available to the eventual application is increased by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude in current. Diamond has a very wide band gap of 5.47eV which allows for a good negative electron affinity with simple hydrogenation, diamond can hold more than 2000MV/m field before breakdown. Diamond also provides the best rigidity among all materials. These two characters offer the capability of applying high voltage across very thin diamond film to achieve high SEY and desired emission phase. The diamond amplifier also is capable of handling a large heat load by conduction and sub-nanosecond pulse input. The preparation of the diamond amplifier includes thinning and polishing, cleaning with acid etching, metallization, and hydrogenation. The best mechanical polishing available can provide high purity single crystal diamond films with no less than 100 {micro}m thickness and <15 nm Ra surface roughness. The ideal thickness for 700MHz beam is {approx}30 {micro}m, which requires further thinning with RIE or laser ablation. RIE can achieve atomic layer removal precision and roughness eventually, but the time consumption for this procedure is very significant. Laser ablation proved that with <266nm ps laser beam, the ablation process on the diamond can easily achieve removing a few microns per hour from the surface and <100nm roughness. For amplifier application, laser ablation is an adequate and efficient process to make ultra thin diamond wafers following mechanical polishing. Hydrogenation will terminate the diamond surface with monolayer of hydrogen, and form NEA so that secondary electrons in the conduction band can escape into the vacuum. The method is using hydrogen cracker to strike hydrogen atoms onto the bare diamond surface to form H-C bonds. Two independent

  19. Spectroellipsometric and ion beam analytical investigation of nanocrystalline diamond layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohner, T., E-mail: lohner@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); Csikvari, P. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Budafoki ut 8 (Hungary); Khanh, N.Q. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); David, S. [Department of Electronics Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Goldmann Gy. ter 3 (Hungary); Horvath, Z.E.; Petrik, P. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary); Hars, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1111 Budapest, Budafoki ut 8 (Hungary)

    2011-02-28

    Optical properties of nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline diamond films were studied by ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method. In the experiments Ar, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2} gases were used as source gases. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to measure the hydrogen content of the deposited layers. Three-layer optical models were constructed for the evaluation of the measured ellipsometric spectra. Besides the Cauchy relation, the effective medium approximation and the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation were also used for the modeling of the optical properties of the diamond films. Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the surface roughness in function of the deposition conditions.

  20. Fano factor evaluation of diamond detectors for alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Tsubota, Masakatsu; Shimmyo, Hiroaki [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628 (Japan); Sato, Yuki [Naraha Remote Technology Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naraha-machi, Futaba-gun, Fukushima, 979-0513 (Japan); Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Mokuno, Yoshiaki [Advanced Power Electronics Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-8-31 Midorigaoka, Ikeda, Osaka, 563-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Hideyuki [Research Institute for Electronics and Photonics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, 305-8565 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    This report is the first describing experimental evaluation of Fano factor for diamond detectors. High-quality self-standing chemical vapor deposited diamond samples were produced using lift-off method. Alpha-particle induced charge measurements were taken for three samples. A 13.1 ±0.07 eV of the average electron-hole pair creation energy and excellent energy resolution of approximately 0.3% were found for 5.486 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am radioactive source. The best Fano factor for 5.486 MeV alpha particles, calculated from experimentally obtained epsilon values and the detector intrinsic energy resolution, was 0.382 ± 0.007. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Comprehensive studies on irradiated single-crystal diamond sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegler, Martin [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Single-crystal diamond sensors are used as part of the Beam and Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) projects of the CMS experiment. Due to an upgrade of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F) these diamond sensors are exchanged and the irradiated ones are now used for comprehensive studies. Current over voltage (IV), current over time (CT) and charge collection efficiency (CCE) measurements were performed for a better understanding of the radiation damage incurred during operation and to compensate in the future. The effect of illumination with various light sources on the charge collection efficiency was investigated and led to interesting results. Intensity and wavelength of the light were varied for deeper insight of polarization effects.

  2. Spectroellipsometric and ion beam analytical investigation of nanocrystalline diamond layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohner, T.; Csikvari, P.; Khanh, N.Q.; David, S.; Horvath, Z.E.; Petrik, P.; Hars, G.

    2011-01-01

    Optical properties of nanocrystalline and ultrananocrystalline diamond films were studied by ex situ variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The films were prepared by Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition method. In the experiments Ar, CH 4 , and H 2 gases were used as source gases. Elastic recoil detection analysis was applied to measure the hydrogen content of the deposited layers. Three-layer optical models were constructed for the evaluation of the measured ellipsometric spectra. Besides the Cauchy relation, the effective medium approximation and the Tauc-Lorentz dispersion relation were also used for the modeling of the optical properties of the diamond films. Atomic force microscopy was applied to investigate the surface roughness in function of the deposition conditions.

  3. Primitive Mantle Nitrogen Revealed by SIMS in 3.5 Ga Harzburgitic Diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, K.; Richardson, S. H.; Shirey, S. B.; Hauri, E. H.; Gurney, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The advent of the ion microprobe (SIMS) some 30 years ago marked the start of an exciting new approach to subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) studies. In-situ SIMS analysis of trace element zoning in mantle minerals, in combination with TIMS analysis of mineral separates, has revolutionized our understanding of equilibrium/disequilibrium relationships on a variety of time and length scales. For example, octahedral diamonds isolate mineral inclusions from diffusive exchange at mantle temperatures on a Gyr time scale, as well as preserving host diamond isotopic signatures that have long been used as indicators of the sources of diamond-forming fluids. Nitrogen, the main trace element in diamond, behaves as a compatible element during diamond growth [1] and SIMS has proved essential to determining C and N isotopic compositions on the scale of inclusions and associated diamond growth zones [2]. A suite of harzburgitic sulfide inclusion bearing diamonds from the 53 Ma Panda kimberlite, NWT, Canada, provides an ideal opportunity to characterize the source of diamond fluids in the world’s oldest macrodiamonds [3]. This suite gave a sulfide Re-Os isochron age of 3.52 ± 0.17 Ga with a radiogenic initial Os isotope signature characteristic of subduction-related fluids. The first-order variation in C (δ13C = -9 to 0‰) and N (δ15N = -25 to -7‰) isotopic composition of the host diamonds has been mapped by SIMS profiling of diamond plates. Collectively, the specimens show the following features: (i) compositional zoning/discontinuities indicating discrete growth stages and multiple fluids, (ii) overall core-to-rim decrease in N concentration variably well correlated with C and N isotopic composition, suggesting both open and closed system fractionation during diamond growth, (iii) initial N concentration correlated with N isotopic composition for different stones suggesting mixing of an ambient, isotopically light N component (<-26‰) and a heavier N component

  4. Diamond Growth in the Subduction Factory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, H.; Frost, D. J.; Bolfan-Casanova, N.; Leroy, C.; Estève, I.

    2014-12-01

    Natural diamonds are fabulous probes of the deep Earth Interior. They are the evidence of the deep storage of volatile elements, carbon at first, but also hydrogen and chlorine trapped as hydrous fluids in inclusions. The study of diamond growth processes in the lithosphere and mantle helps for our understanding of volatile elements cycling between deep reservoirs. We know now that inclusion-bearing diamonds similar to diamonds found in nature (i.e. polycrystalline, fibrous and coated diamonds) can grow in hydrous fluids or melts (Bureau et al., GCA 77, 202-214, 2012). Therefore, we propose that the best environment to promote such diamonds is the subduction factory, where highly hydrous fluids or melts are present. When oceanic plates are subducted in the lithosphere, they carry an oceanic crust soaked with seawater. While the slabs are traveling en route to the mantle, dehydration processes generate saline fluids highly concentrated in NaCl. In the present study we have experimentally shown that diamonds can grow from the saline fluids (up to 30 g/l NaCl in water) generated in subducted slabs. We have performed multi-anvil press experiments at 6-7 GPa and from 1300 to 1400°C during 6:00 hours to 30:00 hours. We observed large areas of new diamond grown in epitaxy on pure diamond seeds in salty hydrous carbonated melts, forming coated gems. The new rims are containing multi-component primary inclusions. Detailed characterizations of the diamonds and their inclusions have been performed and will be presented. These experimental results suggest that multi-component salty fluids of supercritical nature migrate with the slabs, down to the deep mantle. Such fluids may insure the first stage of the deep Earth's volatiles cycling (C, H, halogen elements) en route to the transition zone and the lower mantle. We suggest that the subduction factory may also be a diamond factory.

  5. Single crystal diamond detectors grown by chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuve, C.; Angelone, M.; Bellini, V.; Balducci, A.; Donato, M.G.; Faggio, G.; Marinelli, M.; Messina, G.; Milani, E.; Morgada, M.E.; Pillon, M.; Potenza, R.; Pucella, G.; Russo, G.; Santangelo, S.; Scoccia, M.; Sutera, C.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona-Rinati, G.

    2007-01-01

    The detection properties of heteropitaxial (polycrystalline, pCVD) and homoepitaxial (single crystal, scCVD) diamond films grown by microwave chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the Laboratories of Roma 'Tor Vergata' University are reported. The pCVD diamond detectors were tested with α-particles from different sources and 12 C ions produced by 15MV Tandem accelerator at Southern National Laboratories (LNS) in Catania (Italy). pCVDs were also used to monitor 14MeV neutrons produced by the D-T plasma at Joint European Torus (JET), Culham, U.K. The limit of pCVDs is the poor energy resolution. To overcome this problem, we developed scCVD diamonds using the same reactor parameters that optimized pCVD diamonds. scCVD were grown on a low cost (100) HPHT single crystal substrate. A detector 110μm thick was tested under α-particles and under 14MeV neutron irradiation. The charge collection efficiency spectrum measured under irradiation with a triple α-particle source shows three clearly resolved peaks, with an energy resolution of about 1.1%. The measured spectra under neutron irradiation show a well separated C(n,α 0 ) 9 Be12 reaction peak with an energy spread of 0.5MeV for 14.8MeV neutrons and 0.3MeV for 14.1MeV neutrons, which are fully compatible with the energy spread of the incident neutron beams

  6. Diamond film growth with modification properties of adhesion between substrate and diamond film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setasuwon P.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond film growth was studied using chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A special equipment was build in-house, employing a welding torch, and substrate holder with a water-cooling system. Acetylene and oxygen were used as combustion gases and the substrate was tungsten carbide cobalt. It was found that surface treatments, such as diamond powder scratching or acid etching, increase the adhesion and prevent the film peel-off. Diamond powder scratching and combined diamond powder scratching with acid etching gave the similar diamond film structure with small grain and slightly rough surface. The diamond film obtained with both treatments has high adhesion and can withstand internal stress better than ones obtained by untreated surface or acid etching alone. It was also found that higher substrate temperature produced smoother surface and more uniform diamond grain.

  7. X-ray beam monitor made by thin-film CVD single-crystal diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E; Prestopino, G; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Angelone, M; Pillon, M; Kachkanov, V; Tartoni, N; Benetti, M; Cannatà, D; Di Pietrantonio, F

    2012-11-01

    A novel beam position monitor, operated at zero bias voltage, based on high-quality chemical-vapor-deposition single-crystal Schottky diamond for use under intense synchrotron X-ray beams was fabricated and tested. The total thickness of the diamond thin-film beam monitor is about 60 µm. The diamond beam monitor was inserted in the B16 beamline of the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (UK). The device was characterized under monochromatic high-flux X-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV and a micro-focused 10 keV beam with a spot size of approximately 2 µm × 3 µm square. Time response, linearity and position sensitivity were investigated. Device response uniformity was measured by a raster scan of the diamond surface with the micro-focused beam. Transmissivity and spectral responsivity versus beam energy were also measured, showing excellent performance of the new thin-film single-crystal diamond beam monitor.

  8. Defects of diamond single crystal grown under high temperature and high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Qingcai, E-mail: suqc@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China); Zhang, Jianhua [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Li, Musen [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, P. R. China, 250061 (China); Shandong Engineering Research Center for Superhard Materials, Zoucheng, P. R. China 273500 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The diamond single crystal, synthesized with Fe–Ni–C–B system of catalyst under high temperature and high pressure, had been observed by field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The presence of a cellular structure suggested that the diamond grew from melted catalyst solution and there existed a zone of component supercooling zone in front of the solid–liquid interface. The main impurities in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. The triangle screw pit revealed on the (111) plane was generated by the screw dislocation meeting the diamond (111) plane at the points of emergence of dislocations. A narrow twin plane was formed between the two (111) plane. - Highlights: • High pressure, high temperature synthesis of diamond single crystal. • Fe–Ni–C–B used as catalyst, graphite as carbon source. • The main impurity in the diamond crystal was (FeNi){sub 23}C{sub 6}. • Surface defects arose from screw dislocations and stacking faults.

  9. Robust diamond meshes with unique wettability properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yizhou; Li, Hongdong; Cheng, Shaoheng; Zou, Guangtian; Wang, Chuanxi; Lin, Quan

    2014-03-18

    Robust diamond meshes with excellent superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties have been fabricated. Superhydrophobicity is observed for water with varying pH from 1 to 14 with good recyclability. Reversible superhydrophobicity and hydrophilicity can be easily controlled. The diamond meshes show highly efficient water-oil separation and water pH droplet transference.

  10. Conflict diamonds — unfinished business | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... ... diamonds reached this year will not be effective if it is not monitored, and if the countries ... What we do know is that 75 percent of the world's gem diamonds are mined in ... It makes the Kimberley accord weaker than any other international ... a British NGO, have been nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.

  11. Chemical vapor deposition of nanocrystalline diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrovets, I.I.; Gritsyna, V.I.; Dudnik, S.F.; Opalev, O.A.; Reshetnyak, O.M.; Strel'nitskij, V.E.

    2008-01-01

    The brief review of the literature is devoted to synthesis of nanocrystalline diamond films. It is shown that the CVD method is an effective way for deposition of such nanostructures. The basic technological methods that allow limit the size of growing diamond crystallites in the film are studied.

  12. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Wedenig, R; Bauer, C; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Wagner, A; Walsh, A M; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Zeuner, W; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described. (9 refs).

  13. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described.

  14. CVD diamond pixel detectors for LHC experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedenig, R.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, A.; Walsh, A.M.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; Blanquart, L.; Breugnion, P.; Charles, E.; Ciocio, A.; Clemens, J.C.; Dao, K.; Einsweiler, K.; Fasching, D.; Fischer, P.; Joshi, A.; Keil, M.; Klasen, V.; Kleinfelder, S.; Laugier, D.; Meuser, S.; Milgrome, O.; Mouthuy, T.; Richardson, J.; Sinervo, P.; Treis, J.; Wermes, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CVD diamond pixel detectors. The preparation of the diamond pixel sensors for bump-bonding to the pixel readout electronics for the LHC and the results from beam tests carried out at CERN are described

  15. The Returns on Investment Grade Diamonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the risk-return characteristics of investment grade gems (white diamonds, colored diamonds and other types of gems including sapphires, rubies, and emeralds). The transactions are coming from gem auctions and span the period 1999-2012. Over our time frame, the annual

  16. Bending diamonds by femtosecond laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Peter; Esberg, Jakob; Kirsebom, Kim

    2009-01-01

    We present a new method based on femtosecond laser ablation for the fabrication of statically bent diamond crystals. Using this method, curvature radii of 1 m can easily be achieved, and the curvature obtained is very uniform. Since diamond is extremely tolerant to high radiation doses, partly due...

  17. Diamond sensors for future high energy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmair, Felix, E-mail: bachmair@phys.ethz.ch

    2016-09-21

    With the planned upgrade of the LHC to High-Luminosity-LHC [1], the general purpose experiments ATLAS and CMS are planning to upgrade their innermost tracking layers with more radiation tolerant technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition CVD diamond is one such technology. CVD diamond sensors are an established technology as beam condition monitors in the highest radiation areas of all LHC experiments. The RD42-collaboration at CERN is leading the effort to use CVD diamond as a material for tracking detectors operating in extreme radiation environments. An overview of the latest developments from RD42 is presented including the present status of diamond sensor production, a study of pulse height dependencies on incident particle flux and the development of 3D diamond sensors.

  18. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczemska, Anna T.; Witkowski, Dariusz; Ralchenko, Victor; Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry; Lysko, Jan M.; Fijalkowski, Mateusz; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Hassard, John

    2011-01-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare TM was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  19. Engineering NV centres in Synthetic Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthew Markham

    2014-01-01

    The quantum properties of the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has prompted rapid growth in diamond research. This initial growth was driven by the fact the NV centre provides an 'easy' to manipulate quantum system along with opening up the possibility of a new material to deliver a solid state quantum computer. The NV defect is now moving from a quantum curiosity to a commercial development platform for a range of application such as as gyroscopes, timing and magnetometry as well as the more traditional quantum technologies such as quantum encryption and quantum simulation. These technologies are pushing the development needs of the material, and the processing of that material. The paper will describes the advances in CVD diamond synthesis with special attention to getting NV defects close to the surface of the diamond and how to process the material for diamond quantum optical applications. (author)

  20. Diamond detector technology: status and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Kagan, Harris; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H P; Bellini,, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; De Boer, W; Dehning, B; Dorfer, C; Dunser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Mcfadden, N; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Reichmann, M; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz, D; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Schreiner, T; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Taylor, Aaron; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, Stephen; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2017-01-01

    The status of material development of poly-crystalline chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident par-ticle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition the first beam test results from 3D detectors made with poly-crystalline CVD diamond are presented. Finally the first analysis of LHC data from the ATLAS Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM) which is based on pixelated poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors bump-bonded to pixel readout elec-tronics is shown.

  1. Nanostructured Diamond Device for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijalkowski, M; Karczemska, A; Lysko, J M; Zybala, R; KozaneckI, M; Filipczak, P; Ralchenko, V; Walock, M; Stanishevsky, A; Mitura, S

    2015-02-01

    Diamond is increasingly used in biomedical applications because of its unique properties such as the highest thermal conductivity, good optical properties, high electrical breakdown voltage as well as excellent biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Diamond has also been introduced as an excellent substrate to make the functional microchip structures for electrophoresis, which is the most popular separation technique for the determination of analytes. In this investigation, a diamond electrophoretic chip was manufactured by a replica method using a silicon mold. A polycrystalline 300 micron-thick diamond layer was grown by the microwave plasma-assisted CVD (MPCVD) technique onto a patterned silicon substrate followed by the removal of the substrate. The geometry of microstructure, chemical composition, thermal and optical properties of the resulting free-standing diamond electrophoretic microchip structure were examined by CLSM, SFE, UV-Vis, Raman, XRD and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and by a modified laser flash method for thermal property measurements.

  2. Diamond electrophoretic microchips-Joule heating effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczemska, Anna T., E-mail: anna.karczemska@p.lodz.pl [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Witkowski, Dariusz [Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Turbomachinery, 219/223 Wolczanska str., Lodz (Poland); Ralchenko, Victor, E-mail: ralchenko@nsc.gpi.ru [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bolshakov, Andrey; Sovyk, Dmitry [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, 38 Vavilov str., Moscow (Russian Federation); Lysko, Jan M., E-mail: jmlysko@ite.waw.pl [Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Fijalkowski, Mateusz, E-mail: petr.louda@vslib.cz [Technical University of Liberec, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering (Czech Republic); Bodzenta, Jerzy, E-mail: jerzy.bodzenta@polsl.pl [Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Physics, 2 Krzywoustego str., 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Hassard, John, E-mail: j.hassard@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) has become a mature separation technique in the recent years. In the presented research, a polycrystalline diamond electrophoretic microchip was manufactured with a microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) method. A replica technique (mould method) was used to manufacture microstructures in diamond. A numerical analysis with CoventorWare{sup TM} was used to compare thermal properties during chip electrophoresis of diamond and glass microchips of the same geometries. Temperature distributions in microchips were demonstrated. Thermal, electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical parameters of the polycrystalline diamond layers are advantageous over traditionally used materials for microfluidic devices. Especially, a very high thermal conductivity coefficient gives a possibility of very efficient dissipation of Joule heat from the diamond electrophoretic microchip. This enables manufacturing of a new generation of microdevices.

  3. MEMS silicon-based micro-evaporator with diamond-shaped fins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihailovic, M.; Rops, C.; Creemer, J.F.; Sarro, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    A new design of micro-evaporators, with 45 channels (View the MathML source100?m deep) and diamond-shaped fins (View the MathML source40?m wide, View the MathML source160?m long, View the MathML source20?m separation), is fabricated by anodic bonding of silicon and glass wafers, in a five masks

  4. Shock compression of diamond crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Ken-ichi; Ahrens, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Two shock wave experiments employing inclined mirrors have been carried out to determine the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL), final shock state at 191 and 217 GPa, and the post-shock state of diamond crystal, which is shock-compressed along the intermediate direction between the and crystallographic axes. The HEL wave has a velocity of 19.9 ± 0.3 mm/µsec and an amplitude of 63 ± 28 GPa. An alternate interpretation of the inclined wedge mirror streak record suggests a ramp precursor wave and th...

  5. Modeling polydispersive ensembles of diamond nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, Amanda S

    2013-01-01

    While significant progress has been made toward production of monodispersed samples of a variety of nanoparticles, in cases such as diamond nanoparticles (nanodiamonds) a significant degree of polydispersivity persists, so scaling-up of laboratory applications to industrial levels has its challenges. In many cases, however, monodispersivity is not essential for reliable application, provided that the inevitable uncertainties are just as predictable as the functional properties. As computational methods of materials design are becoming more widespread, there is a growing need for robust methods for modeling ensembles of nanoparticles, that capture the structural complexity characteristic of real specimens. In this paper we present a simple statistical approach to modeling of ensembles of nanoparticles, and apply it to nanodiamond, based on sets of individual simulations that have been carefully selected to describe specific structural sources that are responsible for scattering of fundamental properties, and that are typically difficult to eliminate experimentally. For the purposes of demonstration we show how scattering in the Fermi energy and the electronic band gap are related to different structural variations (sources), and how these results can be combined strategically to yield statistically significant predictions of the properties of an entire ensemble of nanodiamonds, rather than merely one individual ‘model’ particle or a non-representative sub-set. (paper)

  6. Cold cathodes on ultra-dispersed diamond base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimova, A.N.; Zhirnov, V.V.; Chubun, N.N.; Belobrov, P.I.

    1998-01-01

    Prospects of application of nano diamond powders for fabrication of cold cathodes are discussed.Cold cathodes based on silicon pointed structures with nano diamond coatings were prepared.The deposition technique of diamond coating was dielectrophoresis from suspension of nano diamond powder in organic liquids.The cathodes were tested in sealed prototypes of vacuum electronic devices

  7. Large single-crystal diamond substrates for ionizing radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girolami, Marco; Bellucci, Alessandro; Calvani, Paolo; Trucchi, Daniele M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia (ISM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Sede Secondaria di Montelibretti, Monterotondo Stazione, Roma (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    The need for large active volume detectors for ionizing radiations and particles, with both large area and thickness, is becoming more and more compelling in a wide range of applications, spanning from X-ray dosimetry to neutron spectroscopy. Recently, 8.0 x 8.0 mm{sup 2} wide and 1.2 mm thick single-crystal diamond plates have been put on the market, representing a first step to the fabrication of large area monolithic diamond detectors with optimized charge transport properties, obtainable up to now only with smaller samples. The more-than-double thickness, if compared to standard plates (typically 500 μm thick), demonstrated to be effective in improving the detector response to highly penetrating ionizing radiations, such as γ-rays. Here we report on the first measurements performed on large active volume single-crystal diamond plates, both in the dark and under irradiation with optical wavelengths (190-1100 nm), X-rays, and radioactive γ-emitting sources ({sup 57}Co and {sup 22}Na). (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Clinopyroxenes still trapped in diamonds: high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction as a chemical probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Nicola; Nestola, Fabrizio; Alvaro, Matteo; Wilhelm, Heribert; Kleppe, Annette; Nimis, Paolo; Harris, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxenes are mainly Ca-Na-Fe-Mg-silicates constituting a significant portion of the Earth's upper mantle up to 20% of such shell of our planet. They could be found as typical mineral inclusions in diamonds being diopsidic and omphacitic in composition and, together with garnets, cover a key role in providing indications concerning the source rock in which the diamond crystallize. In detail, it is well known that eclogitic diamonds are characterized by clinopyroxenes with omphacitic compositions (about Ca0.5Na0.5Mg0.5Al0.5Si2O6) whereas peridotitic diamonds show clinopyroxenes very rich in the diopside end-member (CaMgSi2O6). In order to get direct chemical composition on the inclusions, and therefore on the diamond origin source, it is obviously necessary to extract them breaking and/or polishing the diamond host. However, a non-destructive investigation of an inclusion still trapped in a diamond is useful and important for different reasons: (1) the inclusions could be under pressure and their crystal structure can be modified if the pressure is released by the extraction; (2) the residual pressure on the inclusion can provide information about the formation pressure of the diamond (e.g. Nestola et al. 2011 and references therein); (3) the morphology and growth relationships of the inclusion with the host diamond can provide indications about its protogenetic vs. syngenetic and/or epigenetic nature; and (4) preservation of the diamond surface growth features can maintain crucial information on late oxidation processes (Fedortchouk et al. 2011). However the available methods to measure the composition of the inclusions implies to destroy the sample. The aim of this work is to obtain chemical information on the inclusions still trapped in their diamond host and therefore to indicate the diamond origin without extracting the inclusions. The work was carried out by single crystal X-ray diffraction using a new experimental approach by high energy synchrotron

  9. STRUCTURING OF DIAMOND FILMS USING MICROSPHERE LITHOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Domonkos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the structuring of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond thin films is demonstrated. The structuring of the diamond films is performed using the technique of microsphere lithography followed by reactive ion etching. Specifically, this paper presents a four-step fabrication process: diamond deposition (microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition, mask preparation (by the standard Langmuir-Blodgett method, mask modification and diamond etching. A self-assembled monolayer of monodisperse polystyrene (PS microspheres with close-packed ordering is used as the primary template. Then the PS microspheres and the diamond films are processed in capacitively coupled radiofrequency plasma  using different plasma chemistries. This fabrication method illustrates the preparation of large arrays of periodic and homogeneous hillock-like structures. The surface morphology of processed diamond films is characterized by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The potential applications of such diamond structures in various fields of nanotechnology are also briefly discussed.

  10. Thin diamond films for tribological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, M.S.; Meilunas, R.; Ong, T.P.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Diamond films have been deposited on Si, Mo and many other substrates by microwave and radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Although the adhesion between the diamond film and most of the metal substrates is poor due to residual thermal stress from the mismatch of thermal expansion coefficients, the authors have developed processes to promote the growth of uniform and continuous diamond films with enhanced adhesion to metal substrates for tribological applications. The tribological properties of these films are measured using a ring-on-block tribotester. The coefficients of friction of diamond films sliding against a 52100 steel ring under the same experimental conditions are found to be significantly different depending on the morphology, grain size and roughness of the diamond films. However, under all cases tested, it is found that for uniform and continuous diamond films with small grain size of 1-3 micrometers, the coefficient of friction of the diamond film sliding against a steel ring under lubrication of a jet of mineral oil is about 0.04

  11. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Guizard, B.; Marshall, R.D.; Foulon, F.

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-industrial basis, CVD diamond detectors have been fabricated for nuclear industry applications in hostile environments. Such devices can operate in harsh environments and overcome limitations encountered with the standard semiconductor materials. Of these, this paper presents devices for the monitoring of the alpha activity in corrosive nuclear waste solutions, such as those encountered in nuclear fuel assembly reprocessing facilities, as well as diamond-based thermal neutron detectors exhibiting a high neutron to gamma selectivity. All these demonstrate the effectiveness of a demanding industrial need that relies on the remarkable resilience of CVD diamond

  12. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Kahraman, Memet Vezir

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased

  13. Self-composite comprised of nanocrystalline diamond and a non-diamond component useful for thermoelectric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Dieter M [Downers Grove, IL

    2009-08-11

    One provides nanocrystalline diamond material that comprises a plurality of substantially ordered diamond crystallites that are sized no larger than about 10 nanometers. One then disposes a non-diamond component within the nanocrystalline diamond material. By one approach this non-diamond component comprises an electrical conductor that is formed at the grain boundaries that separate the diamond crystallites from one another. The resultant nanowire is then able to exhibit a desired increase with respect to its ability to conduct electricity while also preserving the thermal conductivity behavior of the nanocrystalline diamond material.

  14. Diamond-Based Supercapacitors: Realization and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang; Nebel, Christoph E

    2016-10-26

    In this Spotlight on Applications, we describe our recent progress on the fabrication of surface-enlarged boron-doped polycrystalline diamond electrodes, and evaluate their performance in supercapacitor applications. We begin with a discussion of the fabrication methods of porous diamond materials. The diamond surface enlargement starts with a top-down plasma etching method. Although the extra surface area provided by surface roughening or nanostructuring provides good outcome for sensing applications, a capacitance value <1 mF cm -2 or a surface-enlargement factor <100 fail to meet the requirement of a practical supercapacitor. Driven by the need for large surface areas, we recently focused on the tempated-growth method. We worked on both supported and free-standing porous diamond materials to enhance the areal capacitance to the "mF cm -2 " range. With our newly developed free-standing diamond paper, areal capacitance can be multiplied by stacking multilayers of the electrode material. Finally, considering the fact that there is no real diamond-based supercapacitor device up to now, we fabricated the first prototype pouch-cell device based on the free-standing diamond paper to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that the diamond paper is suitable for operation in high potential windows (up to 2.5 V) in aqueous electrolyte with a capacitance of 0.688 mF cm -2 per layer of paper (or 0.645 F g -1 ). Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the operation frequency of the device exceeds 30 Hz. Because of the large potential window and the ability to work at high frequency, the specific power of the device reached 1 × 10 5 W kg -1 . In the end, we made estimations on the future target performance of diamond supercapacitors based on the existing information.

  15. Diamond deposition on siliconized stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, F.; Reinoso, M.; Huck, H.; Rosenbusch, M.

    2010-01-01

    Silicon diffusion layers in AISI 304 and AISI 316 type stainless steels were investigated as an alternative to surface barrier coatings for diamond film growth. Uniform 2 μm thick silicon rich interlayers were obtained by coating the surface of the steels with silicon and performing diffusion treatments at 800 deg. C. Adherent diamond films with low sp 2 carbon content were deposited on the diffused silicon layers by a modified hot filament assisted chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) method. Characterization of as-siliconized layers and diamond coatings was performed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Physics and applications of CVD diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nesladek, Milos

    2008-01-01

    Here, leading scientists report on why and how diamond can be optimized for applications in bioelectronic and electronics. They cover such topics as growth techniques, new and conventional doping mechanisms, superconductivity in diamond, and excitonic properties, while application aspects include quantum electronics at room temperature, biosensors as well as diamond nanocantilevers and SAWs.Written in a review style to make the topic accessible for a wider community of scientists working in interdisciplinary fields with backgrounds in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering, this is e

  17. Amorphous Diamond MEMS and Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, JOHN P.; FRIEDMANN, THOMAS A.; ASHBY, CAROL I.; DE BOER, MAARTEN P.; SCHUBERT, W. KENT; SHUL, RANDY J.; HOHLFELDER, ROBERT J.; LAVAN, D.A.

    2002-06-01

    This report describes a new microsystems technology for the creation of microsensors and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) using stress-free amorphous diamond (aD) films. Stress-free aD is a new material that has mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond, and the material is particularly promising for the development of high sensitivity microsensors and rugged and reliable MEMS. Some of the unique properties of aD include the ability to easily tailor film stress from compressive to slightly tensile, hardness and stiffness 80-90% that of crystalline diamond, very high wear resistance, a hydrophobic surface, extreme chemical inertness, chemical compatibility with silicon, controllable electrical conductivity from insulating to conducting, and biocompatibility. A variety of MEMS structures were fabricated from this material and evaluated. These structures included electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, singly- and doubly-clamped beams, and friction and wear test structures. It was found that surface micromachined MEMS could be fabricated in this material easily and that the hydrophobic surface of the film enabled the release of structures without the need for special drying procedures or the use of applied hydrophobic coatings. Measurements using these structures revealed that aD has a Young's modulus of {approx}650 GPa, a tensile fracture strength of 8 GPa, and a fracture toughness of 8 MPa{center_dot}m {sup 1/2}. These results suggest that this material may be suitable in applications where stiction or wear is an issue. Flexural plate wave (FPW) microsensors were also fabricated from aD. These devices use membranes of aD as thin as {approx}100 nm. The performance of the aD FPW sensors was evaluated for the detection of volatile organic compounds using ethyl cellulose as the sensor coating. For comparable membrane thicknesses, the aD sensors showed better performance than silicon nitride based sensors. Greater

  18. A large area diamond-based beam tagging hodoscope for ion therapy monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallin-Martel, M.-L.; Abbassi, L.; Bes, A.; Bosson, G.; Collot, J.; Crozes, T.; Curtoni, S.; Dauvergne, D.; De Nolf, W.; Fontana, M.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Krimmer, J.; Lacoste, A.; Marcatili, S.; Morse, J.; Motte, J.-F.; Muraz, J.-F.; Rarbi, F. E.; Rossetto, O.; Salomé, M.; Testa, É.; Vuiart, R.; Yamouni, M.

    2018-01-01

    The MoniDiam project is part of the French national collaboration CLaRyS (Contrôle en Ligne de l'hAdronthérapie par RaYonnements Secondaires) for on-line monitoring of hadron therapy. It relies on the imaging of nuclear reaction products that is related to the ion range. The goal here is to provide large area beam detectors with a high detection efficiency for carbon or proton beams giving time and position measurement at 100 MHz count rates (beam tagging hodoscope). High radiation hardness and intrinsic electronic properties make diamonds reliable and very fast detectors with a good signal to noise ratio. Commercial Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) poly-crystalline, heteroepitaxial and monocrystalline diamonds were studied. Their applicability as a particle detector was investigated using α and β radioactive sources, 95 MeV/u carbon ion beams at GANIL and 8.5 keV X-ray photon bunches from ESRF. This facility offers the unique capability of providing a focused ( 1 μm) beam in bunches of 100 ps duration, with an almost uniform energy deposition in the irradiated detector volume, therefore mimicking the interaction of single ions. A signal rise time resolution ranging from 20 to 90 ps rms and an energy resolution of 7 to 9% were measured using diamonds with aluminum disk shaped surface metallization. This enabled us to conclude that polycrystalline CVD diamond detectors are good candidates for our beam tagging hodoscope development. Recently, double-side stripped metallized diamonds were tested using the XBIC (X Rays Beam Induced Current) set-up of the ID21 beamline at ESRF which permits us to evaluate the capability of diamond to be used as position sensitive detector. The final detector will consist in a mosaic arrangement of double-side stripped diamond sensors read out by a dedicated fast-integrated electronics of several hundreds of channels.

  19. ULTRAFINE FLUORESCENT DIAMONDS IN NANOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanyuk M. I.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to summarize the literature data concerning ultrafine diamonds, namely their industrial production, as well as considerable photostability and biocompatibility that promote their use in modern visualization techniques. It is shown that due to the unique physical properties, they are promising materials for using in nanotechnology in the near future. Possibility of diverse surface modification, small size and large absorption surface are the basis for their use in different approaches for drug and gene delivery into a cell. The changes in the properties of nanodiamond surface modification methods of their creation, stabilization and applications are described. It can be said that fluorescent surface-modified nanodiamonds are a promising target in various research methods that would be widely used for labeling of living cells, as well as in the processes of genes and drugs delivery into a cell.

  20. Preparation and study of laser plasma diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, C.B.; Davanloo, F.; Juengerman, E.M.; Jander, D.R.; Lee, T.J. (Center for Quantum Electronics, Univ. of Texas, Dallas (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Films of diamond-like material can be deposited with a laser plasma source of carbon ions in an ultrahigh vacuum environment without involving hydrogen in the growth mechanism. These films are distinguished by transparency at visible wavelengths which is a result of a high percentage of sp{sup 3} bonds. They resemble materials first quenched from ion beams at very slow deposition rates. In our method an Nd:YAG laser was focused on a graphite feedstock in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber at intensities in excess of 5x10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}. A high current discharge confined to the path of the laser-ignited plasma provided further heat and aided processing of the ion flux. At a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz, a deposition rate of 0.5 {mu}m h{sup -1} over a 100 cm{sup 2} area was attainable with no measurable substrate heating. The substrates required no special preparation or seeding and materials including silicon, fused silica, glass, gold, copper, germanium, InP, ZnS, and polycarbonate and polyimide plastics were readily coated. Complex shapes could be accommodated and spheres of 440C stainless steel were covered successfully. Over 1000 samples were prepared to a variety of specifications with thicknesses reaching 5 {mu}m and hardness exceeding 37 GPa. (orig.).

  1. Operational status of the transverse multibunch feedback system at Diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, I.; Abbott, M.; Heron, M.T.; Morgan, A.F.D.; Rehm, G.

    2012-01-01

    A transverse multibunch feedback (TMBF) system is in operation at Diamond Light Source to damp coupled-bunch instabilities up to 250 MHz in both the vertical and horizontal planes. It comprises an in-house designed and built analogue front end combined with a Libera Bunch-by-Bunch feedback processor and output stripline kickers. FPGA-based feedback electronics is used to implement several diagnostic features in addition to the basic feedback functionality. This paper reports on the current operational status of the TMBF system along with its characteristics. Also discussed are operational diagnostic functionalities including continuous measurement of the betatron tune and chromaticity. (authors)

  2. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  3. Astronomers debate diamonds in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This is not the first time the intriguing carbonaceous compound has been detected in space. A peculiar elite of twelve stars are known to produce it. The star now added by ISO to this elite is one of the best representatives of this exclusive family, since it emits a very strong signal of the compound. Additionally ISO found a second new member of the group with weaker emission, and also observed with a spectral resolution never achieved before other already known stars in this class. Astronomers think these ISO results will help solve the mystery of the true nature of the compound. Their publication by two different groups, from Spain and Canada, has triggered a debate on the topic, both in astronomy institutes and in chemistry laboratories. At present, mixed teams of astrophysicists and chemists are investigating in the lab compounds whose chemical signature or "fingerprint" matches that detected by ISO. Neither diamonds nor fullerenes have ever been detected in space, but their presence has been predicted. Tiny diamonds of pre-solar origin --older than the Solar System-- have been found in meteorites, which supports the as yet unconfirmed theory of their presence in interstellar space. The fullerene molecule, made of 60 carbon atoms linked to form a sphere (hence the name "buckyball"), has also been extensively searched for in space but never found. If the carbonaceous compound detected by ISO is a fullerene or a diamond, there will be new data on the production of these industrially interesting materials. Fullerenes are being investigated as "capsules" to deliver new pharmaceuticals to the body. Diamonds are commonly used in the electronics industry and for the development of new materials; if they are formed in the dust surrounding some stars, at relatively low temperatures and conditions of low pressure, companies could learn more about the ideal physical conditions to produce them. A textbook case The latest star in which the compound has been found is

  4. Ultra-fast calculations using diamond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2011-01-01

    TU Delft researchers have managed to use a piece of diamond to hold four quantum bits that can be spun, flipped and entangled with each other. This is an important step towards a working quantum computer

  5. Short-range order in irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, S.S.; Glazkov, V.P.; Nikolaenko, V.A.; Somenkov, V.A.

    2005-01-01

    Structural changes in irradiated diamond with a change in its density were studied. Natural diamond powders with average particle size from 14-20 μm to 0.5 mm, irradiated in beryllium block of the MR reactor up to a fluence of 1.51 x 10 21 were used as samples. Using the neutron-diffraction method, it has been established that, when density in irradiated diamonds varies, a transition from a diamond-like amorphous structure to a graphite-like structure occurs. The transition occurs at a density ρ ∼ 2.7-2.9 g/cm 3 and is accompanied by a sharp change in resistivity [ru

  6. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  7. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  8. CVD diamond for nuclear detection applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bergonzo, P; Tromson, D; Mer, C; Guizard, B; Marshall, R D; Foulon, F

    2002-01-01

    Chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond is a remarkable material for the fabrication of radiation detectors. In fact, there exist several applications where other standard semiconductor detectors do not fulfil the specific requirements imposed by corrosive, hot and/or high radiation dose environments. The improvement of the electronic properties of CVD diamond has been under intensive investigations and led to the development of a few applications that are addressing specific industrial needs. Here, we report on CVD diamond-based detector developments and we describe how this material, even though of a polycrystalline nature, is readily of great interest for applications in the nuclear industry as well as for physics experiments. Improvements in the material synthesis as well as on device fabrication especially concern the synthesis of films that do not exhibit space charge build up effects which are often encountered in CVD diamond materials and that are highly detrimental for detection devices. On a pre-i...

  9. Diamond detectors for high energy physics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäni, L.; Alexopoulos, A.; Artuso, M.; Bachmair, F.; Bartosik, M.; Beacham, J.; Beck, H.; Bellini, V.; Belyaev, V.; Bentele, B.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bes, A.; Brom, J.-M.; Bruzzi, M.; Cerv, M.; Chiodini, G.; Chren, D.; Cindro, V.; Claus, G.; Collot, J.; Cumalat, J.; Dabrowski, A.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dauvergne, D.; de Boer, W.; Dorfer, C.; Dünser, M.; Eremin, V.; Eusebi, R.; Forcolin, G.; Forneris, J.; Frais-Kölbl, H.; Gallin-Martel, L.; Gallin-Martel, M. L.; Gan, K. K.; Gastal, M.; Giroletti, C.; Goffe, M.; Goldstein, J.; Golubev, A.; Gorišek, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grummer, A.; Gui, B.; Guthoff, M.; Haughton, I.; Hiti, B.; Hits, D.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Hofmann, T.; Hosslet, J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hügging, F.; Hutton, C.; Jansen, H.; Janssen, J.; Kagan, H.; Kanxheri, K.; Kasieczka, G.; Kass, R.; Kassel, F.; Kis, M.; Konovalov, V.; Kramberger, G.; Kuleshov, S.; Lacoste, A.; Lagomarsino, S.; Lo Giudice, A.; Lukosi, E.; Maazouzi, C.; Mandic, I.; Mathieu, C.; Menichelli, M.; Mikuž, M.; Morozzi, A.; Moss, J.; Mountain, R.; Murphy, S.; Muškinja, M.; Oh, A.; Oliviero, P.; Passeri, D.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Picollo, F.; Pomorski, M.; Potenza, R.; Quadt, A.; Re, A.; Reichmann, M.; Riley, G.; Roe, S.; Sanz, D.; Scaringella, M.; Schaefer, D.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Scorzoni, A.; Seidel, S.; Servoli, L.; Smith, S.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanier, S.; Stenson, K.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Tannenwald, B.; Taylor, A.; Traeger, M.; Tromson, D.; Trischuk, W.; Tuve, C.; Uplegger, L.; Velthuis, J.; Venturi, N.; Vittone, E.; Wagner, S.; Wallny, R.; Wang, J. C.; Weingarten, J.; Weiss, C.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Yamouni, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2018-01-01

    Beam test results of the radiation tolerance study of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond against different particle species and energies is presented. We also present beam test results on the independence of signal size on incident particle rate in charged particle detectors based on un-irradiated and irradiated poly-crystalline CVD diamond over a range of particle fluxes from 2 kHz/cm2 to 10 MHz/cm2. The pulse height of the sensors was measured with readout electronics with a peaking time of 6 ns. In addition functionality of poly-crystalline CVD diamond 3D devices was demonstrated in beam tests and 3D diamond detectors are shown to be a promising technology for applications in future high luminosity experiments.

  10. Diamond Detector Technology: Status and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Reichmann, M; Artuso, M; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bartosik, M; Beacham, J; Beck, H; Bellini, V; Belyaev, V; Bentele, B; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bes, A; Brom, J-M; Bruzzi, M; Cerv, M; Chiodini, G; Chren, D; Cindro, V; Claus, G; Collot, J; Cumalat, J; Dabrowski, A; D'Alessandro, R; Dauvergne, D; de Boer, W; Dorfer, C; Dünser, M; Eremin, V; Eusebi, R; Forcolin, G; Forneris, J; Frais-Kölbl, H; Gallin-Martel, L; Gallin-Martel, M L; Gan, K K; Gastal, M; Giroletti, C; Goffe, M; Goldstein, J; Golubev, A; Gorišek, A; Grigoriev, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grummer, A; Gui, B; Guthoff, M; Haughton, I; Hiti, B; Hits, D; Hoeferkamp, M; Hofmann, T; Hosslet, J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hügging, F; Hutton, C; Jansen, H; Janssen, J; Kagan, H; Kanxheri, K; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R; Kassel, F; Kis, M; Konovalov, V; Kramberger, G; Kuleshov, S; Lacoste, A; Lagomarsino, S; Lo Giudice, A; Lukosi, E; Maazouzi, C; Mandic, I; Mathieu, C; Menichelli, M; Mikuž, M; Morozzi, A; Moss, J; Mountain, R; Murphy, S; Muškinja, M; Oh, A; Oliviero, P; Passeri, D; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Picollo, F; Pomorski, M; Potenza, R; Quadt, A; Re, A; Riley, G; Roe, S; Sanz-Becerra, D A; Scaringella, M; Schaefer, D; Schmidt, C J; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Scorzoni, A; Seidel, S; Servoli, L; Smith, S; Sopko, B; Sopko, V; Spagnolo, S; Spanier, S; Stenson, K; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Tannenwald, B; Taylor, A; Traeger, M; Tromson, D; Trischuk, W; Tuve, C; Uplegger, L; Velthuis, J; Venturi, N; Vittone, E; Wagner, S; Wallny, R; Wang, J C; Weingarten, J; Weiss, C; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Yamouni, M; Zavrtanik, M

    2018-01-01

    The planned upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity-LHC will push the luminosity limits above the original design values. Since the current detectors will not be able to cope with this environment ATLAS and CMS are doing research to find more radiation tolerant technologies for their innermost tracking layers. Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond is an excellent candidate for this purpose. Detectors out of this material are already established in the highest irradiation regimes for the beam condition monitors at LHC. The RD42 collaboration is leading an effort to use CVD diamonds also as sensor material for the future tracking detectors. The signal behaviour of highly irradiated diamonds is presented as well as the recent study of the signal dependence on incident particle flux. There is also a recent development towards 3D detectors and especially 3D detectors with a pixel readout based on diamond sensors.

  11. Modified diamond dies for laser applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McWilliams, R.A.

    1978-06-21

    A modified wire drawing die for spatial filtering techniques is described. It was designed for use in high power laser systems. The diamond aperture is capable of enduring high intensity laser frequency without damaging the laser beam profile. The diamond is mounted at the beam focus in a vacuum of 1 x 10/sup -5/ Torr. The vacuum prevents plasma forming at the diamond aperture, thus enabling the beam to pass through without damaging the holder or aperture. The spatial filters are fitted with a manipulator that has three electronic stepping motors, can position the aperture in three orthogonal directions, and is capable of 3.2 ..mu..m resolution. Shiva laser system is using 105 diamond apertures for shaping the High Energy Laser Beam.

  12. The DIAMOND Model of Peace Support Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Peter

    2005-01-01

    DIAMOND (Diplomatic And Military Operations in a Non-warfighting Domain) is a high-level stochastic simulation developed at Dstl as a key centerpiece within the Peace Support Operations (PSO) 'modelling jigsaw...

  13. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated on rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are the major source of friction in lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 70% of the total friction. Our solution is to coat rubbers with flexible diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film by which the coefficient of friction is reduced from above 1.5 to below 0.15.

  14. Flexible diamond-like carbon thin film coated rubbers: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic rubber seals are major sources of friction of lubrication systems and bearings, which may take up to 75% of the total friction. The solution we present is to coat rubbers with diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film, by which the coefficient of friction is reduced to less than one tenth. Coating

  15. Dosimetry in radiotherapy with natural diamond detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, C.; Onori, S.; Pacilio, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Bucciolini, M.; Mazzocchi, S.

    2002-01-01

    There is wide interest in the use of diamond detectors for dosimetry in radiotherapy mainly because of the small dimensions, radiation hardness, nearly tissue equivalence of sensitive material and capability to deliver the dosimetric response 'on line'. In order to assess the dosimetric properties of PTW Riga diamond detectors type 60003, experiments were performed in conventional (high energy photon and electron) therapy beams as well as in proton therapy beams. The main detector features investigated were reproducibility of response, dose-signal relationship, temperature dependence, dose-rate dependence, energy dependence and angular dependence. High energy photons (6-25 MV) and electrons (6-22 MeV), available at the Radiotherapy Department of the Florence University, were used for investigating the general properties. Two different PTW diamond detectors of the same type were used to evidence inter-sample differences. The beam quality dependence of the detector response is probably the most critical point and this statement is of particular relevance for proton dosimetry since the proton LET changes with depth in the medium. Mainly because of the little information available on detector sensitivity variations with beam energy, the use of diamonds for clinical proton dosimetry is not widespread. In two recent papers a sensitivity dependence on proton energy of a natural PTW diamond detector has been reported. Due to the necessity to characterise each diamond detector individually the PTW Riga natural diamond detector in operation at the LNS-INFN, Catania, Italy was tested with the local proton beam line. This experiment is of main concern because this proton beam, produced by a superconducting cyclotron and used for ocular melanoma treatment, is available only since 2001 (CATANA beam). The first patient has been treated in February 2002. Proton irradiations were performed with non modulated and modulated 62 MeV beams. Attention was focused on diamond sensitivity

  16. Polycrystalline Diamond Schottky Diodes and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ganming

    In this work, four-hot-filament CVD techniques for in situ boron doped diamond synthesis on silicon substrates were extensively studied. A novel tungsten filament shape and arrangement used to obtain large-area, uniform, boron doped polycrystalline diamond thin films. Both the experimental results and radiative heat transfer analysis showed that this technique improved the uniformity of the substrate temperature. XRD, Raman and SEM studies indicate that large area, uniform, high quality polycrystalline diamond films were obtained. Schottky diodes were fabricated by either sputter deposition of silver or thermal evaporation of aluminum or gold, on boron doped diamond thin films. High forward current density and a high forward-to-reverse current ratio were exhibited by silver on diamond Schottky diodes. Schottky barrier heights and the majority carrier concentrations of both aluminum and gold contacted diodes were determined from the C-V measurements. Furthermore, a novel theoretical C-V-f analysis of deep level boron doped diamond Schottky diodes was performed. The analytical results agree well with the experimental results. Compressive stress was found to have a large effect on the forward biased I-V characteristics of the diamond Schottky diodes, whereas the effect on the reverse biased characteristics was relatively small. The stress effect on the forward biased diamond Schottky diode was attributed to piezojunction and piezoresistance effects. The measured force sensitivity of the diode was as high as 0.75 V/N at 1 mA forward bias. This result shows that CVD diamond device has potential for mechanical transducer applications. The quantitative photoresponse characteristics of the diodes were studied in the spectral range of 300 -1050 nm. Semi-transparent gold contacts were used for better photoresponse. Quantum efficiency as high as 50% was obtained at 500 nm, when a reverse bias of over 1 volt was applied. The Schottky barrier heights between either gold or

  17. Growth and optical spectroscopy of synthetic diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudryj, A.V.; Larionova, T.P.; Shakin, I.A.; Gysakov, G.A.; Dubrov, G.A.; Tikhonov, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    It is studied the growth and optical properties of synthetic diamonds, which may be used for detection of ionizing radiation, optical windows, heat removal, ultraviolet and thermo sensors, optoelectronic devices. Optical properties of diamonds (grown in different technological conditions) were studied in temperature range 78 - 300 K by means of measuring transmission in spectral band 0.2 - 25 μm, photoluminescence and registration of luminescence excitation spectra in spectral band 0.2 - 2 μm

  18. Long-term data storage in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV?) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV? optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multic...

  19. Diamond nanostructured devices for chemical sensing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, R. K.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the area of CVD single crystal diamond plates of which only recently has been made commercially available saw significant advancements during the last decade. In parallel to that, detonation nanodiamond (DND) particles also now widely made accessible for requisition are provoking a lot of scientific investigations. The remarkable properties of diamond including its extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction, chemical inertness, biocompatibility, high thermal c...

  20. Graphitization of diamond with a metallic coating on ferritic matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, Stenio Cavalier; Oliveira, Hellen Cristine Prata de; Filgueira, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Iron is a strong catalyst of graphitization of diamonds. This graphitization occurs mainly during the processing of composites - conventional sintering or hot pressing, and during cutting operations. Aiming to avoid or minimize this deleterious effect, there is increasing use of diamond coated with metallic materials in the production of diamond tools processed via powder metallurgy. This work studies the influence of Fe on diamond graphitization diamond-coated Ti after mixing of Fe-diamonds, hot pressing parameters were performed with 3 minutes/35MPa/900 deg C - this is the condition of pressing hot used in industry for production of diamond tools. Microstructural features were observed by SEM, diffusion of Fe in diamond was studied by EDS. Graphitization was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that Fe not activate graphitization on the diamond under the conditions of hot pressing. (author)

  1. Diamond growth in oxygen-acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haga, Mario S.; Nagai, Y. Ernesto; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    1995-01-01

    What was supposed to be a laboratory curiosity in the 80's, in recent years the low pressure process for the production of man-made diamond turned out to be a major target for research and development of many high-tech companies. The main reason for such an interest stems on the possibility of coating many materials with a diamond film possessing the same amazing properties of the bulk natural diamond. Polycrystalline diamond film has been deposited on Mo substrate by using oxygen-acetylene flame of a welding torch. The substrate temperature has been held constant about 700 d eg C by means of a water cooled mount designed properly. Precision flowmeters have been used to control the flow ratio oxygen/acetylene, a key parameter for the success in diamond growth. Diamond has been detected by X-ray diffraction, a fast foolproof technique for crystal identification. Another method of analysis often used in Raman spectroscopy, which is able to exhibit amorphous structure besides crystalline phase. (author)

  2. CVD diamond deposition onto dental burs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, N.; Sein, H.

    2001-01-01

    A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) system has been modified to enable non-planar substrates, such as metallic wires and dental burs, to be uniformly coated with thin polycrystalline diamond films. Initially, diamond deposition was carried out on titanium and tantalum wires in order to test and optimize the system. High growth rates of the order of approx. 8 /hr were obtained when depositing diamond on titanium wires using the vertical filament arrangement. However, lower growth rates of the order of 4-5meu m/hr were obtained with diamond deposition on tantalum wires. To extend the work towards a practical biomedical application tungsten carbide dental burs were coated with diamond films. The as-grown films were found to be polycrystalline and uniform over the cutting tip. Finally, the costs relating to diamond CVD onto dental burs have been presented in this paper. The costs relating to coating different number of burs at a time and the effect of film thickness on costs have been included in this investigation. (author)

  3. Development of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fisch, D; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E A; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Manfredi, P F; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Le Normand, F; Pan, L S; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, Manfred; Pirollo, S; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Turchetta, R; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Ziock, H J; Zoeller, M M

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a nearly ideal material for detecting ionizing radiation. Its outstanding radiation hardness, fast charge collection and low leakage current allow a diamond detector to be used in high ra diation, high temperature and in aggressive chemical media. We have constructed charged particle detectors using high quality CVD diamond. Characterization of the diamond samples and various detect ors are presented in terms of collection distance, $d=\\mu E \\tau$, the average distance electron-hole pairs move apart under the influence of an electric field, where $\\mu$ is the sum of carrier mo bilities, $E$ is the applied electric field, and $\\tau$ is the mobility weighted carrier lifetime. Over the last two years the collection distance increased from $\\sim$ 75 $\\mu$m to over 200 $\\mu$ m. With this high quality CVD diamond a series of micro-strip and pixel particle detectors have been constructed. These devices were tested to determine their position resolution and signal to n oise performance. Diamond detectors w...

  4. 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe dating of diamond inclusions from the Premier kimberlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.; Onstott, T.C.; Harris, J.W.; Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    Inclusions encapsulated by diamonds at the time of their formation provide a means for determining diamond crystallization ages and the chemistry of the surrounding upper mantle at that time. Sm-Nd studies of peridotitic inclusions, from Cretaceous-age kimberlites in southern Africa, suggest that the diamonds formed 3.3 Gyr ago. By contrast, eclogite-suite inclusions generally yield younger ages, sometimes approaching the time of kimberlite eruption. Here we report the results of 40 Ar/ 39 Ar laser-probe analyses of individual eclogitic clinopyroxene inclusions from Premier diamonds, which yield a mean age of 1,198±14 Myr. This age agrees well with Sm-Nd and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses on similar Premier inclusions, and is indistinguishable from the inferred time of emplacement of the host kimberlite (1,150-1,230 Myr), which implies that diamond formation was essentially synchronous with kimberlite generation. The extrapolated non-radiogenic 40 Ar/ 36 Ar ratio of 334±102 is similar to the present-day atmospheric composition. This value is inconsistent with Sr and Nd isotopic signatures from Premier eclogite inclusions, which suggest a depleted mantle source ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar>20,000). Pre-entrapment equilibration of the inclusions with an 36 Ar-rich fluid is the most probable explanation for the low non-radiogenic ( 40 Ar/ 36 Ar) composition. (author)

  5. Ultraviolet photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- and nano-crystalline diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Frank; Makarov, Vladimir; Hidalgo, Arturo; Weiner, Brad; Morell, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    The room-temperature photosensitivity of sulfur-doped micro- (MCD), submicro- (SMCD) and nano- (NCD) crystalline diamond films synthesized by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition was studied. The structure and composition of these diamond materials were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The UV sensitivity and response time were studied for the three types of diamond materials using a steady state broad UV excitation source and two pulsed UV laser radiations. It was found that they have high sensitivity in the UV region, as high as 10 9 sec -1 mV -1 range, linear response in a broad spectral range below 320 nm, photocurrents around ∼10 -5 A, and short response time better than 100 ns, which is independent of fluency intensity. A phenomenological model was applied to help understand the role of defects and dopant concentration on the materials' photosensitivity

  6. X-ray topography of natural diamonds on the VEPP-3 SR beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuper, K.E.; Zedgenizov, D.A.; Ragozin, A.L.; Shatsky, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray topography (XRT) images were obtained using a double-crystal topographic method, with a magnification system in the Laue case. The experiment was performed at the beamline station 'Microscopy and tomography' of the VEPP-3 synchrotron radiation source. Two asymmetrically cut crystals in the Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme were used to increase the spatial resolution. The usage of an asymmetrically cut crystal with a magnification factor of 20 allows us to improve spatial resolution in registered images. A series of slabs of natural diamonds from kimberlite pipes and placers of the Siberian platform was examined. This study confirmed the high efficiency of the XRT method to recover information on the internal structure of natural diamonds. Together with other mineralogical data, the features of internal structure determined by this way are important to deduce the origin and history of growth of natural diamonds.

  7. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroz Alfaro, Marco Antonio; Ferro, Sergio; Martinez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto; Vong, Yunny Meas

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes. (author)

  8. Optimizing biosensing properties on undecylenic Acid-functionalized diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yu Lin; Chong, Kwok Feng; May, Paul W; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Loh, Kian Ping

    2007-05-08

    The optimization of biosensing efficiency on a diamond platform depends on the successful coupling of biomolecules on the surface, and also on effective signal transduction in the biorecognition events. In terms of biofunctionalization of diamond surfaces, surface electrochemical studies of diamond modified with undecylenic acid (UA), with and without headgroup protection, were performed. The direct photochemical coupling method employing UA was found to impart a higher density of carboxylic acid groups on the diamond surface compared to that using trifluoroethyl undecenoate (TFEU) as the protecting group during the coupling process. Non-faradic impedimetric DNA sensing revealed that lightly doped diamond gives better signal transduction sensitivity compared to highly doped diamond.

  9. Boron doped diamond electrode for the wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfaro Marco Antonio Quiroz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical studies of diamond were started more than fifteen years ago with the first paper on diamond electrochemistry published by Pleskov. After that, work started in Japan, United States of America, France, Switzerland and other countries. Over the last few years, the number of publications has increased considerably. Diamond films have been the subject of applications and fundamental research in electrochemistry, opening up a new branch known as the electrochemistry of diamond electrodes. Here, we first present a brief history and the process of diamond film synthesis. The principal objective of this work is to summarize the most important results in the electrochemical oxidation using diamond electrodes.

  10. Recognition of diamond grains on surface of fine diamond grinding wheel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengwei HUO; Zhuji JIN; Renke KANG; Dongming GUO; Chun YANG

    2008-01-01

    The accurate evaluation of grinding wheel sur-face topography, which is necessary for the investigation of the grinding principle, optimism, modeling, and simu-lation of a grinding process, significantly depends on the accurate recognition of abrasive grains from the measured wheel surface. A detailed analysis of the grain size distri-bution characteristics and grain profile wavelength of the fine diamond grinding wheel used for ultra-precision grinding is presented. The requirements of the spatial sampling interval and sampling area for instruments to measure the surface topography of a diamond grinding wheel are discussed. To recognize diamond grains, digital filtering is used to eliminate the high frequency disturb-ance from the measured 3D digital surface of the grinding wheel, the geometric features of diamond grains are then extracted from the filtered 3D digital surface, and a method based on the grain profile frequency characteris-tics, diamond grain curvature, and distance between two adjacent diamond grains is proposed. A 3D surface pro-filer based on scanning white light interferometry is used to measure the 3D surface topography of a #3000 mesh resin bonded diamond grinding wheel, and the diamond grains are then recognized from the 3D digital surface. The experimental result shows that the proposed method is reasonable and effective.

  11. Toward deep blue nano hope diamonds: heavily boron-doped diamond nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Steffen; Janssen, Wiebke; Turner, Stuart; Lu, Ying-Gang; Yeap, Weng Siang; Verbeeck, Jo; Haenen, Ken; Krueger, Anke

    2014-06-24

    The production of boron-doped diamond nanoparticles enables the application of this material for a broad range of fields, such as electrochemistry, thermal management, and fundamental superconductivity research. Here we present the production of highly boron-doped diamond nanoparticles using boron-doped CVD diamond films as a starting material. In a multistep milling process followed by purification and surface oxidation we obtained diamond nanoparticles of 10-60 nm with a boron content of approximately 2.3 × 10(21) cm(-3). Aberration-corrected HRTEM reveals the presence of defects within individual diamond grains, as well as a very thin nondiamond carbon layer at the particle surface. The boron K-edge electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure demonstrates that the B atoms are tetrahedrally embedded into the diamond lattice. The boron-doped diamond nanoparticles have been used to nucleate growth of a boron-doped diamond film by CVD that does not contain an insulating seeding layer.

  12. Status and applications of diamond and diamond-like materials: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Recent discoveries that make possible the growth of crystalline diamond by chemical vapor deposition offer the potential for a wide variety of new applications. This report takes a broad look at the state of the technology following from these discoveries in relation to other allied materials, such as high-pressure diamond and cubic boron nitride. Most of the potential defense, space, and commercial applications are related to diamond's hardness, but some utilize other aspects such as optical or electronic properties. The growth processes are reviewed, and techniques for characterizing the resulting materials' properties are discussed. Crystalline diamond is emphasized, but other diamond-like materials (silicon carbide, amorphous carbon containing hydrogen) are also examined. Scientific, technical, and economic problem areas that could impede the rapid exploitation of these materials are identified. Recommendations are presented covering broad areas of research and development.

  13. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, James C. [KINIK Company, 64, Chung-San Rd., Ying-Kuo, Taipei Hsien 239, Taiwan (China) and National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China) and National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sung@kinik.com.tw; Sung, Michael [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Sung, Emily [Johnson and Johnson, Freemont, CA (United States)

    2006-03-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry.

  14. Diamond growth on an array of seeds: The revolution of diamond production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, James C.; Sung, Michael; Sung, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The consumption of saw diamond grits is a measure of a nation's constructional activities. The per capita consumption for the world is about 0.7 carats in 2004, and in China, about 3 carats. The manufacture of large saw diamond grits requires stringent control of pressure and temperature that only a few companies can master. However, with the implementation of a novel diamond seeding technology, large saw diamond grits of extreme quality can be mass produced. With this breakthrough, the prices of saw grit will plummet in the near future that should benefit the constructional industry worldwide. Moreover, electronic or thermal grade of large diamond crystals may be produced for applications in semiconductor, electronic or optical industry

  15. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  16. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan, E-mail: joan.vila.comamala@gmail.com; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 PSI-Villigen (Switzerland); Eastwood, David S. [Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK and Research Complex at Harwell, Harwell Campus, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  17. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; Rau, Christoph; Bosgra, Jeroen; David, Christian; Eastwood, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale

  18. Transmission x-ray microscopy at Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Comamala, Joan; Bosgra, Jeroen; Eastwood, David S.; Wagner, Ulrich; Bodey, Andrew J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Miryam; David, Christian; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Full-field Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) has been shown to be a powerful method for obtaining quantitative internal structural and chemical information from materials at the nanoscale. The installation of a Full-field TXM station will extend the current microtomographic capabilities of the Diamond-Manchester I13 Imaging Branchline at Diamond Light Source (UK) into the sub-100 nm spatial resolution range using photon energies from 8 to 14 keV. The dedicated Full-field TXM station will be built in-house with contributions of Diamond Light Source support divisions and via collaboration with the X-ray Optics Group of Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland) which will develop state-of-the-art diffractive X-ray optical elements. Preliminary results of the I13 Full-field TXM station are shown. The Full-field TXM will become an important Diamond Light Source direct imaging asset for material science, energy science and biology at the nanoscale.

  19. Low propagation loss in a one-port SAW resonator fabricated on single-crystal diamond for super-high-frequency applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Odawara, Tatsuya; Yamada, Haruya; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya; Torii, Hironori; Umezawa, Hitoshi; Shikata, Shinichi

    2013-05-01

    Diamond has the highest known SAW phase velocity, sufficient for applications in the gigahertz range. However, although numerous studies have demonstrated SAW devices on polycrystalline diamond thin films, all have had much larger propagation loss than single-crystal materials such as LiNbO3. Hence, in this study, we fabricated and characterized one-port SAW resonators on single-crystal diamond substrates synthesized using a high-pressure and high-temperature method to identify and minimize sources of propagation loss. A series of one-port resonators were fabricated with the interdigital transducer/ AlN/diamond structure and their characteristics were measured. The device with the best performance exhibited a resonance frequency f of 5.3 GHz, and the equivalent circuit model gave a quality factor Q of 5509. Thus, a large fQ product of approximately 2.9 × 10(13) was obtained, and the propagation loss was found to be only 0.006 dB/wavelength. These excellent properties are attributed mainly to the reduction of scattering loss in a substrate using a single-crystal diamond, which originated from the grain boundary of diamond and the surface roughness of the AlN thin film and the diamond substrate. These results show that single-crystal diamond SAW resonators have great potential for use in low-noise super-high-frequency oscillators.

  20. Diamond ages from Victor (Superior Craton): Intra-mantle cycling of volatiles (C, N, S) during supercontinent reorganisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, S.; Creaser, Robert A.; Stachel, Thomas; Heaman, Larry M.; Chinn, Ingrid L.; Kong, Julie

    2018-05-01

    The central Superior Craton hosts both the diamondiferous 1.1 Ga Kyle Lake and Jurassic Attawapiskat kimberlites. A major thermal event related to the Midcontinent Rift at ca. 1.1 Ga induced an elevated geothermal gradient that largely destroyed an older generation of diamonds, raising the question of when, and how, the diamond inventory beneath Attawapiskat was formed. We determined Re-Os isotope systematics of sulphides included in diamonds from Victor by isotope dilution negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in order to obtain insights into the age and nature of the diamond source in the context of regional tectonothermal evolution. Regression of the peridotitic inclusion data (n = 14 of 16) yields a 718 ± 49 Ma age, with an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.1177 ± 0.0016, i.e. depleted at the time of formation (γOs -3.7 ± 1.3). Consequently, Re depletion model ages calculated for these samples are systematically overestimated. Given that reported 187Os/188Os in olivine from Attawapiskat xenoliths varies strongly (0.1012-0.1821), the low and nearly identical initial Os of sulphide inclusions combined with their high 187Re/188Os (median 0.34) suggest metasomatic formation from a mixed source. This was likely facilitated by percolation of amounts of melt sufficient to homogenise Os, (re)crystallise sulphide and (co)precipitate diamond; that is, the sulphide inclusions and their diamond host are synchronous if not syngenetic. The ∼720 Ma age corresponds to rifting beyond the northern craton margin during Rodinia break-up. This suggests mobilisation of volatiles (C, N, S) and Os due to attendant mantle stretching and metasomatism by initially oxidising and S-undersaturated melts, which ultimately produced lherzolitic diamonds with high N contents compared to older Kyle Lake diamonds. Thus, some rift-influenced settings are prospective with respect to diamond formation. They are also important sites of hidden, intra-lithospheric volatile redistribution

  1. Optical studies of high quality synthetic diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the study of fundamental and defect induced optical properties of synthetic diamond grown using high pressure, high temperature (HPHT) synthesis or chemical vapour deposition (CVD). The primary technique used for investigation is cathodoluminescence (including imaging and decay-time measurements) in addition to other forms of optical spectroscopy. This thesis is timely in that the crystallinity and purity of synthetic diamond has increased ten fold over the last few years. The diamond exciton emission, which is easily quenched by the presence of defects, is studied in high quality samples in detail. In addition the ability now exists to engineer the isotopic content of synthetic diamond to a high degree of accuracy. The experimental chapters are divided as follows: Chapter 2: High resolution, low temperature spectra reveal a splitting of the free-exciton phonon recombination emission peaks and the bound-exciton zero phonon line. Included are measurements of the variation in intensity and decay-time as a function of temperature. Chapter 3: The shift in energy of the phonon-assisted free-exciton phonon replicas with isotopic content has been measured. The shift is in agreement with the results of interatomic force model for phonon scattering due to isotope disorder. Chapter 4: A study of the shift in energy with isotopic content of the diamond of the GR1 band due to the neutral vacancy has allowed a verification of the theoretical predictions due to the Jahn Teller effect. Chapter 5: The spatial distribution of the free-exciton luminescence is studied in HPHT synthetic and CVD diamond. A variation in intensity with distance from the surface is interpreted as a significant non-radiative loss of excitons to the surface. Chapter 6: The decay-times of all known self-interstitial related centres have been measured in order to calculate the concentration of these centres present in electron irradiated diamond. (author)

  2. Pixelated transmission-mode diamond X-ray detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tianyi; Ding, Wenxiang; Gaowei, Mengjia; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Bohon, Jen; Smedley, John; Muller, Erik

    2015-11-01

    Fabrication and testing of a prototype transmission-mode pixelated diamond X-ray detector (pitch size 60-100 µm), designed to simultaneously measure the flux, position and morphology of an X-ray beam in real time, are described. The pixel density is achieved by lithographically patterning vertical stripes on the front and horizontal stripes on the back of an electronic-grade chemical vapor deposition single-crystal diamond. The bias is rotated through the back horizontal stripes and the current is read out on the front vertical stripes at a rate of ∼ 1 kHz, which leads to an image sampling rate of ∼ 30 Hz. This novel signal readout scheme was tested at beamline X28C at the National Synchrotron Light Source (white beam, 5-15 keV) and at beamline G3 at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (monochromatic beam, 11.3 keV) with incident beam flux ranges from 1.8 × 10(-2) to 90 W mm(-2). Test results show that the novel detector provides precise beam position (positional noise within 1%) and morphology information (error within 2%), with an additional software-controlled single channel mode providing accurate flux measurement (fluctuation within 1%).

  3. Critical components for diamond-based quantum coherent devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D; Olivero, Paolo; Draganski, Martin; Trajkov, Elizabeth; Rabeau, James R; Reichart, Patrick; Gibson, Brant C; Rubanov, Sergey; Huntington, Shane T; Jamieson, David N; Prawer, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The necessary elements for practical devices exploiting quantum coherence in diamond materials are summarized, and progress towards their realization documented. A brief review of future prospects for diamond-based devices is also provided

  4. Prospects for the synthesis of large single-crystal diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khmelnitskiy, R A

    2015-01-01

    The unique properties of diamond have stimulated the study of and search for its applications in many fields, including optics, optoelectronics, electronics, biology, and electrochemistry. Whereas chemical vapor deposition allows the growth of polycrystalline diamond plates more than 200 mm in diameter, most current diamond application technologies require large-size (25 mm and more) single-crystal diamond substrates or films suitable for the photolithography process. This is quite a challenge, because the largest diamond crystals currently available are 10 mm or less in size. This review examines three promising approaches to fabricating large-size diamond single crystals: growing large-size single crystals, the deposition of heteroepitaxial diamond films on single-crystal substrates, and the preparation of composite diamond substrates. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Architecting boron nanostructure on the diamond particle surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, H.; Dai, D.; Yu, J.H.; Nishimura, K.; Sasaoka, S.; Jiang, N.

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides an efficient approach for nano-functionalization of diamond powders. Boron nanostructure can be grown on diamond particle entire surface by a simple heat-treatment process. After treatment, various boron nanoforms were grown on the diamond particle surface at different processing temperature. High-density boron nanowires (BNWs) grow on the diamond particle entire surface at 1333 K, while nanopillars cover diamond powders when the heat treatment process is performed at 1393 K. The influence of the pretreatment temperature on the microstructure and thermal conductivity of Cu/diamond composites were investigated. Cu/diamond composites with high thermal conductivity of 670 W (m K) −1 was obtained, which was achieved by the formation of large number of nanowires and nanopillars on the diamond particle surface.

  6. Development of diamond coated tool and its performance in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302, India ... chemical inertness of diamond coating towards the work material, did not show any .... CVD diamond coated carbide tools, Ph D Thesis, Indian.

  7. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, T.R. [General Electric Corporate Research & Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  8. Volatile composition of microinclusions in diamonds from the Panda kimberlite, Canada: Implications for chemical and isotopic heterogeneity in the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Ray; Cartigny, Pierre; Harrison, Darrell; Hobson, Emily; Harris, Jeff

    2009-03-01

    In order to better investigate the compositions and the origins of fluids associated with diamond growth, we have carried-out combined noble gas (He and Ar), C and N isotope, K, Ca and halogen (Cl, Br, I) determinations on fragments of individual microinclusion-bearing diamonds from the Panda kimberlite, North West Territories, Canada. The fluid concentrations of halogens and noble gases in Panda diamonds are enriched by several orders of magnitude over typical upper mantle abundances. However, noble gas, C and N isotopic ratios ( 3He/ 4He = 4-6 Ra, 40Ar/ 36Ar = 20,000-30,000, δ 13C = -4.5‰ to -6.9‰ and δ 15N = -1.2‰ to -8.8‰) are within the worldwide range determined for fibrous diamonds and similar to the mid ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source value. The high 36Ar content of the diamonds (>1 × 10 -9 cm 3/g) is at least an order of magnitude higher than any previously reported mantle sample and enables the 36Ar content of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle to be estimated at ˜0.6 × 10 -12 cm 3/g, again similar to estimates for the MORB source. Three fluid types distinguished on the basis of Ca-K-Cl compositions are consistent with carbonatitic, silicic and saline end-members identified in previous studies of diamonds from worldwide sources. These fluid end-members also have distinct halogen ratios (Br/Cl and I/Cl). The role of subducted seawater-derived halogens, originally invoked to explain some of the halogen ratio variations in diamonds, is not considered an essential component in the formation of the fluids. In contrast, it is considered that large halogen fractionation of a primitive mantle ratio occurs during fluid-melt partitioning in forming silicic fluids, and during separation of an immiscible saline fluid.

  9. The depth of sub-lithospheric diamond formation and the redistribution of carbon in the deep mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christopher; Frost, Daniel J.

    2017-03-01

    Most diamonds form in the Earth's lithosphere but a small proportion contain Si-rich majoritic garnet inclusions that indicate formation in the deeper mantle. The compositions of syngenetic garnet inclusions can potential yield information on both the depth and mantle lithology in which the diamonds formed. Pressure dependent changes in garnet compositions have been calibrated using the results of experiments conducted in a multi-anvil apparatus at pressures between 6 and 16 GPa and temperatures of 1000 to 1400 °C. Using the results of these experiments a barometer was formulated based on an empirical parameterisation of the two major majoritic substitutions, referred to as majorite (Maj; Al3+ =Mg2+ +Si4+), and Na-majorite (Na-Maj; Mg2+ +Al3+ =Na+ +Si4+). Moreover, previously published experimental garnet compositions from basaltic, kimberlite, komatiite and peridotite bulk compositions were included in the calibration, which consequently covers pressures from 6 to 20 GPa and temperatures from 900 to 2100 °C. Experimental pressures are reproduced over these conditions with a standard deviation of 0.86 GPa. The barometer is used to determine equilibration pressures of approximately 500 reported garnet inclusions in diamonds from a range of localities. As the majority of these inclusions are proposed to be syngenetic this allows a detailed picture of diamond formation depths and associated source rocks to be established using inclusion chemistry. Geographic differences in diamond source rocks are mapped within the sub-lithospheric mantle to over 500 km depth. Continuous diamond formation occurs over this depth range within lithologies with eclogitic affinities but also in lithologies that appear transitional between eclogitic and peridotitic bulk compositions, with an affinity to pyroxenites. The geographic differences between eclogitic and pyroxenitic diamond source rocks are rationalised in terms of diamond formation within downwelling and upwelling regimes

  10. Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A. M.; Fox, O. J. L.; Alianelli, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Stevens, R.; Loader, I. M.; Wilson, M. C.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; May, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width.

  11. The contact heat conductance at diamond-OFHC copper interface with GaIn eutectic as a heat transfer medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Khounsary, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the contact heat conductance across a single diamond crystal interface with OFHC copper (Cu) are reported. Gallium-indium (GaIn) eutectic was used as an interstitial material. Contact conductance data are important in the design and the prediction of the performance of x-ray diamond monochromators under high-heat-load conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In one, the copper surface in contact with diamond was polished and then electroless plated with 1 μm of nickel, while in the other, the copper contact surface was left as machined. Measured average interface heat conductances are 44.7 ±8 W/cm 2 -K for nonplated copper and 23.0 ±3 W/cm 2 -K for nickel-plated copper. For reference, the thermal contact conductances at a copper-copper interface (without diamond) were also measured, and the results are reported. A typical diamond monochromator, 0.2 mm thick, will absorb about 44 W under a standard undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source. The measured conductance for nickel-plated copper suggests that the temperature drop across the interface of diamond and nickel-plated copper, with a 20 mm 2 contact area, will be about 10 degree C. Therefore temperature rises are rather modest, and the accuracy of the measured contact conductances presented here are sufficient for design purposes

  12. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  13. Encapsulation of electroless copper patterns into diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimenov, S.M.; Shafeev, G.A.; Lavrischev, S.V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The results are reported on encapsulating copper lines into diamond films grown by a DC plasma CVD. The process includes the steps of (i) laser activation of diamond for electroless metal plating, (ii) electroless copper deposition selectively onto the activated surface regions, and (iii) diamond regrowth on the Cu-patterned diamond films. The composition and electrical properties of the encapsulated copper lines were examined, revealing high purity and low electrical resistivity of the encapsulated electroless copper.

  14. Alluvial Diamond Resource Potential and Production Capacity Assessment of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Anum, Solomon; Phillips, Emily C.

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by both diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in 'conflict' diamonds while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was to assess the alluvial diamond resource endowment and current production capacity of the alluvial diamond-mining sector in Ghana. A modified volume and grade methodology was used to estimate the remaining diamond reserves within the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields. The production capacity of the sector was estimated using a formulaic expression of the number of workers reported in the sector, their productivity, and the average grade of deposits mined. This study estimates that there are approximately 91,600,000 carats of alluvial diamonds remaining in both the Birim and Bonsa diamond fields: 89,000,000 carats in the Birim and 2,600,000 carats in the Bonsa. Production capacity is calculated to be 765,000 carats per year, based on the formula used and available data on the number of workers and worker productivity. Annual production is highly dependent on the international diamond market and prices, the numbers of seasonal workers actively mining in the sector, and

  15. The Mysteries of Diamonds: Bizarre History, Amazing Properties, Unique Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Harris (Ohio State University)

    2008-06-24

    Diamonds have been a prized material throughout history. They are scarce and beautiful, wars have been fought over them, and they remain today a symbol of wealth and power. Diamonds also have exceptional physical properties which can lead to unique applications in science. There are now techniques to artificially synthesize diamonds of extraordinarily high quality. In this talk, Professor Kagan will discuss the history of diamonds, their bizarre properties, and their manufacture and use for 21st century science.

  16. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy used to develop understanding of a diamond preservation index model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambissa, M. T.; Forder, S. D.; Bingham, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy has provided precise and accurate iron redox ratios Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ in ilmenite, FeTiO 3 , found within kimberlite samples from the Catoca and Camatxia kimberlite pipes from N.E. Angola. Ilmenite is one of the key indicator minerals for diamond survival and it is also one of the iron-bearing minerals with iron naturally occurring in one or both of the oxidation states Fe 3+ and Fe 2+ . For this reason it is a good indicator for studying oxygen fugacities (fO 2 ) in mineral samples, which can then be related to iron redox ratios, Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ . In this paper we demonstrate that the oxidation state of the ilmenite mineral inclusion from sampled kimberlite rock is a key indicator of the oxidation state of the host kimberlite assemblage, which in turn determines the genesis of diamond, grade variation and diamond quality. Ilmenite samples from the two different diamondiferous kimberlite localities (Catoca and Camatxia) in the Lucapa graben, N.E. Angola, were studied using Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffractometry, in order to infer the oxidation state of their source regions in the mantle, oxygen partial pressure and diamond preservation conditions. The iron redox ratios, obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy, show that the Catoca diamond kimberlite is more oxidised than kimberlite found in the Camatxia pipe, which is associated within the same geological tectonic structure. Here we demonstrate that 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy can assist geologists and mining engineers to effectively evaluate and determine whether kimberlite deposits are economically feasible for diamond mining.

  17. Single-crystal and polycrystalline diamond erosion studies in Pilot-PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, D.; Aussems, D.; Ning, N.; Bystrov, K.; Gicquel, A.; Achard, J.; Brinza, O.; Addab, Y.; Martin, C.; Pardanaud, C.; Khrapak, S.; Cartry, G.

    2018-03-01

    Diamond is a promising candidate for enhancing the negative-ion surface production in the ion sources for neutral injection in fusion reactors; hence evaluation of its reactivity towards hydrogen plasma is of high importance. Single crystal and polycrystalline diamond samples were exposed in Pilot-PSI with the D+ flux of (4‒7)·1024 m-2s-1 and the impact energy of 7-9 eV per deuteron at different surface temperatures; under such conditions physical sputtering is negligible, however chemical sputtering is important. Net chemical sputtering yield Y = 9.7·10-3 at/ion at 800 °C was precisely measured ex-situ using a protective platinum mask (5 × 10 × 2 μm) deposited beforehand on a single crystal followed by the post-mortem analysis using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The structural properties of the exposed diamond surface were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Gross chemical sputtering yields were determined in-situ by means of optical emission spectroscopy of the molecular CH A-X band for several surface temperatures. A bell-shaped dependence of the erosion yield versus temperature between 400 °C and 1200 °C was observed, with a maximum yield of ∼1.5·10-2 at/ion attained at 900 °C. The yields obtained for diamond are relatively high (0.5-1.5)·10-2 at/ion, comparable with those of graphite. XPS analysis shows amorphization of diamond surface within 1 nm depth, in a good agreement with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD was also applied to study the hydrogen impact energy threshold for erosion of [100] diamond surface at different temperatures.

  18. Improvements in or relating to artefacts incorporating industrial diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, N.E.W.; Poole, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A process for improving the wear characteristics of industrial diamonds is described which consists of implanting into the surface regions of the diamonds, ions of a material having an atomic weight greater than one and such as to affect the surface properties of the diamonds. Examples of the invention, in which N + and C + ions have been used, are cited. (U.K.)

  19. An assessment of radiotherapy dosimeters based on CVD grown diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramkumar, S.; Buttar, C.M.; Conway, J.; Whitehead, A.J.; Sussman, R.S.; Hill, G.; Walker, S.

    2001-01-01

    Diamond is potentially a very suitable material for use as a dosimeter for radiotherapy. Its radiation hardness, the near tissue equivalence and chemical inertness are some of the characteristics of diamond, which make it well suited for its application as a dosimeter. Recent advances in the synthesis of diamond by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technology have resulted in the improvement in the quality of material and increased its suitability for radiotherapy applications. We report in this paper, the response of prototype dosimeters based on two different types (CVD1 and CVD2) of CVD diamond to X-rays. The diamond devices were assessed for sensitivity, dependence of response on dose and dose rate, and compared with a Scanditronix silicon photon diode and a PTW natural diamond dosimeter. The diamond devices of CVD1 type showed an initial increase in response with dose, which saturates after ∼6 Gy. The diamond devices of CVD2 type had a response at low fields ( 1162.8 V/cm), the CVD2-type devices showed polarisation and dose-rate dependence. The sensitivity of the CVD diamond devices varied between 82 and 1300 nC/Gy depending upon the sample type and the applied voltage. The sensitivity of CVD diamond devices was significantly higher than that of natural diamond and silicon dosimeters. The results suggest that CVD diamond devices can be fabricated for successful use in radiotherapy applications

  20. Plasma etching treatment for surface modification of boron-doped diamond electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ito, Hiroyuki [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Kusakabe, Kazuhide [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Ohkawa, Kazuhiro [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Fujishima, Akira [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012 (Japan); Kawai, Takeshi [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawai@ci.kagu.tus.ac.jp

    2007-03-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin film surfaces were modified by brief plasma treatment using various source gases such as Cl{sub 2}, CF{sub 4}, Ar and CH{sub 4}, and the electrochemical properties of the surfaces were subsequently investigated. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, Cl and F atoms were detected on the BDD surfaces after 3 min of Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments, respectively. From the results of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical AC impedance measurements, the electron-transfer rate for Fe(CN){sub 6} {sup 3-/4-} and Fe{sup 2+/3+} at the BDD electrodes was found to decrease after Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 4} plasma treatments. However, the electron-transfer rate for Ru(NH{sub 3}){sub 6} {sup 2+/3+} showed almost no change after these treatments. This may have been related to the specific interactions of surface halogen (C-Cl and C-F) moieties with the redox species because no electrical passivation was observed after the treatments. In addition, Raman spectroscopy showed that CH{sub 4} plasma treatment of diamond surfaces formed an insulating diamond-like carbon thin layer on the surfaces. Thus, by an appropriate choice of plasma source, short-duration plasma treatments can be an effective way to functionalize diamond surfaces in various ways while maintaining a wide potential window and a low background current.

  1. Coesite inclusions in diamonds of Yakutia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardukhinov, L. D.; Spetsius, Z. V.; Monkhorov, R. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of the study of diamonds with inclusions of high-pressure modification of SiO2 (coesite) by Raman spectroscopy are reported. It is established that the octahedral crystal from the Zapolyarnaya pipe is characterized by the highest residual pressure (2.7 ± 0.07 GPa). An intermediate value of this parameter (2.1 ± 0.07 GPa) was obtained for a crystal of transitional habit from the Maiskaya pipe. The minimal Raman shift was registered for coesite in diamond from the Komsomol'skaya-Magnitnaya pipe and provided a calculated residual pressure of 1.8 ± 0.03 GPa. The residual pressures for crystals from the placer deposits of the Kuoika and Bol'shaya Kuonamka rivers are 2.7 ± 0.07 and 3.1 ± 0.1 GPa, respectively. Octahedral crystals were formed in the mantle at a higher pressure than rhombododecahedral diamonds.

  2. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P.F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm{sup 2} diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 {mu}s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm{sup 2} diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  3. Recent results with CVD diamond trackers

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Hall-Wilton, R; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Knöpfle, K T; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; Manfredi, P F; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Palmieri, V G; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Pirollo, S; Polesello, P; Pretzl, Klaus P; Procario, M; Re, V; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Roff, D G; Rudge, A; Runólfsson, O; Russ, J; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Speziali, V; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trawick, M L; Trischuk, W; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; White, C; Ziock, H J; Zöller, M

    1999-01-01

    We present recent results on the use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1*1 cm/sup 2/ diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 mu s shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2*4 cm/sup 2/ diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch. (6 refs).

  4. Photoluminescent properties of single crystal diamond microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykhin, Sergey A.; Ismagilov, Rinat R.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Fedotov, Pavel V.; Ermakova, Anna; Siyushev, Petr; Katamadze, Konstantin G.; Jelezko, Fedor; Rakovich, Yury P.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2018-01-01

    Single crystal needle-like diamonds shaped as rectangular pyramids were produced by combination of chemical vapor deposition and selective oxidation with dimensions and geometrical characteristics depending on the deposition process parameters. Photoluminescence spectra and their dependencies on wavelength of excitation radiation reveal presence of nitrogen- and silicon-vacancy color centers in the diamond crystallites. Photoluminescence spectra, intensity mapping, and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy indicate that silicon-vacancy centers are concentrated at the crystallites apex while nitrogen-vacancy centers are distributed over the whole crystallite. Dependence of the photoluminescence on excitation radiation intensity demonstrates saturation and allows estimation of the color centers density. The combination of structural parameters, geometry and photoluminescent characteristics are prospective for advantageous applications of these diamond crystallites in quantum information processing and optical sensing.

  5. Diamond as a scaffold for bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kate; Palamara, Joseph; Judge, Roy; Greentree, Andrew D

    2013-04-01

    Diamond is an attractive material for biomedical implants. In this work, we investigate its capacity as a bone scaffold. It is well established that the bioactivity of a material can be evaluated by examining its capacity to form apatite-like calcium phosphate phases on its surface when exposed to simulated body fluid. Accordingly, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) deposited by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition were exposed to simulated body fluid and assessed for apatite growth when compared to the bulk silicon. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that both UNCD and PCD are capable of acting as a bone scaffold. The composition of deposited apatite suggests that UNCD and PCD are suitable for in vivo implantation with UNCD possible favoured in applications where rapid osseointegration is essential.

  6. Conductivity and superconductivity in heavily vacant diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Jafari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available   Motivated by the idea of impurity band superconductivity in heavily Boron doped diamond, we investigate the doping of various elements into diamond to address the question, which impurity band can offer a better DOS at the Fermi level. Surprisingly, we find that the vacancy does the best job in producing the largest DOS at the Fermi surface. To investigate the effect of disorder in Anderson localization of the resulting impurity band, we use a simple tight-binding model. Our preliminary study based on the kernel polynomial method shows that the impurity band is already localized at the concentration of 10-3. Around the vacancy concentration of 0.006 the whole spectrum of diamond becomes localized and quantum percolation takes place. Therefore to achieve conducting bands at concentrations on the scale of 5-10 percent, one needs to introduce correlations such as hopping among the vacancies .

  7. Note: Evaluation of microfracture strength of diamond materials using nano-polycrystalline diamond spherical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, H.; Hamaki, K.; Harano, K.

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-hard and high-strength spherical indenters with high precision and sphericity were successfully prepared from nanopolycrystalline diamond (NPD) synthesized by direct conversion sintering from graphite under high pressure and high temperature. It was shown that highly accurate and stable microfracture strength tests can be performed on various super-hard diamond materials by using the NPD spherical indenters. It was also verified that this technique enables quantitative evaluation of the strength characteristics of single crystal diamonds and NPDs which have been quite difficult to evaluate.

  8. Electron field emission for ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, A. R.; Auciello, O.; Ding, M. Q.; Gruen, D. M.; Huang, Y.; Zhirnov, V. V.; Givargizov, E. I.; Breskin, A.; Chechen, R.; Shefer, E. (and others)

    2001-03-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films 0.1--2.4 {mu}m thick were conformally deposited on sharp single Si microtip emitters, using microwave CH{sub 4}--Ar plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition in combination with a dielectrophoretic seeding process. Field-emission studies exhibited stable, extremely high (60--100 {mu}A/tip) emission current, with little variation in threshold fields as a function of film thickness or Si tip radius. The electron emission properties of high aspect ratio Si microtips, coated with diamond using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) process were found to be very different from those of the UNCD-coated tips. For the HFCVD process, there is a strong dependence of the emission threshold on both the diamond coating thickness and Si tip radius. Quantum photoyield measurements of the UNCD films revealed that these films have an enhanced density of states within the bulk diamond band gap that is correlated with a reduction in the threshold field for electron emission. In addition, scanning tunneling microscopy studies indicate that the emission sites from UNCD films are related to minima or inflection points in the surface topography, and not to surface asperities. These data, in conjunction with tight binding pseudopotential calculations, indicate that grain boundaries play a critical role in the electron emission properties of UNCD films, such that these boundaries: (a) provide a conducting path from the substrate to the diamond--vacuum interface, (b) produce a geometric enhancement in the local electric field via internal structures, rather than surface topography, and (c) produce an enhancement in the local density of states within the bulk diamond band gap.

  9. Clinical dosimeter based on diamond detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervjakov, A.M.; Ljalina, L.I.; Ljutina, G.J.; Khrunov, V.S.; Martynov, S.S.; Popov, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Diamond detectors have found application in the relative dosimetry and their parameters have been described elsewhere. Today, the exclusive producer of the diamond detector is the Institute of Physical and Technical Problems, Russia, and exclusive dealer is the PTW-Freiburg. The main features of the diamond detector are good long time stability, suitable range of the energy dependence for photon and electron beams in clinical use, independence of the measured date from temperature and pressure. The high sensitivity per volume unit of the diamond detector (1500 times higher than ionization chamber) allowed using detectors with very small volume (1-5 mm 3 ) and rather simple electronics for ionization current registration. The new dosimeter consists of the diamond detector itself, 40 m registration cable, pre-amplifier, micro-processor block for data handling and absorbed dose calculation using the calibration factor of diamond detector in terms of absorbed dose to water. Dosimeter has the possibility to work with PC using standard RS-232 interface. The main features of the dosimeter are as follows: the range of dose rate measurements for photon, electron and proton beams is within 0.01-1.0 Gy/s; the energy ranges for photons are 0.08-25 MeV, and 4-25 MeV for electrons, with energy dependence no more than ±2%; the main uncertainty of the dose measurements is within ±2%; the pre-irradiation dose for diamond detector is no more than 10 Gy; the sensitive volume of the used diamond detectors is within 1-5 mm 3 ; the weight of the dosimeter no more than 2 kg. The new dosimeter was evaluated at the Central Research Institute of Roentgenology and Radiology, St. Petersburg, Russia to verify its performance. The dosimeter was used as a reference instrument for dose measurements at Cobalt-60 unit, SL75-5 and SL-20 linear accelerators and the test results have shown that the device have met the specifications. It is planned to produce dosimeter as serial device by

  10. Progress of Diamond-like Carbon Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diamond-like carbon(DLC films had many unique and outstanding properties such as high thermal conductivity, high hardness, excellent chemical inertness, low friction coefficients and wear coefficients. The properties and combinations were very promising for heat sink, micro-electromechanical devices, radiation hardening, biomedical devices, automotive industry and other technical applications, more research and a lot of attention were attracted in recent years. The research progress of diamond-like films and the nucleation mechanism of film were summarized, and application prospect of DLC films were demonstrated. The aim of this paper is to provide insights on the research trend of DLC films and the industry applications.

  11. Diamond drilling for nuclear waste QC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, Martin.

    1990-01-01

    Specialised diamond core drilling equipment could soon have a role to play in the safe disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW). Equipment to core and extract samples for quality checking from cement-filled steel waste drums by techniques compatible with eventual remote-handling operations in a 'hot-cell' is being developed. All coring tests carried out to date have been on simulant waste: 200 litre drums containing mixtures of Ordinary Portland Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and Pulverised Fuel Ash. No radioactive materials have yet been used for the coring trials. The coring equipment and the diamond coring bits are described. (author)

  12. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempel, Maria

    2013-04-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus(ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments to study the questions: ''What is mass?'', ''What is the universe made of?'' and ''Why is there no antimatter?''. The four experiments take data of the collision products and try to answer the fundamental questions of physics. The two larger detectors, CMS and ATLAS, are looking for the Higgs boson to study the electroweak symmetry breaking. Both detectors were built with contrasting concepts to exclude potential error sources and to rea rm the results. The smaller experiment LHCb studies the matter-antimatter asymmetry with a focus of the beauty quark. Another smaller experiment is ALICE that studies the conditions right after the Big Bang by colliding heavy ions. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150 km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due to deviations of the beam parameters. Several systems called beam loss monitors (BLMs) can measure beam losses. This thesis concentrates on two of them, ionization chambers and diamond detectors. Over 3600 ionization chambers are installed in

  13. Application of diamond based beam loss monitors at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempel, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was conceived in the 1980s and started the operation in 2008. It needed more than 20 years to plan and construct this accelerator and its experiments. Four main experiments are located around the ring, Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), A Toroidal LHC Apparatus(ATLAS), A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) and LHC beauty (LHCb). Two beams that traveling in opposite direction in the LHC tunnel, collide in each of the experiments to study the questions: ''What is mass?'', ''What is the universe made of?'' and ''Why is there no antimatter?''. The four experiments take data of the collision products and try to answer the fundamental questions of physics. The two larger detectors, CMS and ATLAS, are looking for the Higgs boson to study the electroweak symmetry breaking. Both detectors were built with contrasting concepts to exclude potential error sources and to rea rm the results. The smaller experiment LHCb studies the matter-antimatter asymmetry with a focus of the beauty quark. Another smaller experiment is ALICE that studies the conditions right after the Big Bang by colliding heavy ions. The navigation of the beams is done by over 10000 magnets and each beam has a stored energy of 362MJ which correspond to the kinetic energy of a train like the TGV travelling of 150 km/h. Only a small percentage of that energy can damage the material in the LHC ring or the magnets. This would mean a repair time of months or years, without taking any data. To avoid such a scenario, it is important to monitor the beam condition and measure the amount of losses of the beam. Such losses can for example happen due to dust particles in the vacuum chambers or due to deviations of the beam parameters. Several systems called beam loss monitors (BLMs) can measure beam losses. This thesis concentrates on two of them, ionization chambers and diamond detectors. Over 3600 ionization chambers are installed in the LHC, especially near each quadrupole and next to

  14. Friction and wear study of diamond-like carbon gradient coatings on Ti6Al4V substrate prepared by plasma source ion implant-ion beam enhanced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Shuwen; Jiang Bin; Li Yan; Li Yanrong; Yin Guangfu; Zheng Changqiong

    2004-01-01

    DLC gradient coatings had been deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy substrate by plasma source ion implantation-ion beam enhanced deposition method and their friction and wear behavior sliding against ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart were investigated. The results showed that DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V had low friction coefficient, which reduced 24, 14 and 10% compared with non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding, lubrication of bovine serum and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. DLC gradient coated Ti6Al4V showed significantly improved wear resistance, the wear rate was about half of non-coated Ti6Al4V alloy. The wear of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene counterpart was also reduced. High adhesion to Ti6Al4V substrate of DLC gradient coatings and surface structure played important roles in improved tribological performance, serious oxidative wear was eliminated when DLC gradient coating was applied to the Ti6Al4V alloy

  15. Thermal diffusivity of diamond films using a laser pulse technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albin, S.; Winfree, W.P.; Crews, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond films were deposited using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition process. A laser pulse technique was developed to measure the thermal diffusivity of diamond films deposited on a silicon substrate. The effective thermal diffusivity of a diamond film on silicon was measured by observing the phase and amplitude of the cyclic thermal waves generated by laser pulses. An analytical model is presented to calculate the effective inplane (face-parallel) diffusivity of a two-layer system. The model is used to reduce the effective thermal diffusivity of the diamond/silicon sample to a value for the thermal diffusivity and conductivity of the diamond film

  16. High-pressure-high-temperature treatment of natural diamonds

    CERN Document Server

    Royen, J V

    2002-01-01

    The results are reported of high-pressure-high-temperature (HPHT) treatment experiments on natural diamonds of different origins and with different impurity contents. The diamonds are annealed in a temperature range up to 2000 sup o C at stabilizing pressures up to 7 GPa. The evolution is studied of different defects in the diamond crystal lattice. The influence of substitutional nitrogen atoms, plastic deformation and the combination of these is discussed. Diamonds are characterized at room and liquid nitrogen temperature using UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry and photoluminescence spectrometry. The economic implications of diamond HPHT treatments are discussed.

  17. Application of CVD diamond film for radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Haiyang; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhan Rujuan

    2005-01-01

    With the development of diamond synthesis at low pressure, the CVD diamond properties including electronic characteristics have improved continuously. Now the fabrication of electronic devices based on the CVD diamond has been one of hot research subjects in this field. Due to many unique advantages, such as high signal-noise ratio, fast time response, and normal output in extremely harsh surrounding, the CVD diamond radiation detector has attracted more and more interest. In this paper, we have reviewed the development and status of the CVD diamond radiation detector. The prospect of this detector is described. (authors)

  18. Study of natural diamond detector spectrometric properties under neutron irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseyev, A B; Kaschuck, Y; Krasilnikov, A; Portnov, D; Tugarinov, S

    2002-01-01

    Natural diamond detector (NDD) performance was studied up to a neutron fluence of 10 sup 1 sup 5 neutron/cm sup 2. The variations of the NDD spectrometric response to incident alpha-particles from sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am source after exposure to fast neutron fluences up to 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 n/cm sup 2 were examined. No significant variations up to the level of 10 sup 1 sup 4 n/cm sup 2 were observed. Degradation of charge collection efficiency at higher fluences is reported. No remarkable increase of the NDD leakage current and count rate change had been observed up to a neutron fluence of 3x10 sup 1 sup 6 n/cm sup 2. The charge collection efficiency variations of neutron irradiated diamond spectrometer were studied ex situ under gamma-rays, beta-radiation and visible light excitation. Charge collection efficiency restoration up to 75% level and the NDD performance stabilization by extrinsic low-intensity visible light (550 nm

  19. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiser, P S; Prawer, S; Nugent, K W; Bettiol, A A; Kostidis, L I; Jamieson, D N [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 {mu}m{sup 2}. After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Study on the Effect of Diamond Grain Size on Wear of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Rani, A. M.; Che Sidid, Adib Akmal Bin; Adzis, Azri Hamim Ab

    2018-03-01

    Drilling operation is one of the most crucial step in oil and gas industry as it proves the availability of oil and gas under the ground. Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bit is a type of bit which is gaining popularity due to its high Rate of Penetration (ROP). However, PDC bit can easily wear off especially when drilling hard rock. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the grain sizes of the diamond and wear rate of the PDC cutter using simulation-based study with FEA software (ABAQUS). The wear rates of a PDC cutter with a different diamond grain sizes were calculated from simulated cuttings of cutters against granite. The result of this study shows that the smaller the diamond grain size, the higher the wear resistivity of PDC cutter.

  2. Homo-epitaxial diamond film growth on ion implanted diamond substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiser, P.S.; Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kostidis, L.I.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1996-01-01

    The nucleation of CVD diamond is a complicated process, governed by many interrelated parameters. In the present work we attempt to elucidate the effect of strain on the growth of a homo-epitaxial CVD diamond. We have employed laterally confined high dose (MeV) Helium ion implantation to produce surface swelling of the substrate. The strain is enhanced by the lateral confinement of the implanted region to squares of 100 x 100 μm 2 . After ion implantation, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to map the surface strain. The substrates were then inserted into a CVD reactor and a CVD diamond film was grown upon them. Since the strained regions were laterally confined, it was then possible to monitor the effect of strain on diamond nucleation. The substrates were also analysed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), Proton induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Ion Beam induced Luminescence (IBIL). 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. X-ray topographic study of diamonds: implications for the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrosì, Giovanna; Nestola, Fabrizio; Tempesta, Gioacchino; Bruno, Marco; Scandale, Eugenio; Harris, Jeff W.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, several studies have focused on the growth conditions of the diamonds through the analysis of the mineral inclusions trapped in them (Howell, 2012 and references therein). Nevertheless, to obtain rigorous information about chemical and physical conditions of diamond formation, it is crucial to determine if the crystallization of the inclusions occurred before (protogenetic nature), during (syngenetic nature) or after (epigenetic nature) the growth of diamond (Wiggers de Vries et al., 2011). X-ray topography (XRDT) can be a helpful tool to verify the genetic nature of inclusions in diamond. This technique characterizes the extended defects and reconstructs the growth history of the samples (Agrosì et al., 2013 and references therein) and, consequently contributes to elucidation of the relationship between the inclusions and the host-diamond. With this aim a diamond from the Udachnaya kimberlite, Siberia, was investigated. The diamond crystal was the one previously studied by Nestola et al. (2011) who performed in-situ crystal structure refinement of the inclusions to obtain data about the formation pressure. The inclusions were iso-oriented olivines that did not show evident cracks and subsequently could not be considered epigenetic. Optical observations revealed an anomalous birefringence in the adjacent diamond and the inclusions had typical "diamond-imposed cubo-octahedral" shape for the largest olivine. The diffraction contrast study shows that the diamond exhibits significant deformation fields related to plastic post growth deformation. The crystallographic direction of strains was established applying the extinction criterion. Section topographs were taken to minimize the overlapping of the strain field associate with the different defects and revealed that no dislocations nucleated from the olivine inclusions. Generally, when a solid inclusion has been incorporated in the growing crystal, the associated volume distortion can be minimized by

  4. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin, E-mail: xin.jiang@uni-siegen.de

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite gradient interlayers were synthesized. • The interlayer features a cross-sectional gradient with increasing diamond content. • Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process. • The adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. • The stress was suppressed by manipulating the distribution of diamond and silicon carbide. - Abstract: Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co{sub 2}Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  5. Diamond MEMS: wafer scale processing, devices, and technology insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Diamond has long held the promise of revolutionary new devices: impervious chemical barriers, smooth and reliable microscopic machines, and tough mechanical tools. Yet it's been an outsider. Laboratories have been effectively growing diamond crystals for at least 25 years, but the jump to market viability has always been blocked by the expense of diamond production and inability to integrate with other materials. Advances in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes have given rise to a hierarchy of carbon films ranging from diamond-like carbon (DLC) to vapor-deposited diamond coatings, however. All have pros and cons based on structure and cost, but they all share some of diamond's heralded attributes. The best performer, in theory, is the purest form of diamond film possible, one absent of graphitic phases. Such a material would capture the extreme hardness, high Young's modulus and chemical inertness of natural diamond. Advanced Diamond Technologies Inc., Romeoville, Ill., is the first company to develop a distinct chemical process to create a marketable phase-pure diamond film. The material, called UNCD® (for ultrananocrystalline diamond), features grain sizes from 3 to 300 nm in size, and layers just 1 to 2 microns thick. With significant advantages over other thin films, UNCD is designed to be inexpensive enough for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes, microelectromechanical machines (MEMS), cell phone circuitry, radio frequency devices, and even biosensors.

  6. Mechanical pretreatment for improved adhesion of diamond coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toenshoff, H.K.; Mohlfeld, A.; Gey, C.; Winkler, J.

    1999-01-01

    Diamond coatings are mainly used in cutting processes due to their tribological characteristics. They show a high hardness, low friction coefficient, high wear resistance and good chemical inertness. In relation to polycrystalline diamond (PCD)-tipped cutting inserts, especially the advantageous chemical stability of diamond coatings is superior as no binder phases between diamond grains are used. However, the deposition of adherent high-quality diamond coatings has been found difficult. Thus, substrate pretreatment is utilised to improve film adhesion. This investigation is based on water peening of the substrate material before coating. The investigation revealed best results for diamond film adhesion on pretreated substrates compared to conventional diamond coatings on cemented carbide tools applied with the CVD hot-filament process. In final cutting tests with increased film adhesion trough water peened cutting tools an improved wear behavior was detected. (orig.)

  7. Polarized Raman spectroscopy of chemically vapour deposited diamond films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Nugent, K.W.; Weiser, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    Polarized micro-Raman spectra of chemically vapour deposited diamond films are presented. It is shown that important parameters often extracted from the Raman spectra such as the ratio of the diamond to non-diamond component of the films and the estimation of the level of residual stress depend on the orientation of the diamond crystallites with respect to the polarization of the incident laser beam. The dependence originates from the fact that the Raman scattering from the non-diamond components in the films is almost completely depolarized whilst the scattering from the diamond components is strongly polarized. The results demonstrate the importance of taking polarization into account when attempting to use Raman spectroscopy in even a semi-quantitative fashion for the assessment of the purity, perfection and stress in CVD diamond films. 8 refs., 1 tab. 2 figs

  8. Diamond particle detectors systems in high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Kock Kiam

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) using diamond detect or s has matured from devices based on a rather large pads to highly granular pixelated device s . The ATLAS experiment has recently installed a diamond pixel detector, the Diamond Beam Monitor (DBM), to measure the luminosity in the upgraded LHC with higher instantaneous luminosity. Polycrystalline diamonds were used to fabricate the diamond pixel modules. The design , production, and test beam result s are described. CMS also has a similar plan to construct a diamond based luminosity monitor, the Pixel Luminos ity Telescope s (PLT) . In a pilot run using single crystal diamond, the pulse height was found to depend on the luminosity . Consequently the collaboration decided to use silicon instead due to time constrain ts .

  9. Thermodynamic properties of the amorphous and crystalline modifications of carbon and the metastable synthesis of diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guencheva, V.; Grantscharova, E.; Gutzow, I. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    The temperature dependencies of the thermodynamic properties of the little known (or even hypothetical) undercooled carbon melt and of the glasses that could be obtained from it at appropriate cooling rates are constructed. This is done using both a general thermodynamic formalism to estimate equilibrium properties of undercooled glass-forming melts and the expected analogy in properties of Fourth Group Elements. A comparison of the hypothetical carbon glasses with amorphous materials, obtained by the pyrolisis of organic resins, usually called vitreous (or glassy) carbon, is made. It turns out that from a thermodynamic point of view existing vitreous carbon materials, although characterized by an amorphous, frozen-in structure, differ significantly from the carbon glasses, which could be obtained by a splat-cool-quench of the carbon melt. It is shown also that the hypothetical carbon glasses should have at any temperature a thermodynamic potential, significantly higher than that of diamond. Thus they could be used as a source of constant supersaturation in metastable diamond synthesis. Existing amorphous carbon materials, although showing considerably lower thermodynamic potentials than the hypothetical carbon glasses, could also be used as sources of constant supersaturation in a process of isothermal diamond synthesis if their thermodynamic potential is additionally increased (e.g. by mechano-chemical treatment or by dispersion into nano-size scale). Theoretical estimates made in terms of Ostwald's Rule of Stages indicate that in processes of metastable isothermal diamond synthesis additional kinetic factors (e.g. influencing the formation of sp{sup 3} - carbon structures in the ambient phase) and the introduction of active substrates (e.g. diamond powder) are to be of significance in the realization of this thermodynamic possibility. (orig.)

  10. Structuring of diamond films using microsphere lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Domonkos, Mária; Ižák, Tibor; Štolcová, L.; Proška, J.; Demo, Pavel; Kromka, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2014), s. 320-324 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanostructuring * diamond thin films * polystyrene microspheres * reactive ion etching * scanning electron microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  11. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  12. Quantum sensors based on single diamond defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelezko Fedor

    2014-01-01

    NV centers in diamond are promising sensors able to detect electric and magnetic fields at nanoscale. Here we report on the detection of biomolecules using magnetic noise induced by their electron and nuclear spins. Presented results show first steps towards establishing novel sensing technology for visualizing single proteins and study of their dynamics. (author)

  13. Grain boundary effects in nanocrystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef; Nesládek, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 9 (2008), 2163-2168 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/06/0040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond film * grain boundary * superconductivity * noise * ballistic transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.205, year: 2008

  14. Diamond structures grown from polymer composite nanofibers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potocký, Štěpán; Kromka, Alexander; Babchenko, Oleg; Rezek, Bohuslav; Martinová, L.; Pokorný, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 519-521 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0910; GA ČR GAP205/12/0908 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemical vapour deposition * composite polymer * nanocrystalline diamond * nanofiber sheet * SEM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  16. Trading diamonds for guns | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... ... from war zones to Belgian brokers to jewellery stores wasn't easy. ... The UN Security Council began to take a major interest in Sierra Leone and its ... and industry and government to play in the regulatory body for diamonds ...

  17. Tribology: Diamonds are forever - or are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineberg, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The friction and wear of materials is part of our everyday experience, and yet these processes are not well understood. The example of diamond highlights wear processes that result from bumping atoms, showing that the devil is indeed in the details.

  18. Point contact to single-crystalline diamond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Uxa, Štěpán; Krištofik, Jozef; Kozak, Halyna

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 6 (2012), 1-4 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/10/0212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : point-contact * diamond * space-charge–limited transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.921, year: 2012

  19. Diamond Turning Of Infra-Red Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, B.; Lettington, A. H.; Stillwell, P. F. T. C.

    1986-05-01

    Single point diamond machining of infra-red optical components such as aluminium mirrors, germanium lenses and zinc sulphide domes is potentially the most cost effective method for their manufacture since components may be machined from the blanks to a high surface finish, requiring no subsequent polishing, in a few minutes. Machines for the production of flat surfaces are well established. Diamond turning lathes for curved surfaces however require a high capital investment which can be justified only for research purposes or high volume production. The present paper describes the development of a low cost production machine based on a Bryant Symons diamond turning lathe which is able to machine spherical components to the required form and finish. It employs two horizontal spindles one for the workpiece the other for the tool. The machined radius of curvature is set by the alignment of the axes and the radius of the tool motion, as in conventional generation. The diamond tool is always normal to the workpiece and does not need to be accurately profiled. There are two variants of this basic machine. For machining hemispherical domes the axes are at right angles while for lenses with positive or negative curvature these axes are adjustable. An aspherical machine is under development, based on the all mechanical spherical machine, but in which a ± 2 mm aspherecity may be imposed on the best fit sphere by moving the work spindle under numerical control.

  20. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition diamond based multilayered radiation detector: Physical analysis of detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Marinelli, Marco; Milani, E.; Prestopino, G.; Tucciarone, A.; Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G.; Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Dolbnya, I.; Sawhney, K.; Tartoni, N.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, solid state photovoltaic Schottky diodes, able to detect ionizing radiation, in particular, x-ray and ultraviolet radiation, have been developed at the University of Rome 'Tor Vergata'. We report on a physical and electrical properties analysis of the device and a detailed study of its detection capabilities as determined by its electrical properties. The design of the device is based on a metal/nominally intrinsic/p-type diamond layered structure obtained by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition of homoepitaxial single crystal diamond followed by thermal evaporation of a metallic contact. The device can operate in an unbiased mode by using the built-in potential arising from the electrode-diamond junction. We compare the expected response of the device to photons of various energies calculated through Monte Carlo simulation with experimental data collected in a well controlled experimental setup i.e., monochromatic high flux x-ray beams from 6 to 20 keV, available at the Diamond Light Source synchrotron in Harwell (U.K.).

  2. Use of natural diamonds to monitor 14C AMS instrument backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.; Southon, John

    2007-01-01

    To examine one component of the instrument-based background in University of California Keck Carbon Cycle AMS spectrometer, we have obtained measurements on a set of natural diamonds pressed into sample holders. Natural diamond samples (N = 14) from different sources within rock formations with geological ages greatly in excess of 100 Ma yielded a range of currents (∼110-250 μA 12 C - where filamentous graphite typically yields ∼150 μA 12 C - ) and apparent 14 C ages (64.9 ± 0.4 ka BP [0.00031 ± 0.00002 fm] to 80.0 ± 1.1 ka BP [0.00005 ± 0.00001 fm]). Six fragments cut from a single diamond exhibited essentially identical 14 C values - 69.3 ± 0.5 ka-70.6 ± 0.5 ka BP. The oldest 14 C age equivalents were measured on natural diamonds which exhibited the highest current yields

  3. An Overview of High-k Oxides on Hydrogenated-Diamond for Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors and Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwei Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellent intrinsic properties, diamond is promising for applications of high-power electronic devices, ultraviolet detectors, biosensors, high-temperature tolerant gas sensors, etc. Here, an overview of high-k oxides on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors and MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs is demonstrated. Fabrication routines for the H-diamond MOS capacitors and MOSFETs, band configurations of oxide/H-diamond heterointerfaces, and electrical properties of the MOS and MOSFETs are summarized and discussed. High-k oxide insulators are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD and sputtering deposition (SD techniques. Electrical properties of the H-diamond MOS capacitors with high-k oxides of ALD-Al2O3, ALD-HfO2, ALD-HfO2/ALD-Al2O3 multilayer, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2 bilayer, SD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer are discussed. Analyses for capacitance-voltage characteristics of them show that there are low fixed and trapped charge densities for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond and SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond MOS capacitors. The k value of 27.2 for the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer is larger than those of the other oxide insulators. Drain-source current versus voltage curves show distinct pitch-off and p-type channel characteristics for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFETs. Understanding of fabrication routines and electrical properties for the high-k oxide/H-diamond MOS electronic devices is meaningful for the fabrication of high-performance H-diamond MOS capacitor and MOSFET gas sensors.

  4. High sensitivity thermal sensors on insulating diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Denisenko, A.V. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Zaitsev, A.M. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices; Melnikov, A.A. [Belarussian State Univ., Minsk (Belarus). HEII and FD; Werner, M. [VDI/VDE-IT, Teltow (Germany); Fahrner, W.R. [Fernuniversitaet Hagen (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Electron. Devices

    1996-12-15

    Diamond is a promising material to develop sensors for applications in harsh environments. To increase the sensitivity of diamond temperature sensors the effect of thermionic hole emission (TE) over an energetic barrier formed in the interface between highly boron-doped p-type and intrinsic insulating diamond areas has been suggested. To study the TE of holes a p-i-p diode has been fabricated and analyzed by electrical measurements in the temperature range between 300 K and 700 K. The experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations of its electrical characteristics. Based on a model of the thermionic emission of carriers into an insulator it has been suggested that the temperature sensitivity of the p-i-p diode on diamond is strongly affected by the re-emission of holes from a group of donor-like traps located at a level of 0.7-1.0 eV above the valence band. The mechanism of thermal activation of the current includes a spatial redistribution of the potential, which results in the TE regime from a decrease of the immobilized charge of the ionized traps within the i-zone of the diode and the correspondent lowering of the forward biased barrier. The characteristics of the p-i-p diode were studied with regard to temperature sensor applications. The temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR=-0.05 K{sup -1}) for temperatures above 600 K is about four times larger than the maximal attainable TCR for conventional boron-doped diamond resistors. (orig.)

  5. Analysing a Relationship Between Wheel Wear and Cutting Forces During Diamond Grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shavva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In diamond grinding cutting forces affect the quality of the machined surface. We can estimate a wear rate of the diamond wheel by the magnitude of the forces and promptly resort to the restoration of its cutting properties. To solve this problem it is necessary to define a relationship between grinding wheel wear and cutting forces. There was no this dependence found in the sources of literature.The forces acting on a single worn diamond grain are considered to find the relationship between wheel wear and cutting forces. The main forces acting on the diamond grain are such as a reaction force of machining material, a frictional force over a worn place of the grain, and a total pressure on the contact surface of the grain and machining material. According to calculation results, in grinding the cutting forces are proportional to the hardness of machining material, and depend on the grain wear, as well as on the process operation conditions.The paper presents a technique for calculating the number of cutting (active grains per unit surface of diamond wheel to determine a total cutting force in grinding. The number of cutting grains depends on the properties of diamond wheel and on the operation conditions of grinding process.During grinding a total cutting force is calculated through the single grain cutting force, the number of cutting grains per unit surface of the grinding wheel and the contact area between the wheel and the work piece. Theoretical calculation of the forces is based on the condition that protrusions of all cutting grains are identical and all grains have a maximum wear, i.e. maximum worn place of grain.Calculations based on proposed theoretical formulas are compared with the calculations from the empirical formulas given in the literature. Varying the operation conditions of grinding makes the comparison. Convergence of results in the range of 5-20% is regarded as acceptable.On the BMSTU base flat diamond grinding of tungsten

  6. Applications of diamond films and related materials; Proceedings of the 1st International Conference, Auburn, AL, Aug. 17-22, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yonhua (Editor); Yoshikawa, Manasori (Editor); Murakawa, Masao (Editor); Feldman, Albert (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present conference discusses the nucleation and growth of diamond from hydrocarbons, the cutting tool performance of CVD thick-film diamond, the characterization of CVD diamond grinding powder, industrial applications of crystalline diamond-coated tools, standardized SEM tribometry of diamond-coated substrates, residual stress in CVD diamond films, the optical properties of CVD diamond films, polycrystalline diamond films for optical applications, and diamond growth on ferrous metals. Also discussed are ion beam-irradiation smoothing of diamond films, electronic circuits on diamond substrates, diamond-laminated surfaces for evaporative spray cooling, electron devices based on the unique properties of diamond, diamond cold cathodes, thin-film diamond microstructure applications, Schottky diodes from flame-grown diamond, diamond films for thermionic applications, methods of diamond nucleation and selective deposition, high-rate/large-area diamond film production, halogen-assisted diamond growth, the economics of diamond technology, and the optical and mechanical properties of diamondlike films.

  7. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quanchao [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yunnan Copper Smelting and Processing Complex, Yunnan Copper (Group) CO., LTD., Kunming 650102 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Peng, Jinghui [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Xu, Lei, E-mail: xulei_kmust@aliyun.com [National Local Joint Laboratory of Engineering Application of Microwave Energy and Equipment Technology, Faculty of Metallurgical and Energy Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); International Joint Research Center of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming Academician Workstation of Advanced Preparation of Superhard Materials Field, Kunming 650093 (China); Srinivasakannan, C. [Chemical Engineering Department, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); and others

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  8. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The Ti-Coated diamond particles have been prepared using by microwave heating. • The uniform and dense coating can be produced, and the TiC species was formed. • With increases the temperature results in the thickness of coating increased. • The coating/diamond interfacial bonding strength increased with temperature increasing until 760 °C, then decreased. - Abstract: Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  9. Structural aspects of metal-organic framework-based energy materials research at Diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, David R; Blake, Alexander J; Schröder, Martin; Tang, Chiu C; Yang, Sihai

    2015-03-06

    Large-scale central facilities such as Diamond Light Source fulfil an increasingly pivotal role in many large-scale scientific research programmes. We illustrate these developments by reference to energy-centred projects at the University of Nottingham, the progress of which depends crucially on access to these facilities. Continuing access to beamtime has now become a major priority for those who direct such programmes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Rehm, Guenther; Smaluk, Victor

    2017-01-01

    We present the result of the analytical, numerical and experimental analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring. This work compares the impedance estimates with CST with the analysis of the growth rates of the excited multi-bunch modes in different machine configurations. The contribution of a number of wakefield sources has been identified with very high precision thanks to high quality data provided by the existing TMBF diagnostics.

  11. Modeling the flow of activated H2 + CH4 mixture by deposition of diamond nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Algorithm of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method for the flow of hydrogen and methane mixture in a cylindrical channel is developed. Heterogeneous reactions on tungsten channel surfaces are included into the model. Their effects on flows are analyzed. A one-dimensional approach based on the solution of equilibrium chemical kinetics equations is used to analyze gas-phase methane decomposition. The obtained results may be useful for optimization of gas-dynamic sources of activated gas diamond synthesis.

  12. Business research as an educational problem-solving heuristic - the case of Porter's diamond

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Laurence; Clancy, Paula; Van Egeraat, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Explores the link between research practice and business education. The work of Michael Porter has a long association with the field of marketing. Focuses on the Porter's diamond model of national competitive advantage (1990). Draws on recent experiences from an empirical investigation into sources of competitive advantage and suggests that the model is useful as a conceptual framework for practitioner-orientated discourse concerning developmental issues. Outlines the process o...

  13. Diamond difference method with hybrid angular quadrature applied to neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Jose H.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes

    2005-01-01

    In this work we presents the results for the calculations of the disadvantage factor in thermal nuclear reactor physics. We use the one-group discrete ordinates (S N ) equations to mathematically model the flux distributions in slab lattices. We apply the diamond difference method with source iteration iterative scheme to numerically solve the discretized systems equations. We used special interface conditions to describe the method with hybrid angular quadrature. We show numerical results to illustrate the accuracy of the hybrid method. (author)

  14. 31 CFR 592.201 - Prohibited importation and exportation of any rough diamond; permitted importation or exportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation and... 592.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF..., the United States on or after July 30, 2003, of any rough diamond, from whatever source, is prohibited...

  15. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  16. Diamond xenolith and matrix organic matter in the Sutter's Mill meteorite measured by C-XANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Zolensky, Michael E.; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Rahman, Zia; Jenniskens, Peter; Cody, George D.

    2014-11-01

    The Sutter's Mill (SM) meteorite fell in El Dorado County, California, on April 22, 2012. This meteorite is a regolith breccia composed of CM chondrite material and at least one xenolithic phase: oldhamite. The meteorite studied here, SM2 (subsample 5), was one of three meteorites collected before it rained extensively on the debris site, thus preserving the original asteroid regolith mineralogy. Two relatively large (10 μm sized) possible diamond grains were observed in SM2-5 surrounded by fine-grained matrix. In the present work, we analyzed a focused ion beam (FIB) milled thin section that transected a region containing these two potential diamond grains as well as the surrounding fine-grained matrix employing carbon and nitrogen X-ray absorption near-edge structure (C-XANES and N-XANES) spectroscopy using a scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) (Beamline 5.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory). The STXM analysis revealed that the matrix of SM2-5 contains C-rich grains, possibly organic nanoglobules. A single carbonate grain was also detected. The C-XANES spectrum of the matrix is similar to that of insoluble organic matter (IOM) found in other CM chondrites. However, no significant nitrogen-bearing functional groups were observed with N-XANES. One of the possible diamond grains contains a Ca-bearing inclusion that is not carbonate. C-XANES features of the diamond-edges suggest that the diamond might have formed by the CVD process, or in a high-temperature and -pressure environment in the interior of a much larger parent body.

  17. Dosimetry of cone-defined stereotactic radiosurgery fields with a commercial synthetic diamond detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Johnny E; Crowe, Scott B; Hill, Robin; Freeman, Nigel; Trapp, J V

    2014-11-01

    Small field x-ray beam dosimetry is difficult due to lack of lateral electronic equilibrium, source occlusion, high dose gradients, and detector volume averaging. Currently, there is no single definitive detector recommended for small field dosimetry. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of a new commercial synthetic diamond detector, namely, the PTW 60019 microDiamond, for the dosimetry of small x-ray fields as used in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Small field sizes were defined by BrainLAB circular cones (4-30 mm diameter) on a Novalis Trilogy linear accelerator and using the 6 MV SRS x-ray beam mode for all measurements. Percentage depth doses (PDDs) were measured and compared to an IBA SFD and a PTW 60012 E diode. Cross profiles were measured and compared to an IBA SFD diode. Field factors, ΩQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were calculated by Monte Carlo methods using BEAMnrc and correction factors, kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. For the small fields of 4-30 mm diameter, there were dose differences in the PDDs of up to 1.5% when compared to an IBA SFD and PTW 60012 E diode detector. For the cross profile measurements the penumbra values varied, depending upon the orientation of the detector. The field factors, ΩQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were calculated for these field diameters at a depth of 1.4 cm in water and they were within 2.7% of published values for a similar linear accelerator. The corrections factors, kQclin,Qmsr (fclin,fmsr) , were derived for the PTW 60019 microDiamond detector. The authors conclude that the new PTW 60019 microDiamond detector is generally suitable for relative dosimetry in small 6 MV SRS beams for a Novalis Trilogy linear equipped with circular cones.

  18. Synthetic diamond devices for radiotherapy applications: Thermoluminescent dosimeter and ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descamps, C.; Tromson, D.; Mer, C.; Nesladek, M.; Bergonzo, P.

    2006-01-01

    In radiotherapy field, the major usage of dosimeters is in the measurement of the dose received by the patient during radiotherapy (in-vivo measurements) and in beam calibration and uniformity checks. Diamond exhibits several interesting characteristics that make it a good candidate for radiation detection. It is indeed soft-tissue equivalent (Z=6 compared to Z=7.42 for human tissue), mechanically robust and relatively insensitive to radiation damage, chemically stable and non toxic. Moreover, the recent availability of synthetic samples, grown under controlled conditions using the chemical vapour deposition (C.V.D.) technique, allowed decreasing the high cost and the long delivery time of diamond devices. Diamond can be use for off-line dosimetry as thermoluminescent dosimeters or for on-line dosimetry as ionisation chamber [2,3]. These both applications are reported here. For this study, samples were grown in the laboratory and devices were then tested under X-ray irradiations and in clinical environment under medical cobalt source. The work described in this paper was performed in the framework of the European Integrated Project M.A.E.S.T.R.O., Methods and Advanced Equipment for Simulation and Treatment in Radio-Oncology, (6. FP) which is granted by the European Commission.The first results of this study clearly show that C.V.D. diamond detectors are suitable for dosimetry in radiotherapy applications. Moreover, for both T.L. dosimeters and ionisation chambers applications, and even though the sensitivity is subsequently reduced, nitrogen incorporation in films seems to significantly improve the dosimetric characteristics of the devices. Therefore, the optimisation of the material quality appears as a very important issue in order to increase the dosimetric characteristics of devices and more particularly, for use as thermoluminescent dosimeters, other impurities (Nickel, Phosphorus) will be tested. For ionisation chamber applications, experiments with

  19. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  20. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K. [eds.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  1. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sio, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: desio@arcetri.astro.it; Pace, E. [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Universita di Firenze, L.go E. Fermi 2, 50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, v. G. Sansone 1, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, 00044 Frascati, Roma (Italy); Achard, J.; Tallaire, A. [LIMHP-CNRS, University of Paris XIII, 99 Avenue JB Clement, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2007-07-15

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices.

  2. Diamond based adsorbents and their application in chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristyy, Anton A; Fedyanina, Olga N; Paull, Brett; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2014-08-29

    The idea of using diamond and diamond containing materials in separation sciences has attracted a strong interest in the past decade. The combination of a unique range of properties, such as chemical inertness, mechanical, thermal and hydrolytic stability, excellent thermal conductivity with minimal thermal expansion and intriguing adsorption properties makes diamond a promising material for use in various modes of chromatography. This review summarises the recent research on the preparation of diamond and diamond based stationary phases, their properties and chromatographic performance. Special attention is devoted to the dominant retention mechanisms evident for particular diamond containing phases, and their subsequent applicability to various modes of chromatography, including chromatography carried out under conditions of high temperature and pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vertically aligned nanowires from boron-doped diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nianjun; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Osawa, Eiji; Nebel, Christoph E

    2008-11-01

    Vertically aligned diamond nanowires with controlled geometrical properties like length and distance between wires were fabricated by use of nanodiamond particles as a hard mask and by use of reactive ion etching. The surface structure, electronic properties, and electrochemical functionalization of diamond nanowires were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as electrochemical techniques. AFM and STM experiments show that diamond nanowire etched for 10 s have wire-typed structures with 3-10 nm in length and with typically 11 nm spacing in between. The electrode active area of diamond nanowires is enhanced by a factor of 2. The functionalization of nanowire tips with nitrophenyl molecules is characterized by STM on clean and on nitrophenyl molecule-modified diamond nanowires. Tip-modified diamond nanowires are promising with respect to biosensor applications where controlled biomolecule bonding is required to improve chemical stability and sensing significantly.

  4. Use of the diamond to the detection of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mer, C.; Tromson, D.; Brambilla, A.; Foulon, F.; Guizard, B.; Bergonzo

    2001-01-01

    Diamond synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a valuable material for the detection of particles: broad forbidden energy band, high mobility of electron-hole pairs, and a short life-time of charge carriers. Diamond layers have been used in alpha detectors or gamma dose ratemeters designed to be used in hostile environment. Diamond presents a high resistance to radiation and corrosion. The properties of diamond concerning the detection of particles are spoilt by the existence of crystal defects even in high quality natural or synthesized diamond. This article presents recent works that have been performed in CEA laboratories in order to optimize the use of CVD diamond in particle detectors. (A.C.)

  5. Diamond detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Sio, A.; Pace, E.; Cinque, G.; Marcelli, A.; Achard, J.; Tallaire, A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its unique physical properties, diamond is a very appealing material for the development of electronic devices and sensors. Its wide band gap (5.5 eV) endows diamond based devices with low thermal noise, low dark current levels and, in the case of radiation detectors, high visible-to-X-ray signal discrimination (visible blindness) as well as high sensitivity to energies greater than the band gap. Furthermore, due to its radiation hardness diamond is very interesting for applications in extreme environments, or as monitor of high fluency radiation beams. In this work the use of diamond based detectors for X-ray sensing is discussed. On purpose, some photo-conductors based on different diamond types have been tested at the DAFNE-L synchrotron radiation laboratory at Frascati. X-ray sensitivity spectra, linearity and stability of the response of these diamond devices have been measured in order to evidence the promising performance of such devices

  6. Protein-modified nanocrystalline diamond thin films for biosensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Andreas; Schmich, Evelyn; Garrido, Jose A; Hernando, Jorge; Catharino, Silvia C R; Walter, Stefan; Feulner, Peter; Kromka, Alexander; Steinmüller, Doris; Stutzmann, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Diamond exhibits several special properties, for example good biocompatibility and a large electrochemical potential window, that make it particularly suitable for biofunctionalization and biosensing. Here we show that proteins can be attached covalently to nanocrystalline diamond thin films. Moreover, we show that, although the biomolecules are immobilized at the surface, they are still fully functional and active. Hydrogen-terminated nanocrystalline diamond films were modified by using a photochemical process to generate a surface layer of amino groups, to which proteins were covalently attached. We used green fluorescent protein to reveal the successful coupling directly. After functionalization of nanocrystalline diamond electrodes with the enzyme catalase, a direct electron transfer between the enzyme's redox centre and the diamond electrode was detected. Moreover, the modified electrode was found to be sensitive to hydrogen peroxide. Because of its dual role as a substrate for biofunctionalization and as an electrode, nanocrystalline diamond is a very promising candidate for future biosensor applications.

  7. Isotopically pure single crystal epitaxial diamond films and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banholzer, W.F.; Anthony, T.R.; Williams, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the production of single crystal diamond consisting of isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. In the present invention, isotopically pure single crystal diamond is grown on a single crystal substrate directly from isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13. One method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises the steps of placing in a reaction chamber a single substrate heated to an elevated diamond forming temperature. Another method for forming isotopically pure single crystal diamond comprises diffusing isotopically pure carbon-12 or carbon-13 through a metallic catalyst under high pressure to a region containing a single crystal substrate to form an isotopically pure single crystal diamond layer on said single crystal substrate

  8. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... causes of diamond darter habitat loss. Water quality degradation and siltation also played key roles. See... quantitatively define specific water quality standards required by the diamond darter. These organizations noted... conductivity poses to the diamond [[Page 52368

  9. A study of defects in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, in natural and synthetic diamond, have been studied using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and optical absorption techniques. EPR measurements have been used in conjunction with infrared absorption to identify the defect-induced one-phonon infrared spectra produced by ionised single substitutional nitrogen, N s + . This N s + spectrum is characterised by a sharp peak at the Raman energy, 1332 cm -1 , accompanied by several broader resonances at 950(5), 1050(5), and 1095(5) cm -1 . Detailed concentration measurements show that a concentration of 5.5(5) ppm gives rise to an absorption of 1 cm -1 at 1332 cm -1 . The optical absorption band ND1, identified as the negative vacancy (V - ), is frequently used by diamond spectroscopists to measure the concentration of V - . Isoya has identified V - in the EPR spectra of irradiated diamond. The accuracy of EPR in determining concentrations, has been used to correlate the integrated absorption of the ND1 zero-phonon line to the concentration of V - centres. The parameter derived from this correlation is ∼16 times smaller than the previously accepted value obtained by indirect methods. A systematic study has been made - using EPR and optical absorption techniques - of synthetic type IIa diamonds, which have been irradiated with 2 MeV electrons in a specially developed dewar, allowing irradiation down to a measured sample temperature of 100K. Measurement of defect creation rates of the neutral vacancy and EPR defects, show a radical difference in the production rate of the EPR defect R2 between irradiation with the sample held at 100K and 350K. At 100K its production rate is 1.1(1) cm -1 , ∼10 times greater that at 350K. Observation of the di- -split interstitial (Ri) after irradiation at 100K proves the self-interstitial in diamond must be mobile at 100K, under the conditions of irradiation. Further study of the properties of the R2 defect (the most dominant EPR after electron

  10. Characterization of boron doped nanocrystalline diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterlevitz, A C; Manne, G M; Sampaio, M A; Quispe, J C R; Pasquetto, M P; Iannini, R F; Ceragioli, H J; Baranauskas, V

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured diamond doped with boron was prepared using a hot-filament assisted chemical vapour deposition system fed with an ethyl alcohol, hydrogen and argon mixture. The reduction of the diamond grains to the nanoscale was produced by secondary nucleation and defects induced by argon and boron atoms via surface reactions during chemical vapour deposition. Raman measurements show that the samples are nanodiamonds embedded in a matrix of graphite and disordered carbon grains, while morphological investigations using field electron scanning microscopy show that the size of the grains ranges from 20 to 100 nm. The lowest threshold fields achieved were in the 1.6 to 2.4 V/μm range

  11. Dislocation density and graphitization of diamond crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantea, C.; Voronin, G.A.; Zerda, T.W.; Gubicza, J.; Ungar, T.

    2002-01-01

    Two sets of diamond specimens compressed at 2 GPa at temperatures varying between 1060 K and 1760 K were prepared; one in which graphitization was promoted by the presence of water and another in which graphitization of diamond was practically absent. X-ray diffraction peak profiles of both sets were analyzed for the microstructure by using the modified Williamson-Hall method and by fitting the Fourier coefficients of the measured profiles by theoretical functions for crystallite size and lattice strain. The procedures determined mean size and size distribution of crystallites as well as the density and the character of the dislocations. The same experimental conditions resulted in different microstructures for the two sets of samples. They were explained in terms of hydrostatic conditions present in the graphitized samples

  12. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  13. Diamond turning on advanced machine tool prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Specular-quality metal mirrors are being machined for use in laser optical systems. The fabrication process incorporates special quality diamond tools and specially constructed turning machines. The machines are controlled by advanced control techniques and are housed in an environmentally controlled laboratory to insure ultimate machine stability and positional accuracy. The materials from which these mirrors are primarily produced are the softer face-center-cubic structure metals, such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum. Mirror manufacturing by the single-point diamond machining process is in an early stage of development, but it is anticipated that this method will become the most economical way for producing high-quality metal mirrors. (U.S.)

  14. Diamond wire cutting of heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, T.R.; Bjerler, J.

    1991-01-01

    With the change-out of equipment at nuclear power plants comes large quantities of low level contaminated metallic waste. Of particular concern are large heat exchangers, preheaters and steam generators. These bulky items consume huge volumes of burial space. The need for volume reduction and recycling of these metals has created new demands for 'how' to cut heat exchangers into useful sizes for decontamination, melting or compaction. This paper reviews the cutting solution provided by a diamond wire system, with particular regard for cutting of a Ringhals Preheater Bundle at Studsvik Nuclear in 1989. The background of diamond wire sawing is discussed and basic components of wire sawing are explained. Other examples of wire cutting decommissioned components are also given. (author)

  15. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  16. Property of the diamond radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sochor, V.; Cechak, T.; Sopko, B.

    2008-01-01

    The outstanding properties of diamond, such as radiation hardness, high carrier mobility, high band gap and breakdown field, distinguish it as a good candidate for radiation detectors. In the dosimetry for radiotherapy is permanently searched the detector with high sensitivity, high stability, linear dependence of the response, small size, tissue equivalent material and fast response, for the measuring of the temporal and space variations of the dose. The diamond detector properties as high sensitivity, good spatial and temporal resolution, low Leakage currents, low capacitance, possibility to fabricate robust and compact device and high temperature operation make it possible to use these detectors in many fields from high energy physics till radiation monitoring, from Medical therapy dosimetry till synchrotron radiation measurement. (authors)

  17. Cluster Ion Implantation in Graphite and Diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popok, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Cluster ion beam technique is a versatile tool which can be used for controllable formation of nanosize objects as well as modification and processing of surfaces and shallow layers on an atomic scale. The current paper present an overview and analysis of data obtained on a few sets of graphite...... and diamond samples implanted by keV-energy size-selected cobalt and argon clusters. One of the emphases is put on pinning of metal clusters on graphite with a possibility of following selective etching of graphene layers. The other topic of concern is related to the development of scaling law for cluster...... implantation. Implantation of cobalt and argon clusters into two different allotropic forms of carbon, namely, graphite and diamond is analysed and compared in order to approach universal theory of cluster stopping in matter....

  18. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  19. Diamond window and its application to ITER gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, K.

    1999-01-01

    On the background of having to reduce the overall cost for ITER to 50% it is proposed to replace conventional glass windows on gyrotrons by diamonds. The successful production and testing of such diamond windows is reported. A diamond window can transmit 5 times more power than usual double disk transmission windows while only costing 3 times as much. As a tradeoff, the gyrotrons could be replaced by more powerful ones and one would need fewer of them

  20. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  1. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  2. 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon

    OpenAIRE

    Durazo-Cardenas, Isidro Sergio; Shore, Paul; Luo, X.; Jacklin, T.; Impey, S. A.; Cox, A.

    2006-01-01

    Nanometrically smooth infrared silicon optics can be manufactured by the diamond turning process. Due to its relatively low density, silicon is an ideal optical material for weight sensitive infrared (IR) applications. However, rapid diamond tool edge degradation and the effect on the achieved surface have prevented significant exploitation. With the aim of developing a process model to optimise the diamond turning of silicon optics, a series of experimental trials were devi...

  3. Nanomechanical resonant structures in single-crystal diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Burek, Michael J.; Ramos, Daniel; Patel, Parth; Frank, Ian W.; Lončar, Marko

    2013-01-01

    With its host of outstanding material properties, single-crystal diamond is an attractive material for nanomechanical systems. Here, the mechanical resonance characteristics of freestanding, single-crystal diamond nanobeams fabricated by an angled-etching methodology are reported. Resonance frequencies displayed evidence of significant compressive stress in doubly clamped diamond nanobeams, while cantilever resonance modes followed the expected inverse-length-squared trend. Q-factors on the o...

  4. Signaling Pathways in Pathogenesis of Diamond Blackfan Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0590 TITLE: SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: KATHLEEN M...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0590 SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN PATHOGENESIS OF DIAMOND BLACKFAN ANEMIA 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None 14. ABSTRACT: Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a disorder that results in pure red cell aplasia, congenital

  5. Photovoltage effects in polypyrrole-diamond nanosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Čermák, Jan; Kromka, Alexander; Ledinský, Martin; Kočka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 2-3 (2009), 249-252 ISSN 0925-9635 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06040; GA AV ČR KAN400100701; GA ČR(CZ) GD202/05/H003; GA MŠk LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : diamond * polymers * heterojunction * Kelvin force microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2009

  6. Influence of defects on diamond detection properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tromson, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    This work focuses on the study of the influence of defects on the detection properties of diamond. Devices are fabricated using natural as well as synthetic diamond samples grown using the plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Optical studies with infrared and Raman spectrometry are used to characterise the material properties as well as thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated current measurements. These thermally stimulated analyses reveal the presence of several trapping levels with emission temperatures below or near room temperature as well as an important level near 550 K. The influence of these defects on the alpha and X-ray detector responses is studied as a function of the initial state of the detectors (thermal treatment, irradiation) and of the measurement conditions (time, temperature). The results show a significant correlation between the charged state of traps, namely filled or empty and the response of the detectors. It appears that filling and emptying the traps respectively enhances the sensitivity and stability of detection devices to be used at room temperature and decreases the detection properties at higher temperature. Localised measurements are also used to study the spatial inhomogeneity of natural and CVD diamond samples from the 2D mapping of the detector responses. Non uniformity are attributed to a non-isotropic distribution of defects in natural diamonds. By comparing the detector responses to the topographical map of CVD samples a correlation appears between grains and grain boundaries with the variation of the detector sensitivity. Devices fabricated for detection applications with CVD samples are presented and namely for the monitoring and profiling of synchrotron beams as well as dose rate measurements in harsh environments. (author) [fr

  7. Application of diamond tools when decontaminating concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, B.L.; Gossett, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization of diamond concrete cutting tools offers new potential approaches to the recurring problems of removing contaminated concrete. Innovative techniques can provide exacting removal within a dust-free environment. Present day technology allows remote control operated equipment to perform tasks heretofore considered impossible. Experience gained from years of removing concrete within the construction industry hopefully can contribute new and improved methods to D and D projects

  8. Fermi level on hydrogen terminated diamond surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rezek, Bohuslav; Saurer, C.; Nebel, C. E.; Stutzmann, M.; Ristein, J.; Ley, L.; Snidero, E.; Bergonzo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 14 (2003), s. 2266-2268 ISSN 0003-6951 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-1999-00139 Grant - others:DFC(DE) NE524-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : atomic force microscope (AFM) * Kelvin probe experiments * diamond surface Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.049, year: 2003

  9. Diamond surface: atomic and electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental studies of the diamond surface (with primary emphasis on the (111) surface) are presented. Aspects of the diamond surface which are addressed include (1) the electronic structure, (2) the atomic structure, and (3) the effect of termination of the lattice by foreign atoms. Limited studies of graphite are discussed for comparison with the diamond results. Experimental results from valence band and core level photoemission spectroscopy (PES), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), and carbon 1s near edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy (both the total electron yield (TEY) and Auger electron yield (AEY) techniques) are used to study and characterize both the clean and hydrogenated surface. In addition, the interaction of hydrogen with the diamond surface is examined using results from vibrational high resolution low energy electron loss spectroscopy (in collaboration with Waclawski, Pierce, Swanson, and Celotta at the National Bureau of Standards) and photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) yield at photon energies near the carbon k-edge (hv greater than or equal to 280 eV). Both EELS and PSID verify that the mechanically polished 1 x 1 surface is hydrogen terminated and also that the reconstructed surface is hydrogen free. The (111) 2 x 2/2 x 1 reconstructed surface is obtained from the hydrogenated (111) 1 x 1:H surface by annealing to approx. = 1000 0 C. We observe occupied intrinsic surface states and a surface chemical shift (0.95 +- 0.1 eV) to lower binding energy of the carbon 1s level on the hydrogen-free reconstructed surface. Atomic hydrogen is found to be reactive with the reconstructed surface, while molecular hydrogen is relatively inert. Exposure of the reconstructed surface to atomic hydrogen results in chemisorption of hydrogen and removal of the intrinsic surface state emission in and near the band gap region

  10. Noble gas studies in vapor-growth diamonds: Comparison with shock-produced diamonds and the origin of diamonds in ureilites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Junichi; Fukunaga, Kazuya; Ito, Keisuke (Kobe Univ. (Japan))

    1991-07-01

    The authors synthesized vapor-trowth diamonds by two kinds of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) using microwave (MWCVD) and hot filament (HFCVD) ionization of gases, and examined elemental abundances and isotopic compositions of the noble gases trapped in the diamonds. It is remarkable that strong differences existed in the noble gas concentrations in the two kinds of CVD diamonds: large amounts of noble gases were trapped in the MWCVD diamonds, but not in the HFCVD diamonds. The heavy noble gases (Ar to Xe) in the MWCVD diamonds were highly fractionated compared with those in the ambient atmosphere, and are in good agreement with the calculated fractionation patterns for plasma at an electron temperature of 7,000-9,000 K. These results strongly suggest that the trapping mechanism of noble gases in CVD diamonds is ion implantation during diamond growth. The degrees of fractionation of heavy noble gases were also in good agreement with those in ureilites. The vapor-growth hypothesis is discussed in comparison with the impact-shock hypothesis as a better model for the origin of diamonds in ureilites. The diamond (and graphite, amorphous carbon, too) may have been deposited on early condensates such as Re, Ir, W, etc. This model explains the chemical features of vein material in ureilites; the refractory siderophile elements are enriched in carbon and noble gases and low in normal siderophiles. The vapor-growth model is also compatible with the oxygen isotopic data of ureilites which suggests that nebular processes are primarily responsible for the composition of ureilites.

  11. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation

  12. Long-term data storage in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV− optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV− ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center’s charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV− ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies. PMID:27819045

  13. Long-term data storage in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhomkar, Siddharth; Henshaw, Jacob; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Meriles, Carlos A

    2016-10-01

    The negatively charged nitrogen vacancy (NV - ) center in diamond is the focus of widespread attention for applications ranging from quantum information processing to nanoscale metrology. Although most work so far has focused on the NV - optical and spin properties, control of the charge state promises complementary opportunities. One intriguing possibility is the long-term storage of information, a notion we hereby introduce using NV-rich, type 1b diamond. As a proof of principle, we use multicolor optical microscopy to read, write, and reset arbitrary data sets with two-dimensional (2D) binary bit density comparable to present digital-video-disk (DVD) technology. Leveraging on the singular dynamics of NV - ionization, we encode information on different planes of the diamond crystal with no cross-talk, hence extending the storage capacity to three dimensions. Furthermore, we correlate the center's charge state and the nuclear spin polarization of the nitrogen host and show that the latter is robust to a cycle of NV - ionization and recharge. In combination with super-resolution microscopy techniques, these observations provide a route toward subdiffraction NV charge control, a regime where the storage capacity could exceed present technologies.

  14. Demonstrating diamond wire cutting of the TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Perry, E.; Larson, S.; Viola, M. [and others

    2000-02-24

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ceased operation in April 1997 and decommissioning commenced in October 1999. The deuterium-tritium fusion experiments resulted in contaminating the vacuum vessel with tritium and activating the materials with 14 Mev neutrons. The total tritium content within the vessel is in excess of 7,000 Curies while dose rates approach 50 mRem/hr. These radiological hazards along with the size of the Tokamak (100 cubic meters) present a unique and challenging task for dismantling. Plasma arc cutting is the current baseline technology for the dismantlement of fission reactors. This technology is typically used because of its faster cutting times. Alternatively, an innovative approach for dismantlement of the TFTR is the use of diamond wire cutting technology. Recent improvements in diamond wire technology have allowed the cutting of carbon steel components such as pipe, plate, and tube bundles in heat exchangers. Some expected benefits of this technology include: significantly reduction in airborne contaminates, reduced personnel exposure, a reduced risk of spread of tritium contamination, and reduced overall costs as compared to using plasma arc cutting. This paper will provide detailed results of the diamond wire cutting demonstration that was completed in September of 1999, on a mock-up of this complex reactor. The results will identify cost, safety, industrial and engineering parameters, and the related performance of each situation.

  15. TSC response of irradiated CVD diamond films

    CERN Document Server

    Borchi, E; Bucciolini, M; Guasti, A; Mazzocchi, S; Pirollo, S; Sciortino, S

    1999-01-01

    CVD diamond films have been irradiated with electrons, sup 6 sup 0 Co photons and protons in order to study the dose response to exposure to different particles and energies and to investigate linearity with dose. The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) has been studied as a function of the dose delivered to polymethilmetacrilate (PMMA) in the range from 1 to 12 Gy with 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator. The TSC spectrum has revealed the presence of two components with peak temperatures of about 470 and 520 K, corresponding to levels lying in the diamond band gap with activation energies of the order of 0.7 - 1 eV. After the subtraction of the exponential background the charge emitted during the heating scan has been evaluated and has been found to depend linearly on the dose. The thermally emitted charge of the CVD diamond films has also been studied using different particles. The samples have been irradiated with the same PMMA dose of about 2 Gy with 6 and 20 MeV electrons from a Linac, sup 6 sup 0 ...

  16. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  17. Substitutional Boron in Nanodiamond, Bucky-Diamond, and Nanocrystalline Diamond Grain Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, Amanda S.; Sternberg, Michael G.

    2006-10-05

    Although boron has been known for many years to be a successful dopant in bulk diamond, efficient doping of nanocrystalline diamond with boron is still being developed. In general, the location, configuration, and bonding structure of boron in nanodiamond is still unknown, including the fundamental question of whether it is located within grains or grain boundaries of thin films and whether it is within the core or at the surface of nanoparticles. Presented here are density functional tight-binding simulations examining the configuration, potential energy surface, and electronic charge of substitutional boron in various types of nanocrystalline diamond. The results predict that boron is likely to be positioned at the surface of isolated particles and at the grain boundary of thin-film samples.

  18. Diamond network: template-free fabrication and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Hao; Yang, Nianjun; Fu, Haiyuan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Chun; Huang, Nan; Jiang, Xin

    2015-03-11

    A porous diamond network with three-dimensionally interconnected pores is of technical importance but difficult to be produced. In this contribution, we demonstrate a simple, controllable, and "template-free" approach to fabricate diamond networks. It combines the deposition of diamond/β-SiC nanocomposite film with a wet-chemical selective etching of the β-SiC phase. The porosity of these networks was tuned from 15 to 68%, determined by the ratio of the β-SiC phase in the composite films. The electrochemical working potential and the reactivity of redox probes on the diamond networks are similar to those of a flat nanocrystalline diamond film, while their surface areas are hundreds of times larger than that of a flat diamond film (e.g., 490-fold enhancement for a 3 μm thick diamond network). The marriage of the unprecedented physical/chemical features of diamond with inherent advantages of the porous structure makes the diamond network a potential candidate for various applications such as water treatment, energy conversion (batteries or fuel cells), and storage (capacitors), as well as electrochemical and biochemical sensing.

  19. Drilling of optical glass with electroplated diamond tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A. J.; Luan, C. G.; Yu, A. B.

    2010-10-01

    K9 optical glass drilling experiments were carried out. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tools with small slots and under heat treatment in different temperature were fabricated. Scan electro microscope was applied to analyze the wear of electroplated diamond tool. The material removal rate and grinding ratio were calculated. Machining quality was observed. Bond coating hardness was measured. The experimental results show that coolant is needed for the drilling processes of optical glasses. Heat treatment temperature of diamond tool has influence on wearability of diamond tool and grinding ratio. There were two wear types of electroplated diamond tool, diamond grit wear and bond wear. With the machining processes, wear of diamond grits included fracture, blunt and pull-out, and electroplated bond was gradually worn out. High material removal rates could be obtained by using diamond tool with suitable slot numbers. Bright nickel coating bond presents smallest grains and has better mechanical properties. Bright nickel electroplated diamond tool with slot structure and heat treatment under 200°C was suitable for optical glass drilling.

  20. Alluvial diamond resource potential and production capacity assessment of Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Barthelemy, Francis; Kone, Fatiaga

    2010-01-01

    In May of 2000, a meeting was convened in Kimberley, South Africa, and attended by representatives of the diamond industry and leaders of African governments to develop a certification process intended to assure that rough, exported diamonds were free of conflictual concerns. This meeting was supported later in 2000 by the United Nations in a resolution adopted by the General Assembly. By 2002, the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) was ratified and signed by diamond-producing and diamond-importing countries. Over 70 countries were included as members of the KPCS at the end of 2007. To prevent trade in "conflict diamonds" while protecting legitimate trade, the KPCS requires that each country set up an internal system of controls to prevent conflict diamonds from entering any imported or exported shipments of rough diamonds. Every diamond or diamond shipment must be accompanied by a Kimberley Process (KP) certificate and be contained in tamper-proof packaging. The objective of this study was (1) to assess the naturally occurring endowment of diamonds in Mali (potential resources) based on geological evidence, previous studies, and recent field data and (2) to assess the diamond-production capacity and measure the intensity of mining activity. Several possible methods can be used to estimate the potential diamond resource. However, because there is generally a lack of sufficient and consistent data recording all diamond mining in Mali and because time to conduct fieldwork and accessibility to the diamond mining areas are limited, four different methodologies were used: the cylindrical calculation of the primary kimberlitic deposits, the surface area methodology, the volume and grade approach, and the content per kilometer approach. Approximately 700,000 carats are estimated to be in the alluvial deposits of the Kenieba region, with 540,000 carats calculated to lie within the concentration grade deposits. Additionally, 580,000 carats are estimated to have

  1. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved

  2. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Dulinski, W.; Doroshenko, J.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented.

  3. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W. [HEPHY, Vienna (Austria); Berdermann, E. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A. [LETI/DEIN/SPE/CEA Saclay (France); Boer, W. de [Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany); Bogani, F. [LENS, Florence (Italy); Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M. [University of Florence (Italy); Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W. [LEPSI, IN2P3/CNRS-ULP, Strasbourg (France); Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J. [Rutgers University, Piscataway (United States); D' Angelo, P.; Furetta, C. [INFN, Milano (Italy); Dabrowski, W. [UMM, Cracow (Poland); Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A. [CPPM, Marseille (France); Eijk, B. van [NIKHEF, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fischer, P. [Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fizzotti, F. [University of Torino (Italy); Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  4. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, M; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Doroshenko, J; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Furetta, C; Gan, K K; Ghodbane, N; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Karl, C; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, M; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Marshall, R D; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Meuser, S; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Perera, L; Pernegger, H; Pernicka, M; Polesello, P; Potenza, R; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Sutera, C; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Tuvé, C; Vincenzo, B; Weilhammer, P; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2003-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  5. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H. E-mail: harris.kagan@cern.ch; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R.D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2003-11-21

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  6. New developments in CVD diamond for detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Brambilla, A.; Boer, W. de; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Dulinski, W.; Conway, J.; Doroshenko, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Furetta, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Fallou, A.; Eijk, B. van; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Gan, K.K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knoepfle, K.T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pernicka, M.; Perera, L.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2004-01-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternative sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC and other machines where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last seven years the RD42 collaboration has developed diamond detectors and tested them with LHC electronics towards the end of creating a device usable by experiments. The most recent results of this work are presented. Recently, a new form of CVD diamond has been developed: single crystal CVD diamond which resolves many of the issues associated with poly-crystalline CVD material. The first tests of this material are also presented. (orig.)

  7. The development of diamond tracking detectors for the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; de Boer, W.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Doroshenko, J.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fischer, P.; Fizzotti, F.; Furetta, C.; Gan, K. K.; Ghodbane, N.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Keil, M.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Menichelli, D.; Meuser, S.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Perera, L.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Polesello, P.; Potenza, R.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rudge, A.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Sutera, C.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Tuve, C.; Vincenzo, B.; Weilhammer, P.; Wermes, N.; Wetstein, M.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2003-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition diamond has been discussed extensively as an alternate sensor material for use very close to the interaction region of the LHC where extreme radiation conditions exist. During the last few years diamond devices have been manufactured and tested with LHC electronics with the goal of creating a detector usable by all LHC experiment. Extensive progress on diamond quality, on the development of diamond trackers and on radiation hardness studies has been made. Transforming the technology to the LHC specific requirements is now underway. In this paper we present the recent progress achieved.

  8. Stress analysis of CVD diamond window for ECH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koji

    2001-03-01

    The stress analysis of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond window for Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH/ECCD) system of fusion reactors is described. It was found that the real size diamond window (φ aper =70mm, t=2.25mm) withstood 14.5 atm. (1.45 MPa). The calculation results of the diamond window by ABAQUS code agree well with the results of the pressure test. The design parameters of the torus diamond window for a vacuum and a safety barrier were also obtained. (author)

  9. Novel diamond-coated tools for dental drilling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M J; Sein, H; Ahmed, W; Woodwards, R

    2007-01-01

    The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools has been the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life in orthodontic applications. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co metal and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size of 1 - 3 microm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates it is necessary to etch cobalt from the surface and prepare it for subsequent diamond growth. Alternatively, a titanium nitride (TiN) interlayer can be used prior to diamond deposition. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films to TiN and etched WC substrates. Diamond film quality and purity has been characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro Raman spectroscopy. The performances of diamond-coated WC-Co tools, uncoated WC-Co tools, and diamond embedded (sintered) tools have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human tooth, borosilicate glass, and acrylic tooth materials. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools when machining biomedical materials such as those described above. It is shown that using an interlayer such as TiN prior to diamond deposition provides the best surface preparation for producing dental tools.

  10. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond coated on titanium for osteoblast adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh; Yang, Lei; Kothari, Abhishek; Sirinrath, Sirivisoot; Xiao, Xingcheng; Sheldon, Brian W; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-10-01

    Diamond coatings with superior chemical stability, antiwear, and cytocompatibility properties have been considered for lengthening the lifetime of metallic orthopedic implants for over a decade. In this study, an attempt to tailor the surface properties of diamond films on titanium to promote osteoblast (bone forming cell) adhesion was reported. The surface properties investigated here included the size of diamond surface features, topography, wettability, and surface chemistry, all of which were controlled during microwave plasma enhanced chemical-vapor-deposition (MPCVD) processes using CH4-Ar-H2 gas mixtures. The hardness and elastic modulus of the diamond films were also determined. H2 concentration in the plasma was altered to control the crystallinity, grain size, and topography of the diamond coatings, and specific plasma gases (O2 and NH3) were introduced to change the surface chemistry of the diamond coatings. To understand the impact of the altered surface properties on osteoblast responses, cell adhesion tests were performed on the various diamond-coated titanium. The results revealed that nanocrystalline diamond (grain sizes diamond and, thus, should be further studied for improving orthopedic applications. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2010.

  11. An electrical conductivity inspection methodology of polycrystalline diamond cutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, G.; Wiggins, J.; Bertagnolli, K.; Ludwig, R.

    2012-05-01

    The polycrystalline diamond cutter (PDC) is widely used in oil and gas drilling operations. It is manufactured by sintering diamond powder onto a tungsten carbide substrate at 6 GPa and 1500 C. During sintering, molten cobalt from the substrate infiltrates the diamond table. The residual metal content correlates with cutter performance. We present an instrument that employs electrical impedance tomography capable of imaging the 3D metal content distribution in the diamond table. These images can be used to predict cutter performance as well as detect flaws.

  12. Effect of pretreatment and deposition parameters on diamond nucleation in CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim, E.; Izman, S.; Ourdjini, A.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of diamond films on cemented carbide (WC) has aroused great interest in recent years. The combination of toughness from the WC and the high hardness of diamond results in outstanding wear resistance. This will increase the lifetime and better technical performance of the components made of diamond coated carbide. One of the important steps in the growth of diamond film is the nucleation of diamond as its density strongly influences the diamond growth process, film quality and morphology. In this paper the various effects of surface pretreatment and diamond deposition conditions on the diamond nucleation density are reviewed. (author)

  13. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bartelt, P.F. [Deere & Co., Moline, IL (United States); Baughman, R.H. [Allied Signal, Morristown, NJ (United States); Bhushan, B. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (United States); Cooper, C.V. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Dugger, M.T. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freedman, A. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Larsen-Basse, J. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States); McGuire, N.R. [Caterpillar, Peoria, IL (United States); Messier, R.F. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States); Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H. [John Crane, Inc., Morton Grove, IL (United States); Sartwell, B.D. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wei, R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  14. A wear simulation study of nanostructured CVD diamond-on-diamond articulation involving concave/convex mating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Paul A.; Thompson, Raymond G.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2015-01-01

    Using microwave-plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), a 3-micron thick nanostructured-diamond (NSD) layer was deposited onto polished, convex and concave components that were machined from Ti-6Al-4V alloy. These components had the same radius of curvature, 25.4mm. Wear testing of the surfaces was performed by rotating articulation of the diamond-deposited surfaces (diamond-on-diamond) with a load of 225N for a total of 5 million cycles in bovine serum resulting in polishing of the diamond surface and formation of very shallow, linear wear grooves of less than 50nm depth. The two diamond surfaces remained adhered to the components and polished each other to an average surface roughness that was reduced by as much as a factor of 80 for the most polished region located at the center of the condyle. Imaging of the surfaces showed that the initial wearing-in phase of diamond was only beginning at the end of the 5 million cycles. Atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and surface profilometry were used to characterize the surfaces and verify that the diamond remained intact and uniform over the surface, thereby protecting the underlying metal. These wear simulation results show that diamond deposition on Ti alloy has potential application for joint replacement devices with improved longevity over existing devices made of cobalt chrome and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). PMID:26989457

  15. UV detectors based on epitaxial diamond films grown on single-crystal diamond substrates by vapor-phase synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharonov, G.V.; Petrov, S.A.; Bol'shakov, A.P.; Ral'chenko, V.G.; Kazyuchits, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    The prospects for use of CVD-technology for epitaxial growth of single-crystal diamond films of instrumental quality in UHF plasma for the production of optoelectronic devices are discussed. A technology for processing diamond single crystals that provides a perfect surface crystal structure with roughness less than 0,5 nm was developed. It was demonstrated that selective UV detectors based on synthetic single-crystal diamond substrates coated with single-crystal films can be produced. A criterion for selecting clean and structurally perfect single crystals of synthetic diamond was developed for the epitaxial growth technology. (authors)

  16. A beam radiation monitor based on CVD diamonds for SuperB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.

    2013-08-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond particle detectors are in use in the CERN experiments at LHC and at particle accelerator laboratories in Europe, USA and Japan mainly as beam monitors. Nowadays it is considered a proven technology with a very fast signal read-out and a very high radiation tolerance suitable for measurements in high radiation environment zones i.e. near the accelerators beam pipes. The specific properties of CVD diamonds make them a prime candidate for measuring single particles as well as high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the sub-nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems in hostile environments. A single-crystalline CVD (scCVD) diamond sensor, read out with a new generation of fast and high transition frequency SiGe bipolar transistor amplifiers, has been tested for an application as radiation monitor to safeguard the silicon vertex tracker in the SuperB detector from excessive radiation damage, cumulative dose and instantaneous dose rates. Test results with 5.5 MeV alpha particles from a 241Am radioactive source and from electrons from a 90Sr radioactive source are presented in this paper.

  17. Diamond pad detector telescope for beam conditions and luminosity monitoring in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikuz, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: Marko.Mikuz@ijs.si; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Frais-Koelbl, H. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt and Fotec, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gorisek, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Griesmayer, E. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt and Fotec, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Kagan, H. [Ohio State University, Columbus (United States); Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Niegl, M. [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt and Fotec, Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pernegger, H. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Trischuk, W. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Weilhammer, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Zavrtanik, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute and Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2007-09-01

    Beam conditions and the potential detector damage resulting from their anomalies have pushed the LHC experiments to plan their own monitoring devices in addition to those provided by the machine. ATLAS decided to build a telescope composed of two stations with four diamond pad detector modules each, placed symmetrically around the interaction point at z={+-}183.8cm and r{approx}55mm ({eta}{approx}4.2). Equipped with fast electronics it allows time-of-flight separation of events resulting from beam anomalies from normally occurring p-p interactions. In addition it will provide a coarse measurement of the LHC luminosity in ATLAS. Ten detector modules have been assembled and subjected to tests, from characterization of bare diamonds to source and beam tests. Preliminary results of beam test in the CERN PS indicate a signal-to-noise ratio of 14{+-}2.

  18. Diamond pad detector telescope for beam conditions and luminosity monitoring in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikuz, M.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Gorisek, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Kagan, H.; Kramberger, G.; Mandic, I.; Niegl, M.; Pernegger, H.; Trischuk, W.; Weilhammer, P.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2007-01-01

    Beam conditions and the potential detector damage resulting from their anomalies have pushed the LHC experiments to plan their own monitoring devices in addition to those provided by the machine. ATLAS decided to build a telescope composed of two stations with four diamond pad detector modules each, placed symmetrically around the interaction point at z=±183.8cm and r∼55mm (η∼4.2). Equipped with fast electronics it allows time-of-flight separation of events resulting from beam anomalies from normally occurring p-p interactions. In addition it will provide a coarse measurement of the LHC luminosity in ATLAS. Ten detector modules have been assembled and subjected to tests, from characterization of bare diamonds to source and beam tests. Preliminary results of beam test in the CERN PS indicate a signal-to-noise ratio of 14±2

  19. Plasma CVD reactor with two-microwave oscillators for diamond film synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsu, M.; Miyake, M.; Maeda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results of a new type of microwave plasma CVD system, where two of 1.5 kW microwave sources were used for enlarging the plasma discharge and the diamond film growth. One of the microwave oscillators was used to produce the microwave plasma as in the conventional microwave plasma CVD device, while the second one was used to enlarge the plasma by introducing microwave from the launcher mounted at the substrate stage. We demonstrated the enlargement of plasma discharge area from 60 mm to 100 mm in diameter by using the two-microwave oscillators system. Characteristics of diamond films deposited using H 2 /CH 4 plasmas were also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  20. Thermal characterization of polycrystalline diamond thin film heat spreaders grown on GaN HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Ramaneti, Rajesh; Anaya, Julian; Korneychuk, Svetlana; Derluyn, Joff; Sun, Huarui; Pomeroy, James; Verbeeck, Johan; Haenen, Ken; Kuball, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) was grown onto high-k dielectric passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures, with film thicknesses ranging from 155 to 1000 nm. Transient thermoreflectance results were combined with device thermal simulations to investigate the heat spreading benefit of the diamond layer. The observed thermal conductivity (κDia) of PCD films is one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk PCD and exhibits a strong layer thickness dependence, which is attributed to the grain size evolution. The films exhibit a weak temperature dependence of κDia in the measured 25-225 °C range. Device simulation using the experimental κDia and thermal boundary resistance values predicts at best a 15% reduction in peak temperature when the source-drain opening of a passivated AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT is overgrown with PCD.