WorldWideScience

Sample records for sources covering solar

  1. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  2. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  3. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  4. Persistent solar signatures in cloud cover: spatial and temporal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voiculescu, M; Usoskin, I

    2012-01-01

    A consensus regarding the impact of solar variability on cloud cover is far from being reached. Moreover, the impact of cloud cover on climate is among the least understood of all climate components. This motivated us to analyze the persistence of solar signals in cloud cover for the time interval 1984–2009, covering two full solar cycles. A spatial and temporal investigation of the response of low, middle and high cloud data to cosmic ray induced ionization (CRII) and UV irradiance (UVI) is performed in terms of coherence analysis of the two signals. For some key geographical regions the response of clouds to UVI and CRII is persistent over the entire time interval indicating a real link. In other regions, however, the relation is not consistent, being intermittent or out of phase, suggesting that some correlations are spurious. The constant in phase or anti-phase relationship between clouds and solar proxies over some regions, especially for low clouds with UVI and CRII, middle clouds with UVI and high clouds with CRII, definitely requires more study. Our results show that solar signatures in cloud cover persist in some key climate-defining regions for the entire time period and supports the idea that, if existing, solar effects are not visible at the global level and any analysis of solar effects on cloud cover (and, consequently, on climate) should be done at the regional level. (letter)

  5. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  6. Modification of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss equation for cover absorption effects in solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijeysundera, N E

    1981-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation absorption and the thermal resistance of a solar collector cover system on the various factors which occur in the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss (HWB) equation are considered. It is shown that by extending the thermal network analogy to systems with distributed heat sources, the heat transfer analysis of the collector can be done with little computational effort. The analysis also leads to a simple form of the HWB equation, with additional factors to account for the source distribution and the thermal resistance of the cover system, and it is applicable to conventional flat plate collectors and to other thermal trap collectors. A series of calculations for multilayer systems is presented to show the relative importance of the various factors in the modified HWB equation for different cover configurations.

  7. Investigation of Solar and Solar-Gas Thermal Energy Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Herec; Jan Zupa

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with the investigation of solar thermal sources of electrical and heat energy as well as the investigation of hybrid solar-gas thermal sources of electrical and heat energy (so called photothermal sources). Photothermal sources presented here utilize computer-controlled injection of the conversion fluid into special capillary porous substance that is adjusted to direct temperature treatment by the concentrated thermal radiation absorption.

  8. Estimating solar resources in Mexico using cloud cover data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, David; George, Ray; Brady, Liz; Marion, Bill [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado (United States); Estrada Cajigal, Vicente [Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents the results of applying the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) model to Mexico to develop solar resource data. A major input to the CSR model is a worldwide surface and satellite-derived cloud cover database, called the Real Time Nephanalysis (RTNEPH). The RTNEPH is developed by the U.S. Air Force and distributed by the U.S. National Climatic Data Center. The RTNEPH combines routine ground-based cloud cover observations made every three hours at national weather centers throughout the world with satellite-derived cloud cover information developed from polar orbiting weather satellites. The data are geospatially digitized so that multilayerd cloud cover information is available on a grid of approximately 40-km to a side. The development of this database is an ongoing project that now covers more than twenty years of observations. For the North America analysis (including Mexico) we used an 8-year summarized histogram of the RTNEPH that provides monthly average cloud cover information for the period 1985-1992. The CSR model also accounts for attenuation of the solar beam due to aerosols, atmospheric trace gases, and water vapor. The CSR model outputs monthly average direct normal, global horizontal and diffuse solar information for each of the 40-km grid cells. From this information it is also possible to produce solar resource estimates for various solar collector types and orientations, such as flat plate collectors oriented at latitude tilt, or concentrating solar power collectors. Model results are displayed using Geographic Information System software. CSR model results for Mexico are presented here, along with a discussion of earlier solar resource assessment studies for Mexico, where both modeling approaches and measurement analyses have been used. [Spanish] Este articulo presenta los resultados de aplicar el modelo Radiacion Solar Climatologica CSR del NREL (National Renewable Energy

  9. Solar electron source and thermionic solar cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parham Yaghoobi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Common solar technologies are either photovoltaic/thermophotovoltaic, or use indirect methods of electricity generation such as boiling water for a steam turbine. Thermionic energy conversion based on the emission of electrons from a hot cathode into vacuum and their collection by an anode is also a promising route. However, thermionic solar conversion is extremely challenging as the sunlight intensity is too low for heating a conventional cathode to thermionic emission temperatures in a practical manner. Therefore, compared to other technologies, little has been done in this area, and the devices have been mainly limited to large experimental apparatus investigated for space power applications. Based on a recently observed “Heat Trap” effect in carbon nanotube arrays, allowing their efficient heating with low-power light, we report the first compact thermionic solar cell. Even using a simple off-the-shelf focusing lens, the device delivered over 1 V across a load. The device also shows intrinsic storage capacity.

  10. Solar radiation inside greenhouses covered with semitransparent photovoltaic film: first experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The southern Italian regions are characterized by climatic conditions with high values of solar radiation and air temperature. This has allowed the spread of protected structures both as a defense against critical winter conditions both for growing off-season. The major energy source for these greenhouses is given by solar energy and artificial energy is used rarely. So the problem in the use of greenhouses in these areas, if anything, is opposite to that of the northern areas. In these places you must try to mitigate often the solar radiation inside the greenhouses with suitable measures or abandon for a few months the cultivation inside these structures. The solar radiation intercepted by passive means can be used for other purposes through the uptake and transformation by the photovoltaic panels whose use however is problematic due to complete opacity of the cells. New photosensitive materials partially transparent to solar radiation onto flexible media, allow to glimpse the possibility of using them to greenhouses cover, getting the dual effect of partially screen the greenhouse and use the surplus to generate electricity. The research was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using a flexible photovoltaic film realized by the University of Rome Tor Vergata (research group of ECOFLECS project coordinated by prof. Andrea Reale for covering greenhouses. Two greenhouses in small scale were built: one covered with photovoltaic film and one covered with EVA film for test. In both greenhouses during the first research period it was grown a variety of dwarf tomato. The research was carried out comparing the solar radiation that enters into greenhouse in the summer (August 2012 and in winter conditions (December 2012 in both greenhouses. The result show that the average ratio between the daily global solar radiation under the photovoltaic film and outside radiation is about 37%, while between the radiation under EVA film and outside radiation

  11. Solar heating - a major source of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosselaar, L.

    2001-01-01

    Actions that can be taken to increase the uptake of technology for solar water heaters and solar buildings are discussed. An overview of existing technology covers solar water heating, solar buildings, space heating, solar cooling, solar drying, solar desalination. Solar water heating, solar buildings and solar crop drying are discussed individually under the sub-headings of (a) the technology; (b) the market; (c) potential; (d) economics and (e) market acceleration strategies. Other subjects discussed are market acceleration, main opportunities, R and D needs and conclusions. The IEA solar heating and solar cooling programme is described

  12. Cost-covering remuneration - wind and solar energy skinned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the details of Switzerland's cost-covering remuneration scheme for electrical energy from renewable resources are discussed. Several experts from the renewable energies area express their opinions on the scheme's tariffs for the remuneration of electrical energy fed into the public mains. Wind energy is quoted as being 'skinned', with a lower tariff than before and solar energy is quoted as being promoted 'with the hand brake still on'. Geothermal energy and power from biomass power stations is quoted as being 'undamaged' by the new remuneration system. In general, the opinion is expressed that small investors and producers have, once more, been put at a disadvantage. The situation in Switzerland is briefly compared with that in Germany, France, Spain and Italy. An overview of the tariffs is presented in tabular form

  13. The performance of solar collector CPC (compound parabolic concentrator) type with three pipes covered by glass tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Yogi Sirodz; Yulianto, Muhamad; Juarsa, Mulya; Nurrohman, Marzuki, Edi; Yuliaji, Dwi; Budiono, Kabul

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is a tropical country that has potential energy of solar radiation worth of 4.5 until 4.8 kWh/m2. However, this potential has not been utilized regularly. This paper will discuss the performance of solar collector compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) type with water as the working fluid. This CPC solar collector utilized three pipes covered by glass tubes. This paper has contribution to provide the temperature achievement between three pipes covered by glass tubes with and without glass cover of solar collector CPC type. The research conducted by varying the water flow rate of 1 l/m up to 6 l/m with three pipes arranged in series and parallel. From the results, the used of solar collector CPC type in the current study shows that the decrease of solar radiation, which was caused by climate change, did not influence the heat absorbance by water in the pipe. Therefore, the design of the solar collector in this research has potential to be used in future when solar radiation are used as the energy source.

  14. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source to produce potable water albeit at a relatively low productivity rate. A new modification has been introduced to the conventional solar still to enhance its productivity. The modification consists of a light weight, black finished, slowly-rotating drum, which leads to a sustainable, cost-effective, and low-tech amendment that preserves the key features of the still while considerably increasing its yield compared to a control still that does not include the drum. In this paper, three different cover geometries of the modified still are studied and the effect of cover design on the performance of the still in terms of measured temperatures and productivity is considered. The three cover designs are as follows: double-sloped or triangular, single-sloped and curved cover. In addition, a conventional double-sloped still without the rotating drum is operated in parallel as a control and the findings of this study are reported and discussed. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. SOLAR SOURCES OF 3He-RICH SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS IN SOLAR CYCLE 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Nariaki V.; Mason, Glenn M.; Wang, Linghua; Cohen, Christina M. S.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Using high-cadence EUV images obtained by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the solar sources of 26 3 He-rich solar energetic particle events at ≲1 MeV nucleon −1 that were well-observed by the Advanced Composition Explorer during solar cycle 24. Identification of the solar sources is based on the association of 3 He-rich events with type III radio bursts and electron events as observed by Wind. The source locations are further verified in EUV images from the Solar and Terrestrial Relations Observatory, which provides information on solar activities in the regions not visible from the Earth. Based on AIA observations, 3 He-rich events are not only associated with coronal jets as emphasized in solar cycle 23 studies, but also with more spatially extended eruptions. The properties of the 3 He-rich events do not appear to be strongly correlated with those of the source regions. As in the previous studies, the magnetic connection between the source region and the observer is not always reproduced adequately by the simple potential field source surface model combined with the Parker spiral. Instead, we find a broad longitudinal distribution of the source regions extending well beyond the west limb, with the longitude deviating significantly from that expected from the observed solar wind speed

  16. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  17. Plasma sources of solar system magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Michel; Chappell, Charles; Krupp, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    This volume reviews what we know of the corresponding plasma source for each intrinsically magnetized planet. Plasma sources fall essentially in three categories: the solar wind, the ionosphere (both prevalent on Earth), and the satellite-related sources. Throughout the text, the case of each planet is described, including the characteristics, chemical composition and intensity of each source. The authors also describe how the plasma generated at the source regions is transported to populate the magnetosphere, and how it is later lost. To summarize, the dominant sources are found to be the solar wind and sputtered surface ions at Mercury, the solar wind and ionosphere at Earth (the relative importance of the two being discussed in a specific introductory chapter), Io at Jupiter and – a big surprise of the Cassini findings – Enceladus at Saturn. The situation for Uranus and Neptune, which were investigated by only one fly-by each, is still open and requires further studies and exploration. In the final cha...

  18. Front Cover: Solar RRL 3-4∕2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Moraitis, P.; Aalberts, Carlo; Drent, M.; Grasso, Thom; L'Ortye, Yves; Visscher, Marc; Westra, Mattijs; Plas, Rob; Planje, Wilco

    Luminescent solar concentrators consist of coloured plastic plates that concentrate sunlight to their sides where solar cells are mounted. Since their conception in the 1970s, novel dyes and nanocrystals have being developed for these concentrators, and it is time to show their full spectrum of

  19. Thermal Advantages for Solar Heating Systems with a Glass Cover with Antireflection Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    Investigations elucidate how a glass cover with antireflection surfaces can improve the efficiency of a solar collector and the thermal performance of solar heating systems. The transmittances for two glass covers for a flat-plate solar collector were measured for different incidence angles....... The two glasses are identical, except for the fact that one of them is equipped with antireflection surfaces by the company SunArc A/ S. The transmittance was increased by 5–9%-points due to the antireflection surfaces. The increase depends on the incidence angle. The efficiency at incidence angles of 08...... and the incidence angle modifier were measured for a flat-plate solar collector with the two cover plates. The collector efficiency was increased by 4–6%-points due to the antireflection surfaces, depending on the incidence angle. The thermal advantage with using a glass cover with antireflection surfaces...

  20. Plasmon-Assisted Efficiency Enhancement of Eu3+-Doped Tellurite Glass-Covered Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bismarck C.; Gómez-Malagón, L. A.; Gomes, A. S. L.; Garcia, J. A. M.; Kassab, L. R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Rare-earth-doped tellurite glass containing metallic nanoparticles can be exploited to manage the solar spectrum in order to increase solar cell efficiency. It is therefore possible to modify the incident solar spectrum profile to the spectrum that optimizes the solar cell recombination process by covering the solar cell with plasmonic luminescent downshifting layers. With this approach, the losses due to thermalization are minimized and the efficiency is increased. Due to the down-conversion process that couples the plasmon resonance of the metallic nanoparticles and the rare-earth electronic energy levels, it is possible to convert photons from the ultraviolet region to the visible and near-band-gap region of the semiconductor. It is demonstrated here that plasmon-assisted efficiency enhancements of 14.0% and 34.5% can be obtained for commercial Si and GaP solar cells, respectively, covered with Eu3+-doped TeO2-ZnO glass containing silver nanoparticles.

  1. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krahenbuhl Daniel Scott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson’s product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO, and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  2. Sources of type III solar microwave bursts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanov D.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microwave fine structures allow us to study plasma evolution in an energy release region. The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT is a unique instrument designed to examine fine structures at 5.7 GHz. A complex analysis of data from RATAN-600, 4–8 GHz spectropolarimeter, and SSRT, simultaneously with EUV data, made it possible to localize sources of III type microwave bursts in August 10, 2011 event within the entire frequency band of burst occurrence, as well as to determine the most probable region of primary energy release. To localize sources of III type bursts from RATAN-600 data, an original method for data processing has been worked out. At 5.7 GHz, the source of bursts was determined along two coordinates, whereas at 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, and 6.0 GHz, their locations were identified along one coordinate. The size of the burst source at 5.1 GHz was found to be maximum as compared to those at other frequencies.

  3. Optimized flexible cover films for improved conversion efficiency in thin film flexible solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Sidney; Wen, Xin; Gudavalli, Ganesh; Rhajbhandari, Pravakar; Dhakal, Tara P.; Wilt, David; Klotzkin, David

    2018-05-01

    Thin film solar cell technologies are being developed for lower cost and flexible applications. For such technologies, it is desirable to have inexpensive, flexible cover strips. In this paper, we demonstrate that transparent silicone cover glass adhesive can be doped with TiO2 nanoparticles to achieve an optimal refractive index and maximize the performance of the cell. Cells covered with the film doped with nanoparticles at the optimal concentration demonstrated a ∼1% increase in photocurrent over the plain (undoped) film. In addition, fused silica beads can be incorporated into the flexible cover slip to realize a built-in pseudomorphic glass diffuser layer as well. This additional degree of freedom in engineering flexible solar cell covers allows maximal performance from a given cell for minimal increased cost.

  4. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-01-01

    Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture conten...

  5. Synergistic effect of solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2001-01-01

    Waterborne diseases are still common in developing countries as drinking water sources are contaminated and feasible means to reliably treat and disinfect these waters are not available. Many of these developing countries are in the tropical regions of the world where sunlight is plentiful. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of combining solar radiation and solar heating to disinfect contaminated water using a modified Family Sol*Saver System (FSP). The non-UV transmittable cover sheet of the former FSP system was replaced with an UV transmittable plastic cover sheet to enable more wavelengths of sunlight to treat the water. Disinfection efficiency of both systems was evaluated based on reduction of the natural populations of faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, total heterotrophic bacteria, hydrogen sulphide producing bacteria and FRNA virus. The results showed that under sunny and partly sunny conditions, water was heated to critical temperature (60 degrees C) in both the FSP systems inactivating more than 3 log (99.9%) of the concentrations of faecal coliform and E. coli to undetectable levels of heat worked synergistically to enhance the inactivation of faecal indicator bacteria. The relative log removal of indicator microorganism in the FSP treated water was total heterotrophic bacteria heat and radiation effects of sunlight were important in disinfecting water by solar units. The data indicated that direct radiation of sunlight worked synergistically with solar heating of the water to disinfect the water. Thus, effective disinfection was observed even when the water temperature did not reach 60 degrees C. Finally, the hydrogen sulphide test is a simple and reliable test that householders can use to determine whether their water had been sufficiently disinfected.

  6. The effect of cover geometry on the productivity of a modified solar still desalination unit

    KAUST Repository

    Malaeb, Lilian; Ayoub, George M.; Al Hindi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Desalination methods based on renewable energy offer a promising solution to both water shortage and environmental degradation problems that continue to grow globally. The solar still is one such method that uses a sustainable energy source

  7. Performance study of a laboratory model shallow solar pond with and without single transparent glass cover for solar thermal energy conversion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, S; Arumugam, S

    2016-12-01

    The thermal performance of a shallow solar pond with and without the single transparent glass cover has been investigated experimentally. This experiment has been performed during the summer season of 2014 under the operational condition for five different storage volumes of water upto a maximum of 10liter. The pond performance is investigated in terms of the rate of energy collected and its collection efficiency. A Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) black sheet liner of 200μm thickness was laid on all the interior sides of the pond for solar energy absorption. A clear transparent PVC plastic sheet of 150μm thickness was laid over the water surface as evaporation suppressing membrane. Calibrated Copper constantan thermocouples were used to measure the temperatures of the system. A highest temperature of 81.5°C has been achieved for the stored volume of 2liter of water, when the pond was used with a single transparent glass cover of 5mm thickness. When the shallow solar pond was used without the transparent glass cover the system attained a maximum temperature of 62°C for the same stored volume of 2liter. A comparison between the two conditions of with and without the transparent glass cover, on the thermal performance of the SSP has been reported. A shallow solar pond system of the present type could be used us a source of warm water, of desired temperature, below 10°C which are required for the domestic and industrial utilities. The global warming is increased day by day; inorder to reduce global warming a typical method of small scale shallow solar pond has been used to absorb the radiation from the sun to convert it to useful heat energy by the source of water. The SSP is an eco friendly way to generate energy without polluting our environment and in an environment safety manner. Based on environmental safety this study has experimentally investigated the thermal performance of the shallow solar pond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Two Sources of Solar Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2013-06-01

    Evidence for two different physical mechanisms for acceleration of solar energetic particles (SEPs) arose 50 years ago with radio observations of type III bursts, produced by outward streaming electrons, and type II bursts from coronal and interplanetary shock waves. Since that time we have found that the former are related to "impulsive" SEP events from impulsive flares or jets. Here, resonant stochastic acceleration, related to magnetic reconnection involving open field lines, produces not only electrons but 1000-fold enhancements of 3He/4He and of ( Z>50)/O. Alternatively, in "gradual" SEP events, shock waves, driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), more democratically sample ion abundances that are even used to measure the coronal abundances of the elements. Gradual events produce by far the highest SEP intensities near Earth. Sometimes residual impulsive suprathermal ions contribute to the seed population for shock acceleration, complicating the abundance picture, but this process has now been modeled theoretically. Initially, impulsive events define a point source on the Sun, selectively filling few magnetic flux tubes, while gradual events show extensive acceleration that can fill half of the inner heliosphere, beginning when the shock reaches ˜2 solar radii. Shock acceleration occurs as ions are scattered back and forth across the shock by resonant Alfvén waves amplified by the accelerated protons themselves as they stream away. These waves also can produce a streaming-limited maximum SEP intensity and plateau region upstream of the shock. Behind the shock lies the large expanse of the "reservoir", a spatially extensive trapped volume of uniform SEP intensities with invariant energy-spectral shapes where overall intensities decrease with time as the enclosing "magnetic bottle" expands adiabatically. These reservoirs now explain the slow intensity decrease that defines gradual events and was once erroneously attributed solely to slow

  9. Thermal behavior of laboratory models of honeycomb-covered solar ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to provide insight into the technical feasibility of honeycomb-covered solar ponds. Cooling tests using honeycomb panels of various materials and geometries showed that a 5.7-cm-thick one-tier panel insulated as effectively as a 10-cm fiberglass slab. Heating tests demonstrated that a model pond covered with a polycarbonate panel boiled upon 16 hours of continuous exposure to a 150-W spotlight. Analysis of the experimental data indicates positively that honeycomb-covered solar ponds can be expected to perform satisfactorily, and that larger-scale outdoor tests should be conducted to provide a more realistic assessment and a more refined performance estimate.

  10. Solar-Iss a New Solar Reference Spectrum Covering the Far UV to the Infrared (165 to 3088 Nm) Based on Reanalyzed Solar/solspec Cycle 24 Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.

    2017-12-01

    Since April 5, 2008 and until February 15, 2017, the SOLSPEC (SOLar SPECtrometer) spectro-radiometer of the SOLAR facility on the International Space Station performed accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (165 nm to 3088 nm). These measurements, unique by their large spectral coverage and long time range, are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry), noticeably through the "top-down" mechanism amplifying ultraviolet (UV) solar forcing effects on the climate (UV affects stratospheric dynamics and temperatures, altering interplanetary waves and weather patterns both poleward and downward to the lower stratosphere and troposphere regions). SOLAR/SOLSPEC, with almost 9 years of observations covering the essential of the unusual solar cycle 24 from minimum in 2008 to maximum, allowed to establish new reference solar spectra from UV to IR (165 to 3088 nm) at minimum (beginning of mission) and maximum of activity. The complete reanalysis was possible thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations and advanced procedures to account for thermal, aging and pointing corrections. The high quality and sensitivity of SOLSPEC data allow to follow temporal variability in UV but also in visible along the cycle. Uncertainties on these measurements are evaluated and results, absolute reference spectra and variability, are compared with other measurements (WHI, ATLAS-3, SCIAMACHY, SORCE/SOLSTICE, SORCE/SIM) and models (SATIRE-S, NRLSSI, NESSY)

  11. Solar radiation data sources, applications, and network design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    A prerequisite to considering solar energy projects is to determine the requirements for information about solar radiation to apply to possible projects. This report offers techniques to help the reader specify requirements in terms of solar radiation data and information currently available, describes the past and present programs to record and present information to be used for most requirements, presents courses of action to help the user meet his needs for information, lists sources of solar radiation data and presents the problems, costs, benefits and responsibilities of programs to acquire additional solar radiation data. Extensive background information is provided about solar radiation data and its use. Specialized information about recording, collecting, processing, storing and disseminating solar radiation data is given. Several Appendices are included which provide reference material for special situations.

  12. Potential solar radiation and land cover contributions to digital climate surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pol; Batalla, Meritxell; Pesquer, Lluís; Ninyerola, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Overview: We have designed a series of ad-hoc experiments to study the role of factors that a priori have a strong weight in developing digital models of temperature and precipitation, such as solar radiation and land cover. Empirical test beds have been designed to improve climate (mean air temperature and total precipitation) digital models using statistical general techniques (multiple regression) with residual correction (interpolated with inverse weighting distance). Aim: Understand what roles these two factors (solar radiation and land cover) play to incorporate them into the process of generating mapping of temperature and rainfall. Study area: The Iberian Peninsula and supported in this, Catalonia and the Catalan Pyrenees. Data: The dependent variables used in all experiments relate to data from meteorological stations precipitation (PL), mean temperature (MT), average temperature minimum (MN) and maximum average temperature (MX). These data were obtained monthly from the AEMET (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología). Data series of stations covers the period between 1950 to 2010. Methodology: The idea is to design ad hoc, based on a sample of more equitable space statistician, to detect the role of radiation. Based on the influence of solar radiation on the temperature of the air from a quantitative point of view, the difficulty in answering this lies in the fact that there are lots of weather stations located in areas where solar radiation is similar. This suggests that the role of the radiation variable remains "off" when, instead, we intuitively think that would strongly influence the temperature. We have developed a multiple regression analysis between these meteorological variables as the dependent ones (Temperature and rainfall), and some geographical variables: altitude (ALT), latitude (LAT), continentality (CON) and solar radiation (RAD) as the independent ones. In case of the experiment with land covers, we have used the NDVI index as a proxy of land

  13. The Solar Wind Source Cycle: Relationship to Dynamo Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, J. G.; Li, Y.; Lee, C. O.; Jian, L. K.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Arge, C. N.

    2017-12-01

    Solar cycle trends of interest include the evolving properties of the solar wind, the heliospheric medium through which the Sun's plasmas and fields interact with Earth and the planets -including the evolution of CME/ICMEs enroute. Solar wind sources include the coronal holes-the open field regions that constantly evolve with solar magnetic fields as the cycle progresses, and the streamers between them. The recent cycle has been notably important in demonstrating that not all solar cycles are alike when it comes to contributions from these sources, including in the case of ecliptic solar wind. In particular, it has modified our appreciation of the low latitude coronal hole and streamer sources because of their relative prevalence. One way to understand the basic relationship between these source differences and what is happening inside the Sun and on its surface is to use observation-based models like the PFSS model to evaluate the evolution of the coronal field geometry. Although the accuracy of these models is compromised around solar maximum by lack of global surface field information and the sometimes non-potential evolution of the field related to more frequent and widespread emergence of active regions, they still approximate the character of the coronal field state. We use these models to compare the inferred recent cycle coronal holes and streamer belt sources of solar wind with past cycle counterparts. The results illustrate how (still) hemispherically asymmetric weak polar fields maintain a complex mix of low-to-mid latitude solar wind sources throughout the latest cycle, with a related marked asymmetry in the hemispheric distribution of the ecliptic wind sources. This is likely to be repeated until the polar field strength significantly increases relative to the fields at low latitudes, and the latter symmetrize.

  14. Evaluation of Sources of Uncertainties in Solar Resource Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habte, Aron M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-25

    This poster presents a high-level overview of sources of uncertainties in solar resource measurement, demonstrating the impact of various sources of uncertainties -- such as cosine response, thermal offset, spectral response, and others -- on the accuracy of data from several radiometers. The study provides insight on how to reduce the impact of some of the sources of uncertainties.

  15. A study on the relationship between incoming solar UV radiation and cloud cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoo, V.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this study an empirical relationship between the incoming solar UV radiation and concurrently measured cloud cover at Bombay (19 o 01'N, 72 o 55'E), based on data pertaining to two year (1986-1987) period is established. It is compared with a similar relationship used elsewhere and found to differ in its form as well as in the regression coefficients. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Conditions under which the two relationships agree are also examined. (author)

  16. Alterations in fruit and vegetable beta-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, J D; Byaruhanga, Y B

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometry at 450 nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at (pdrying. Open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene and vitamin C loss (58% and 84% respectively), while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least loss (34.5% and 71% respectively). Blanching cowpea leaves improved b-carotene and vitamin C retention by 15% and 7.5% respectively. The b-carotene and vitamin C content of fresh ripe mango fruit was 5.9 and 164.3 mg/100g DM respectively. Similar to effects on cowpea leaves, the mango micronutrient content decreased (pdrying. The open sun drying method caused the greatest b-carotene (94.2%) and vitamin C (84.5%) loss, while the visqueen-covered solar dryer caused the least (73 and 53% respectively). These results show that the three solar drying methods cause significant loss of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C in dried fruits and vegetables. However, open sun drying causes the most loss and the visqueen-covered solar dryer the least, making the later a probable better drying technology for fruit and vegetable preservation. The drying technologies should be improved to enhance vitamin retention.

  17. Experimental determination of optimum annual cleaning frequency and costs for transparent glass covers used in solar devices in Sokoto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduekwe, A. A. L.; Garba, B.; Atiku, A. T.

    1997-01-01

    Transparent covers used in solar collectors collect both solar radiation and dirt from the environment. The dirt collected reduces the amount of useful incident solar radiation that would have been transmitted into system. Samples of ordinary glass used as transparent covers in solar devices at Sokoto Energy Research Centre were exposed to the weather for a period of one year. Cleaning was done on daily, weekly, bi-monthly and monthly basis. A sample was left uncleaned throughout the period. Using the measured average daily transmittance for all seasons as a constant for such glass covers in Sokoto showed that varying the cost/wash/collector for a collector of one-square metre receiver area from =N=0.50 to =N=50.00, would vary the frequency of washing the collector covers from 160 down to 25 times annually respectively. Cost of washing per annum would also vary from 79.90 Naira to 834.46 Naira

  18. The thermal performance of the two-pass, two-glass-cover solar air heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, P.; Sateunanathan, S.

    1983-08-01

    Analytic models are developed for the performance prediction of a two-glass-cover solar air heater operated in both the single-pass and two-pass modes. It is shown that the two-pass mode of operation is superior to the single-pass mode of operation over the range of collector inlet temperatures considered. This is seen to be mainly due to the fact that, in the two-pass mode of operation, the outer glass cover is cooled by the working fluid, thereby reducing the top losses. It is also shown that the performance in the two-pass mode of operation is independent of length, over the range of collector lengths considered, and that a critical plate spacing, dependent on the temperature level of operation of the collector, is indicated. Predicted values of performance are in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Investigating the feasibility of geo-Tagged photographs as sources of land cover input data

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Vyron; Fonte, Cidália Costa; See, Linda; Estima, Jacinto; Arsanjani, Jamal Jokar; Lupia, Flavio; Minghini, Marco; Foody, Giles; Fritz, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Geo-Tagged photographs are used increasingly as a source of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), which could potentially be used for land use and land cover applications. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the feasibility of using this source of spatial information for three use cases related to land cover: Calibration, validation and verification. We first provide an inventory of the metadata that are collected with geo-Tagged photographs and then consider what elements would be es...

  1. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-03

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  2. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R. N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  3. Solar heating as a major source of energy for Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.N.

    1977-07-01

    Solar energy can make its most effective contribution to Australian primary energy in the form of heat for industrial applications. About 50% of all end use energy is required as heat and it is estimated that 40% of this amounting to 1 EJ/a by 2000 could be supplied by solar heat generating systems. This would be 12% of estimated primary energy requirements by that time, and could help reduce the country's increasing dependence on imported oil. Energy self-sufficiency for Australia is possible, based on coal, solar energy and natural gas as primary energy sources. The reason for the present orientation towards residential solar water heaters is that there are many places where electric power for water heating costs between 2 and 4 cents per kWh which makes a solar water heater an attractive proposition. There is also a growing interest in the solar heating of swimming pools, mostly for private homes but also in larger installations for public and institutional pools. Industrial applications, on the other hand, are inhibited by the current low energy prices in Australia, which in some cases are around 0.13 cents/MJ (.47 cents/kWh). Industry, however, uses 40% of Australian primary energy, and represents by far the greatest potential for solar heat generating systems. Demonstration plants are being planned to obtain data on capital and running costs, and at the same time build up professional design and constructional skills in this area. The first demonstration solar industrial process heating system was commissioned in December 1976 and supplies portion of the heat requirements of a soft drink plant in conjunction with the existing oil fired boiler. Integrated solar/oil fired systems of this sort ensure continuous operation of the plant and over a year can result in significant oil savings.

  4. Solar energy: an environment friendly reliable and sustainable source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.A.; Akhtar, W.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid enhancement in consumption of fossil fuels in order to meet the day-to day increasing energy requirements has blown a danger sign for all nations. Global warming effect has compelled researchers to discover other techniques of energy generation instead of traditional ways in order to reduce adverse effects on global terrain. Renewable energy resources have got attention of global entrepreneurs due to their long lasting availability and environment friendliness. Solar technology is finding increased application in both domestic and military application. This paper discusses the ideas behind the art of design of solar cells and their historical developments. It also covers the kind of techniques/ methodologies used for solar energy conversion into electrical energy with comparison between different renewable technologies and solar technology. This paper gives the brief review of world energy resources and their consumption v/s Solar energy production percentage. Researchers in the field of energy generation have impressed by the Prodigious results of Renewable Energies. Today's most of the high ranked international universities of developed countries in collaboration with government/ industries have been carrying on advance researches in the field of renewable technologies. (author)

  5. Structure and sources of solar wind in the growing phase of 24th solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Goryaev, Farid; Shugay, Julia; Rodkin, Denis; Veselovsky, Igor

    2015-04-01

    We present analysis of the solar wind (SW) structure and its association with coronal sources during the minimum and rising phase of 24th solar cycle (2009-2011). The coronal sources prominent in this period - coronal holes, small areas of open magnetic fields near active regions and transient sources associated with small-scale solar activity have been investigated using EUV solar images and soft X-ray fluxes obtained by the CORONAS-Photon/TESIS/Sphinx, PROBA2/SWAP, Hinode/EIS and AIA/SDO instruments as well as the magnetograms obtained by HMI/SDO. It was found that at solar minimum (2009) velocity and magnetic field strength of high speed wind (HSW) and transient SW from small-scale flares did not differ significantly from those of the background slow speed wind (SSW). The major difference between parameters of different SW components was seen in the ion composition represented by the C6/C5, O7/O6, Fe/O ratios and the mean charge of Fe ions. With growing solar activity, the speed of HSW increased due to transformation of its sources - small-size low-latitude coronal holes into equatorial extensions of large polar holes. At that period, the ion composition of transient SW changed from low-temperature to high-temperature values, which was caused by variation of the source conditions and change of the recombination/ionization rates during passage of the plasma flow through the low corona. However, we conclude that criteria of separation of the SW components based on the ion ratios established earlier by Zhao&Fisk (2009) for higher solar activity are not applicable to the extremely weak beginning of 24th cycle. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under the grant agreement eHeroes (project n° 284461, www.eheroes.eu).

  6. Geometrical Relationship Between Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Their Solar Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cho, K.-S.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-05-01

    We investigated the physical connection between interplanetary flux ropes (IFRs) near Earth and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by comparing the magnetic field structures of IFRs and CME source regions. The analysis is based on the list of 54 pairs of ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections) and CMEs that are taken to be the most probable solar source events. We first attempted to identify the flux rope structure in each of the 54 ICMEs by fitting models with a cylinder and torus magnetic field geometry, both with a force-free field structure. This analysis determined the possible geometries of the identified flux ropes. Then we compared the flux rope geometries with the magnetic field structure of the solar source regions. We obtained the following results: (1) Flux rope structures are seen in 51 ICMEs out of the 54. The result implies that all ICMEs have an intrinsic flux rope structure, if the three exceptional cases are attributed to unfavorable observation conditions. (2) It is possible to find flux rope geometries with the main axis orientation close to the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) in the solar source regions, the differences being less than 25°. (3) The helicity sign of an IFR is strongly controlled by the location of the solar source: flux ropes with positive (negative) helicity are associated with sources in the southern (northern) hemisphere (six exceptions were found). (4) Over two-thirds of the sources in the northern hemisphere are concentrated along PILs with orientations of 45° ± 30° (measured clockwise from the east), and over two-thirds in the southern hemisphere along PILs with orientations of 135° ± 30°, both corresponding to the Hale boundaries. These results strongly support the idea that a flux rope with the main axis parallel to the PIL erupts in a CME and that the erupted flux rope propagates through the interplanetary space with its orientation maintained and is observed as an IFR.

  7. Evaluation of the LMFBR cover gas source term and synthesis of the associated R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balard, F.; Carluec, B.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of the seventies and the beginning of the eighties, there appeared a pressing need of experimental results to assess the LMFBR's safety level. Because of the urgency, analytical studies were not systematically undertaken and maximum credible cover gas instantaneous source terms (radionuclides core release fraction) were got directly from crude out-of-pile experiment interpretations. Two types of studies and mock-ups were undertaken depending on the timescale of the phenomena: instantaneous source terms (corresponding to an unlikely energetic core disruptive accident CDA), and delayed ones (tens of minutes to some hours). The experiments performed in this frame are reviewed in this presentation: 1) instantaneous source term: - FAUST experiments: I, Cs, UO2 source terms (FzK, Germany), - FAST experiments : pool depth influence on non volatile source term (USA), - CARAVELLE experiments: nonvolatile source term in SPX1 geometry (CEA, France); 2) delayed source term: - NALA experiments: I, Cs, Sr, UO2 source term (FzK, Germany), - PAVE experiments: I source term (CEA, France), - NACOWA experiments: cover gas aerosols enrichment in I and Cs (FzK, Germany) - other French experiments in COPACABANA and GULLIVER facilities. The volatile fission products release is tightly bound to sodium evaporation and a large part of the fission products is dissolved in the liquid sodium aerosols present in the cover gas. Thus the knowledge of the amount of aerosol release to the cover gas is important for the evaluation of the source term. The maximum credible cover gas instantaneous source terms deduced from the experiments have led to conservative source terms to be taken into account in safety analysis. Nevertheless modelling attempts of the observed (in-pile or out-of-pile) physico-chemical phenomena have been undertaken for extrapolation to the reactor case. The main topics of this theoretical research are as follows: fission products evaporation in the cover gas (Fz

  8. Investigating the Feasibility of Geo-Tagged Photographs as Sources of Land Cover Input Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyron Antoniou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Geo-tagged photographs are used increasingly as a source of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI, which could potentially be used for land use and land cover applications. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the feasibility of using this source of spatial information for three use cases related to land cover: Calibration, validation and verification. We first provide an inventory of the metadata that are collected with geo-tagged photographs and then consider what elements would be essential, desirable, or unnecessary for the aforementioned use cases. Geo-tagged photographs were then extracted from Flickr, Panoramio and Geograph for an area of London, UK, and classified based on their usefulness for land cover mapping including an analysis of the accompanying metadata. Finally, we discuss protocols for geo-tagged photographs for use of VGI in relation to land cover applications.

  9. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  10. On the effect of cover tilt angle of the simple solar still on its productivity in different seasons and latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Abdul Jabbar N.

    2011-01-01

    Many experimental and numerical studies have been carried out on different configurations of solar stills to optimize the design by investigating the effect of climatic, operational and design parameters on its performance. One of the main parameters that have received a considerable attention is the cover tilt angle. A large number of studies on the effect of cover tilt angle on productivity in different seasons and latitude angles are cited in this article. The investigation that tackle the detailed effect of the cover tilt angle on productivity report contradictory conclusions about the effect of tilt angle on productivity and the value of the optimum tilt angle. A relation between the cover tilt angle and productivity of simple solar still in various seasons is established together with a relation between the optimum tilt angle and the latitude angle by an extensive review of the literature. The conclusions of this study should assist in choosing the proper cover tilt angle in various seasons and latitudes.

  11. Study of cover source mismatch in steganalysis and ways to mitigate its impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodovský, Jan; Sedighi, Vahid; Fridrich, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    When a steganalysis detector trained on one cover source is applied to images from a different source, generally the detection error increases due to the mismatch between both sources. In steganography, this situation is recognized as the so-called cover source mismatch (CSM). The drop in detection accuracy depends on many factors, including the properties of both sources, the detector construction, the feature space used to represent the covers, and the steganographic algorithm. Although well recognized as the single most important factor negatively affecting the performance of steganalyzers in practice, the CSM received surprisingly little attention from researchers. One of the reasons for this is the diversity with which the CSM can manifest. On a series of experiments in the spatial and JPEG domains, we refute some of the common misconceptions that the severity of the CSM is tied to the feature dimensionality or their "fragility." The CSM impact on detection appears too difficult to predict due to the effect of complex dependencies among the features. We also investigate ways to mitigate the negative effect of the CSM using simple measures, such as by enlarging the diversity of the training set (training on a mixture of sources) and by employing a bank of detectors trained on multiple different sources and testing on a detector trained on the closest source.

  12. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  13. Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 · °C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 ·° C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

  14. The source of multi spectral energy of solar energetic electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani [Astronomy Division and Bosscha Observatory, Faculty Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Intitute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 dhani@as.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    We study the solar energetic electron distribution obtained from ACE and GOES satellites which have different altitudes and electron spectral energy during the year 1997 to 2011. The electron spectral energies were 0.038–0.315 MeV from EPAM instrument onboard ACE satellite and >2 MeV from GOES satellite. We found that the low electron energy has no correlation with high energy. In spite of we have corrected to the altitude differences. It implied that they originated from time dependent events with different sources and physical processes at the solar atmosphere. The sources of multi spectral energetic electron were related to flare and CME phenomena. However, we also found that high energetic electron comes from coronal hole.

  15. Nitrogen Fertilizer Source, Rates, and Timing for a Cover Crop and Subsequent Cotton Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to compare N fertilizer sources, rates, and time of application for a rye winter cover crop to determine optimal biomass production for conservation tillage production, compare recommended and no additional N fertilizer rates across different biomass levels for cotton, and determ...

  16. Long-term cover design for low-level radioactive and hazardous waste sites as applied to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site solar evaporation ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenseng, S.E.; Nixon, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) operated five lined solar evaporation ponds (SEPs) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Jefferson County, Colorado from 1953 until 1986. The SEPs were used primarily to store and evaporate low-level radioactive and hazardous process wastes. Operation of the SEPs has resulted in contamination of the surrounding soils, and may also provide a source of groundwater contamination. The DOE proposes to close the SEPs by consolidating the contaminated material beneath an engineered cover. The primary objective of the closure of such hazardous and radioactive sites is to limit the exposure of the general public to the contaminants for time periods ranging from 100 to 10,000 years. The goal of the SEPs engineered cover is to isolate hazardous and low-level radioactive soils for a minimum of 1,000 years. Since there is currently no existing regulatory design guidance for a 1,000-year engineered cover, the proposed design of the SEPs engineered cover is based on research and testing that has been conducted for many years at various DOE facilities in the US. This paper discusses the main design theories of the proposed engineered cover for the closure of the SEPs, and how the research and test results of these other programs have been used to arrive at the final cover configuration, the material selections, the component layering, layer thicknesses, and the balance and interaction between components to establish an overall effective cover system

  17. Study on Effect of Number of Transparent Covers and Refractive Index on Performance of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kalidasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid flat plate collector (solar flat plate collector is one of the important applications in solar thermal system. The development in solar photovoltaic is an emerging challenge for the solar thermal system. In the current work an attempt has been made to optimize the number of transparent covers and refractive index to improve the optical efficiency and thermal efficiency for the collector. Performance of the liquid flat plate collector at VIT University Vellore has been simulated numerically for January 21st at an interval of half an hour with different numbers of transparent covers (0–3 and different refractive index values ranging from 1.1 to 1.7. The formulation and solutions are developed with simple software Microsoft Office Excel to result the performance characteristics. The result shows that the efficiency of the flat plate collector increases with an increase in number of covers and decreases after an optimum number of covers. It also decreases with an increase in refractive index. The combination of optimum number (two and lower refractive index (1.1 results improved useful heat.

  18. Remote sensing as a source of land cover information utilized in the universal soil loss equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris-Jones, D. R.; Morgan, K. M.; Kiefer, R. W.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1979-01-01

    In this study, methods for gathering the land use/land cover information required by the USLE were investigated with medium altitude, multi-date color and color infrared 70-mm positive transparencies using human and computer-based interpretation techniques. Successful results, which compare favorably with traditional field study methods, were obtained within the test site watershed with airphoto data sources and human airphoto interpretation techniques. Computer-based interpretation techniques were not capable of identifying soil conservation practices but were successful to varying degrees in gathering other types of desired land use/land cover information.

  19. Solar radiation measurements and Leaf Area Index (LAI) from vegetal covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandelli, E.V.; Marques Filho, A. de O.

    1999-01-01

    A method by which a physical model of the solar radiation transfer in a vegetal medium is inverted to estimate the leaf area index (LAI) for different types of vegetation is presented here, as an alternative to the destructive experiments, which are a hard task to implement on the vegetation covers. Radiation data were obtained during the dry season — 1996, at the Embrapa Experimental Station, (BR 174 - km 54, 2° 31' S, 60° 01' W), Manaus, Brazil. The method yielded convergent values for the LAI between different adopted radiation classes with more stable estimates at time when there is a predominant diffuse radiation. The application of the inversion algorithm yields the following values for the leaf area index and respective annual foliage increments: 3.5 (0.35 yr. -1 ) for the intact secondary forest; 2.0 (0.5 yr -1 ) for the palm agroforestry system; and 1.6 (0.4 yr -1 ) for the multi-layer ones [pt

  20. A Model fot the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to approx.60deg, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model. Key words: solar wind - Sun: corona - Sun: magnetic topology

  1. On the addition of heat to solar pond from external sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Jain, Ravi; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    This brief note addresses the method of adding heat to a solar pond from an external source which is used to enhance the performance of a solar pond. Heat energy collected by Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors (ETSC) is transferred by circulating fluid from the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ) of a solar

  2. Baryonic sources using irreducible representations of the double-covered octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Edwards, R.; Fiebig, R.; Fleming, G.T.; Heller, U.M.; Morningstar, C.; Richards, D.; Sato, I.; Wallace, S.

    2005-01-01

    Irreducible representations (IRs) of the double-covered octahedral group are used to construct lattice source and sink operators for three-quark baryons. The goal is to achieve a good coupling to higher spin states as well as ground states. Complete sets of local and nonlocal straight-link operators are explicitly shown for isospin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The orthogonality relations of the IR operators are confirmed in a quenched lattice simulation

  3. Baryonic sources using irreducible representations of the double-covered octahedral group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basak, S.; Edwards, R.; Fiebig, R.; Fleming, G. T.; Heller, U. M.; Morningstar, C.; Richards, D.; Sato, I.; Wallace, S.

    2004-01-01

    Irreducible representations (IRs) of the double-covered octahedral group are used to construct lattice source and sink operators for three-quark baryons. The goal is to achieve a good coupling to higher spin states as well as ground states. Complete sets of local and nonlocal straight-link operators are explicitly shown for isospin 1/2 and 3/2 baryons. The orthogonality relations of the IR operators are confirmed in a quenched lattice simulation

  4. Consideration on a Low Power Solar Energy Renewable Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Marusca

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the contribution of theauthors regarding the implementation of a low powersolar energy renewable source. To optimize theconversion efficiency of the solar irradiance intoelectrical energy an embedded system was designed. Theembedded system can accomplish the maximum powerpoint tracking by evaluation the output voltage andcurrent of the photovoltaic panels and calculate a propercommand for the DC-DC converter of the renewablesource. The key device in this system is a midrange 8 bitmicrocontroller that consists of acquisition, commandand control integrated hardware resources.

  5. Solar energy versus nuclear energy as energy sources at the transition period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastroamidjojo, MSA.

    Technical aspects and social aspects of nuclear power plants and solar energy system as energy sources, were comparatively evaluated. The evaluation proves that solar energy is better than nuclear energy. (SMN)

  6. A Model for the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, S. K.; Mikić, Z.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Linker, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind also has large angular width, up to ~60°, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We propose a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We compute analytically the topology of an open-field corridor and show that it produces a quasi-separatrix layer in the heliosphere that extends to angles far from the heliospheric current sheet. We then use an MHD code and MDI/SOHO observations of the photospheric magnetic field to calculate numerically, with high spatial resolution, the quasi-steady solar wind, and magnetic field for a time period preceding the 2008 August 1 total solar eclipse. Our numerical results imply that, at least for this time period, a web of separatrices (which we term an S-web) forms with sufficient density and extent in the heliosphere to account for the observed properties of the slow wind. We discuss the implications of our S-web model for the structure and dynamics of the corona and heliosphere and propose further tests of the model.

  7. Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Dynamic Optical Networks Employing Solar Energy Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jiayuan; Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents energy efficient routing in dynamic optical networks, where solar energy sources are employed for the network nodes. Different parameters are evaluated, including the number of nodes that have access to solar energy sources, the different maximum solar output power, traffic type...... and the locations of solar powered nodes. Results show a maximum 39% savings in energy consumption with different increases in connection blocking probability....

  8. Upright nanopyramid structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning effects for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amalathas, Amalraj Peter; Alkaisi, Maan M

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of upright nanopyramid (UNP) structured cover glass with light harvesting and self-cleaning functions on the device performance of monocrystalline Si solar cells. The UNP structures were fabricated on the surface of the glass substrate by simple, high throughput and low cost UV nanoimprint lithography, using a Si master mold with inverted nanopyramid (INP) structures. The diffuse transmittance and haze ratio values were significantly increased for UNP patterned glass, especially in the wavelength range 300–600 nm compared to the bare glass; this implies that antireflection and strong light scattering are due to the UNP structures. By replacing a bare cover glass with UNP patterned glass, the power conversion efficiency of the monocrystalline Si solar cell was substantially enhanced by about 10.97%; this is mainly due to the increased short-circuit current density J SC of 32.39 mA cm −2 compared to the reference cell with bare cover glass (i.e. J SC   =  31.60 mA cm −2 ). In addition, unlike the bare cover glass (i.e. θ CA ∼ 36°), the fluorinated UNP structured cover glass exhibited a hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle ( θ CA ) of ∼132° and excellent self-cleaning of dust particles by rolling down water droplets. (paper)

  9. Experimental study on a solar air heater with various perforated covers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Raheleh Nowzari

    2017-08-08

    Aug 8, 2017 ... ... counter-flow collectors. The average efficiencies of the double-pass solar collector with ...... and thermal performance of a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator for spherical absorber. Sadhana—. Acad. Proc.

  10. Standard Practice for Determining Resistance of Solar Collector Covers to Hail by Impact With Propelled Ice Balls

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for determining the ability of cover plates for flat-plate solar collectors to withstand impact forces of falling hail. Propelled ice balls are used to simulate falling hailstones. This practice is not intended to apply to photovoltaic cells or arrays. 1.2 This practice defines two types of test specimens, describes methods for mounting specimens, specifies impact locations on each test specimen, provides an equation for determining the velocity of any size ice ball, provides a method for impacting the test specimens with ice balls, and specifies parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.3 This practice does not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable levels of ice-ball impact resistance is beyond the scope of this practice. 1.4 The size of ice ball to be used in conducting this test is not specified in this practice. This practice can be used with various sizes of ice balls. 1.5 The categories of solar collector cover plat...

  11. SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENT ONSETS: FAR BACKSIDE SOLAR SOURCES AND THE EAST–WEST HEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahler, S. W., E-mail: stephen.kahler@kirtland.af.mil [Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Avenue, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Prompt onsets and short rise times to peak intensities Ip have been noted in a few solar energetic (E > 10 MeV) particle (SEP) events from far behind (≥25°) the west limb. We discuss 15 archival and recent examples of these prompt events, giving their source longitudes, onset and rise times, and associated coronal mass ejection (CME) speeds. Their timescales and CME speeds are not exceptional in comparison with a larger set of SEP events from behind the west limb. A further statistical comparison of observed timescales of SEP events from behind the west limb with events similarly poorly magnetically connected to the eastern hemisphere (EH) shows the longer timescales of the latter group. We interpret this result in terms of a difference between SEP production at parallel shocks on the eastern flanks of western backside events and at perpendicular shocks on the western flanks of EH events.

  12. Solar cells: An environment-benign energy source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsema, E.; Van Engelenburg, B.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to a study on the environmental aspects of solar cell production techniques and the possibility of recycling solar cell materials. In the study the following types of solar cell modules are dealt with: CdTe and CuInSe 2 , amorphous silicon, crystalline silicon, and GaAs. It appears that silicon solar cells have minor environmental effects and are controllable. However, attention should be paid to the energy consumption and the use of etching and purification materials during the production of solar cells, and the emission of heavy metals from f.e. CdTe/CIS solar cells during and after usage. Without effective recycling enough supplies of indium, selenium and tellurium cannot be guaranteed. 3 figs., 1 ill

  13. Lightweight solar array blanket tooling, laser welding and cover process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    A two phase technology investigation was performed to demonstrate effective methods for integrating 50 micrometer thin solar cells into ultralightweight module designs. During the first phase, innovative tooling was developed which allows lightweight blankets to be fabricated in a manufacturing environment with acceptable yields. During the second phase, the tooling was improved and the feasibility of laser processing of lightweight arrays was confirmed. The development of the cell/interconnect registration tool and interconnect bonding by laser welding is described.

  14. InP MMIC Chip Set for Power Sources Covering 80-170 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    We will present a Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chip set which provides high output-power sources for driving diode frequency multipliers into the terahertz range. The chip set was fabricated at HRL Laboratories using a 0.1-micrometer gate-length InAlAs/InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process, and features transistors with an f(sub max) above 600 GHz. The HRL InP HEMT process has already demonstrated amplifiers in the 60-200 GHz range. In this paper, these high frequency HEMTs form the basis for power sources up to 170 GHz. A number of state-of-the-art InP HEMT MMICs will be presented. These include voltage-controlled and fixed-tuned oscillators, power amplifiers, and an active doubler. We will first discuss an 80 GHz voltage-controlled oscillator with 5 GHz of tunability and at least 17 mW of output power, as well as a 120 GHz oscillator providing 7 mW of output power. In addition, we will present results of a power amplifier which covers the full WRIO waveguide band (75-110 GHz), and provides 40-50 mW of output power. Furthermore, we will present an active doubler at 164 GHz providing 8% bandwidth, 3 mW of output power, and an unprecedented 2 dB of conversion loss for an InP HEMT MMIC at this frequency. Finally, we will demonstrate a power amplifier to cover 140-170 GHz with 15-25 mW of output power and 8 dB gain. These components can form a power source in the 155-165 GHz range by cascading the 80 GHz oscillator, W-band power amplifier, 164 GHz active doubler and final 140-170 GHz power amplifier for a stable, compact local oscillator subsystem, which could be used for atmospheric science or astrophysics radiometers.

  15. Green cooperative communication network using solar energy sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay kumar; jaya diptilal; S.V charhate

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy has experienced phenomenal growth in recent years due to both technological improvements resulting in cost reductions and government policies supportive of renewable energy development and utilization. This study analyzes the technical, economic and policy aspects of solar energy development and deployment. While the cost of solar energy has declined rapidly in the recent past, it still remains much higher than the cost of conventional energy technologies. Like other ...

  16. Low-Temperature Soft-Cover Deposition of Uniform Large-Scale Perovskite Films for High-Performance Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Fei; Tang, Wentao; Xie, Fengxian; Yin, Maoshu; He, Jinjin; Wang, Yanbo; Chen, Han; Qiang, Yinghuai; Yang, Xudong; Han, Liyuan

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale high-quality perovskite thin films are crucial to produce high-performance perovskite solar cells. However, for perovskite films fabricated by solvent-rich processes, film uniformity can be prevented by convection during thermal evaporation of the solvent. Here, a scalable low-temperature soft-cover deposition (LT-SCD) method is presented, where the thermal convection-induced defects in perovskite films are eliminated through a strategy of surface tension relaxation. Compact, homogeneous, and convection-induced-defects-free perovskite films are obtained on an area of 12 cm 2 , which enables a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.5% on a solar cell with an area of 5 cm 2 . This is the highest efficiency at this large cell area. A PCE of 15.3% is also obtained on a flexible perovskite solar cell deposited on the polyethylene terephthalate substrate owing to the advantage of presented low-temperature processing. Hence, the present LT-SCD technology provides a new non-spin-coating route to the deposition of large-area uniform perovskite films for both rigid and flexible perovskite devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. 3D laser scanning and open source GIS for solar potential assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochem, A.

    2011-01-01

    such as roof overhangs or building parts covered by e.g. vegetation are not represented in 2.5D raster data, they have been used for building detection and solar radiation modeling in many cases. This thesis aims to utilize the highest degree of information - the third dimension - of the laser scanning point cloud for both the detection of planar areas of buildings and solar radiation modeling. The algorithms and workflows developed in the framework of this thesis are implemented in Open Source GRASS and SAGA GIS allowing the integration of own modules and the use of existing visualization and spatial analysis tools to interpret and further process the results. Methods are demonstrated generating 2D GIS-ready information in the form of vector polygons and vector lines of the detected objects and their properties (e.g. area, total amount of the incoming solar energy). This offers the possibility for 'normal' GIS users such as spatial planners to analyze and further process the spatial information in standard GIS environments. In the first part of this thesis approaches for the detection and segmentation, respectively, of roof planes using 3D point cloud data acquired by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) are presented. The detected roof planes are used as input for point cloud-based solar radiation modeling. Shadows of nearby objects are considered by modeling the 3D horizon of each point being reflected from a roof plane within the original laser scanning point cloud. As solar thermal and photovoltaic conversion systems can also be mounted on building facades the developed point cloud based solar radiation model is transferred on building walls extracted from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS) data in order to assess their solar potential. The developed algorithms are completely executed within the computer's main memory and thus are not suitable for large study areas because the huge amount of point cloud data produced by LiDAR technology cannot be processed at once. In the

  18. The Effect of Solar Reflective Cover on Soak Air Temperature and Thermal Comfort of Car Parked under the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahimer A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parking a vehicle under the sun for a short period of time can rapidly increase the interior air cabin temperature no matter in clear sky days or even in partially cloudy days. These circumstances can be anxieties to car occupants upon entry. The aim of this paper is to evaluate experimentally the effect of solar reflective cover (SRC on vehicle air temperature and cabin thermal comfort. Experimental measurements of parked cars were conducted in UKM, Bangi city, Malaysia (latitude of 2.9° N and longitude of 101.78° E under partially cloudy day where average ambient temperature is 33°C. The experimental measurements cover the following cases: case (I: car with/ without SRC (at different measurement time; Case (II: using two identical cars concurrently (SRC versus baseline; Case (III: using two identical cars concurrently (solar reflective film (SRF versus baseline and Case (IV: using two identical cars concurrently (SRF versus SRC. Experimental results dedicated to case (I revealed that the maximum cabin air temperature with SRC (39.6°C is significantly lower than that of baseline case (57.3°C. This leads to temperature reduction improvement of 31% and the difference between the cabin and the ambient air temperature was minimized by approximately 73%. In addition, the results revealed that the air temperature at breath level of car with SRC dropped to comfort temperature (27°C after 7 min while baseline car reached comfort temperature after 14 min. Results of the other cases are discussed inside the paper. Overall, it is learned that SRC is found superior as an efficient thermal insulation system limits solar radiation transmission into the cabin through the glass; keeps cabin air temperature close to the ambient temperature; and provide acceptable thermal environment to the occupants as they settle into their parked car.

  19. The Effect of Solar Reflective Cover on Soak Air Temperature and Thermal Comfort of Car Parked under the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahimer, A. A.; Alghoul, M. A.; Sopian, K.; Khrit, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    Parking a vehicle under the sun for a short period of time can rapidly increase the interior air cabin temperature no matter in clear sky days or even in partially cloudy days. These circumstances can be anxieties to car occupants upon entry. The aim of this paper is to evaluate experimentally the effect of solar reflective cover (SRC) on vehicle air temperature and cabin thermal comfort. Experimental measurements of parked cars were conducted in UKM, Bangi city, Malaysia (latitude of 2.9° N and longitude of 101.78° E) under partially cloudy day where average ambient temperature is 33°C. The experimental measurements cover the following cases: case (I): car with/ without SRC (at different measurement time); Case (II): using two identical cars concurrently (SRC versus baseline); Case (III): using two identical cars concurrently (solar reflective film (SRF) versus baseline) and Case (IV): using two identical cars concurrently (SRF versus SRC). Experimental results dedicated to case (I) revealed that the maximum cabin air temperature with SRC (39.6°C) is significantly lower than that of baseline case (57.3°C). This leads to temperature reduction improvement of 31% and the difference between the cabin and the ambient air temperature was minimized by approximately 73%. In addition, the results revealed that the air temperature at breath level of car with SRC dropped to comfort temperature (27°C) after 7 min while baseline car reached comfort temperature after 14 min. Results of the other cases are discussed inside the paper. Overall, it is learned that SRC is found superior as an efficient thermal insulation system limits solar radiation transmission into the cabin through the glass; keeps cabin air temperature close to the ambient temperature; and provide acceptable thermal environment to the occupants as they settle into their parked car.

  20. Exergy applied to the heat conduction analysis in glass covers of a solar cooker box-type with internal and external reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S; López, R; Vaca, M

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an exergy evaluation to determine the energy availability across to glass covers, place where the solar radiation enters toward a solar cooker box-type is done. Considering the heating process of water, the energy not used is quantified by means of exergy. The results allow identifying the glasses in the cover as the zone where the solar cooker could be improved. The conduction heat transfer losses for the glasses is most big than 75%. Because the values for the conduction heat losses are around 90%, which are very important, this allows to identify the cover glass as the area where improvements could be made in this type of solar cookers. (paper)

  1. Photoemission studies of clean and adsorbate covered metal surfaces using synchrotron and uv radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apai, G.R. II.

    1977-09-01

    Photoemission energy distribution experiments on clean metal and adsorbate-covered surfaces were performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by using x-ray and ultraviolet photon sources in the laboratory as well as continuously-tunable, highly polarized synchrotron radiation obtainable at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Studies focused on two general areas: cross-section modulation in the photoemission process was studied as a function of photon energy and orbital composition. Sharp decreases in intensity of the valence bands of several transition metals (i.e., Ag, Au, and Pt) are attributed to the radial nodes in the respective wave functions. Adsorbate photoemission studies of CO adsorbed on platinum single crystals have demonstrated a very high spectral sensitivity to the 4sigma and (1π + 5sigma) peaks of CO at photon energies of 150 eV. Angle-resolved photoemission allowed determination of the orientation of CO chemisorbed on a Pt (111) or Ni(111) surface. Prelinimary results at high photon energies (approximately 150 eV) indicated scattering from the substrate which could yield chemisorption site geometries

  2. Photovoltaic. Solar electricity, a sustainable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stryi-Hipp, Gerhard; Loyen, Richard; Knaack, Jan; Chrometzka, Thomas

    2008-06-01

    This German publication outlines that solar energy is now essential to any sustainable energy mix, and describes the operation principle of solar photovoltaic energy production. It describes how it can be applied for the production of electricity in isolated areas, and for individual housing as well as commercial buildings, and presents the concept of ground-based solar plants. The next part discusses the development of the photovoltaic market (its huge potential, its world size) and indicates the different associated arrangements of financial support or subsidy. It also discusses how photovoltaic markets can be developed, and proposes an overview of the German model

  3. The solar neutrino problem after the GALLEX artificial neutrino source experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignaud, D.

    1995-01-01

    Using an intense 51 Cr artificial neutrino source (more than 60 PBq), the GALLEX solar neutrino collaboration has recently checked that its radiochemical detector was fully efficient for the detection of solar neutrinos. After this crucial result, the status of the solar neutrino problem is reviewed, with emphasis on how neutrino oscillations may explain (through the MSW effect) the different deficits observed in the four existing experiments. (author). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Long-lived sources of solar cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The high correlation between prompt solar cosmic rays and a flare-induced MHD shock is well known. We point out that the propagation properties of such a shock cause shock heating of the solar atmosphere to be confined to a unipolar magnetic region. As a result, if particles can be accelerated within the shock-processed part of the corona, the fluxes of suc particles will exhibit sharp spatial gradients near quiescent filaments. The passage of an MHD shock leads to the rapid collapse of magnetic neutral regions which prior to shock passage were collapsing too slowly to accelerate particles. We suggest that these newly triggered magnetic acceleration regions provide a third phase of solar flare acceleration regions provide a third phase of solar flare acceleration which may persist for many days after a flare. Collapsing magnetic regions with lengths scales of order 100 km can explain a variety of coronal phenomena

  5. Integrating rooftop solar into a multi-source energy planning optimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnette, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • There is significant technical capacity for rooftop solar installations. • Rooftop solar generation is heavily dependent on key parameters. • Rooftop solar should be one of several options for increasing renewable energy. • Renewable energy planning should consider both cost and benefits. - Abstract: This research uses an optimization model to compare the role of rooftop solar generation versus large-scale solar and wind farm installations in renewable energy planning. The model consists of competing objectives, minimizing annual generation costs and minimizing annual greenhouse gas emissions. Rather than focus on the individual consumer’s investment decision, over 20 scenarios were developed which explored key input parameters such as the maximum penetration level of rooftop solar installations, pricing of equipment, tax credits, and net-metering policy to determine what role rooftop solar plays in renewable energy investment at an aggregate level. The research finds that at lower levels of penetration, such as those currently found in the United States, other renewable energy sources remain viable options, thus rooftop solar should be just one option considered when increasing development of renewable energy sources. The research also shows that a balanced approach taking into account both of the opposing objectives will lead to greater levels of rooftop solar generation than focusing solely on cost or emissions. Therefore, rooftop solar should be considered as part of an overall balanced approach to increasing renewable energy generation

  6. Advantages of geosynchronous solar power satellites for terrestrial base-load electrical supply compared to other renewable energy sources - or why civilization needs solar power satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, J.K. Jr. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The arguments in favour of using solar power satellites for primary base-load electrical supply are presented and compared with the advantages and drawbacks of other renewable energy sources, especially ground solar and wind systems. Popular misconceptions about energy use and the importation of space solar energy to the Earth`s surface are examined and discounted. Finally an optimal mix of space solar (focusing on geosynchronous solar power satellites), ground solar, and other energy sources is described which, it is argued, would be capable to meet future global energy demand. (UK)

  7. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop

    OpenAIRE

    Balkcom,Kipling Shane; Wood,Charles Wesley; Adams,James Fredrick; Meso,Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N) requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaoli...

  8. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography, and map sources - Compatibility, accuracy and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.

  9. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  10. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  11. Spherical anatase TiO2 covered with nanospindles as dual functional scatters for dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiaopan; Tian, Jianhua; Liao, Wenming; Shan, Zhongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spherical anatase TiO 2 covered with nanospindles (SNS) were employed in DSSCs. • SNS possess the dual functions of light scattering and high dye loading. • SNS were fabricated through a facile hydrothermal treatment of the precursors. • Precursors were synthesized by controlled hydrolysis of TBT after being diluted. • The cells based on SNS-18/P25 photoanode exhibited advanced performance. - Abstract: Spherical anatase TiO 2 covered with nanospindles (SNS) were fabricated through a facile hydrothermal treatment of precursors in the presence of ammonia. The precursors were synthesized by controlling hydrolysis rate of TBT (tetrabutyl titanate) in ethanol. Organic structure directing agents and toxic reagents were avoided in the two–step process. By scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), it is confirmed that the morphology and structure of the products can be controlled by adjusting hydrothermal treatment conditions. Time dependent trails revealed the growth mechanism of SNS, which indicating that ammonia can not only retard the dissolution of precursors but also make TiO 2 grow selectively along the direction. Furthermore, photocurrent-potential (I-V) curves show that the solar cells fabricated with the SNS collected after 18 h hydrothermal treatment (SNS-18) exhibit the highest solar energy conversion efficiency. The efficiency is improved by 24.5% compared with that of the cells fabricated with pure P25. Based on the UV-Vis spectrum, nitrogen sorption and IPCE analysis, the improved performance can be attributed to the enhanced scattering and increased active sites for dye loading. Therefore, the dual functions of light scattering and many active sites for dye loading make SNS superior candidates for DSSCs

  12. Solar Radiation Model for Development and Control of Solar Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominykas Vasarevičius

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of solar radiation, which takes into account direct, diffused and reflected components of solar energy, has been presented. Model is associated with geographical coordinates and local time of every day of the year. It is shown that using analytic equations for modelling the direct component, it is possible to adopt it for embedded systems with low computational power and use in solar tracking applications. Reflected and diffused components are especially useful in determining the performance of photovoltaic modules in certain location and surroundings. The statistical method for cloud layer simulation based on local meteorological data is offered. The presented method can’t be used for prediction of weather conditions but it provides patterns of solar radiation in time comparable to those measured with pyranometer. Cloud layer simulation together with total solar radiation model is a useful tool for development and analysis of maximum power point tracking controllers for PV modules.

  13. Turbulence and Waves as Sources for the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, S. R.

    2008-05-01

    Gene Parker's insights from 50 years ago provided the key causal link between energy deposition in the solar corona and the acceleration of solar wind streams. However, the community is still far from agreement concerning the actual physical processes that give rise to this energy. It is still unknown whether the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wavelike fluctuations) or if mass and energy is input more intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. No matter the relative importance of reconnections and loop-openings, though, we do know that waves and turbulent motions are present everywhere from the photosphere to the heliosphere, and it is important to determine how they affect the mean state of the plasma. In this presentation, I will give a summary of wave/turbulence models that seem to succeed in explaining the time-steady properties of the corona (and the fast and slow solar wind). The coronal heating and solar wind acceleration in these models comes from anisotropic turbulent cascade, which is driven by the partial reflection of low-frequency Alfven waves propagating along the open magnetic flux tubes. Specifically, a 2D model of coronal holes and streamers at solar minimum reproduces the latitudinal bifurcation of slow and fast streams seen by Ulysses. The radial gradient of the Alfven speed affects where the waves are reflected and damped, and thus whether energy is deposited below or above Parker's critical point. As predicted by earlier studies, a larger coronal expansion factor gives rise to a slower and denser wind, higher temperature at the coronal base, less intense Alfven waves at 1 AU, and correlative trends for commonly measured ratios of ion charge states and FIP-sensitive abundances that are in general agreement with observations. Finally, I will outline the types of future observations that would be most able to test and refine these ideas.

  14. Experimental and comparative study of the effect of paraffin oil and covering for solar ponds without saline water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spyridonos, A V; Anagnostatos, G S; Novakovic, M M

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a superficial layer of paraffin or a plastic covering on the thermal storage efficiency of three kinds of non-saline solar pond has been investigated. Four small scale ponds were used for experimental measurements. These were: (1) a reference pond; (2) a pond divided horizontally into compartments separated by plastic sheets; (3) a pond with a superficial layer of paraffin and (4) a pond filled with hollow plastic cubes. Comparisons were made between these four ponds with and without plastic coverings, and with a layer of paraffin in addition on ponds 2 and 4. The rise in mean temperature of each pond during a number of heating cycles has been studied. A difference in mean temperature of the order of 10 to 20/sup 0/C was observed in each case between the beginning and end of the heating period and the temperature at the bottom of the pond after heating was in the range 30 to 50/sup 0/C. The results for these experimental ponds may be of use in the choice of full-size shallow ponds and may also give important indications for ponds of much greater depth.

  15. Cellulose acetate fibers covered by CdS nanoparticles for hybrid solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, Hugo; Martinez-Alonso, Claudia [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico); Castillo-Ortega, Monica [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Hu, Hailin, E-mail: hzh@cie.unam.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, UNAM, Priv. Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, Morelos 62580 (Mexico)

    2012-09-20

    In this work cellulose acetate (CA) fibers with a diameter of approximately 1 {mu}m were immersed in a cadmium sulfide (CdS) precursor solution. After 3 h the original white color CA fibers became yellow and maintained the same form, suggesting the deposition of CdS on fiber surface. SEM images showed that CA fibers were covered by uniformly sized CdS nanoparticles of approximately 100 nm. XRD and optical absorption spectra indicated that they contained mostly cubic crystalline phase with the optical band gap of 2.43 eV. CdS coated CA fibers, called CdS(CA) fibers, were dispersed in a polar dispersant (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO) and then mixed with a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution in a non-polar solvent (dichlorobenzene, DCB). The mixture was cast onto a transparent conductive glass substrate (Indium-Tin-Oxide, ITO), and after solvent evaporation a thin layer of CdS(CA)-P3HT composite was formed. It is observed that the volume relation between the polar dispersant and non-polar solvent influences the solubility of the P3HT product in the composite coating and the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding cell as well. The mass ratio between CdS(CA) fibers and P3HT in the composite layer affects the optical absorption of the composite. The best photovoltaic performance was obtained in CdS(CA)-P3HT based cells with a volume relation between DCB and DMSO of 3.5-1, a mass ratio between CdS(CA) and P3HT of 1:1, and a rapid drying process for composite coatings.

  16. Source term boundary adaptive estimation in a first-order 1D hyperbolic PDE: Application to a one loop solar collector through

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, boundary adaptive estimation of solar radiation in a solar collector plant is investigated. The solar collector is described by a 1D first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation where the solar radiation models the source term

  17. Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow cover based on multi-source remote sensing data in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Deng, Jie; Ma, Xiaofang; Wang, Yunlong; Feng, Qisheng; Hao, Xiaohua; Liang, Tiangang

    2016-10-01

    By combining optical remote sensing snow cover products with passive microwave remote sensing snow depth (SD) data, we produced a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) cloudless binary snow cover product and a 500 m snow depth product. The temporal and spatial variations of snow cover from December 2000 to November 2014 in China were analyzed. The results indicate that, over the past 14 years, (1) the mean snow-covered area (SCA) in China was 11.3 % annually and 27 % in the winter season, with the mean SCA decreasing in summer and winter seasons, increasing in spring and fall seasons, and not much change annually; (2) the snow-covered days (SCDs) showed an increase in winter, spring, and fall, and annually, whereas they showed a decrease in summer; (3) the average SD decreased in winter, summer, and fall, while it increased in spring and annually; (4) the spatial distributions of SD and SCD were highly correlated seasonally and annually; and (5) the regional differences in the variation of snow cover in China were significant. Overall, the SCD and SD increased significantly in south and northeast China, and decreased significantly in the north of Xinjiang province. The SCD and SD increased on the southwest edge and in the southeast part of the Tibetan Plateau, whereas it decreased in the north and northwest regions.

  18. Spatiotemporal dynamics of snow cover based on multi-source remote sensing data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available By combining optical remote sensing snow cover products with passive microwave remote sensing snow depth (SD data, we produced a MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer cloudless binary snow cover product and a 500 m snow depth product. The temporal and spatial variations of snow cover from December 2000 to November 2014 in China were analyzed. The results indicate that, over the past 14 years, (1 the mean snow-covered area (SCA in China was 11.3 % annually and 27 % in the winter season, with the mean SCA decreasing in summer and winter seasons, increasing in spring and fall seasons, and not much change annually; (2 the snow-covered days (SCDs showed an increase in winter, spring, and fall, and annually, whereas they showed a decrease in summer; (3 the average SD decreased in winter, summer, and fall, while it increased in spring and annually; (4 the spatial distributions of SD and SCD were highly correlated seasonally and annually; and (5 the regional differences in the variation of snow cover in China were significant. Overall, the SCD and SD increased significantly in south and northeast China, and decreased significantly in the north of Xinjiang province. The SCD and SD increased on the southwest edge and in the southeast part of the Tibetan Plateau, whereas it decreased in the north and northwest regions.

  19. CLOSED LOOP CONTROL OF EMBEDDED Z-SOURCE INVERTER WITH FUZZY CONTROLLER FOR SOLAR PV APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Midde Mahesh*, K. Leleedhar Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of Embedded Z –source inverter system with fuzzy controller for Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) applications with adjustable speed drives. Closed loop operation FUZZY control strategies of EZSI system are proposed. EZSI produces the same voltage gain as Z-source inverter (ZSI) but due to the DC sources embedded within the X- shaped impedance network, it has the added advantage of inherent source filtering capability and also reduced capacitor sizing. This can be achiev...

  20. An analysis of solar assisted ground source heat pumps in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Galgaro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The work focuses on solar assisted ground source heat pump in cold climates. • Multi-year simulations of SAGSHP, are carried out in six cold locations. • GSHP and SAGSHP are compared. • The effect of total borehole length on the heat pump energy efficiency is studied. • A dedicated control strategy is used to manage both solar and ground loops. - Abstract: Exploiting renewable energy sources for air-conditioning has been extensively investigated over recent years, and many countries have been working to promote the use of renewable energy to decrease energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. Electrical heat pumps currently represent the most promising technology to reduce fossil fuel usage. While ground source heat pumps, which use free heat sources, have been taking significant steps forward and despite the fact that their energy performance is better than that of air source heat pumps, their development has been limited by their high initial investment cost. An alternative solution is one that uses solar thermal collectors coupled with a ground source heat pump in a so-called solar assisted ground source heat pump. A ground source heat pump system, used to heat environments located in a cold climate, was investigated in this study. The solar assisted ground source heat pump extracted heat from the ground by means of borehole heat exchangers and it injected excess solar thermal energy into the ground. Building load profiles are usually heating dominated in cold climates, but when common ground source heat pump systems are used only for heating, their performance decreases due to an unbalanced ground load. Solar thermal collectors can help to ensure that systems installed in cold zones perform more efficiently. Computer simulations using a Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) tool were carried out in six cold locations in order to investigate solar assisted ground source heat pumps. The effect of the borehole length on the energy efficiency of

  1. Evaluation of the solar conditions for the acquisitions of energy from renewable sources on the base of Sosnowiec city (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapata, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    The country's energy security risk, as well as a desire to protect the environment from the pollution and degradation which are the results of conventional fuels acquisition - these was a motivation for intensive researches on the use of renewable energy sources in eco - innovative installations. Solar radiation is one of the self - renewable energy sources which can be used both as a source of electricity and heat. The area of research is Sosnowiec city located in the south of Poland in the eastern part of Silesia voivodeship. The solar radiation data covering the years 2003 to 2013 was used. The intra - annual variability of daily averaged solar radiation hesitated in a wide range from 0.6 kWh/m2 (December) to 5.2 kWh/m2 (June). Day duration varies on average from 10 hours in January, November and December to 17 hours in May, June and July. Day occupies 56% of the 8767 hours in year. On average the largest amount of energy reached the analyzed area in July: 157 kWh/m2 (15% of the annual average), while the smallest in December: 18 kWh/m2 (less than 2% of the annual average). The 75% of the average annual total of energy falls on the period from 1st March to 31th August (spring - summer). The range of the annual solar radiation was determined by the minimum of 980 kWh/m2 and the maximum of 1094 kWh/m2. In Sosnowiec the average annual irradiation total on the horizontal surface amounts to 1052 kWh/m2 (2003 - 2013)

  2. Analysis of the prospects of solar energy and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mogylko, O.

    2010-01-01

    The need to develop an alternative energy sources in Ukraine to increase energy efficiency and energy security it is explained in the article. The international experience of development of solar energy are analyzed. The prospects and other alternative energy sources in Ukraine are defined. The conclusions and recommendations to address the problems are identified.

  3. SWOT analysis of the renewable energy sources in Romania - case study: solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A. G.; Dumencu, A.; Atanasiu, M. V.; Panaite, C. E.; Dumitrașcu, Gh; Popescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of energy sector worldwide triggered intense preoccupation on both finding alternative renewable energy sources and environmental issues. Romania is considered to have technological potential and geographical location suitable to renewable energy usage for electricity generation. But this high potential is not fully exploited in the context of policies and regulations adopted globally, and more specific, European Union (EU) environmental and energy strategies and legislation related to renewable energy sources. This SWOT analysis of solar energy source presents the state of the art, potential and future prospects for development of renewable energy in Romania. The analysis concluded that the development of solar energy sector in Romania depends largely on: viability of legislative framework on renewable energy sources, increased subsidies for solar R&D, simplified methodology of green certificates, and educating the public, investors, developers and decision-makers.

  4. Search for the sources of the solar wind in the 9.1 cm brightness temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The sources of solar wind streams have been the object of intensive research for many years, but the various ideas of where and how streams originate on the sun are still incomplete and contradictory. The present study is an attempt to find the solar wind sources by mathematically approximating the 9.1 cm brightness temperature which would be expected at the foot of spacecraft-measured solar wind streams and by then comparing it with actual radio brightness temperature measurements. Several significant results were found from an analysis of the correlation results. Most plasma emanating from the sun was found to come from high solar latitudes and to deviate significantly from the normally expected east-west path in the low corona. Magnetic channelng causes correlation studies to fail when the sun's magnetic configuration is unstable. The travel time of the plasma from the sun's 9.1 cm emission level to the earth is often more than a month

  5. 2π absolute measurement research for α-electroplating source covering ZnS(Ag)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tianxia

    1999-01-01

    2π absolute measurement can be completed after the quantitative deposit (5 +- 1) mg/cm 2 with ZnS(Ag) on surface of the alpha electroplating source. The measuring efficiency is 100%. This method is suitable for both of electroplating ordinary sample and electroplating standard (of reference) source

  6. Non-LTE H2+ as the source of missing opacity in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, K. S. K.; Stecher, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    The population of the various vibrational levels of the H2+ molecule has been calculated from the consideration of formation and destruction mechanisms. The resulting population is used in calculating the total absorption due to H2+ and is compared with the other known sources of opacity at several optical depths of the solar atmosphere. It is shown that the absorption due to H2+ can probably account for the missing ultraviolet opacity in the solar atmosphere.

  7. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  8. Evidence for Alfvén Waves in Source Flares of Impulsive Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.; Wiedenbeck, M. E.; Gomez-Herrero, R.; Nitta, N.

    2017-12-01

    Impulsive solar energetic particle events, characterised by a peculiar elemental composition with the rare elements like 3He and ultra-heavy ions enhanced by factors up to ten thousand above their thermal abundance, have been puzzling for almost 50 years. The solar sources of these events have been commonly associated with coronal jets, believed to be a signature of magnetic reconnection involving field lines open to interplanetary space. Here we present some of the most intense events, highly enriched in both 3He and heavier ions. The corresponding high-resolution, extreme-ultraviolet imaging observations have revealed for the first time a helical structure in the source flare with a jet-like shape. A mini-filament at the base of the jet appears to trigger these events. The events were observed with the two Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories on the backside of the Sun, during the period of increased solar activity in 2014. During the last decade, it has been established that the helical motions in coronal jets represent propagating Alfvén waves. Revealing such magnetic-untwisting waves in the solar sources of highly enriched events in this study is consistent with a stochastic acceleration mechanism. An examination of jets in previously reported impulsive solar energetic particle events indicates that they tend to be large-scale blowout jets, sometimes cleanly showing a twisted configuration.The work of R. Bucik is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant BU 3115/2-1.

  9. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  10. Estimates of the price of hydrogen as a medium for wind and solar sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, John O'M.; Veziroglu, T. Nejat

    2007-01-01

    The rejection of hydrogen as a solution to global warming by becoming the medium of wind and solar was made when gasoline was priced at $1/gallon. From wind, H 2 would now cost (by electrolysis of water and steam) less than $3 for an amount equivalent in energy to that in a gallon of gasoline ('equivalent'). From solar photovoltaics (pv), H 2 would be sinking in price between $8 toward $5 equivalent as the efficiency of solar pv increases toward 20%. Solar thermal's present prices offer about one-half the solar pv prices. Prediction of the maximum of the delivery rate of world oil is [Laherre's Oil Production Forecast, 1950-2150. Reprinted with permission from correspondence with William Horvath, U.S. Department of Energy, March 29, 2001] 2010. Future energy sources will develop inexhaustible energies from wind, solar, geothermal, tidal, and wave sources. The common media will be hydrogen and electricity. These sources yield energy at around one-half the cost of nuclear fission. Growing corn to make alcohol involves a net loss of energy and need for a heating mechanism. It may increase the Greenhouse. (author)

  11. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    OpenAIRE

    Labuzova Olga; Noskova Tatyana; Lysenko Maria; Ovcharenko Elena; Papina Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period...

  12. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  13. Designing with solar power a source book for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV)

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Deo

    2014-01-01

    Designing with Solar Power is the result of international collaborative research and development work carried out within the framework of the International Energy Agency's Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) and performed within its Task 7 on 'Photovoltaic power systems in the built environment'.Each chapter of this precisely detailed and informative book has been prepared by an international expert in a specific area related to the development, use and application of building-integrated photovoltaics (BiPV). Chapters not only cover the basics of solar power and electrical concepts, bu

  14. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  15. Optimization Design and Simulation of a Multi-Source Energy Harvester Based on Solar and Radioisotope Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel multi-source energy harvester based on solar and radioisotope energy sources is designed and simulated in this work. We established the calculation formulas for the short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage, and then studied and analyzed the optimization thickness of the semiconductor, doping concentration, and junction depth with simulation of the transport process of β particles in a semiconductor material using the Monte Carlo simulation program MCNP (version 5, Radiation Safety Information Computational Center, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. In order to improve the efficiency of converting solar light energy into electric power, we adopted PC1D (version 5.9, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia to optimize the parameters, and selected the best parameters for converting both the radioisotope energy and solar energy into electricity. The results concluded that the best parameters for the multi-source energy harvester are as follows: Na is 1 × 1019 cm−3, Nd is 3.8 × 1016 cm−3, a PN junction depth of 0.5 μm (using the 147Pm radioisotope source, and so on. Under these parameters, the proposed harvester can achieve a conversion efficiency of 5.05% for the 147Pm radioisotope source (with the activity of 9.25 × 108 Bq and 20.8% for solar light radiation (AM1.5. Such a design and parameters are valuable for some unique micro-power fields, such as applications in space, isolated terrestrial applications, and smart dust in battlefields.

  16. Snow cover as a source of technogenic pollution of surface water during the snow melting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labuzova Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of pollutants in melt water of snow cover and snow disposal sites in the city of Barnaul showed that during the snow melting period the surface water is not subjected to significant technogenic impact according to a number of studied indices. The oils content is an exception: it can exceed MAC more than 20 times in river- water due to the melting of city disposal sites. Environmental damage due to an oils input into water resources during the snow melting period can be more than 300000 thousand rubles.

  17. The potential of global solar radiation in the Silesia region as a renewable source of energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waniek Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically, Silesia has been at the centre of the Polish coal industry for many years and thus has experienced poorer air quality compared to other voivodeships. However, in recent years strong economic transformation in the area has led to a considerable reduction in coal production. This study aimed to assess the variability of global solar radiation at selected stations within the Silesian voivodeship, in order to re-evaluate the resources of renewable solar energy during the period 1994–2013. The theoretical potential of solar radiation was calculated based on a three-dimensional terrain model. The data on global solar radiation from 13 stations within the Silesia region, covering the period 1994–2013, were obtained from the Regional Inspectorate of Environmental Protection in Katowice. The most favourable conditions for the use of solar energy were found at the cities Sosnowiec and Cieszyn. The largest increase in global radiation over the research period was observed in Zabrze. The average annual global radiation ranged between 600–1300 kWh·m−2. Digital Elevation Models (DEM for selected districts of the Silesia region were used to calculate the theoretical potential of global solar radiation. The highest theoretical potential of global radiation was found in the district of Cieszyn, located at the highest altitude.

  18. Structure of the sedimentary cover: The S22 cruise 30 L airgun source seismic reflection studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neprochnov, Y.P.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Levchenko, O.V; Milanovsky, V; Basnak, V.V; Buravtsev, A.A.; Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_112.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_112.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  19. Electrostatic bonding of thin (cycle sine 3 mil) 7070 cover glass to Ta2O5 AR-coated thin (cycle sine 2 mil) silicon wafers and solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelkrout, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    Electrostatic bonding of thin cover glass to thin solar cells was researched. Silicon solar cells, wafers, and Corning 7070 glass of from about 0.002" to about 0.003" in thickness were used in the investigation to establish optimum parameters for producing mechanically acceptable bonds while minimizing thermal stresses and resultant solar cell electrical parameter degradation.

  20. Solar Power Satellites: Reconsideration as Renewable Energy Source Based on Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellery, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Solar power satellites (SPS) are a solar energy generation mechanism that captures solar energy in space and converts this energy into microwave for transmission to Earth-based rectenna arrays. They offer a constant, high integrated energy density of 200 W/m2 compared to <10 W/m2 for other renewable energy sources. Despite this promise as a clean energy source, SPS have been relegated out of consideration due to their enormous cost and technological challenge. It has been suggested that for solar power satellites to become economically feasible, launch costs must decrease from their current 20,000/kg to <200/kg. Even with the advent of single-stage-to-orbit launchers which propose launch costs dropping to 2,000/kg, this will not be realized. Yet, the advantages of solar power satellites are many including the provision of stable baseload power. Here, I present a novel approach to reduce the specific cost of solar power satellites to 1/kg by leveraging two enabling technologies - in-situ resource utilization of lunar material and 3D printing of this material. Specifically, we demonstrate that electric motors may be constructed from lunar material through 3D printing representing a major step towards the development of self-replicating machines. Such machines have the capacity to build solar power satellites on the Moon, thereby bypassing the launch cost problem. The productive capacity of self-replicating machines favours the adoption of large constellations of small solar power satellites. This opens up additional clean energy options for combating climate change by meeting the demands for future global energy.

  1. The S-Web Model for the Sources of the Slow Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiochos, Spiro K.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard

    2012-01-01

    Models for the origin of the slow solar wind must account for two seemingly contradictory observations: The slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, implying that it originates from the continuous opening and closing of flux at the boundary between open and closed field. On the other hand, the slow wind has large angular width, up to 60 degrees, suggesting that its source extends far from the open-closed boundary. We describe a model that can explain both observations. The key idea is that the source of the slow wind at the Sun is a network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that map to a web of separatrices (the S-Web) and quasi-separatrix layers in the heliosphere. We discuss the dynamics of the S-Web model and its implications for present observations and for the upcoming observations from Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  2. Solar energy: a suitable alternative energy source; Energia solar: uma fonte de energia viavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiros Mattoso e Sousa, K. de; Sousa, R.M.A de [KR Consultoria, Projetos e Edificacoes. Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The passive solar water heaters systems are highlighted in this paper. The authors show its electrical energy accounting for a 13 stories building with 4 flat unities of 150,00 square meters of area per story, proposed project of hydraulic and electrical system. Reduction of costs due to: reduction of demanded power as a result of the substitution of gas or electrical boilers by the heaters. Data reflecting the designed system are presented in the electric and hydraulic projects in 2 tables. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Solion ion source for high-efficiency, high-throughput solar cell manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, John, E-mail: john-koo@amat.com; Binns, Brant; Miller, Timothy; Krause, Stephen; Skinner, Wesley; Mullin, James [Applied Materials, Inc., Varian Semiconductor Equipment Business Unit, 35 Dory Road, Gloucester, Massachusetts 01930 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    In this paper, we introduce the Solion ion source for high-throughput solar cell doping. As the source power is increased to enable higher throughput, negative effects degrade the lifetime of the plasma chamber and the extraction electrodes. In order to improve efficiency, we have explored a wide range of electron energies and determined the conditions which best suit production. To extend the lifetime of the source we have developed an in situ cleaning method using only existing hardware. With these combinations, source life-times of >200 h for phosphorous and >100 h for boron ion beams have been achieved while maintaining 1100 cell-per-hour production.

  4. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiekezie, Theresa N; Okeke, Francisca N

    2013-05-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January-December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year's change in the source current system of Sq.

  5. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa N. Obiekezie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Solar Quiet (Sq day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA method. The range of the source current was calculated and this enabled the viewing of a full year’s change in the source current system of Sq.

  6. Solar quiet day ionospheric source current in the West African region

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Theresa N.; Okeke, Francisca N.

    2012-01-01

    The Solar Quiet (Sq) day source current were calculated using the magnetic data obtained from a chain of 10 magnetotelluric stations installed in the African sector during the French participation in the International Equatorial Electrojet Year (IEEY) experiment in Africa. The components of geomagnetic field recorded at the stations from January–December in 1993 during the experiment were separated into the source and (induced) components of Sq using Spherical Harmonics Analysis (SHA) method....

  7. Using multi-source satellite data to assess snow-cover change in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y.; Chen, F.; Gao, Y.; Barlage, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Snow cover in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is a critical component of water cycle and affects regional climate of East Asia. Satellite data from three different sources (i.e., FY3A/B/C, MODIS and IMS) were used to analyze the QTP fractional-snow-cover (FSC) change and associated uncertainties in the last decade. To reduce the high percentage of cloud in FY3A/B/C and MODIS, a four-step cloud removal procedure was applied and effectively reduced the cloud percentage from 40.8-56.1% to 2.2­-­3.3%. The averaged error introduced by the cloud removal procedure was about 2% estimated by a random sampling method. Results show that the snow cover in QTP significantly decreased in recent 5 years. Three data sets (FY3B, MODIS and IMS) showed significant decreased annual FSC at all elevation bands from 2012-2016, and a significant shorter snow season with delayed snow onset and earlier melting. Both IMS and MODIS had a slightly decline annual FSC from 2000 to 3000 m, while MODIS FSC slightly decreased in 2002-2016 and IMS FSC slightly increased from 2006-2016 in the region with elevation higher than 3000 m. Results also show significant uncertainties among the five data sets (FY3A/B/C, MODIS, IMS), although they showed similar fluctuations of daily FSC. IMS had largest snow-cover extent and highest daily FSC due to its multi data sources. FY3A/C and MODIS (observed in the morning) had around 5% higher mean FSC than FY3B (observed in the afternoon) due to the 3 hours detection time gap. The relative error of daily FSC (taking MODIS as `truth') between FY3A/B/C, IMS and MODIS is 23%, -35%, 8% and 63%, respectively, averaged in five elevation bands in 2015-2017.

  8. Indirect solar wind geothermal: Alternative energy sources 4, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    The utilities are obliged to provide electricity in a reliable and cost effective manner. Some unique problems posed by large scale wind turbines as an electricity source have to be considered. A value model is presented which is based upon the fuel displacement capability and the capacity displacement capability of wind turbines. The amount of fossil fuels which is saved by wind turbines depends on the forecasted wind power output, the actual power output fluctuations of the wind turbines and on system operation. The highly controversial capacity credit of wind turbines is discussed under the aspect of system reliability. It is shown that calculations of the capacity credit should be based upon detailed investigations with regard to the time dependence of the hourly wind power output.

  9. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  10. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, steel collector with one transparent cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are presented of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency was correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  11. The Source of Solar Energy, ca. 1840-1910: From Meteoric Hypothesis to Radioactive Speculations

    OpenAIRE

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J. R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-h...

  12. Sustainable renewable energy seawater desalination using combined-cycle solar and geothermal heat sources

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Key goals in the improvement of desalination technology are to reduce overall energy consumption, make the process "greener," and reduce the cost of the delivered water. Adsorption desalination (AD) is a promising new technology that has great potential to reduce the need for conventional power, to use solely renewable energy sources, and to reduce the overall cost of water treatment. This technology can desalt seawater or water of even higher salinity using waste heat, solar heat, or geothermal heat. An AD system can operate effectively at temperatures ranging from 55 to 80 °C with perhaps an optimal temperature of 80 °C. The generally low temperature requirement for the feedwater allows the system to operate quite efficiently using an alternative energy source, such as solar power. Solar power, particularly in warm dry regions, can generate a consistent water temperature of about 90 °C. Although this temperature is more than adequate to run the system, solar energy collection only can occur during daylight hours, thereby necessitating the use of heat storage during nighttime or very cloudy days. With increasing capacity, the need for extensive thermal storage may be problematic and could add substantial cost to the development of an AD system. However, in many parts of the world, there are subsurface geothermal energy sources that have not been extensively used. Combining a low to moderate geothermal energy recovery system to an AD system would provide a solution to the thermal storage issue. However, geothermal energy development from particularly Hot Dry Rock is limited by the magnitude of the heat flow required for the process and the thermal conductivity of the rock material forming the heat reservoir. Combining solar and geothermal energy using an alternating 12-h cycle would reduce the probability of depleting the heat source within the geothermal reservoir and provide the most effective use of renewable energy. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  13. Alluvial Mountain Meadow Source-Sink Dynamics: Land-Cover Effects on Water and Fluvial Carbon Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, T.; Covino, T. P.; Wohl, E.; Rhoades, C.; Fegel, T.; Clow, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    Fluvial networks of historically glaciated mountain landscapes alternate between confined and unconfined valley segments. In low-gradient unconfined reaches, river-connected wet meadows commonly establish, and have been recognized as important locations of long-term water, carbon, and nutrient storage. Among connected meadow floodplains, sink-source behavior shifts as a function of flow state; storing water at high flows (snowmelt) and contributing toward higher late-season baseflows. Despite these benefits, historical and contemporary land-use practices often result in the simplification of wet meadow systems, leading to reduced river-floodplain connectivity, lower water-tables and reductions in hydrologic buffering capacity. In this study, we are exploring hydrologic-carbon relationships across a gradient of valley confinement and river-floodplain connectivity (connected, n=3; disconnected, n=4) within the Colorado Rockies. Our approach includes hydrologic analysis, fluorometric assays, water chemistry, instream metabolic measures, and land-cover assessment to examine patterns between land-form, carbon quantity and quality, and stream ecosystem productivity. Between different meadow types, preliminary results suggest differences between instream productivity, carbon qualities, and hydrologic-carbon sink-source dynamics across the season. These data and analyses will provide insight into water, carbon and nutrient flux dynamics as a function of land-cover in mountain headwaters.

  14. An Emulated PV Source Based on an Unilluminated Solar Panel and DC Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongfu Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review on various PV simulator technologies as well as presents a novel equivalent photovoltaic (PV source that was constructed by using un-illuminated solar panels and a DC power supply that operates in current source mode. The constructed PV source was used for testing photovoltaic converters and various maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms required for capturing the maximum possible output power. The mathematical model and electrical characteristics of the constructed PV source were defined and analyzed in detail in the paper. The constructed PV source has the advantages of high bandwidth over the switching circuit based PV simulators. The constructed PV source has been used for testing various power electronics converters and various control techniques effectively in laboratory environments for researchers and university students.

  15. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  16. Solar energy as an alternate energy source to mixed oxide fuels in light-water cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertini, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Supplemental information pertaining to the generic environmental impact statement on the Pu recycling process for mixed oxide light-water cooled reactors (GESMO) was requested from several sources. In particular, the role of alternate sources of energy was to be explored and the implications of these alternate sources to the question of Pu recycle in LWRs were to be investigated. In this vein, solar energy as an alternate source is the main subject of this report, along with other information related to solar energy. The general conclusion is that solar energy should have little effect on the decisions concerning GESMO

  17. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SOURCES OF EARTH-DIRECTED SOLAR WIND DURING CARRINGTON ROTATION 2053

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazakerley, A. N.; Harra, L. K.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L., E-mail: a.fazakerley@ucl.ac.uk [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this work we analyze multiple sources of solar wind through a full Carrington Rotation (CR 2053) by analyzing the solar data through spectroscopic observations of the plasma upflow regions and the in situ data of the wind itself. Following earlier authors, we link solar and in situ observations by a combination of ballistic backmapping and potential-field source-surface modeling. We find three sources of fast solar wind that are low-latitude coronal holes. The coronal holes do not produce a steady fast wind, but rather a wind with rapid fluctuations. The coronal spectroscopic data from Hinode ’s Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer show a mixture of upflow and downflow regions highlighting the complexity of the coronal hole, with the upflows being dominant. There is a mix of open and multi-scale closed magnetic fields in this region whose (interchange) reconnections are consistent with the up- and downflows they generate being viewed through an optically thin corona, and with the strahl directions and freeze-in temperatures found in in situ data. At the boundary of slow and fast wind streams there are three short periods of enhanced-velocity solar wind, which we term intermediate based on their in situ characteristics. These are related to active regions that are located beside coronal holes. The active regions have different magnetic configurations, from bipolar through tripolar to quadrupolar, and we discuss the mechanisms to produce this intermediate wind, and the important role that the open field of coronal holes adjacent to closed-field active regions plays in the process.

  18. An Investigation of the Sources of Earth-directed Solar Wind during Carrington Rotation 2053

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakerley, A. N.; Harra, L. K.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we analyze multiple sources of solar wind through a full Carrington Rotation (CR 2053) by analyzing the solar data through spectroscopic observations of the plasma upflow regions and the in situ data of the wind itself. Following earlier authors, we link solar and in situ observations by a combination of ballistic backmapping and potential-field source-surface modeling. We find three sources of fast solar wind that are low-latitude coronal holes. The coronal holes do not produce a steady fast wind, but rather a wind with rapid fluctuations. The coronal spectroscopic data from Hinode’s Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer show a mixture of upflow and downflow regions highlighting the complexity of the coronal hole, with the upflows being dominant. There is a mix of open and multi-scale closed magnetic fields in this region whose (interchange) reconnections are consistent with the up- and downflows they generate being viewed through an optically thin corona, and with the strahl directions and freeze-in temperatures found in in situ data. At the boundary of slow and fast wind streams there are three short periods of enhanced-velocity solar wind, which we term intermediate based on their in situ characteristics. These are related to active regions that are located beside coronal holes. The active regions have different magnetic configurations, from bipolar through tripolar to quadrupolar, and we discuss the mechanisms to produce this intermediate wind, and the important role that the open field of coronal holes adjacent to closed-field active regions plays in the process.

  19. Geomorphic and land cover identification of dust sources in the eastern Great Basin of Utah, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, Maura; Nicoll, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies anthropogenically disturbed areas and barren playa surfaces as the two primary dust source types that repeatedly contribute to dust storm events in the eastern Great Basin of western Utah, U.S.A. This semi-arid desert region is an important contributor to dust production in North America, with this study being the first to specifically identify and characterize regional dust sources. From 2004 to 2010, a total of 51 dust event days (DEDs) affected the air quality in Salt Lake City, UT. MODIS satellite imagery during 16 of these DEDs was analyzed to identify dust plumes, and assess the characteristics of dust source areas. A total of 168 plumes were identified, and showed mobilization of dust from Quaternary deposits located within the Bonneville Basin. This analysis identifies 4 major and 5 secondary source areas for dust in this region, which produce dust primarily during the spring and fall months and during moderate or greater drought conditions, with a Palmer Drought Index (PDI) of - 2 or less. The largest number of observed dust plumes (~ 60% of all plumes) originated from playas (ephemeral lakes) and are classified as barren land cover with a silty clay soil sediment surface. Playa surfaces in this region undergo numerous recurrent anthropogenic disturbances, including military operations and anthropogenic water withdrawal. Anthropogenic disturbance is necessary to produce dust from the vegetated landscape in the eastern Great Basin, as evidenced by the new dust source active from 2008 to 2010 in the area burned by the 2007 Milford Flat Fire; this fire was the largest in Utah's history due to extensive cover of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) along with drought conditions. However, dust mobilization from the Milford Flat Burned Area was limited to regions that had been significantly disturbed by post-fire land management techniques that consisted of seeding, followed by chaining or tilling of the soil. Dust storms in the eastern

  20. 37Ar based neutron source for calibration of the iodine solar neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, D.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Yants, V.Eh.; Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Wildenhain, P.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.

    2001-01-01

    The methodology of the creation of a compact neutrino source based on the 37 Ar isotope as well as the technique of calibration of an iodine detector of solar neutrinos is described. An important overall expected result is the creation of a prototype of the source with the intensity up to 400 kCi, delivery of this source to the Baksan neutrino observatory and the test calibration of the single module of the iodine detector. Simulation shows that at least 45-70 127 Xe atoms will be detected in the irradiation of ∼40 tons of methylene iodide by the source leading to ∼19% of the error on the measured production rate. This result should be considered as a test of the developed technology and will verify overall technical readiness for the creation of a full scale neutrino source and the full scale calibration of the iodine detector

  1. Classical tandem-source dwelling covering the entire uterus. Essential in modern intracavitary radiotherapy for cervical cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Kiyoshi; Nemoto, Keiko; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Hata, Masaharu; Sugahara, Shinji; Tokuuye, Koichi; Akine, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether conventional tandem-source dwelling to cover the entire uterus, classically regarded as the target volume, is necessary in modem intracavitary radiotherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer. The study included 95 cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients treated by high-dose-rate ICRT (point A dose was 6.0 Gy, with three to five insertions per patient) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), with central pelvic doses of 12-50 Gy. The tandem-source dwell length was adjusted to the target volume specified by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A tandem applicator was inserted as far as the uterine fundus in accordance with the post-EBRT MR-assessed cavity length. The pre-EBRT MR-specified target volume was used for the dwell-length adjustment. The safety of the dwell-length adjustment was assessed in terms of treatment failure. The dwell-length adjustment was made in 248 of 366 total insertions with a dwell-length reduction of 5-55 mm (median 15 mm) at the corpus. Pelvic failure was identified in 22 patients with a 2-year pelvic disease-free survival rate of 75.6% but without evidence of failure at dwelling-skipped corpuses. Given after pelvic EBRT and ICRT of full-length dwelling in part, which may have eradicated possible subclinical extension, adjustment of the tandem-source dwell length to the MR-specified target volume appeared to be safe. (author)

  2. Effect of Soybean and Wheat as Cover Crops on Corn Yield and Weed Control using Different Fertilizer Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dadashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: According to the importance of corn in supplying the human food directly and indirectly, it is one of the most important plants among crops. One of the major problems in corn production systems, is competition with weeds that reduce corn yield significantly. Weeds not only reduce crop yields but also decrease the commercial quality and the feeding palatability of main crops. They enhance the soil seed bank of weeds, which may cause continuous weed infestation of field crops as well. Herbicide application is a reliable and highly effective method for weed control. However, demand for safe food products that have been produced with a minimum application of chemical inputs is increasing. Therefore, farmers interested in weed management have to rely on other control approaches. An alternative weed control method is the use of cover crops, which can suppress the growth of weeds by preventing them from light and by producing allelopathic compounds. Cover crops successfully have been integrated into conservational agriculture systems in many areas of the world. Legumes are used as cover crop because of their rapid growth, in addition their potential to provide further nitrogen,along with high ability to compete with weeds. Materials and Methods: In order to study the effect of cover crops (soybean and wheat and different fertilizers sources on yield of corn and weed control, a filed experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications in 2012. Treatments included two cover crop (wheat and soybean and three fertilizer (no fertilizer, chemical fertilizer and compost..Fertilizer treatments was used according to soil analysis and requirement of corn (as a main plant. Weed-infestation and weed-free plots were used as controls. Study cultivars of corn, wheat and soybean were NS-640, Milan and Sari, respectively. Planting of corn was in June and cover crop was planted with corn simultaneously and between corn rows

  3. Low frequency wave sources in the outer magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and near Earth solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Constantinescu

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of the solar wind with the Earth magnetosphere generates a broad variety of plasma waves through different mechanisms. The four Cluster spacecraft allow one to determine the regions where these waves are generated and their propagation directions. One of the tools which takes full advantage of the multi-point capabilities of the Cluster mission is the wave telescope technique which provides the wave vector using a plane wave representation. In order to determine the distance to the wave sources, the source locator – a generalization of the wave telescope to spherical waves – has been recently developed. We are applying the source locator to magnetic field data from a typical traversal of Cluster from the cusp region and the outer magnetosphere into the magnetosheath and the near Earth solar wind. We find a high concentration of low frequency wave sources in the electron foreshock and in the cusp region. To a lower extent, low frequency wave sources are also found in other magnetospheric regions.

  4. The solar noise barrier project 3. The effects of seasonal spectral variation, cloud cover and heat distribution on the performance of full-scale luminescent solar concentrator panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Tzikas, C.; de Jong, M.; Kanellis, M.; Slooff, L.H.

    We report on the relative performances of two large-scale luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) noise barriers placed in an outdoor environment monitored for over a year. Comparisons are made for the performances of a number of attached photovoltaic cells with changing spectral illumination, cloud

  5. Solar energy: photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Voss, B.; Knobloch, J.

    1994-01-01

    This textbooks covers the following topics: foundations of photovoltaics, solar energy, P-N junctions, physics of solar cells, high-efficiency solar cells, technology of Si solar cells, other solar cells, photovoltaic applications. (orig.)

  6. Simulation analysis on dynamic performance of a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Weishi; Yu, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heater is investigated. • An additional air source evaporator is used in parallel way in the M-DX-SHPWH system. • The M-DX-SHPWH system displays a higher performance at the low solar radiation. • Effects of solar radiation and air temperature on the performance are discussed. - Abstract: This paper investigated a combined solar/air dual source heat pump water heater system for domestic water heating application. In the dual source system, an additional air source evaporator is introduced in parallel way based on a conventional direct expansion solar-assisted heat pump water heaters (DX-SHPWH) system, which can improve the performance of the DX-SHPWH system at a low solar radiation. In the present study, a dynamic mathematical model based on zoned lump parameter approach is developed to simulate the performance of the system (i.e. a modified DX-SHPWH (M-DX-SHPWH) system). Using the model, the performance of M-DX-SHPWH system is evaluated and then compared with that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. The simulation results show the M-DX-SHPWH system has a better performance than that of the conventional DX-SHPWH system. At a low solar radiation of 100 W/m"2, the heating time of the M-DX-SHPWH decreases by 19.8% compared to the DX-SHPWH when water temperature reaches 55 °C. Meanwhile, the COP on average increases by 14.1%. In addition, the refrigerant mass flow rate distribution in the air source evaporator and the solar collector of the system, the allocation between the air source evaporator and the solar collector areas and effects of solar radiation and ambient air temperature on the system performance are discussed.

  7. Wide-band fanned-out supercontinuum source covering O-, E-, S-, C-, L- and U-bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Latif, A. A.; Awang, N. A.; Zulkifli, M. Z.; Thambiratnam, K.; Ghani, Z. A.; Harun, S. W.

    2012-10-01

    A wide-band supercontinuum source generated by mode-locked pulses injected into a Highly Non-Linear Fiber (HNLF) is proposed and demonstrated. A 49 cm long Bismuth-Erbium Doped Fiber (Bi-EDF) pumped by two 1480 nm laser diodes acts as the active gain medium for a ring fiber laser, from which mode-locked pulses are obtained using the Non-Polarization Rotation (NPR) technique. The mode-locked pulses are then injected into a 100 m long HLNF with a dispersion of 0.15 ps/nm km at 1550 nm to generate a supercontinuum spectrum spanning from 1340 nm to more than 1680 nm with a pulse width of 0.08 ps and an average power of -17 dBm. The supercontinuum spectrum is sliced using a 24 channel Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) with a channel spacing of 100 GHz to obtain a fanned-out laser output covering the O-, E-, S-, C-, L- and U-bands. The lasing wavelengths obtained have an average pulse width of 9 ps with only minor fluctuations and a mode-locked repetition rate of 40 MHz, and is sufficiently stable to be used in a variety of sensing and communication applications, most notably as cost-effective sources for Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH) networks.

  8. Double-coronal X-Ray and Microwave Sources Associated with a Magnetic Breakout Solar Eruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yao; Wu, Zhao; Zhao, Di; Wang, Bing; Du, Guohui [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Schwartz, Richard A., E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and American University, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Double-coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources are believed to be critical observational evidence of bi-directional energy release through magnetic reconnection in large-scale current sheets in solar flares. Here, we present a study on double-coronal sources observed in both HXR and microwave regimes, revealing new characteristics distinct from earlier reports. This event is associated with a footpoint-occulted X1.3-class flare (2014 April 25, starting at 00:17 UT) and a coronal mass ejection that were likely triggered by the magnetic breakout process, with the lower source extending upward from the top of the partially occulted flare loops and the upper source co-incident with rapidly squeezing-in side lobes (at a speed of ∼250 km s{sup −1} on both sides). The upper source can be identified at energies as high as 70–100 keV. The X-ray upper source is characterized by flux curves that differ from those of the lower source, a weak energy dependence of projected centroid altitude above 20 keV, a shorter duration, and an HXR photon spectrum slightly harder than those of the lower source. In addition, the microwave emission at 34 GHz also exhibits a similar double-source structure and the microwave spectra at both sources are in line with gyrosynchrotron emission given by non-thermal energetic electrons. These observations, especially the co-incidence of the very-fast squeezing-in motion of side lobes and the upper source, indicate that the upper source is associated with (and possibly caused by) this fast motion of arcades. This sheds new light on the origin of the corona double-source structure observed in both HXRs and microwaves.

  9. The source of solar energy, ca. 1840-1910: From meteoric hypothesis to radioactive speculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Helge

    2016-12-01

    Why does the Sun shine? Today we know the answer to the question and we also know that earlier answers were quite wrong. The problem of the source of solar energy became an important part of physics and astronomy only with the emergence of the law of energy conservation in the 1840s. The first theory of solar heat based on the new law, due to J.R. Mayer, assumed the heat to be the result of meteors or asteroids falling into the Sun. A different and more successful version of gravitation-to-heat energy conversion was proposed by H. Helmholtz in 1854 and further developed by W. Thomson. For more than forty years the once so celebrated Helmholtz-Thomson contraction theory was accepted as the standard theory of solar heat despite its prediction of an age of the Sun of only 20 million years. In between the gradual demise of this theory and the radically different one based on nuclear processes there was a period in which radioactivity was considered a possible alternative to gravitational contraction. The essay discusses various pre-nuclear ideas of solar energy production, including the broader relevance of the question as it was conceived in the Victorian era.

  10. Hydrogen production by thermochemical cycles of water splitting coupled to a solar energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charvin, P.

    2007-11-01

    yields of solar energy/hydrogen conversion and the hydrogen quantities produced by a central receiver tower solar process. A size of the process and of the solar plant has been carried out in order to estimate by an economic study, the cost of hydrogen production by these thermochemical cycles coupled to a concentrated solar energy source. (O.M.)

  11. Modelling and analysis of a heating system for industrial application, using flat-plate solar-collectors with single and double cover glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraslis, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A calculational methodology for dimensioning a flat-plate solar-collector arrangement, which fulfils the energy requirement of a heat transfer system in one of the steps of the uranium recovery process, from the uranium-phosphorus ore at Itataia, Ceara, in Brazil. The PROSOL-1 and PROSOL-2 computer codes for determining the total area required by collector arrangement-with single and double cover glasses, respectively- taking into account the system design and meteorological conditions of the regions, were used. These codes optimize the series/parallel arranges of collectors in the whole complex and, determine the water flow in each system and the average efficiency of the collector arrangement. The technical and economical feasibility for both collector arrangement with single and double cover glasses, were verified. It was concluded that, the last one is more advantageous, allowing a reduction of 30% in the total collector area. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weberg, Micah J. [PhD Candidate in Space Science, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2134A Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Lepri, Susan T. [Associate Professor, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2429 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States); Zurbuchen, Thomas H., E-mail: mjweberg@umich.edu, E-mail: slepri@umich.edu, E-mail: thomasz@umich.edu [Professor, Space Science and Aerospace Engineering, Associate Dean for Entrepreneurship Senior Counselor of Entrepreneurship Education, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2431 Space Research Building, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143, USA. (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space.

  13. CORONAL SOURCES, ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, AND RELEASE MECHANISMS OF HEAVY ION DROPOUTS IN THE SOLAR WIND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weberg, Micah J.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    The elemental abundances of heavy ions (masses larger than He) in the solar wind provide information about physical processes occurring in the corona. Additionally, the charge state distributions of these heavy ions are sensitive to the temperature profiles of their respective source regions in the corona. Heavy ion dropouts are a relatively new class of solar wind events identified by both elemental and ionic charge state distributions. We have shown that their origins lie in large, closed coronal loops where processes such as gravitational settling dominate and can cause a mass-dependent fractionation pattern. In this study we consider and attempt to answer three fundamental questions concerning heavy ion dropouts: (1) 'where are the source loops located in the large-scale corona?'; (2) 'how does the interplay between coronal processes influence the end elemental abundances?'; and (3) 'what are the most probable release mechanisms'? We begin by analyzing the temporal and spatial variability of heavy ion dropouts and their correlation with heliospheric plasma and magnetic structures. Next we investigate the ordering of the elements inside dropouts with respect to mass, ionic charge state, and first ionization potential. Finally, we discuss these results in the context of the prevailing solar wind theories and the processes they posit that may be responsible for the release of coronal plasma into interplanetary space

  14. Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleidon, Axel [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

  15. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  16. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  17. Evidence for multiple sources of 10Be in the early solar system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Krot, Alexander N.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We...... in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide...

  18. Design of absorption system water-ammonia by using solar radiation as thermal source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcanti, Eduardo J. Cidade; Souza, Luiz Guilherme Meira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Tecnlogia. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails: educanti@gmail.com, lguilherme@dem.ufrn.br

    2010-07-01

    An absorption refrigeration system with the single effect of par ammonia water with 1.758 kW (1 / 2 RT) cooling capacity was designed. The system was operating under conditions of 5 degree C evaporation and 45 degree C condensation temperature. The absorption system has a heat exchanger to improve performance. The heat source is the cylinder parabolic solar concentrator (CPC). The design of the concentrator was estimated based on experimental data of the pilot plant built in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte. The thermodynamic model with heat and mass transfer was made to the project areas of heat exchange (absorber) and consequent construction of the system. The rectifying column was modeling assuming that liquid is in equilibrium with the vapor state in all plate. The results should show the dimensions of the compact and allows a future assessment of the operational cost. (author)

  19. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  20. AnalysisThe Availability of Using Concentrated Solar Power (CSP as Electricity Source in Al-Hilla City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Shamkhi Jaber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The needing of using clean energy increases every year because of the negative impact of emissions from electricity power plant and to reduce the costs of generating power by using natural energies like solar, wind, and other sources. The availability of using solar energy as source of producing electricity in Al-Hilla city by using Concentrating Solar Power (CSP was investigated in this research. The major parameters in this study were the city position, and the annually amount of solar received, also, number of charts related to solar parameters for the management of CSP were derived and showed in this research. The using of CSP as electricity power can be important solution to force the problem of high cost of electricity power fuel needed and the lack of power produced because of increasing of power consumed specially in summer season.

  1. Optimization of systems with the combination of ground-source heat pump and solar collectors in dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Elisabeth; Hellström, Göran; Perers, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The use of ground-source heat pumps for heating and domestic hot water in dwellings is common in Sweden. The combination with solar collectors has been introduced to reduce the electricity demand in the system. In order to analyze different systems with combinations of solar collectors and ground......-source heat pumps, computer simulations have been carried out with the simulation program TRNSYS. Large differences were found between the system alternatives. The optimal design is when solar heat produces domestic hot water during summertime and recharges the borehole during wintertime. The advantage...... is related to the rate of heat extraction from the borehole as well as the overall design of the system. The demand of electricity may increase with solar recharging, because of the increased operating time of the circulation pumps. Another advantage with solar heat in combination with heat pumps is when...

  2. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  3. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  4. Using the Chandra Source-Finding Algorithm to Automatically Identify Solar X-ray Bright Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Tennant, A.; Cirtain, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This poster details a technique of bright point identification that is used to find sources in Chandra X-ray data. The algorithm, part of a program called LEXTRCT, searches for regions of a given size that are above a minimum signal to noise ratio. The algorithm allows selected pixels to be excluded from the source-finding, thus allowing exclusion of saturated pixels (from flares and/or active regions). For Chandra data the noise is determined by photon counting statistics, whereas solar telescopes typically integrate a flux. Thus the calculated signal-to-noise ratio is incorrect, but we find we can scale the number to get reasonable results. For example, Nakakubo and Hara (1998) find 297 bright points in a September 11, 1996 Yohkoh image; with judicious selection of signal-to-noise ratio, our algorithm finds 300 sources. To further assess the efficacy of the algorithm, we analyze a SOHO/EIT image (195 Angstroms) and compare results with those published in the literature (McIntosh and Gurman, 2005). Finally, we analyze three sets of data from Hinode, representing different parts of the decline to minimum of the solar cycle.

  5. Investigating the Origins of Two Extreme Solar Particle Events: Proton Source Profile and Associated Electromagnetic Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocharov, Leon; Usoskin, Ilya [Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory/Oulu Unit, University of Oulu, P.O.B. 3000, Oulu FI-90014 (Finland); Pohjolainen, Silja [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Piikkiö FI-21500 (Finland); Mishev, Alexander [Space Climate Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu FI-90014 (Finland); Reiner, Mike J. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC, and NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Lee, Jeongwoo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Laitinen, Timo [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Didkovsky, Leonid V. [University of Southern California Space Sciences Center, 835 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles CA 90089 (United States); Pizzo, Victor J. [NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Kim, Roksoon; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Klassen, Andreas [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel D-24118 (Germany); Karlicky, Marian [Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 258, Ondřejov 251 65 (Czech Republic); Gary, Dale E. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Valtonen, Eino; Vainio, Rami [Space Research Laboratory, University of Turku, Turku FI-20014 (Finland)

    2017-04-20

    We analyze the high-energy particle emission from the Sun in two extreme solar particle events in which protons are accelerated to relativistic energies and can cause a significant signal even in the ground-based particle detectors. Analysis of a relativistic proton event is based on modeling of the particle transport and interaction, from a near-Sun source through the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere to a detector on the ground. This allows us to deduce the time profile of the proton source at the Sun and compare it with observed electromagnetic emissions. The 1998 May 2 event is associated with a flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME), which were well observed by the Nançay Radioheliograph, thus the images of the radio sources are available. For the 2003 November 2 event, the low corona images of the CME liftoff obtained at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory are available. Those complementary data sets are analyzed jointly with the broadband dynamic radio spectra, EUV images, and other data available for both events. We find a common scenario for both eruptions, including the flare’s dual impulsive phase, the CME-launch-associated decimetric-continuum burst, and the late, low-frequency type III radio bursts at the time of the relativistic proton injection into the interplanetary medium. The analysis supports the idea that the two considered events start with emission of relativistic protons previously accelerated during the flare and CME launch, then trapped in large-scale magnetic loops and later released by the expanding CME.

  6. Solar energy and nuclear power. Energy sources, environmental pollution and CO{sub 2} - problem; Solarenergie und Atomstrom. Energiequellen, Umweltbelastung und das CO{sub 2}-Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzner, H.

    1999-07-01

    In this volume the energy sources used today and possible alternatives like solar-, wind-, and hydro power, geothermal energy and renewable fuels are presented. The environmental pollution due to fossil fuel application (e.g. sulfur- and nitrogen oxides) as the use of nuclear power are discussed in detail. An extra chapter covers the CO2 problem (greenhouse effect, ice cover on earth, sea level, influence on plant growth and agricultural crop) as climatic forecasting. [German] In diesem Band werden die heute nutzbaren Energiequellen und die dazu moeglichen Alternativen wie Solarenergie, Wind-, und Wasserkraft, Erdwaerme und nachwachsende Rohstoffe aufgezeigt. Die Umweltbelastungen aus der Nutzung fossiler Brennstoffe (z.B. Schwefel- und Stickoxide) sowie der Kernenergie sind ausfuehrlich besprochen. Dem CO2-Problem (Treibhauseffekt, Eisbedeckung der Erde, Hoehe des Meeresspiegels, Auswirkungen auf Pflanzenwuchs und Agrarertraege) sowie den Klimaprognosen ist ein eigenes Kapitel gewidmet.

  7. TITANIUM ISOTOPE SOURCE RELATIONS AND THE EXTENT OF MIXING IN THE PROTO-SOLAR NEBULA EXAMINED BY INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Boehnke, Patrick [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Ti isotope variations observed in hibonites represent some of the largest isotope anomalies observed in the solar system. Titanium isotope compositions have previously been reported for a wide variety of different early solar system materials, including calcium, aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs) and CM hibonite grains, some of the earliest materials to form in the solar system, and bulk meteorites which formed later. These data have the potential to allow mixing of material to be traced between many different regions of the early solar system. We have used independent component analysis to examine the mixing end-members required to produce the compositions observed in the different data sets. The independent component analysis yields results identical to a linear regression for the bulk meteorites. The components identified for hibonite suggest that most of the grains are consistent with binary mixing from one of three highly anomalous nucleosynthetic sources. Comparison of these end-members show that the sources which dominate the variation of compositions in the meteorite parent body forming regions was not present in the region in which the hibonites formed. This suggests that the source which dominates variation in Ti isotope anomalies between the bulk meteorites was not present when the hibonite grains were forming. One explanation is that the bulk meteorite source may not be a primary nucleosynthetic source but was created by mixing two or more of the hibonite sources. Alternatively, the hibonite sources may have been diluted during subsequent nebula processing and are not a dominant solar system signatures.

  8. Effect of Different Solar Radiation Data Sources on the Variation of Techno-Economic Feasibility of PV Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghoul, M. A.; Ali, Amer; Kannanaikal, F. V.; Amin, N.; Aljaafar, A. A.; Kadhim, Mohammed; Sopian, K.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the variation in techno-economic feasibility of PV power system under different data sources of solar radiation. HOMER simulation tool is used to predict the techno-economic feasibility parameters of PV power system in Baghdad city, Iraq located at (33.3128° N, 44.3615° E) as a case study. Four data sources of solar radiation, different annual capacity shortages percentage (0, 2.5, 5, and 7.5), and wide range of daily load profile (10-100 kWh/day) are implemented. The analyzed parameters of the techno-economic feasibility are COE (/kWh), PV array power capacity (kW), PV electrical production (kWh/year), No. of batteries and battery lifetime (year). The main results of the study revealed the followings: (1) solar radiation from different data sources caused observed to significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters; therefore, careful attention must be paid to ensure the use of an accurate solar input data; (2) Average solar radiation from different data sources can be recommended as a reasonable input data; (3) it is observed that as the size and of PV power system increases, the effect of different data sources of solar radiation increases and causes significant variation in the values of the techno-economic feasibility parameters.

  9. Solar energetic particles a modern primer on understanding sources, acceleration and propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Reames, Donald V

    2017-01-01

    This concise primer introduces the non-specialist reader to the physics of solar energetic particles (SEP) and systematically reviews the evidence for the two main mechanisms which lead to the so-called impulsive and gradual SEP events. More specifically, the timing of the onsets, the longitude distributions, the high-energy spectral shapes, the correlations with other solar phenomena (e.g. coronal mass ejections), as well as the all-important elemental and isotopic abundances of SEPs are investigated. Impulsive SEP events are related to magnetic reconnection in solar flares and jets. The concept of shock acceleration by scattering on self-amplified Alfvén waves is introduced, as is the evidence of reacceleration of impulsive-SEP material in the seed population accessed by the shocks in gradual events. The text then develops processes of transport of ions out to an observer. Finally, a new technique to determine the source plasma temperature in both impulsive and gradual events is demonstrated. Last but not ...

  10. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi; Xie, Yanqiong; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector

  11. Helioviewer.org: An Open-source Tool for Visualizing Solar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughitt, V. Keith; Ireland, J.; Schmiedel, P.; Dimitoglou, G.; Mueller, D.; Fleck, B.

    2009-05-01

    As the amount of solar data available to scientists continues to increase at faster and faster rates, it is important that there exist simple tools for navigating this data quickly with a minimal amount of effort. By combining heterogeneous solar physics datatypes such as full-disk images and coronagraphs, along with feature and event information, Helioviewer offers a simple and intuitive way to browse multiple datasets simultaneously. Images are stored in a repository using the JPEG 2000 format and tiled dynamically upon a client's request. By tiling images and serving only the portions of the image requested, it is possible for the client to work with very large images without having to fetch all of the data at once. Currently, Helioviewer enables users to browse the entire SOHO data archive, updated hourly, as well as data feature/event catalog data from eight different catalogs including active region, flare, coronal mass ejection, type II radio burst data. In addition to a focus on intercommunication with other virtual observatories and browsers (VSO, HEK, etc), Helioviewer will offer a number of externally-available application programming interfaces (APIs) to enable easy third party use, adoption and extension. Future functionality will include: support for additional data-sources including TRACE, SDO and STEREO, dynamic movie generation, a navigable timeline of recorded solar events, social annotation, and basic client-side image processing.

  12. STRONG SOLAR WIND DYNAMIC PRESSURE PULSES: INTERPLANETARY SOURCES AND THEIR IMPACTS ON GEOSYNCHRONOUS MAGNETIC FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Pingbing; Feng, Xueshang; Wang, Yi [SIGMA Weather Group, State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Xie, Yanqiong [College of Meteorology and Oceanography, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China); Xu, Xiaojun, E-mail: pbzuo@spaceweather.ac.cn, E-mail: fengx@spaceweather.ac.cn [Space Science Institute, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macao (China)

    2015-10-20

    In this investigation, we first present a statistical result of the interplanetary sources of very strong solar wind dynamic pressure pulses (DPPs) detected by WIND during solar cycle 23. It is found that the vast majority of strong DPPs reside within solar wind disturbances. Although the variabilities of geosynchronous magnetic fields (GMFs) due to the impact of positive DPPs have been well established, there appears to be no systematic investigations on the response of GMFs to negative DPPs. Here, we study both the decompression effects of very strong negative DPPs and the compression from strong positive DPPs on GMFs at different magnetic local time sectors. In response to the decompression of strong negative DPPs, GMFs on the dayside near dawn and near dusk on the nightside, are generally depressed. But near the midnight region, the responses of GMF are very diverse, being either positive or negative. For part of the events when GOES is located at the midnight sector, the GMF is found to abnormally increase as the result of magnetospheric decompression caused by negative DPPs. It is known that under certain conditions magnetic depression of nightside GMFs can be caused by the impact of positive DPPs. Here, we find that a stronger pressure enhancement may have a higher probability of producing the exceptional depression of GMF at the midnight region. Statistically, both the decompression effect of strong negative DPPs and the compression effect of strong positive DPPs depend on the magnetic local time, which are stronger at the noon sector.

  13. Solar distiller of pyramidal covering and isolation in composite material the Plaster base and EPS; Destilador solar de cobertura piramidal e isolamento em material composito a base de Gesso e EPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R. D.; Ribeiro, F. A.; Mendes, J. U.; Lima, R. S.; Souza, L. G.; Abreu, R. F.

    2008-07-01

    To demonstrate then term viability calorific and economic of the material, compared to the others conventional distiller, here is presented a solar distiller os simple stage, with has as main differential characteristics the geometry of the covering and the material used to make its coating. the model built has an area of 0,25 m{sup 2} and pyramidal covering, witch allows the collection of the distillate water in the four faces, different of just two like is found in the conventional distiller, besides promote the absorption of the radiation because of its versatility about the positioning of the sun. Not despite, its built is favored for the low cost associated and the agility in the process because it is made with a mix of gypsum, EPS ground and water, witch also attributes to the distiller thermal properties more favorable to the process of distillation. (Author)

  14. Source brightness fluctuation correction of solar absorption fourier transform mid infrared spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ridder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The precision and accuracy of trace gas observations using solar absorption Fourier Transform infrared spectrometry depend on the stability of the light source. Fluctuations in the source brightness, however, cannot always be avoided. Current correction schemes, which calculate a corrected interferogram as the ratio of the raw DC interferogram and a smoothed DC interferogram, are applicable only to near infrared measurements. Spectra in the mid infrared spectral region below 2000 cm−1 are generally considered uncorrectable, if they are measured with a MCT detector. Such measurements introduce an unknown offset to MCT interferograms, which prevents the established source brightness fluctuation correction. This problem can be overcome by a determination of the offset using the modulation efficiency of the instrument. With known modulation efficiency the offset can be calculated, and the source brightness correction can be performed on the basis of offset-corrected interferograms. We present a source brightness fluctuation correction method which performs the smoothing of the raw DC interferogram in the interferogram domain by an application of a running mean instead of high-pass filtering the corresponding spectrum after Fourier transformation of the raw DC interferogram. This smoothing can be performed with the onboard software of commercial instruments. The improvement of MCT spectra and subsequent ozone profile and total column retrievals is demonstrated. Application to InSb interferograms in the near infrared spectral region proves the equivalence with the established correction scheme.

  15. Experimental investigation and feasibility analysis on a capillary radiant heating system based on solar and air source heat pump dual heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Gu, Z.L.; Kang, W.B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.Y.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, Q.L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Vertical temperature gradient in Case 3, (b) PMV and PPD of the test room in Case 3, (c) operating time of SPCTS and ASHP systems in Case 3 and (d) the proportion of SPCTS operating time. - Highlights: • A capillary heating system based on solar and air source heat pump was developed. • Influence of supply water temperature on solar energy saving rate was investigated. • Heating performance and thermal comfort of capillary heating system were analyzed. • Low temperature heating with capillary is suitable for solar heating system. - Abstract: Due to sustainable development, solar energy has drawn much attention and been widely applied in buildings. However, the application of solar energy is limited because of its instability, intermittency and low energy density in winter. In order to use low density and instable solar energy source for heating and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy, a solar phase change thermal storage (SPCTS) heating system using a radiant-capillary-terminal (RCT) to effectively match the low temperature hot water, a phase change thermal storage (PCTS) to store and continuously utilize the solar energy, and an air source heat pump (ASHP) as an alternate energy, was proposed and set up in this research. Series of experiments were conducted to obtain the relation between the solar radiation utilization rate and the heating supply temperatures, and to evaluate the performance of the RCT module and the indoor thermal environment of the system for its practical application in a residential building in the north-western City of Xi’an, China. The results show that energy saving of the solar heating system can be significantly improved by reducing the supplied water temperature, and the supplied water temperature of the RCT would be no more than 35 °C. The capillary radiation heating can adopt a lower water temperature and create a good thermal comfort environment as well. These results may lead to the

  16. Structures of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes and comparison with their solar sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science/CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Qiu, Jiong [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States); Dasgupta, B.; Khare, A.; Webb, G. M., E-mail: qh0001@uah.edu, E-mail: qiu@physics.montana.edu [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    Whether a magnetic flux rope is pre-existing or formed in situ in the Sun's atmosphere, there is little doubt that magnetic reconnection is essential to release the flux rope during its ejection. During this process, the question remains: how does magnetic reconnection change the flux-rope structure? In this work, we continue with the original study of Qiu et al. by using a larger sample of flare-coronal mass ejection (CME)-interplanetary CME (ICME) events to compare properties of ICME/magnetic cloud (MC) flux ropes measured at 1 AU and properties of associated solar progenitors including flares, filaments, and CMEs. In particular, the magnetic field-line twist distribution within interplanetary magnetic flux ropes is systematically derived and examined. Our analysis shows that, similar to what was found before, for most of these events, the amount of twisted flux per AU in MCs is comparable with the total reconnection flux on the Sun, and the sign of the MC helicity is consistent with the sign of the helicity of the solar source region judged from the geometry of post-flare loops. Remarkably, we find that about half of the 18 magnetic flux ropes, most of them associated with erupting filaments, have a nearly uniform and relatively low twist distribution from the axis to the edge, and the majority of the other flux ropes exhibit very high twist near the axis, up to ≳ 5 turns per AU, which decreases toward the edge. The flux ropes are therefore not linearly force-free. We also conduct detailed case studies showing the contrast of two events with distinct twist distribution in MCs as well as different flare and dimming characteristics in solar source regions, and discuss how reconnection geometry reflected in flare morphology may be related to the structure of the flux rope formed on the Sun.

  17. Design and simulation of front end power converter for a microgrid with fuel cells and solar power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevargi, Chetankumar; Lodhi, Anuj; Sateeshkumar, Allu; Elangovan, D.; Arunkumar, G.

    2017-11-01

    The need for Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is increasing due to increased demand for the supply of power and it is also environment friendly.In the recent few years, the cost of generation of the power from the RES has been decreased. This paper aims to design the front end power converter which is required for integrating the fuel cells and solar power sources to the micro grid. The simulation of the designed front end converter is carried out in the PSIM 9.1.1 software. The results show that the designed front end power converter is sufficient for integrating the micro grid with fuel cells and solar power sources.

  18. Comparison of diverse climatic sources for the simulation of facilities of solar refrigeration; Comparacion de diversas fuentes climaticas para la simulacion de instalaciones de refrigeracion solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujedo, L. A.; Vicente, J.; Torre, C. de; Macia, A.; Rodriguez, J.

    2008-07-01

    With the present work they are sought to analyze the results based on simulations hourly of an installation of solar refrigeration by absorption, subjected to different sources of weather data. For it, the authors have modelled one of the facilities of the Technology Centre CARTIF located in Boecillo (Valladolid), under the environment TRNSYS. (Author)

  19. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  20. Solar radiation and energy balance in polyethylene covered greenhouse; Balancos de radiacao solar e de energia em estufa com cobertura de polietileno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisina, Valeria de Almeida; Escobedo, Joao Francisco [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this paper is describe the radiation and energy balance, during the lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L, var Veronica) crop cycle inside a polyethylene greenhouse. The radiation and energy balance was made inside of a tunnel greenhouse with polyethylene cover (100 {mu} m) and in an external area, both area with 35 m{sup 2}. Global (R{sub G}), reflected (R{sub r}) and net radiation (SR), soil heat flux and air temperature (dry and humid) were measured during crop cycle, in this two environment. In the data acquisition it was utilized a DATALOGGER, which operated at 1 Hz frequency, storing 5 minutes averages. The global and reflected radiations (MJ/m{sup 2}) allowed the verification that the average transmission of global radiation (R-G{sub in}/R{sub Gex}) was almost constant, near 79,59% while the average ratio of reflected radiation (R{sub rin}/R{sub rex}) was 69,21% with 8,47% standard-deviation. The short-wave radiation average (SRoc) was bigger in the external area. The normalized relation (SR/R{sub G}) was bigger in the external area, about 12%, when the green culture covered (SRol) was bigger outside, about 50%. The energy balance, estimated in terms of vertical fluxes, showed that, for the external area, in average, 83,07% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation; 18% in soil heat flux and 9,96% in sensible heat, while, inside of the greenhouse, 58,71% of total net radiation was converted in latent heat evaporation:; 42,68% in sensible heat and 28,79% in soil heat flux. (author)

  1. Solar panel cleaning robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalladhimmu, Pavan Kumar Reddy; Priyadarshini, S.

    2018-04-01

    As the demand of electricity is increasing, there is need to using the renewable sources to produce the energy at present of power shortage, the use of solar energy could be beneficial to great extent and easy to get the maximum efficiency. There is an urgent in improving the efficiency of solar power generation. Current solar panels setups take a major power loss when unwanted obstructions cover the surface of the panels. To make solar energy more efficiency of solar array systems must be maximized efficiency evaluation of PV panels, that has been discussed with particular attention to the presence of dust on the efficiency of the PV panels have been highlighted. This paper gives the how the solar panel cleaning system works and designing of the cleaning system.

  2. Numerical analysis of hydrogen production via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor using concentrated solar irradiation as heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fuqiang; Tan, Jianyu; Shuai, Yong; Gong, Liang; Tan, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • H 2 production by hybrid solar energy and methane steam reforming is analyzed. • MCRT and FVM coupling method is used for chemical reaction in solar porous reactor. • LTNE model is used to study the solid phase and fluid phase thermal performance. • Modified P1 approximation programmed by UDFs is used for irradiative heat transfer. - Abstract: The calorific value of syngas can be greatly upgraded during the methane steam reforming process by using concentrated solar energy as heat source. In this study, the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) coupling method is developed to investigate the hydrogen production performance via methane steam reforming in porous media solar thermochemical reactor which includes the mass, momentum, energy and irradiative transfer equations as well as chemical reaction kinetics. The local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE) model is used to provide more temperature information. The modified P1 approximation is adopted for solving the irradiative heat transfer equation. The MCRT method is used to calculate the sunlight concentration and transmission problems. The fluid phase energy equation and transport equations are solved by Fluent software. The solid phase energy equation, irradiative transfer equation and chemical reaction kinetics are programmed by user defined functions (UDFs). The numerical results indicate that concentrated solar irradiation on the fluid entrance surface of solar chemical reactor is highly uneven, and temperature distribution has significant influence on hydrogen production

  3. CONTROLLING INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOLAR WIND OUTFLOW: AN INVESTIGATION USING CURRENT SHEET SOURCE SURFACE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poduval, B., E-mail: bpoduval@spacescience.org [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    This Letter presents the results of an investigation into the controlling influence of large-scale magnetic field of the Sun in determining the solar wind outflow using two magnetostatic coronal models: current sheet source surface (CSSS) and potential field source surface. For this, we made use of the Wang and Sheeley inverse correlation between magnetic flux expansion rate (FTE) and observed solar wind speed (SWS) at 1 au. During the period of study, extended over solar cycle 23 and beginning of solar cycle 24, we found that the coefficients of the fitted quadratic equation representing the FTE–SWS inverse relation exhibited significant temporal variation, implying the changing pattern of the influence of FTE on SWS over time. A particularly noteworthy feature is an anomaly in the behavior of the fitted coefficients during the extended minimum, 2008–2010 (CRs 2073–2092), which is considered due to the particularly complex nature of the solar magnetic field during this period. However, this variation was significant only for the CSSS model, though not a systematic dependence on the phase of the solar cycle. Further, we noticed that the CSSS model demonstrated better solar wind prediction during the period of study, which we attribute to the treatment of volume and sheet currents throughout the corona and the more accurate tracing of footpoint locations resulting from the geometry of the model.

  4. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography, and map sources: Compatibility, accuracy, and cost. Remote Sensing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Regional planning agencies are currently expressing a need for detailed land cover/use information to effectively meet the requirements of various federal programs. Individual data sources have advantages and limitations in fulfilling this need, both in terms of time/cost and technological capability. A methodology has been developed to merge land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography and map sources to maximize the effective use of a variety of data sources in the provision of an integrated information system for regional analysis. A test of the proposed inventory method is currently under way in four central Michigan townships. This test will evaluate the compatibility, accuracy and cost of the integrated method with reference to inventories developed from a single data source, and determine both the technological feasibility and analytical potential of such a system.

  5. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Sethakul, Panarit [Department of Teacher Training in Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Chunkag, Viboon [Department of Electrical Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Sikkabut, Suwat [Thai-French Innovation Institute, King Mongkut' s University of Technology North Bangkok, 1518, Piboolsongkram Road, Bangsue, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN: UMR 7037), Nancy Universite, INPL-ENSEM, 2, Avenue de la Foret de Haye, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, Lorraine 54516 (France)

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles. (author)

  6. An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems: A case study in Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Holmberg, Aksel; Pettersson, Oscar; Klintenberg, Patrik; Hangula, Abraham; Araoz, Fabian Benavente; Zhang, Yang; Stridh, Bengt; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems (SHSs) design is developed. • The optimization tool is written in MS Excel-VBA. • The optimization tool is validated with a commercial and open-source software. • The optimization tool has the potential of improving future SHS installations. - Abstract: Solar home systems (SHSs) represent a viable technical solution for providing electricity to households and improving standard of living conditions in areas not reached by the national grid or local grids. For this reason, several rural electrification programmes in developing countries, including Namibia, have been relying on SHSs to electrify rural off-grid communities. However, the limited technical know-how of service providers, often resulting in over- or under-sized SHSs, is an issue that has to be solved to avoid dissatisfaction of SHSs’ users. The solution presented here is to develop an open-source software that service providers can use to optimally design SHSs components based on the specific electricity requirements of the end-user. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an optimization model written in MS Excel-VBA which calculates the optimal SHSs components capacities guaranteeing the minimum costs and the maximum system reliability. The results obtained with the developed tool showed good agreement with a commercial software and a computational code used in research activities. When applying the developed optimization tool to existing systems, the results identified that several components were incorrectly sized. The tool has thus the potentials of improving future SHSs installations, contributing to increasing satisfaction of end-users.

  7. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal, E-mail: moka@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  8. Use of reflectors to enhance the synergistic effects of solar heating and solar wavelengths to disinfect drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijal, G.K. [Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Cicero, Illinois (United States); Fujioka, R.S. [University of Hawaii, Honolulu (United States). Water Resources Research Center

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum reflectors were added to solar units designed to inactivate faecal microorganisms (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, FRNA coliphage, C. perfringens) in stream water and diluted sewage by the two mechanisms (solar heat, solar UV) known to inactivate microorganisms. During sunny conditions, solar units with and without reflectors inactivated E. coli to <1 CFU/100 ml to meet drinking water standards. Solar units with reflectors disinfected to the water sooner by increasing the water temperature by 8-10{sup o}C to 64-75{sup o}C. However, FRNA coliphages were still detected in these samples, indicating that this treatment may not inactivate pathogenic human enteric viruses. During cloudy conditions, reflectors only increased the water temperature by 3-4{sup o}C to a maximum of 43-49{sup o}C and E. coli was not completely inactivated. Under sunny and cloudy conditions, the UV wavelengths of sunlight worked synergistically with increasing water temperatures and were able to disinfect microorganisms at temperatures (45-56{sup o}C), which were not effective in inactivating microorganisms. Relative resistance to the solar disinfecting effects were C perfringens > FRNA coliphages > enterococci >E. coli > faecal coliform. (author)

  9. Use of reflectors to enhance the synergistic effects of solar heating and solar wavelengths to disinfect drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, G K; Fujioka, R S

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum reflectors were added to solar units designed to inactivate faecal microorganisms (faecal coliform, E. coli, enterococci, FRNA coliphage, C. perfringens) in stream water and diluted sewage by the two mechanisms (solar heat, solar UV) known to inactivate microorganisms. During sunny conditions, solar units with and without reflectors inactivated E. coli to water standards. Solar units with reflectors disinfected the water sooner by increasing the water temperature by 8-10 degrees C to 64-75 degrees C. However, FRNA coliphages were still detected in these samples, indicating that this treatment may not inactivate pathogenic human enteric viruses. During cloudy conditions, reflectors only increased the water temperature by 3-4 degrees C to a maximum of 43-49 degrees C and E. coli was not completely inactivated. Under sunny and cloudy conditions, the UV wavelengths of sunlight worked synergistically with increasing water temperatures and were able to disinfect microorganisms at temperatures (45-56 degrees C), which were not effective in inactivating microorganisms. Relative resistance to the solar disinfecting effects were C. perfringens > FRNA coliphages > enterococci > E. coli > faecal coliform.

  10. Greywater as a sustainable water source: A photocatalytic treatment technology under artificial and solar illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumachidou, Sophia; Velegraki, Theodora; Antoniadis, Apostolos; Poulios, Ioannis

    2017-06-15

    Greywater considers being a highly reclaimable water source particularly important for water-stressed nations. In this work, heterogeneous photocatalysis using artificial and solar illumination has been applied for the mineralization of simulated light greywater (effluents from dishwashers and kitchen sinks were excluded from the study). The effects on the process' efficiency of TiO 2 P25 catalyst's concentration, initial concentration of H 2 O 2 and Fe 3+ , pH of the solution, as well as the type of radiation, were evaluated in a bench-scale Pyrex reactor and a pilot-scale slurry fountain photoreactor. The treatment efficiency has been followed through the evolution of the organic matter content expresses as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Best results were obtained with the photo-Fenton-assisted TiO 2 photocatalytic process with 72% DOC removal after 210 min of bench scale treatment, while under the same photocatalytic conditions in the pilot reactor the DOC removal reached almost 64%. Moreover, the decrease in toxicity, phytotoxicity and biodegradability of the simulated wastewater has been observed after solar-induced photocatalytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of minority carrier lifetime in silicon solar cells using an a. c. light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, A.; Gupta, R.S.; Srivastava, G.P. (Delhi Univ., New Delhi (India). Dept. of Electronic Sciences); Jain, V.K. (Solid State Physics Lab., Delhi (India)); Chilana, G.S. (Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics)

    1990-06-01

    A simple technique for the measurement of minority carriers lifetimes is proposed. It is based on the modification of the junction structure by the addition of a d.c. bias to the a.c. source. This always keeps the solar cell in the forward biased condition and also keeps it in the operating range. This method provides a direct measurement of minority carriers lifetimes. The lifetime is found to increase from 2.89 {mu}s at 30deg C to 4.55 {mu}s at 120deg C. The lifetime reduces to 1.45 {mu}s at liquid air temperature. Based on these lifetime measurements, the diffusion length of the carriers has also been calculated. (orig.).

  12. Organic Materials Ionizing Radiation Susceptibility for the Outer Planet/Solar Probe Radioisotope Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golliher, Eric L.; Pepper, Stephen V.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy is considering the current Stirling Technology Corporation 55 We Stirling Technology Demonstration Convertor as a baseline option for an advanced radioisotope power source for the Outer Planets/Solar Probe project of Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other missions. However, since the Technology Demonstration Convertor contains organic materials chosen without any special consideration of flight readiness, and without any consideration of the extremely high radiation environment of Europa, a preliminary investigation was performed to address the radiation susceptibility of the current organic materials used in the Technology Demonstration Convertor. This report documents the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that candidate replacement materials have been identified to be acceptable in the harsh Europa radiation environment.

  13. Solar sources of interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events responsible for major magnetic storms (1978--1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Gonzalez, W.D.; Akasofu, S.I.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tsurutani et al. [1988] analyzed the 10 intense interplanetary southward B/sub z/ events that led to major magnetic storms (Dst 3.0) are associated with prominence eruptions. For three of the five southward B/sub z/ events in which the driver gases are the causes of the intense southward field leading to magnetic storms, the photospheric fields of the solar sources have no dominant southward component, indicating the driver gas fields do not always result from a simple outward convection of solar magnetic fields. Finally we compare the solar events and their resulting interplanetary shocks and find that the standard solar parameters do not correlate with the strengths of the resulting shocks at 1 AU. The implications are discussed. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  14. Early solar system. Early accretion of water in the inner solar system from a carbonaceous chondrite-like source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Adam R; Nielsen, Sune G; Marschall, Horst R; McCubbin, Francis M; Monteleone, Brian D

    2014-10-31

    Determining the origin of water and the timing of its accretion within the inner solar system is important for understanding the dynamics of planet formation. The timing of water accretion to the inner solar system also has implications for how and when life emerged on Earth. We report in situ measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of the mineral apatite in eucrite meteorites, whose parent body is the main-belt asteroid 4 Vesta. These measurements sample one of the oldest hydrogen reservoirs in the solar system and show that Vesta contains the same hydrogen isotopic composition as that of carbonaceous chondrites. Taking into account the old ages of eucrite meteorites and their similarity to Earth's isotopic ratios of hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen, we demonstrate that these volatiles could have been added early to Earth, rather than gained during a late accretion event. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Source Apportionment of Annual Water Pollution Loads in River Basins by Remote-Sensed Land Cover Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to determine the efficiency of estimating annual water pollution loads from remote-sensed land cover classification and ground-observed hydrological data, an empirical model was investigated. Remote sensing data imagery from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer were applied to an 11 year (1994–2004 water quality dataset for 30 different rivers in Japan. Six water quality indicators—total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and dissolved oxygen (DO—were examined by using the observed river water quality data and generated land cover map. The TN, TP, BOD, COD, and DO loads were estimated for the 30 river basins using the empirical model. Calibration (1994–1999 and validation (2000–2004 results showed that the proposed simulation technique was useful for predicting water pollution loads in the river basins. We found that vegetation land cover had a larger impact on TP export into all rivers. Urban areas had a very small impact on DO export into rivers, but a relatively large impact on BOD and TN export. The results indicate that the application of land cover data generated from the remote-sensed imagery could give a useful interpretation about the river water quality.

  16. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  17. Household Solar Photovoltaics: Supplier of Marginal Abatement, or Primary Source of Low-Emission Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Palmer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available With declining system costs and assuming a short energy payback period, photovoltaics (PV should, at face value, be able to make a meaningful contribution to reducing the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system. However, solar is an intermittent power source and households remain completely dependent on a “less than green” electricity grid for reliable electricity. Further, much of the energy impact of PV occurs outside of the conventional boundaries of PV life-cycle analyses (LCA. This paper examines these competing observations and explores the broader impacts of a high penetration of household PV using Melbourne, Victoria as a reference. It concludes that in a grid dominated by unsequestered coal and gas, PV provides a legitimate source of emission abatement at high, but declining costs, with the potential for network and peak demand support. It may be technically possible to integrate a high penetration of PV, but the economic and energy cost of accommodating high-penetration PV erodes much of the benefits. Future developments in PV, storage, and integration technologies may allow PV to take on a greater long term role, but in the time horizon usually discussed in climate policy, a large-scale expansion of household PV may hinder rather than assist deep cuts to the emission intensity of Australia’s electricity system.

  18. Suppression of Astronomical Sources Using Starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicki, Megan; Warwick, Steve; Smith, Daniel; Richards, Michael; Harness, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO2010. Tests of this approach have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field (Samuele et al., 2010, Glassman et al., 2014) using non-collimated light sources with a spherical wavefront. We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale (approximately 1/300th) starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. We placed a starshade directly in the path of the beam from an astronomical object in front of the main heliostat. Using only flat mirrors, we then directed the light through the observatory path and reflected it off the West heliostat to an external telescope located approximately 270m away, for an effective baseline of 420m.This configuration allowed us to make measurements of flat wavefront sources with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in 2015.

  19. Waves and Turbulence in the Solar Corona: A Surplus of Sources and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2018-06-01

    The Sun's corona is a hot, dynamic, and highly stochastic plasma environment, and we still do not yet understand how it is heated. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be filled with waves and turbulent eddies. Models that invoke the dissipation of these magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. In this presentation I will review some new insights about the different ways these waves are thought to be created and destroyed. For example: (1) Intergranular bright points in the photosphere are believed to extend upwards as coronal flux tubes, and their transverse oscillations are driven by the underlying convection. New high-resolution MHD simulations predict the kinetic energy spectra of the resulting coronal waves and serve as predictions for upcoming DKIST observations. (2) Magnetic reconnection in the supergranular network of the low corona can also generate MHD waves, and new Monte Carlo models of the resulting power spectra will be presented. The total integrated power in these waves is typically small in comparison to that of photosphere-driven waves, but they dominate the total spectrum at periods longer than about 30 minutes. (3) Because each magnetic field line in the corona is tied to at least one specific chromospheric footpoint (each with its own base pressure), the corona also plays host to field-aligned "density striations." These fluctuations vary with the supergranular network on timescales of roughly a day, but they also act as a spatially varying background through which the higher-frequency waves propagate. These multiple sources of space/time variability must be taken into account to properly understand off-limb measurements from CoMP and EIS/Hinode, as well as in-situ measurements from Parker Solar Probe.

  20. Exergoeconomic analysis of a solar assisted ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, Onder; Hepbasli, Arif

    2005-01-01

    EXCEM analysis may prove useful to investigators in engineering and other disciplines due to the methodology are being based on the quantities exergy, cost, energy and mass. The main objective of the present study is to investigate between capital costs and thermodynamic losses for devices in solar assisted ground-source heat pump greenhouse heating system (SAGSHPGHS) with a 50 m vertical 32 mm nominal diameter U-bend ground heat exchanger. This system was designed and installed at the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Thermodynamic loss rate-to-capital cost ratios are used to show that, for components and the overall system, a systematic correlation appears to exist between capital cost and exergy loss (total or internal), but not between capital cost and energy loss or external exergy loss. This correlation may imply that devices in successful air conditioning are configured so as to achieve an overall optimal design, by appropriately balancing the thermodynamic (exergy-based) and economic characteristics of the overall system and its devices. The results may, (i) provide useful insights into the relations between thermodynamics and economics, both in general and for SAGSHPGHS (ii) help demonstrate the merits of second-law analysis. It is observed from the results that the maximum exergy destructions in the system particularly occur due to the electrical, mechanical and isentropic efficiencies and emphasize the need for paying close attention to the selection of this type of equipment, since components of inferior performance can considerably reduce the overall performance of the system. In conjunction with this, the total exergy losses values are obtained to be from 0.010 kW to 0.480 kW for the system. As expected, the largest energy and exergy losses occur in the greenhouse and compressor. The ratio of thermodynamic loss rate to capital cost values are obtained for a range from 0.035 to 1.125

  1. EVIDENCE FOR MULTIPLE SOURCES OF 10Be IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielandt, Daniel; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Huss, Gary R.; Ivanova, Marina A.

    2012-01-01

    Beryllium-10 is a short-lived radionuclide (t 1/2 = 1.4 Myr) uniquely synthesized by spallation reactions and inferred to have been present when the solar system's oldest solids (calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, CAIs) formed. Yet, the astrophysical site of 10 Be nucleosynthesis is uncertain. We report Li-Be-B isotope measurements of CAIs from CV chondrites, including CAIs that formed with the canonical 26 Al/ 27 Al ratio of ∼5 × 10 –5 (canonical CAIs) and CAIs with Fractionation and Unidentified Nuclear isotope effects (FUN-CAIs) characterized by 26 Al/ 27 Al ratios much lower than the canonical value. Our measurements demonstrate the presence of four distinct fossil 10 Be/ 9 Be isochrons, lower in the FUN-CAIs than in the canonical CAIs, and variable within these classes. Given that FUN-CAI precursors escaped evaporation-recondensation prior to evaporative melting, we suggest that the 10 Be/ 9 Be ratio recorded by FUN-CAIs represents a baseline level present in presolar material inherited from the protosolar molecular cloud, generated via enhanced trapping of galactic cosmic rays. The higher and possibly variable apparent 10 Be/ 9 Be ratios of canonical CAIs reflect additional spallogenesis, either in the gaseous CAI-forming reservoir, or in the inclusions themselves: this indicates at least two nucleosynthetic sources of 10 Be in the early solar system. The most promising locale for 10 Be synthesis is close to the proto-Sun during its early mass-accreting stages, as these are thought to coincide with periods of intense particle irradiation occurring on timescales significantly shorter than the formation interval of canonical CAIs.

  2. Analysis of the possibility to cover energy demand from renewable sources on the motive power of the heat pump in low-energy building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapik Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the problem of the demand for electricity for the heat pump and an analysis of the coverage of this demand by renewable energy sources such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, which generate electricity in low energy buildings. Low-energy and passive constructions are a result of introduction of new ideas in building design process. Their main objective is to achieve a significant reduction in demand for renewable primary energy, necessary to cover the needs of these buildings, mostly related to their heating, ventilation and domestic hot water This article presents the results of numerical analysis and calculations performed in MATLAB software, based on typical meteorological years. The results showed that renewable energy sources, can allow to cover a significant demand for electricity, that is required to power the heat pump it is economically justified.

  3. Serially Connected Micro Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells for Compact High-Voltage Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Nam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a compact amorphous silicon (a-Si solar module to be used as high-voltage power supply. In comparison with the organic solar module, the main advantages of the a-Si solar module are its compatibility with photolithography techniques and relatively high power conversion efficiency. The open circuit voltage of a-Si solar cells can be easily controlled by serially interconnecting a-Si solar cells. Moreover, the a-Si solar module can be easily patterned by photolithography in any desired shapes with high areal densities. Using the photolithographic technique, we fabricate a compact a-Si solar module with noticeable photovoltaic characteristics as compared with the reported values for high-voltage power supplies.

  4. A novel syngas-fired hybrid heating source for solar-thermal applications: Energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Santanu; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass-derived syngas as a hybrid energy source for solar thermal power plants. • A novel combustor concept using rich-catalytic and MILD combustion technologies. • Hybrid energy source for a solar-driven supercritical CO 2 -based Brayton cycle. • Comprehensive energetic and exergetic analysis of the combined system. - Abstract: A hybrid heating source using biomass-derived syngas is proposed to enable continuous operation of standalone solar thermal power generation plants. A novel, two-stage, low temperature combustion system is proposed that has the potential to provide stable combustion of syngas with near-zero NO x emissions. The hybrid heating system consists of a downdraft gasifier, a two-stage combustion system, and other auxiliaries. When integrated with a solar cycle, the entire system can be referred to as the integrated gasification solar combined cycle (IGSCC). The supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle (SCO 2 ) is selected for the solar cycle due to its high efficiency. The thermodynamic performance evaluation of the individual unit and the combined system has been conducted from both energy and exergy considerations. The effect of parameters such as gasification temperature, biomass moisture content, equivalence ratio, and pressure ratio is studied. The efficiency of the IGSCC exhibited a non-monotonic behavior. A maximum thermal efficiency of 36.5% was achieved at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.22 and pressure ratio of 2.75 when the gasifier was operating at T g = 1073 K with biomass containing 20% moisture. The efficiency increased to 40.8% when dry biomass was gasified at a temperature of 973 K. The exergy analysis revealed that the maximum exergy destruction occurred in the gasification system, followed by the combustion system, SCO 2 cycle, and regenerator. The exergy analysis also showed that 8.72% of the total exergy is lost in the exhaust; however, this can be utilized for drying of the biomass.

  5. Standarized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A steel flat-plate collector with two transparent covers and a proprietary coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator are given. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperature and flux level.

  6. Sources and Propagation of High Frequency Waves in the Solar Photosphere and Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, John K.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2009-05-01

    We study the spatial distribution of oscillatory power in two sequences of high-cadence, high-resolution images taken by the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. The sequences consist of simultaneous, co-registered G-Band (GB) and Ca II H-Line (HL) images with pixel scale 80 km and fields of view 40 x 40 Mm and 80 x 40 Mm. The first sequence has cadence 21 s over 3 hours on 2007 April 14; the other has cadence 24 s over 2 hours on 2007 March 30. Both sequences include network and internetwork at heliocentric angle 35 degrees. Time averaging of Morlet wavelet transforms gives smoothed Fourier spectra for each spatial location in the GB and HL data. We averaged over four different frequency bands to highlight different physical regimes: "evolutionary” timescales (f web of a cellular pattern with scales 2 - 3 Mm. These are found to coincide with the boundaries of stable clusters of granules. These dark boundaries may correspond to downflows that control the cell structuring and that could be the source of acoustic power.

  7. Deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere. Metodology. The line source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchukina, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere is presented. The difficulties of solution and methods of realization are systematized. The processes of line formation are considered which take into account velocity fields, structural inhomogeneity, radiation non-coherence etc. as applied to a quiet solar atmosphere. The conclusion is made on the regularity of deviation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in upper layers of the solar atmosphere

  8. A simulation study on the operating performance of a solar-air source heat pump water heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoying; Zhang Xiaosong; Deng Shiming

    2006-01-01

    A simulation study on the operating performance of a new type of solar-air source heat pump water heater (SAS-HPWH) has been presented. The SAS-HPWH used a specially designed flat-plate heat collector/evaporator with spiral-finned tubes to obtain energy from both solar irradiation and ambient air for hot water heating. Using the meteorological data in Nanjing, China, the simulation results based on 150 L water heating capacity showed that such a SAS-HPWH can heat water up to 55 deg. C efficiently under various weather conditions all year around. In this simulation study, the influences of solar radiation, ambient temperature and compressor capacity on the performance of the SAS-HPWH were analyzed. In order to improve the overall operating performance, the use of a variable-capacity compressor has been proposed

  9. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, A; Inambao, F; Bright, G

    2014-01-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future

  10. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  11. GRAN SASSO/GRENOBLE: Artificial neutrino source confirms solar neutrino result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Gallex experiment announced the first observation of the neutrinos produced in the primary proton-proton fusion reaction in the core of the Sun, reaction at the origin of the energy production by our star (September 1992, page 1). The Gallex team stressed that the observed neutrino flux was only about two-thirds of the predicted level, confirming the deficit observed by the two pioneering experiments, Ray Davis' chlorine-based detector in the USA and the Kamiokande study in Japan (which are only sensitive to neutrinos from subsidiary solar fusion processes). This deficit demands explanation, and could considerably modify our understanding of how stars shine and/or of neutrino physics. But before drawing conclusions, the Gallex result had to be checked. Gallex, installed in the Italian Gran Sasso underground Laboratory, is a radiochemical experiment using neutrino interactions to transform gallium-71 into germanium-71. The latter is radioactive and decays with a half-life of 11.4 days. Counting the germanium-71 atoms extracted from the target tank measures the neutrino flux to which the detector is exposed. Neutrinos are famous for their reluctance to interact. 65 billion per square centimetre per second on the surface of the Earth produce only one germanium-71 atom in the Gallex target containing 30 tons of gallium. This is at the limit of homeopathy (extracting few atoms of germanium-71 from a solution containing 10 30 atoms) and needs careful checking. Since it is not possible to switch off the Sun, the only recourse was to build an artificial neutrino source more powerful than the Sun as a benchmark. This was done last summer. Last May, 36 kilograms of chromium grains were placed in the Siloe reactor of the French Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Grenoble. The chromium had been previously enriched to 40% chromium-50 by the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow (natural chromium contains only 4.5% chromium-50). A dedicated core was built for

  12. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  13. CIGS thin films, solar cells, and submodules fabricated using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Yamada, Akimasa; Shibata, Hajime; Fons, Paul; Niki, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Coevaporated Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) film growth using a rf-plasma cracked Se-radical beam (R-Se) source leads to a significant reduction in the amount of raw Se source material wasted during growth and exhibits unique film properties such as highly dense, smooth surfaces and large grain size. R-Se grown CIGS solar cells also show concomitant unique properties different from conventional evaporative Se (E-Se) source grown CIGS cells. In the present work, the impact of modified surfaces, interfaces, and bulk crystal properties of R-Se grown CIGS films on the solar cell performance was studied. When a R-Se source was used, Na diffusion into CIGS layers was enhanced while a remarkable diffusion of elemental Ga and Se into Mo back contact layers was observed. Improvements in the bulk crystal quality as manifested by large grain size and increased Na concentration with the use of a R-Se source is expected to be effective to improve photovoltaic performance. Using a R-Se source for the growth of CIGS absorber layers at a relatively low growth temperature, we have successfully demonstrated a monolithically integrated submodule efficiency of 15.0% (17 cells, aperture area of 76.5 cm 2 ) on 0.25-mm thick soda-lime glass substrates.

  14. Introduction to meteorological measurements and data handling for solar energy applications. Task IV. Development of an isolation handbook and instrument package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The following are covered: the Sun and its radiation, solar radiation and atmospheric interaction, solar radiation measurement methods, spectral irradiance measurements of natural sources, the measurement of infrared radiation, the measurement of circumsolar radiation, some empirical properties of solar radiation and related parameters, duration of sunshine, and meteorological variables related to solar energy. Included in appendices are manufacturers and distributors of solar radiation measuring instruments and an approximate method for quality control of solar radiation instruments. (MHR)

  15. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem i...

  16. Hybrid solar receiver as a source of high-temperature medium for an absorption chiller supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przenzak Estera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the problems related with the cold production, i.e. energy efficiency of the process. The idea of solar cooling systems has been presented as the solution of the problem of big electricity demand. The paper discusses the principle of the operation of absorption chillers. Disadvantages and advantages of the solar cooling systems were discussed. The installation for manufacturing high-temperature heat based on solar collectors and concentrator of solar radiation constructed in AGH in Cracow has been presented. This installation is a first stage of projected, complete solar cooling system. The special attention is paid to the dedicated solar high-temperature heat receiver as a most important element of the system. The achieved values of temperature, power and efficiency depending on the working medium flow has been presented and discussed. The intensity of solar radiation during the measurements has been taken into account. Two versions of heat receiver were investigated: non-insulated and insulated with mineral wool. The obtained efficiency of the heat receiver (less than 30% is not satisfactory but possibility of improvements exist.

  17. Solar Water Heating as a Potential Source for Inland Norway Energy Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Assefa Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess solar potential and investigate the possibility of using solar water heating for residential application in Inland Norway. Solar potential based on observation and satellite-derived data for four typical populous locations has been assessed and used to estimate energy yield using two types of solar collectors for a technoeconomic performance comparison. Based on the results, solar energy use for water heating is competitive and viable even in low solar potential areas. In this study it was shown that a typical tubular collector in Inland Norway could supply 62% of annual water heating energy demand for a single residential household, while glazed flat plates of the same size were able to supply 48%. For a given energy demand in Inland Norway, tubular collectors are preferred to flat plate collectors for performance and cost reasons. This was shown by break-even capital cost for a series of collector specifications. Deployment of solar water heating in all detached dwellings in Inland could have the potential to save 182 GWh of electrical energy, equivalent to a reduction of 15,690 tonnes of oil energy and 48.6 ktCO2 emissions, and contributes greatly to Norway 67.5% renewable share target by 2020.

  18. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, were analyzed for cases where the solar energy auxiliary heat pump and the air source heat pump are used independently. The optimal heating temperature and the changes in the fluid temperature were determined. The influence of the compression ratio and the coefficient of performance (COP were investigated theoretically. The results revealed the parameters that are important to the performance of the system. Several measures for improving the COP of the heat pump units are provided for other applications and future research.

  19. Indium phosphide solar cell research in the United States: Comparison with non-photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, I.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of the InP solar cell research program are presented. Homojunction cells with efficiencies approaching 19 percent are demonstrated, while 17 percent is achieved for ITO/InP cells. The superior radiation resistance of the two latter cell configurations over both Si and GaAs cells has been shown. InP cells aboard the LIPS3 satellite show no degradation after more than a year in orbit. Computed array specific powers are used to compare the performance of an InP solar cell array to solar dynamic and nuclear systems.

  20. Erratum to "Solar Sources and Geospace Consequences of Interplanetary Magnetic Clouds Observed During Solar Cycle 23-Paper 1" [J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys. 70(2-4) (2008) 245-253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Michalek, G.; Lepping, R. P.

    2009-01-01

    One of the figures (Fig. 4) in "Solar sources and geospace consequences of interplanetary magnetic Clouds observed during solar cycle 23 -- Paper 1" by Gopalswamy et al. (2008, JASTP, Vol. 70, Issues 2-4, February 2008, pp. 245-253) is incorrect because of a software error in t he routine that was used to make the plot. The source positions of various magnetic cloud (MC) types are therefore not plotted correctly.

  1. Longitudinal distribution of recurrent solar activity sources and its reflection in geomagnetic variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letfus, V.; Apostolov, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    By analysing the autocorrelation function of the geomagnetic Asup(p)-index, a series of subsidiary maxima were found which seem to indicate that they correspond to periods considerably different from the solar rotation period. It was found that these subsidiary maxima are located symmetrically around the maxima of the first and second recurrences of the solar rotation period (and probably also around the subsequent ones). This fact leads to a model of two or more geoactive longitudes on the Sun. (author)

  2. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  3. A novel off-grid hybrid power system comprised of solar photovoltaic, wind, and hydro energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, Binayak; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Caroline Sunyong; Song, Chul-Ki; Maskey, Ramesh K.; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose two hybridization methods for small off-grid power systems consisting solar (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. • One of the methods was implemented in a mini-grid connecting Thingan and Kolkhop villages in Makawanpur District, Nepal. • The results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. • This is the first implementation anywhere comprising of three renewable energy power, in a single off-grid power system. • This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. - Abstract: Several factors must be considered before adopting a full-phase power generation system based on renewable energy sources. Long-term necessary data (for one year if possible) should be collected before making any decisions concerning implementation of such a systems. To accurately assess the potential of available resources, we measured solar irradiation, wind speed, and ambient temperature at two high-altitude locations in Nepal: the Lama Hotel in Rasuwa District and Thingan in Makawanpur District. Here, we propose two practical, economical hybridization methods for small off-grid systems consisting entirely of renewable energy sources—specifically solar photovoltaic (PV), wind, and micro-hydro sources. One of the methods was tested experimentally, and the results can be applied to help achieve Millennium Development Goal 7: Ensuring environmental sustainability. Hydro, wind, and solar photovoltaic energy are the top renewable energy sources in terms of globally installed capacity. However, no reports have been published about off-grid hybrid systems comprised of all three sources, making this implementation the first of its kind anywhere. This research may be applied as a practical guide for implementing similar systems in various locations. Of the four off-grid PV systems installed by the authors for village electrification in Nepal, one was

  4. AN ANOMALOUS COMPOSITION IN SLOW SOLAR WIND AS A SIGNATURE OF MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN ITS SOURCE REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.; Landi, E.; Lepri, S. T.; Kocher, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Fisk, L. A.; Raines, J. M., E-mail: lzh@umich.edu [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study a subset of slow solar winds characterized by an anomalous charge state composition and ion temperatures compared to average solar wind distributions, and thus referred to as an “Outlier” wind. We find that although this wind is slower and denser than normal slow wind, it is accelerated from the same source regions (active regions and quiet-Sun regions) as the latter and its occurrence rate depends on the solar cycle. The defining property of the Outlier wind is that its charge state composition is the same as that of normal slow wind, with the only exception being a very large decrease in the abundance of fully charged species (He{sup 2+}, C{sup 6+}, N{sup 7+}, O{sup 8+}, Mg{sup 12+}), resulting in a significant depletion of the He and C element abundances. Based on these observations, we suggest three possible scenarios for the origin of this wind: (1) local magnetic waves preferentially accelerating non-fully stripped ions over fully stripped ions from a loop opened by reconnection; (2) depleted fully stripped ions already contained in the corona magnetic loops before they are opened up by reconnection; or (3) fully stripped ions depleted by Coulomb collision after magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. If any one of these three scenarios is confirmed, the Outlier wind represents a direct signature of slow wind release through magnetic reconnection.

  5. Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Land Cover database depicts 10 general land cover classes for the State of Kansas. The database was compiled from a digital classification of Landsat Thematic...

  6. Source term boundary adaptive estimation in a first-order 1D hyperbolic PDE: Application to a one loop solar collector through

    KAUST Repository

    Mechhoud, Sarra

    2016-08-04

    In this paper, boundary adaptive estimation of solar radiation in a solar collector plant is investigated. The solar collector is described by a 1D first-order hyperbolic partial differential equation where the solar radiation models the source term and only boundary measurements are available. Using boundary injection, the estimator is developed in the Lyapunov approach and consists of a combination of a state observer and a parameter adaptation law which guarantee the asymptotic convergence of the state and parameter estimation errors. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the performance of the proposed identifier.

  7. Modeling and simulation of a solar power source at 3kW for a clean energy without pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louzazni M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution was much worse, and it became necessary to replace the fossil energy sources by the renewable energies. The causes are related to reserves that can be exhausted, to pollution and their impacts on the environment. Production of toxic gases from the combustion of coal for the effect of increasing the temperature of the earth. Solar energy is a clean and inexhaustible excellent alternative. We propose a modeling and simulation of a solar system consists of a photovoltaic generator (PVG, a boost chopper, to supply a telecommunications relay station (BTS, According to the load characteristics (I = 60A, V = 48V DC (3 kW. A stage adaptation composed of this chopper controlled by a PWM controller (Pulse Width Modulation is used to control the optimal operating point (MPPT and optimize system performance using Matlab / Simulink.

  8. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  9. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Cheol [Mechatronics Department of the Korea Aviation Polytechnic College, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Ju [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  10. Single source precursors for fabrication of I-III-VI{sub 2} thin-film solar cells via spray CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J.A.; Banger, K.K.; Jin, M.H.-C.; Harris, J.D.; Cowen, J.E.; Bohannan, E.W.; Switzer, J.A.; Buhro, W.E.; Hepp, A.F

    2003-05-01

    The development of thin-film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power (W/kg). Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate that ternary single source precursors can be used in either a hot, or cold-wall spray chemical vapour deposition reactor, for depositing CuInS{sub 2}, CuGaS{sub 2} and CuGaInS{sub 2} at reduced temperatures (400-450 sign C), which display good electrical and optical properties suitable for photovoltaic devices. X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the formation of the single phase CIS, CGS, CIGS thin-films on various substrates at reduced temperatures.

  11. The Solar Energetic Particle Event of 2010 August 14: Connectivity with the Solar Source Inferred from Multiple Spacecraft Observations and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lario, D.; Kwon, R.-Y.; Raouafi, N. E. [The Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Richardson, I. G.; Thompson, B. J.; Rosenvinge, T. T. von; Mays, M. L.; Mäkelä, P. A.; Xie, H.; Thakur, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bain, H. M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Zhang, M.; Zhao, L. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States); Cane, H. V. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart (Australia); Papaioannou, A. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15 236 Penteli (Greece); Riley, P., E-mail: david.lario@jhuapl.edu [Predictive Science, 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We analyze one of the first solar energetic particle (SEP) events of solar cycle 24 observed at widely separated spacecraft in order to assess the reliability of models currently used to determine the connectivity between the sources of SEPs at the Sun and spacecraft in the inner heliosphere. This SEP event was observed on 2010 August 14 by near-Earth spacecraft, STEREO-A (∼80° west of Earth) and STEREO-B (∼72° east of Earth). In contrast to near-Earth spacecraft, the footpoints of the nominal magnetic field lines connecting STEREO-A and STEREO-B with the Sun were separated from the region where the parent fast halo coronal mass ejection (CME) originated by ∼88° and ∼47° in longitude, respectively. We discuss the properties of the phenomena associated with this solar eruption. Extreme ultraviolet and white-light images are used to specify the extent of the associated CME-driven coronal shock. We then assess whether the SEPs observed at the three heliospheric locations were accelerated by this shock or whether transport mechanisms in the corona and/or interplanetary space provide an alternative explanation for the arrival of particles at the poorly connected spacecraft. A possible scenario consistent with the observations indicates that the observation of SEPs at STEREO-B and near Earth resulted from particle injection by the CME shock onto the field lines connecting to these spacecraft, whereas SEPs reached STEREO-A mostly via cross-field diffusive transport processes. The successes, limitations, and uncertainties of the methods used to resolve the connection between the acceleration sites of SEPs and the spacecraft are evaluated.

  12. X-Ray Source Heights in a Solar Flare: Thick-Target Versus Thermal Conduction Front Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Holman, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of solar flares with RHESSI have shown X-ray sources traveling along flaring loops, from the corona down to the chromosphere and back up. The 2002 November 28 C1.1 flare, first observed with RHESSI by Sui et al. and quantitatively analyzed by O'Flannagain et al., very clearly shows this behavior. By employing numerical experiments, we use these observations of X-ray source height motions as a constraint to distinguish between heating due to a non-thermal electron beam and in situ energy deposition in the corona. We find that both heating scenarios can reproduce the observed light curves, but our results favor non-thermal heating. In situ heating is inconsistent with the observed X-ray source morphology and always gives a height dispersion with photon energy opposite to what is observed.

  13. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  14. Controlling solar light and heat in a forest by managing shadow sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard G. Halverson; James L. Smith

    1974-01-01

    Control of solar light and heat to develop the proper growth environment is a desirable goal in forest management. The amount of sunlight and heat reaching the surface is affected by shadows cast by nearby objects, including trees. In timbered areas, the type of forest management practiced can help develop desired microclimates. The results depend on the size and...

  15. Solar driven air conditioning and refrigeration systems corresponding to various heating source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.Z.; Xu, Z.Y.; Pan, Q.W.; Du, S.; Xia, Z.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Modular silica gel–water adsorption chiller was designed and tested. • Single/double effect LiBr–water absorption chiller was operated and tested. • 1.n effect LiBr–water absorption chiller was proposed, designed and tested. • CaCl_2/AC–ammonia adsorption refrigerator was introduced and tested. • NH_3–H_2O absorption ice maker with better internal heat recovery was introduced. - Abstract: Solar driven air conditioning systems can cope with solar collectors working in a wide range of temperatures. Sorption systems, including absorption and adsorption refrigeration systems, are among the best choices for solar cooling. Five systems including modular silica gel–water adsorption chiller, single/double effect LiBr–water absorption chiller, 1.n effect LiBr–water absorption chiller, CaCl_2/AC (activated carbon)–ammonia adsorption refrigerator, and the water–ammonia absorption ice maker with better internal heat recovery were presented. The above five sorption chillers/refrigerators work under various driven temperatures and fulfill different refrigeration demands. The thermodynamic design and system development of the systems were shown. All these systems have improvements in comparison with existing systems and may offer good options for high efficient solar cooling in the near future.

  16. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Francesco; Belussi, Lorenzo; Danza, Ludovico; Ghellere, Matteo; Meroni, Italo

    2015-11-05

    The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  17. Biogas from Agricultural Residues as Energy Source in Hybrid Concentrated Solar Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corré, W.J.; Conijn, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities of sustainable biogas use for hybridisation of Concentrated Solar Power (HCSP) in Europe. The optimal system for the use of biogas from agricultural residues (manure and crop residues) in HCSP involves anaerobic digestion with upgrading of biogas to

  18. An Open Source Low-Cost Wireless Control System for a Forced Circulation Solar Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Salamone

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design phase, development and practical application of a low-cost control system for a forced circulation solar plant in an outdoor test cell located near Milan. Such a system provides for the use of an electric pump for the circulation of heat transfer fluid connecting the solar thermal panel to the storage tank. The running plant temperatures are the fundamental parameter to evaluate the system performance such as proper operation, and the control and management system has to consider these parameters. A solar energy-powered wireless-based smart object was developed, able to monitor the running temperatures of a solar thermal system and aimed at moving beyond standard monitoring approaches to achieve a low-cost and customizable device, even in terms of installation in different environmental conditions. To this end, two types of communications were used: the first is a low-cost communication based on the ZigBee protocol used for control purposes, so that it can be customized according to specific needs, while the second is based on a Bluetooth protocol used for data display.

  19. Land cover's refined classification based on multi source of remote sensing information fusion: a case study of national geographic conditions census in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tao; Zhang, Jialong; Zheng, Xinyan; Yuan, Rujin

    2018-03-01

    The project of The First National Geographic Conditions Census developed by Chinese government has designed the data acquisition content and indexes, and has built corresponding classification system mainly based on the natural property of material. However, the unified standard for land cover classification system has not been formed; the production always needs converting to meet the actual needs. Therefore, it proposed a refined classification method based on multi source of remote sensing information fusion. It takes the third-level classes of forest land and grassland for example, and has collected the thematic data of Vegetation Map of China (1:1,000,000), attempts to develop refined classification utilizing raster spatial analysis model. Study area is selected, and refined classification is achieved by using the proposed method. The results show that land cover within study area is divided principally among 20 classes, from subtropical broad-leaved forest (31131) to grass-forb community type of low coverage grassland (41192); what's more, after 30 years in the study area, climatic factors, developmental rhythm characteristics and vegetation ecological geographical characteristics have not changed fundamentally, only part of the original vegetation types have changed in spatial distribution range or land cover types. Research shows that refined classification for the third-level classes of forest land and grassland could make the results take on both the natural attributes of the original and plant community ecology characteristics, which could meet the needs of some industry application, and has certain practical significance for promoting the product of The First National Geographic Conditions Census.

  20. Influence of the iron source on the solar photo-Fenton degradation of different classes of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, R.F.P.; Silva, M.R.A.; Trovo, A.G. [UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Institute of Chemistry of Araraquara, P.O. Box 355, 14800-970, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2005-10-01

    In this work the influence of two different iron sources, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and complexed ferrioxalate (FeOx), on the degradation efficiency of 4-chlorophenol (4CP), malachite green, formaldehyde, dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and the commercial products of the herbicides diuron and tebuthiuron was studied. The oxidation of 4CP, DCA, diuron and tebuthiuron shows a strong dependence on the iron source. While the 4CP degradation is favored by the use of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, the degradation of DCA and the herbicides diuron and tebuthiuron is most efficient when ferrioxalate is used. On the other hand, the degradation of malachite green and formaldehyde is not very influenced by the iron source showing only a slight improvement when ferrioxalate is used. In the case of formaldehyde, DCA, diuron and tebuthiuron, despite of the additional carbon introduced by the use of ferrioxalate, higher mineralization percentages were observed, confirming the beneficial effect of ferrioxalate on the degradation of these compounds. The degradation of tebuthiuron was studied in detail using a shallow pond type solar flow reactor of 4.5L capacity and 4.5cm solution depth. Solar irradiation of tebuthiuron at a flow rate of 9Lh{sup -1}, in the presence of 10.0mmolL{sup -1} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 1.0mmolL{sup -1} ferrioxalate resulted in complete conversion of this herbicide and 70% total organic carbon removal. (author)

  1. A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a multi-objective optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources. In this plant, water, with a mass flow rate of 1 kg/s at a temperature of 90 °C, preheats the working fluid. The objective of this work is to search for solutions with the highest first and second law efficiencies of the plant and the lowest LEC (levelized energy cost). The design parameters are i) the working fluid, ii) the evaporating and condensing pressure, iii) the maximum temperature of the collector thermal fluid and iv) a parameter representative of the temperature profiles in the heat exchangers. A NSGAII (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) has been used. The Pareto front solutions provide Cyclopropane, R143a and R32 as working fluids. The lowest LEC (0.114 $/kWh) and the highest first law efficiency (9.65%) are achieved by using Cyclopropane, with a power output greater than 100 kW. The highest second law efficiency (44%) is obtained by employing R143a, with a low contribution of the solar source and a power output greater than 10 kW. Finally, R32 solutions have comparable performance with respect to R143a solutions. - Highlights: • The optimization of a low-grade energy source in an ORC hybrid solar power plant is carried out. • Thermodynamic and economic indicators are computed with different design parameters. • The study employs the NSGAII (non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II). • Cyclopropane is the working fluid that provides the lowest cost and the highest first law efficiency. • R143a is the working fluid that provides the highest second law efficiency.

  2. Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Christine A.; Schuetze, Nich A.; Knochel, Aviana M.; Magruder, Darby F.

    2011-01-01

    The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on the Centaur 2 Rover. Energy generated by the solar panels will go to power the Centaur 2 Robot (C2) or Regolith & Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, an in-situ resource utilization project. Such payload is designed to drill into lunar and Martian terrain as well as be able to conduct other geological testing; RESOLVE is slated for testing in 2012. Ultimately, this project will fit into NASA s larger goal of deep space exploration as well as long term presence outside Earth s orbit.

  3. Source of proton anisotrophy in the high-speed solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, S.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Gary, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Two factors which can contribute to proton anisotropy in the high-speed solar wind are investigated. We present evidence that observed proton Tperpendicular< Tparallel anisotropies are maintained locally by plasma instabilities driven by proton and helium beams. The transfer of beam energy to T/sub perpendicular/ by means of these instabilities is shown to be sufficient to account for the aforementioned proton temperature anisotropy

  4. Analysis of influence on the solar simulator light source off-focus to the spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayu ZHANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at focusing-type solar simulator, the paper researches the relationship between the defocusing amount and the facula irradiance. With the optical system of focusing-type solar simulator as research object, simulation is conducted based on a short-arc xenon lamps and its ellipsoidal condenser. According to the xenon lamp energy distribution figure and its distribution curve flux, the luminous body is simplified to cylindrical luminous light which emits light only on the flank. Model for the simplified luminous light and its ellipsoidal condenser are established in the optical simulation software TracePro, and the impact of axial and radial deviation on the facula is simulated. The results show that light off-focus has little influence on the average of facula irradiance, but has great influence on the maximum value and the distribution of facula irradiance as well as the facula area. The result provides a theoretical reference for the design and alignment of solar simulator focusing system.

  5. 太阳能辅助地源热泵供暖实验研究%Experimental study of a solar assisted ground source heat pump for heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵忠超; 丰威仙; 巩学梅; 米浩君; 成华; 云龙

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to determine the performance of the solar assisted ground source heat pump(SAGSHP)by using a solar-ground source heat pump hybrid system in the city of Ningbo. The result shows that comparing with the ground source heat pump(GSHP),when the ratio of solar energy to the whole en-ergy is 41. 9% ,the coefficient of performance( COP)of the heat pump and system can improve 15. 1% and 7. 7% respectively. Therefore,the solar assisted ground source heat pump has a significant performance advan-tage according to the experimental result.%选取宁波某公用建筑的太阳能-地源热泵复合系统为实验系统,对太阳能辅助地源热泵( solar assisted ground source heat pump,SAGSHP)供暖进行了实验研究.研究结果表明:与单一的地源热泵(ground source heat pump,GSHP)相比,当太阳能承担41.9%负荷时,热泵机组和整个系统的能效比(coefficient of performance,COP)分别提高了15.1%和7.7%, SAGSHP 供暖运行模式具有明显的性能优势.

  6. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Foye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  7. COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND ITS SOLAR SOURCE ON 2013 APRIL 11–14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vemareddy, P. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore-560034 (India); Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, A-8042 Graz (Austria); Mishra, W. [Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei-230026 (China); Farrugia, C. [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Leitner, M., E-mail: vemareddy@iiap.res.in [IGAM-Kanzelhöhe Observatory, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the Sun–Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14–15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad–Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10{sup −7}–10{sup −6} m{sup −1}) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1–2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold–Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  8. COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC PROPERTIES IN A MAGNETIC CLOUD AND ITS SOLAR SOURCE ON 2013 APRIL 11–14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Mishra, W.; Farrugia, C.; Leitner, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the Sun–Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14–15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory . The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad–Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10 −7 –10 −6 m −1 ) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1–2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold–Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  9. Comparison of Magnetic Properties in a Magnetic Cloud and Its Solar Source on 2013 April 11-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemareddy, P.; Möstl, C.; Amerstorfer, T.; Mishra, W.; Farrugia, C.; Leitner, M.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of the Sun-Earth connection of coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), we studied the solar active region (AR) and the magnetic properties of magnetic cloud (MC) event during 2013 April 14-15. We use in situ observations from the Advanced Composition Explorer and source AR measurements from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The MCs magnetic structure is reconstructed from the Grad-Shafranov method, which reveals a northern component of the axial field with left handed helicity. The MC invariant axis is highly inclined to the ecliptic plane pointing northward and is rotated by 117° with respect to the source region PIL. The net axial flux and current in the MC are comparatively higher than from the source region. Linear force-free alpha distribution (10-7-10-6 m-1) at the sigmoid leg matches the range of twist number in the MC of 1-2 au MFR. The MFR is nonlinear force-free with decreasing twist from the axis (9 turns/au) toward the edge. Therefore, a Gold-Hoyle (GH) configuration, assuming a constant twist, is more consistent with the MC structure than the Lundquist configuration of increasing twist from the axis to boundary. As an indication of that, the GH configuration yields a better fitting to the global trend of in situ magnetic field components, in terms of rms, than the Lundquist model. These cylindrical configurations improved the MC fitting results when the effect of self-similar expansion of MFR was considered. For such twisting behavior, this study suggests an alternative fitting procedure to better characterize the MC magnetic structure and its source region links.

  10. Environmental 222Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, M.

    1996-01-01

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs

  11. Testing of PCM Heat Storage Modules with Solar Collectors as Heat Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    A latent heat storage based on the phase change material Sodium Acetate Trihydrate (SAT) has been tested as part of a demonstration system. The full heat storage consisted of 4 individual modules each containing about 200 kg of sodium acetate trihydrate with different additives. The aim...... was to actively utilize the ability of the material to supercool to obtain long storage periods. The modules were charged with solar heat supplied by 22.4 m2 evacuated tubular collectors. The investigation showed that it was possible to fully charge one module within a period of 270 minutes with clear skies...

  12. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M. [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO

    1996-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  13. Environmental {sup 222}Rn as a background source in the solar neutrino experiment GALLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, M [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; BOREXINO,

    1997-12-31

    The radiochemical neutrino experiment GALLEX is described. Its aim is to measure the flux of low energy solar neutrinos. In this experiment it is essential to suppress strongly the background of environmental origin, like charged cosmic rays, neutrons and gamma rays. In low-level radioactivity measurements performed in deep underground laboratory where flux of charged comic rays is strongly reduced, radon (Rn) exhaled from rock or concrete walls forms a most important strong, time-dependent background component. In this work the impact of Rn on the GALLEX experiment has been discussed and attempts to recognize and minimize its influence on the counter background were described. 63 refs, 22 figs, 11 tabs.

  14. Towards Renewable Iodide Sources for Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sagaidak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of iodide salts and ionic liquids based on different carbohydrate core units is herein described for application in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC. The influence of the molecular skeleton and the cationic structure on the electrolyte properties, device performance and on interfacial charge transfer has been investigated. In combination with the C106 polypyridyl ruthenium sensitizer, power conversion efficiencies lying between 5.0% and 7.3% under standard Air Mass (A.M. 1.5G conditions were obtained in association with a low volatile methoxypropionitrile (MPN-based electrolyte.

  15. Benthic Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic cover (habitat) maps are derived from aerial imagery, underwater photos, acoustic surveys, and data gathered from sediment samples. Shallow to moderate-depth...

  16. Selective covers for natural cooling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addeo, A.; Monza, E.; Peraldo, M.; Bartoli, B.; Coluzzi, B.; Silvestrini, V.; Troise, G.

    1978-01-01

    Extra-atmospheric space is practically a pure sink of radiation, and can be used as a nonconventional energy source. In previous papers it has been shown that surfaces with an emissivity matched with the atmospheric (8/13)μm ''transparency window'' (natural emitters) interact with cold space when exposed to clear sky at night, and undergo a sizable cooling effect. In this paper, starting from experimental results concerning the diurnal performances of natural emitters, the problem of their interaction with solar radiation is discussed, and the use is proposed of selective covers which shade the emitter from solar radiation, without preventing the interaction with cold space via emission of infra-red radiation. (author)

  17. Changing landscape in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Yangtze River from 1977 to 2005: Land use/land cover, vegetation cover changes estimated using multi-source satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jixian; Zhengjun, Liu; Xiaoxia, Sun

    2009-12-01

    The eco-environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) in China has received much attention due to the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station. Land use/land cover changes (LUCC) are a major cause of ecological environmental changes. In this paper, the spatial landscape dynamics from 1978 to 2005 in this area are monitored and recent changes are analyzed, using the Landsat TM (MSS) images of 1978, 1988, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Vegetation cover fractions for a vegetation cover analysis are retrieved from MODIS/Terra imagery from 2000 to 2006, being the period before and after the rising water level of the reservoir. Several analytical indices have been used to analyze spatial and temporal changes. Results indicate that cropland, woodland, and grassland areas reduced continuously over the past 30 years, while river and built-up area increased by 2.79% and 4.45% from 2000 to 2005, respectively. The built-up area increased at the cost of decreased cropland, woodland and grassland. The vegetation cover fraction increased slightly. We conclude that significant changes in land use/land cover have occurred in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The main cause is a continuous economic and urban/rural development, followed by environmental management policies after construction of the Three Gorges Dam.

  18. Relationship between Hard X-Ray Footpoint Sources and Photospheric Electric Currents in Solar Flares: a Statistical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimovets, I. V.; Sharykin, I. N.; Wang, R.; Liu, Y. D.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    It is believed that solar flares are a result of release of free magnetic energy contained in electric currents (ECs) flowing in active regions (ARs). However, there are still debates whether the primary energy release and acceleration of electrons take place in coronal current sheets or in chromospheric footpoints of current-carrying magnetic flux tubes (loops). We present results of an observational statistical study of spatial relationship between hard X-ray (HXR; EHXR≥50keV) footpoint sources detected by RHESSI and vertical photospheric ECs calculated using vector magnetograms obtained from the SDO/HMI data. We found that for a sample of 47 flares (from C3.0 to X3.1 class) observed on the solar disk by both instruments in 2010-2016, at least one HXR source was in a region of strong (within 20% of the maximum EC density in the corresponding ARs) vertical ECs having the form of a ribbon (79%) or an island (21%). The total vertical ECs in such HXR sources are in the range of 1010-1013 A. The EC density is in the range of 0.01-1.0 A/m2. We found no correlation between intensity of the HXR sources and the EC density. By comparing pre-flare and post-flare EC maps we did not find evidences of significant dissipation of vertical ECs in the regions corresponding to the HXR sources. In some cases, we found amplification of ECs during flares. We discuss effects of sensitivity and angular resolution of RHESSI and SDO/HMI. In general, the results indicate that there is a link between the flare HXR footpoint sources and enhanced vertical ECs in the photosphere. However, the results do not support a concept of electron acceleration by the electric field excited in footpoints of current-carrying loops due to some (e.g. Rayleigh-Taylor) instabilities (Zaitsev et al., 2016), since strong correlation between the HXR intensity and the EC density is expected in such concept.

  19. Early solar physics

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    1970-01-01

    Early Solar Physics reviews developments in solar physics, particularly the advent of solar spectroscopy and the discovery of relationships between the various layers of the solar atmosphere and between the different forms of solar activity. Topics covered include solar observations during 1843; chemical analysis of the solar atmosphere; the spectrum of a solar prominence; and the solar eclipse of December 12, 1871. Spectroscopic observations of the sun are also presented. This book is comprised of 30 chapters and begins with an overview of ideas about the sun in the mid-nineteenth century, fo

  20. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-05-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant ( p changes on NPS pollution. The findings of this study may be useful to water resource planners in controlling water pollution

  1. Multi-Sourced Satellite Observations of Land Cover and Land Use Change in South and Southeast Asia with Challenging Environmental and Socioeconomic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, S. V.; Small, C.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Balk, D.; Sorichetta, A.; Masetti, M.; Gaughan, A. E.; Stevens, F. R.; Mathews, A.; Frazier, A. E.; Das, N. N.

    2017-12-01

    An innovative paradigm to observe the rural-urban transformation over the landscape using multi-sourced satellite data is formulated as a time and space continuum, extensively in space across South and Southeast Asia and in time over a decadal scale. Rather than a disparate array of individual cities and their vicinities in separated areas and in a discontinuous collection of points in time, the time-space continuum paradigm enables significant advances in addressing rural-urban change as a continuous gradient across the landscape from the wilderness to rural to urban areas to study challenging environmental and socioeconomic issues. We use satellite data including QuikSCAT scatterometer, SRTM and Sentinel-1 SAR, Landsat, WorldView, MODIS, and SMAP together with environmental and demographic data and modeling products to investigate land cover and land use change in South and Southeast Asia and associated impacts. Utilizing the new observational advances and effectively capitalizing current capabilities, we will present interdisciplinary results on urbanization in three dimensions, flood and drought, wildfire, air and water pollution, urban change, policy effects, population dynamics and vector-borne disease, agricultural assessment, and land degradation and desertification.

  2. Connecting Coronal Mass Ejections to Their Solar Active Region Sources: Combining Results from the HELCATS and FLARECAST Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sophie A.; Guerra, Jordan A.; Zucca, Pietro; Park, Sung-Hong; Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole; Bothmer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and other solar eruptive phenomena can be physically linked by combining data from a multitude of ground-based and space-based instruments alongside models; however, this can be challenging for automated operational systems. The EU Framework Package 7 HELCATS project provides catalogues of CME observations and properties from the Heliospheric Imagers on board the two NASA/STEREO spacecraft in order to track the evolution of CMEs in the inner heliosphere. From the main HICAT catalogue of over 2,000 CME detections, an automated algorithm has been developed to connect the CMEs observed by STEREO to any corresponding solar flares and active-region (AR) sources on the solar surface. CME kinematic properties, such as speed and angular width, are compared with AR magnetic field properties, such as magnetic flux, area, and neutral line characteristics. The resulting LOWCAT catalogue is also compared to the extensive AR property database created by the EU Horizon 2020 FLARECAST project, which provides more complex magnetic field parameters derived from vector magnetograms. Initial statistical analysis has been undertaken on the new data to provide insight into the link between flare and CME events, and characteristics of eruptive ARs. Warning thresholds determined from analysis of the evolution of these parameters is shown to be a useful output for operational space weather purposes. Parameters of particular interest for further analysis include total unsigned flux, vertical current, and current helicity. The automated method developed to create the LOWCAT catalogue may also be useful for future efforts to develop operational CME forecasting.

  3. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Crannell, C. J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again.

  4. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1987-12-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard x rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft x ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard x ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard x rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 X 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard x ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard x ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again

  5. Dynamic evolution of the source volumes of gradual and impulsive solar flare emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, M.E.; Crannell, C.J.; Goetz, F.; Magun, A.; Mckenzie, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    This study compares flare source volumes inferred from impulsive hard X-rays and microwaves with those derived from density sensitive soft X-ray line ratios in the O VII spectrum. The data for this study were obtained with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer, Earth-based radio observatories, and the SOLEX-B spectrometer on the P78-1 satellite. Data were available for the flares of 1980 April 8, 1980 May 9, and 1981 February 26. The hard X-ray/microwave source volume is determined under the assumption that the same electron temperature or power law index characterizes both the source of hard X-rays and the source of microwaves. The O VII line ratios yield the density and volume of the 2 x 10 to the 6th K plasma. For all three flares, the O VII source volume is found to be smallest at the beginning of the flare, near the time when the impulsive hard X-ray/microwave volume reaches its first maximum. At this time, the O VII volume is three to four orders of magnitude smaller than that inferred from the hard X-ray/microwave analysis. Subsequently, the O VII source volume increases by one or two orders of magnitude then remains almost constant until the end of the flare when it apparently increases again. 29 references

  6. Optimal placement and sizing of wind / solar based DG sources in distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Wanlin; Guo, Niao; Yu, Chunlai; Chen, Xiaoguang; Yu, Haiyang; Liu, Zhipeng; Cui, Jiapeng

    2017-06-01

    Proper placement and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in distribution system can obtain maximum potential benefits. This paper proposes quantum particle swarm algorithm (QPSO) based wind turbine generation unit (WTGU) and photovoltaic (PV) array placement and sizing approach for real power loss reduction and voltage stability improvement of distribution system. Performance modeling of wind and solar generation system are described and classified into PQ\\PQ (V)\\PI type models in power flow. Considering the WTGU and PV based DGs in distribution system is geographical restrictive, the optimal area and DG capacity limits of each bus in the setting area need to be set before optimization, the area optimization method is proposed . The method has been tested on IEEE 33-bus radial distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Magnetic pumping as a source of particle heating in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichko, E. R.; Egedal, J.; Daughton, W. S.; Kasper, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic pumping is a means of heating plasmas for both fusion and astrophysical applications. In this study a magnetic pumping model is developed as a possible explanation for the heating and the generation of power-law distribution functions observed in the solar wind plasma. In most previous studies turbulent energy is only dissipated at microscopic kinetic scales. In contrast, magnetic pumping energizes the particles through the largest scale turbulent fluctuations, thus bypassing the energy cascade. Kinetic simulations are applied to verify these analytic predictions. Previous results for the one-dimensional model, as well as initial results for a two-dimensional model which includes the effects of trapped and passing particles are presented. Preliminary results of the presence of this mechanism in the bow shock region, using spacecraft data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission, are presented as well.

  8. Small Coronal Holes Near Active Regions as Sources of Slow Solar Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.-M., E-mail: yi.wang@nrl.navy.mil [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We discuss the nature of the small areas of rapidly diverging, open magnetic flux that form in the strong unipolar fields at the peripheries of active regions (ARs), according to coronal extrapolations of photospheric field measurements. Because such regions usually have dark counterparts in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images, we refer to them as coronal holes, even when they appear as narrow lanes or contain sunspots. Revisiting previously identified “AR sources” of slow solar wind from 1998 and 1999, we find that they are all associated with EUV coronal holes; the absence of well-defined He i 1083.0 nm counterparts to some of these holes is attributed to the large flux of photoionizing radiation from neighboring AR loops. Examining a number of AR-associated EUV holes during the 2014 activity maximum, we confirm that they are characterized by wind speeds of ∼300–450 km s{sup −1}, O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} ratios of ∼0.05–0.4, and footpoint field strengths typically of order 30 G. The close spacing between ARs at sunspot maximum limits the widths of unipolar regions and their embedded holes, while the continual emergence of new flux leads to rapid changes in the hole boundaries. Because of the highly nonradial nature of AR fields, the smaller EUV holes are often masked by the overlying canopy of loops, and may be more visible toward one solar limb than at central meridian. As sunspot activity declines, the AR remnants merge to form much larger, weaker, and longer-lived unipolar regions, which harbor the “classical” coronal holes that produce recurrent high-speed streams.

  9. A prototype machine using thermal type Stirling solar energy and bio fuel as a primary energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Cesar; Sousa, Regina Celia de; Santos, Jose Maria Ramos dos; Oliveira, Antonio Jose Silva [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text. Depending on the energy crisis and global warming became necessary to seek new sources of energy that could minimize the serious problems arising from this situation. The energy base that supported our growth in recent decades has supported - heavily on fossil fuel, highly polluting since its extraction and consumption, causing great environmental impact. Before his coal, also harmful to human health and nature. Modern life has been moved at the expense of exhaustible resources that took millions of years to form and will end one day. In this work we developed a prototype that uses a heat engine cycle of the Stirling engine with a heat source, arising from the burning of bio fuels or solar power. The main bio fuel used was ethanol. Ethanol is a product of today's diverse market applications, widely used as automotive fuel in hydrated form or blended with gasoline. The main layout of our prototype are: the four-cylinder, two for expansion and the other two for compression, a heat spreader and heat sinks. These simple components can be arranged in various configurations allowing a large space to the adequacy and efficiency of the machine. In experimental measurements made in our prototype, we have an angular speed of 360.1 rpm (revolutions per minute) with an average temperature of 215.6 deg C camera hot (expansion cylinder) and 30 deg C cold source (compression cylinders) and torque generated by our machine is 0.388 Nm Our device is multi-fuel and can be used virtually any source of energy: gasoline, ethanol, methanol, natural gas, diesel, biogas, LPG and solar energy. The construction of this device allowed us to investigate the processes of transformation of energy: chemical, thermal, and mechanical and maximize efficiency of the Stirling engine. To complete the monitoring apparatus, use equipment such as notebook, digital tachometer and a data acquisition Agilent 34970A model. These devices were used in monitoring the angular velocity and

  10. Theoretical scaling law of coronal magnetic field and electron power-law index in solar microwave burst sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Song, Q. W.; Tan, B. L.

    2018-04-01

    It is first proposed a theoretical scaling law respectively for the coronal magnetic field strength B and electron power-law index δ versus frequency and coronal height in solar microwave burst sources. Based on the non-thermal gyro-synchrotron radiation model (Ramaty in Astrophys. J. 158:753, 1969), B and δ are uniquely solved by the observable optically-thin spectral index and turnover (peak) frequency, the other parameters (plasma density, temperature, view angle, low and high energy cutoffs, etc.) are relatively insensitive to the calculations, thus taken as some typical values. Both of B and δ increase with increasing of radio frequency but with decreasing of coronal height above photosphere, and well satisfy a square or cubic logarithmic fitting.

  11. Dynamics of voltage source converter in a grid connected solar photovoltaic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haribabu, Divyanagalakshmi; Vangari, Adithya; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper emphasises the modelling and control of a voltage source converter (VSC) for three phase grid connected PV system. The transfer functions for inner current control and outer DC link voltage control for VSC are derived. The controllers for VSC are designed based on PI and K factor contr...

  12. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  13. Change in the radiation dose at a point where an inhomogeneity partly covers the radiation field from a 60Co-γ-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmrot, E.

    1976-04-01

    Measurements and calculations have been made in order to study the change of the radiation dose in a point when an inhomogeneity covers parts of the radiation field from a Co 60-source. An ionization chamber, placed in a water phantom, was used for the measurements. As inhomogeneity an air cavity was used. The measuring point was placed on the central axis of the radiation field during the measurement. The air cavity was moved in front of the measuring point 0.5 - 1 cm by steps laterally, i.e. along a line perpendicular to the radiation direction. Measurements were made at different depths behind the air cavity. The air cavity was placed at different distances from the front plate of the water phantom. Measurements and calculations show that the change of the radiation dose, when the edge of the air cavity passes the measuring point, varies with the depth distance to the air cavity. The greatest deviation is near the air cavity and at a great distance behind this. The change of the radiation dose is less than 2 percent at distances greater than 2 cm from the edge of the air cavity laterally. This change is independent of the depth distance to the air cavity. The maximum deviation 1 cm from the edge of the air cavity is 5 percent independent of the distance tothe air cavity. Used methods of calculation can be extended to be used for irregular inhomogeneities but this requires knowledge of the three-dimensional extension of the inhomogeneity. (M.S.)

  14. Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment of Non-point Source Pollution Measured Through Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Changes in a Tropical Complex Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkareem, Jabir Haruna; Sulaiman, Wan Nor Azmin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jamil, Nor Rohaizah

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of non-point source pollution (NPS) to the contamination of surface water is an issue of growing concern. Non-point source (NPS) pollutants are of various types and altered by several site-specific factors making them difficult to control due to complex uncertainties involve in their behavior. Kelantan River basin, Malaysia is a tropical catchment receiving heavy monsoon rainfall coupled with intense land use/land cover (LULC) changes making the area consistently flood prone thereby deteriorating the surface water quality in the area. This study was conducted to determine the spatio-temporal variation of NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes and to establish a NPS pollutant loads relationships among LULC conditions and sub-basins in each catchment. Four pollutants parameters such as total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and ammonia nitrogen (AN) were chosen with their corresponding event mean concentration values (EMC). Soil map and LULC change maps corresponding to 1984, 2002 and 2013 were used for the calculation of runoff and NPS pollutant loads using numeric integration in a GIS environment. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted for the comparison of NPS pollutant loads among the three LULC conditions used and the sub-basins in each catchment. The results showed that the spatio-temporal variation of pollutant loads in almost all the catchments increased with changes in LULC condition as one moves from 1984 to 2013, with 2013 LULC condition found as the dominant in almost all cases. NPS pollutant loads among different LULC changes also increased with changes in LULC condition from 1984 to 2013. While urbanization was found to be the dominant LULC change with the highest pollutant load in all the catchments. Results from ANOVA reveals that statistically most significant (p < 0.05) pollutant loads were obtained from 2013 LULC conditions, while statistically least significant (p < 0.05) pollutant

  15. Study on a groundwater source heat pump cooling system in solar greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai, Lilong; Ma, Chengwei [China Agricultural Univ., Beijing (China). Coll. of Water Conservancy and Civil Engineering. Dept. of Agricultural Structure and Bio-environmental Engineering], E-mail: macwbs@cau.edu.cn

    2008-07-01

    This study aims at exploiting the potential of ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology in cooling agricultural greenhouse, and advocating the use of renewable and clean energy in agriculture. GSHP has the multi-function of heating, cooling and dehumidifying, which is one of the fastest growing technologies of renewable energy air conditioning in recent years. The authors carried out experiment on the ground source heat pump system in cooling greenhouse in Beijing region during the summertime of 2007, and conducted analysis on the energy efficiency of the system by using coefficient of performance (COP). According to the data collected during Aug.13-18th, 2007, the coefficient of performance of GSHP system (COP{sub sys}) has reached 3.15 on average during the test. (author)

  16. A mass of less than 15 solar masses for the black hole in an ultraluminous X-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C; Pakull, M W; Soria, R; Grisé, F; Pietrzyński, G

    2014-10-09

    Most ultraluminous X-ray sources have a typical set of properties not seen in Galactic stellar-mass black holes. They have luminosities of more than 3 × 10(39) ergs per second, unusually soft X-ray components (with a typical temperature of less than about 0.3 kiloelectronvolts) and a characteristic downturn in their spectra above about 5 kiloelectronvolts. Such puzzling properties have been interpreted either as evidence of intermediate-mass black holes or as emission from stellar-mass black holes accreting above their Eddington limit, analogous to some Galactic black holes at peak luminosity. Recently, a very soft X-ray spectrum was observed in a rare and transient stellar-mass black hole. Here we report that the X-ray source P13 in the galaxy NGC 7793 is in a binary system with a period of about 64 days and exhibits all three canonical properties of ultraluminous sources. By modelling the strong optical and ultraviolet modulations arising from X-ray heating of the B9Ia donor star, we constrain the black hole mass to be less than 15 solar masses. Our results demonstrate that in P13, soft thermal emission and spectral curvature are indeed signatures of supercritical accretion. By analogy, ultraluminous X-ray sources with similar X-ray spectra and luminosities of up to a few times 10(40) ergs per second can be explained by supercritical accretion onto massive stellar-mass black holes.

  17. Solar energy application, economics, and public perception

    CERN Document Server

    Adaramola, Muyiwa

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change, the rise in energy demand, and issues of energy security, more countries are being forced to reexamine their energy policies and consider more renewable sources of energy. Solar power is expected to play a significant role in the changing face of energy economies, due in a large part to the recent technological advances in the field and the significant decrease in cost. This book describes these advances and examines the current state of solar power from a variety of angles. The various sections of the book cover the following topics: an overview of hybrid solar energy s

  18. Double plasma resonance instability as a source of solar zebra emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benáček, J.; Karlický, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The double plasma resonance (DPR) instability plays a basic role in the generation of solar radio zebras. In the plasma, consisting of the loss-cone type distribution of hot electrons and much denser and colder background plasma, this instability generates the upper-hybrid waves, which are then transformed into the electromagnetic waves and observed as radio zebras. Aims: In the present paper we numerically study the double plasma resonance instability from the point of view of the zebra interpretation. Methods: We use a 3-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (3D PIC) relativistic model. We use this model in two versions: (a) a spatially extended "multi-mode" model and (b) a spatially limited "specific-mode" model. While the multi-mode model is used for detailed computations and verifications of the results obtained by the "specific-mode" model, the specific-mode model is used for computations in a broad range of model parameters, which considerably save computational time. For an analysis of the computational results, we developed software tools in Python. Results: First using the multi-mode model, we study details of the double plasma resonance instability. We show how the distribution function of hot electrons changes during this instability. Then we show that there is a very good agreement between results obtained by the multi-mode and specific-mode models, which is caused by a dominance of the wave with the maximal growth rate. Therefore, for computations in a broad range of model parameters, we use the specific-mode model. We compute the maximal growth rates of the double plasma resonance instability with a dependence on the ratio between the upper-hybrid ωUH and electron-cyclotron ωce frequency. We vary temperatures of both the hot and background plasma components and study their effects on the resulting growth rates. The results are compared with the analytical ones. We find a very good agreement between numerical and analytical growth

  19. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-latitude of Their Solar Source Coronal Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Heber, Bernd; Vršnak, Bojan

    2018-03-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time range from August 2010 to March 2017, the peak velocities of the corresponding high-speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1 AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geoeffectiveness. We find that the peak velocities of high-speed streams depend strongly on both the areas and the co-latitudes of their solar source coronal holes with regard to the heliospheric latitude of the satellites. Therefore, the co-latitude of their source coronal hole is an important parameter for the prediction of the high-speed stream properties near the Earth. We derive the largest solar wind peak velocities normalized to the coronal hole areas for coronal holes located near the solar equator and that they linearly decrease with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. For coronal holes located at latitudes ≳ 60°, they turn statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high-speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similarly, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret these results as an effect of the three-dimensional propagation of high-speed streams in the heliosphere; that is, high-speed streams arising from coronal holes near the solar equator propagate in direction toward and directly hit the Earth, whereas solar wind streams arising from coronal holes at higher solar latitudes only graze or even miss the Earth.

  20. Problematic of the integration of the solar panels in the cover of the buildings of houses; Problematica de la integracion de los paneles solares en la cubierta de los edificios de viviendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, F.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes schematically the different possibilities to place the thermal solar panels in a block of flats (building) between party walls and the precautions for their maintenance, pointing out the need to solve the formal aspects related to the resolution of the technical-functional aspects of the whole installation. This requires an interdisciplinary work in which the different sectors implied (architects, engineers, industry and communication) will have to intervene, in a word to take part. (Author)

  1. THE ROLE OF KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY FOR PRODUCING LOOP-TOP HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xia; Yuan, Ding; Xia, Chun; Doorsselaere, Tom Van; Keppens, Rony [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-12-10

    We propose a model for the formation of loop-top hard X-ray (HXR) sources in solar flares through the inverse Compton mechanism, scattering the surrounding soft X-ray (SXR) photons to higher energy HXR photons. We simulate the consequences of a flare-driven energy deposit in the upper chromosphere in the impulsive phase of single loop flares. The consequent chromosphere evaporation flows from both footpoints reach speeds up to hundreds of kilometers per second, and we demonstrate how this triggers Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) in the loop top, under mildly asymmetric conditions, or more toward the loop flank for strongly asymmetric cases. The KHI vortices further fragment the magnetic topology into multiple magnetic islands and current sheets, and the hot plasma within leads to a bright loop-top SXR source region. We argue that the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that appears at the loop apex could be an efficient accelerator of non-thermal particles, which the island structures can trap at the loop-top. These accelerated non-thermal particles can upscatter the surrounding thermal SXR photons emitted by the extremely hot evaporated plasma to HXR photons.

  2. Renewable energy made easy free energy from solar, wind, hydropower, and other alternative energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Craddock, David

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that the average North American family will spend more than a quarter of a million dollars on energy in a lifetime. What many other countries, including Germany, Spain, France, Denmark, China, Brazil, and even Iceland, have realized is that there is a better way to power our homes, businesses, and cars by using renewable energy sources. Recently, the United States has begun to understand the importance of reducing its reliance on coal, natural gas, nuclear power, and hydropower plants, which comprise the majority of the nation's electricity, due to increasing oil prices.

  3. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project alternative energy sources: solar, eolic, shale, ocean, hydrogen, organic wastes, peat and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Several aspects of solar, eolic and ocean energy and shale, peat lignite, hydrogen and organic waste in Brazil are described, including reserves, potential, technology economy and environment. Based in data and information presented in this report, the necessity of a more detailed survey with the potential of alternative energy sources in Brazil, emphasizing the more promiser regions is also mentioned. (C.G.C.)

  4. Photobleaching Response of Different Sources of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Exposed to Natural Solar Radiation Using Absorption and Excitation?Emission Matrix Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L.; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrea...

  5. Ohm's Law and Solar Energy. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Earl; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Ohm's Law and Solar Energy program developed by the Iowa Department of Public Instruction. (The program--not contained in this document--covers Ohm's law and resistance problems, passive solar energy, and project ideas and sources.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (construction and…

  6. Economical and environmental analysis of thermal and photovoltaic solar energy as source of heat for industrial processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Aparicio, Elena; Lillo-Bravo, Isidoro; Moreno-Tejera, Sara; Silva-Pérez, Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Thermal energy for industrial processes can be generated using thermal (ST) or photovoltaic (PV) solar energy. ST energy has traditionally been the most favorable option due to its cost and efficiency. Current costs and efficiencies values make the PV solar energy become an alternative to ST energy as supplier of industrial process heat. The aim of this study is to provide a useful tool to decide in each case which option is economically and environmentally the most suitable alternative. The methodology used to compare ST and PV systems is based on the calculation of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) avoided by using renewable technologies instead of conventional sources of energy. In both cases, these calculations depend on costs and efficiencies associated with ST or PV systems and the conversion factor from thermal or electrical energy to GHG. To make these calculations, a series of hypotheses are assumed related to consumer and energy prices, operation, maintenance and replacement costs, lifetime of the system or working temperature of the industrial process. This study applies the methodology at five different sites which have been selected taking into account their radiometric and meteorological characteristics. In the case of ST energy three technologies are taken into account, compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), linear Fresnel collector (LFC) and parabolic trough collector (PTC). The PV option includes two ways of use of generated electricity, an electrical resistance or a combination of an electrical resistance and a heat pump (HP). Current values of costs and efficiencies make ST system remains as the most favorable option. These parameters may vary significantly over time. The evolution of these parameters may convert PV systems into the most favorable option for particular applications.

  7. Comets as a possible source of nanodust in the Solar System cloud and in planetary debris discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid

    2017-07-13

    Comets, comet-like objects and their fragments are the most plausible source for the dust in both the inner heliosphere and planetary debris discs around other stars. The smallest size of dust particles in debris discs is not known and recent observational results suggest that the size distribution of the dust extends down to sizes of a few nanometres or a few tens of nanometres. In the Solar System, electric field measurements from spacecraft observe events that are explained with high-velocity impacts of nanometre-sized dust. In some planetary debris discs an observed mid- to near-infrared emission supposedly results from hot dust located in the vicinity of the star. And the observed emission is characteristic of dust of sizes a few tens of nanometres. Rosetta observations, on the other hand, provide little information on the presence of nanodust near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This article describes why this is not in contradiction to the observations of nanodust in the heliosphere and in planetary debris discs. The direct ejection of nanodust from the nucleus of the comet would not contribute significantly to the observed nanodust fluxes. We discuss a scenario that nanodust forms in the interplanetary dust cloud through the high-velocity collision process in the interplanetary medium for which the production rates are highest near the Sun. Likewise, fragmentation by collisions occurs near the star in planetary debris discs. The collisional fragmentation process in the inner Solar System occurs at similar velocities to those of the collisional evolution in the interstellar medium. A question for future studies is whether there is a common magic size of the smallest collision fragments and what determines this size.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Solar Photovoltaic

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chen; Lu, Yuefeng

    2016-01-01

    In the 21st century, human demand for new energy sources is urgent, because the traditional fossil energy is unable to meet human needs, and the fossil resource will make pollution, in this situation, solar energy gradually into the vision of scientists. As science advances, humans can already extensive use of solar energy to generate electricity. Solar energy is an inexhaustible and clean energy. In the global energy crisis, environmental pollution is the growing problem of today. The us...

  9. Error sources in the real-time NLDAS incident surface solar radiation and an evaluation against field observations and the NARR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2005-12-01

    The atmospheric model is sensitive to the land surface interactions and its coupling with Land surface Models (LSMs) leads to a better ability to forecast weather under extreme climate conditions, such as droughts and floods (Atlas et al. 1993; Beljaars et al. 1996). However, it is still questionable how accurately the surface exchanges can be simulated using LSMs, since terrestrial properties and processes have high variability and heterogeneity. Examinations with long-term and multi-site surface observations including both remotely sensed and ground observations are highly needed to make an objective evaluation on the effectiveness and uncertainty of LSMs at different circumstances. Among several atmospheric forcing required for the offline simulation of LSMs, incident surface solar radiation is one of the most significant components, since it plays a major role in total incoming energy into the land surface. The North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) and North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) are two important data sources providing high-resolution surface solar radiation data for the use of research communities. In this study, these data are evaluated against field observations (AmeriFlux) to identify their advantages, deficiencies and sources of errors. The NLDAS incident solar radiation shows a pretty good agreement in monthly mean prior to the summer of 2001, while it overestimates after the summer of 2001 and its bias is pretty close to the EDAS. Two main error sources are identified: 1) GOES solar radiation was not used in the NLDAS for several months in 2001 and 2003, and 2) GOES incident solar radiation when available, was positively biased in year 2002. The known snow detection problem is sometimes identified in the NLDAS, since it is inherited from GOES incident solar radiation. The NARR consistently overestimates incident surface solar radiation, which might produce erroneous outputs if used in the LSMs. Further attention is given to

  10. Optimal integration of a hybrid solar-battery power source into smart home nanogrid with plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua; Hu, Xiaosong; Teng, Yanqiong; Qian, Shide; Cheng, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid solar-battery power source is essential in the nexus of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV), renewables, and smart building. This paper devises an optimization framework for efficient energy management and components sizing of a single smart home with home battery, PEV, and potovoltatic (PV) arrays. We seek to maximize the home economy, while satisfying home power demand and PEV driving. Based on the structure and system models of the smart home nanogrid, a convex programming (CP) problem is formulated to rapidly and efficiently optimize both the control decision and parameters of the home battery energy storage system (BESS). Considering different time horizons of optimization, home BESS prices, types and control modes of PEVs, the parameters of home BESS and electric cost are systematically investigated. Based on the developed CP control law in home to vehicle (H2V) mode and vehicle to home (V2H) mode, the home with BESS does not buy electric energy from the grid during the electric price's peak periods.

  11. Mobile Open-Source Solar-Powered 3-D Printers for Distributed Manufacturing in Off-Grid Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie L. King

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing in areas of the developing world that lack electricity severely restricts the technical sophistication of what is produced. More than a billion people with no access to electricity still have access to some imported higher-technologies; however, these often lack customization and often appropriateness for their community. Open source appropriate tech­nology (OSAT can over­come this challenge, but one of the key impediments to the more rapid development and distri­bution of OSAT is the lack of means of production beyond a specific technical complexity. This study designs and demonstrates the technical viability of two open-source mobile digital manufacturing facilities powered with solar photovoltaics, and capable of printing customizable OSAT in any com­munity with access to sunlight. The first, designed for com­munity use, such as in schools or maker­spaces, is semi-mobile and capable of nearly continuous 3-D printing using RepRap technology, while also powering multiple computers. The second design, which can be completely packed into a standard suitcase, allows for specialist travel from community to community to provide the ability to custom manufacture OSAT as needed, anywhere. These designs not only bring the possibility of complex manufacturing and replacement part fabrication to isolated rural communities lacking access to the electric grid, but they also offer the opportunity to leap-frog the entire conventional manufacturing supply chain, while radically reducing both the cost and the environmental impact of products for developing communities.

  12. Disponibilidade hídrica, radiação solar e fotossíntese em videiras 'Cabernet Sauvignon' sob cultivo protegido Water supply, solar radiation and photosynthesis in 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines under plastic covering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clenilso Sehnen Mota

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da cobertura de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' com lona plástica translúcida sobre a disponibilidade de luz e água, a concentração foliar de clorofila e a fotossíntese. As plantas com cinco anos de idade foram conduzidas em sistema 'Y' sobre porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. O experimento seguiu o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com dois tratamentos (plantas sem e com cobertura plástica e quatro repetições de 15 plantas (unidade experimental. A cobertura plástica reduziu o suprimento às plantas de radiações ultravioleta (UV, azul, verde, vermelho, vermelho distante e total (300-750 nm, bem como a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo (0-30 cm. As plantas cobertas apresentaram maior taxa fotossintética máxima e condutância estomática em relação às plantas descobertas. Os pontos de compensação e de saturação de luz, a eficiência quântica aparente, a respiração no escuro, a concentração foliar de clorofilas e o potencial hídrico foliar de base não foram influenciados pelo uso da cobertura plástica. A cobertura plástica reduziu a radiação e a disponibilidade hídrica nas camadas superficiais do solo, porém favoreceu a assimilação foliar de CO2.The objective of this work was to assess the effects of translucent plastic overhead cover on light and water supply of vineyard and leaf chlorophyll content and photosynthesis in grapevines. Five-year-old 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. grafted on Paulsen 1103 rootstock and raised as 'Y' management system were used. The experiment followed a randomized block design, with two treatments (uncovered and covered plants and four replicates of 15 plants (experimental unit. The plastic cover reduced the supply of ultraviolet (UV, blue, green, red, far red, and total (300-750 nm radiation to the plants, as well as the water availability at the superficial soil layers (0-30 cm. Covered plants had

  13. Applicability Analysis of Solar Water Source Heat Pump for Building%太阳能水源热泵的建筑适用性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱继宏; 李德英

    2015-01-01

    太阳能水源热泵系统是一种新型高效节能环保的系统,太阳能与热泵联合供暖可以发挥各自的优势,弥补单一形式的不足,提高采暖的稳定性和系统运行性能。针对我国太阳能水源热泵建筑适应性问题,以哈尔滨、北京、上海的气象数据库作为基础条件,分析了典型建筑热负荷特征,建立系统数学模型,并用 TRNSYS 平台进行优化求解,为适用性研究提供了必要的数据基础。依据寿命周期评价理论,对各地区太阳能水源热泵建筑适用性进行分析,结果表明严寒地区及寒冷地区太阳能水源热泵适用性较好,环境效益明显。%The solar water source heat pump system is an environmental friendly and high-efficient system. When solar heating system couples with water source heat pump, the two systems can complement each other, and improve the stability and performance of the heating system. Aiming at applicability of solar water source heat pump for building in our country, with meteorological database of Harbin, Beijing, Shanghai as basic conditions, the paper analyzes heat load characteristics of typical building. Mathematical model is established. Using TRNSYS platform for optimal solution, the article provides the necessary data basis for study on applicability of solar water source heat pump. According to the theory of life cycle assessment, the paper analyzes applicability of solar water source heat pump for building of each region. The result shows that the applicability of solar water source heat pump in severely cold region and cold region is environmentally beneficial.

  14. Sganzerla Cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor da Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, realizo uma leitura do cinema de Rogério Sganzerla, desde o clássico O bandido da luz vermelha até os documentários filmados na década de oitenta, a partir de duas noções centrais: cover e over. Para isso, parto de uma controvérsia com o ensaio de Ismail Xavier, Alegorias do subdesenvolvimento, em que o crítico realiza uma leitura do cinema brasileiro da década de sessenta através do conceito de alegoria; depois releio uma série de textos críticos do próprio Sganzerla, publicados em Edifício Sganzerla, procurando repensar as ideias de “herói vazio” ou “cinema impuro” e sugerindo assim uma nova relação do seu cinema com o tempo e a representação; então busco articular tais ideias com certos procedimentos de vanguarda, como a falsificação, a cópia, o clichê e a colagem; e finalmente procuro mostrar que, no cinema de Sganzerla, a partir principalmente de suas reflexões sobre Orson Welles, a voz é usada de maneira a deformar a interpretação naturalista.

  15. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  16. Determination of Solar Irradiation in Urban Areas with an Open Source GIS Model: Application on the Example of the Rožna dolina in Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Mangafić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of solar irradiation is crucial when planning the installation of solar systems. There are different GIS models for determining solar irradiation, which differ from each other in terms of input data, hardware requirements, performance, reliability and suitability, depending on the specificity of the study area and the nature of the study. Because of their diversity, urban areas pose a greater challenge for the estimation of the potential of the received solar energy. In the article we offered a methodology for determining the irradiation of urban area roofs using the GRASS GIS model r.sun, which makes the computation with high resolution spatial, atmospheric and meteorological data. The used input data is freely available for the entire territory of Slovenia. The proposed methodological approach was tested in the area of the town quarter Rožna dolina with the northern part of Vič. The area is very diverse according to the typology of the built objects, the land cover and altitude differences.

  17. Ministerial Decree of 13 November 1964 concerning approval of the model of the register for commercial operations covering source materials, ores and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    This Decree prescribes the procedure to be complied with for entering information in the special register for commercial operations concerning source materials, ores and radioactive materials. (NEA) [fr

  18. Solar constant values for estimating solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huashan; Lian, Yongwang; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin; Zhao, Liang

    2011-01-01

    There are many solar constant values given and adopted by researchers, leading to confusion in estimating solar radiation. In this study, some solar constant values collected from literature for estimating solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation are tested in China using the measured data between 1971 and 2000. According to the ranking method based on the t-statistic, a strategy to select the best solar constant value for estimating the monthly average daily global solar radiation with the Angstroem-Prescott correlation is proposed. -- Research highlights: → The effect of the solar constant on estimating solar radiation is investigated. → The investigation covers a diverse range of climate and geography in China. → A strategy to select the best solar constant for estimating radiation is proposed.

  19. Features of the low-power charge controller of lead-acid current sources charged by solar batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukfatullin, O.F.; Yuldoshev, I.A.; Solieva, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Influence of different factors on exploitations characteristics of solar photoelectric plant is investigated by field-performance data. A construction of charge controller of the lead-acid accumulator battery charging by means of solar battery is analyzed taking into account these factors. (authors)

  20. Formation of amino acid precursors in the Solar System small bodies using Aluminium-26 as an energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Kawai, Jun; Mita, Hajime; Tachibana, Shogo; Yoda, Isao; Misawa, Shusuke

    2016-07-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain various organic matter including amino acids that may have played an important role for origin of life on the early Earth. The parent bodies of the chondritic meteorites likely formed from silicate dust grains containing some water ice and organic compounds. These planetesimals are known to contain short-lived radio isotopes such as ^{26}Al, and the heat generated from the decay of ^{26}Al was considered to be used for melting ice. The liquid water, for example, changed anhydrous silicates into hydrous silicates, i.e., aqueous alteration. The liquid water would act also as an ideal reaction medium for various organic chemistry. Cody et al. [1] proposed IOM formation via formose reaction starting with formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde during aqueous activity in the small bodies. Additional hydrothermal experiments showed that ammonia enhanced the yields of IOM like organic solids [2]. Formaldehyde and ammonia are ubiquitous in the Solar System and beyond, e.g., comets contain H _{2}CO : NH _{3} : H _{2}O = 0.4-4 : 0.5-1.5 : 100 [3]. Thus these molecules can be expected to have existed in some Solar System small bodies. We study the liquid phase chemistry of the formaldehyde and ammonia, including formations of amino acid precursor molecules, via hydrothermal experiments at isothermal temperatures of 90 °C to 200 °C. We also evaluate the effects of gamma-ray which is released from the decay of ^{26}Al with gamma-ray irradiation experiments using a ^{60}Co gamma-ray source at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Amino acids were detected mostly after acid hydrolysis of heated or irradiated solutions, indicating that most of the amino acids in the products exist as precursors. Some samples contained 'free' amino acids that were detected without acid hydrolysis, but much lower abundance than after acid hydrolysis. Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analyses of High resolution mass spectra obtained using ESI-MS revealed that various CHO and CHNO

  1. Solar Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar Energy Basics Solar Energy Basics Solar is the Latin word for sun-a powerful source of energy that can be used to heat, cool, and light our homes and businesses. That's because more energy from the technologies convert sunlight to usable energy for buildings. The most commonly used solar technologies for

  2. Progress in Studing Solar-earth Source Compound Heat Pump%太阳能-土壤源复合热泵的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来栋; 郭风全

    2013-01-01

    介绍了太阳能-土壤源复合热泵的工作原理和技术特点,比较了不同太阳能-土壤源复合热泵的系统组成及其性能指标,提出了当前复合热泵所存在的问题与相关建议,并对其发展前景做了展望。%Working principle and performance characteristics of solar-earth source compound heat pump are described, and the system component and indicators are compared between different solar-earth source compound heat pumps. The problems existing in the compound heat pump and related suggestion are put forward, and the development prospect is expected.

  3. Moving from proprietary to open-source solutions for academic research in remote sensing: Example with semi-automated land cover mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Grippa, Taïs

    2017-01-01

    GRASS GIS has recently experienced significant improvements for Object-Based Image Analysis. At ULB the choice was made to combine GRASS GIS and Python in a semi-automated processing chain for land-cover mapping. The later proved its ability of being quickly customized in order to match the requirements of different projects. In order to promote the OSGEO software, we decided to make it freely available, allowing anyone interested to review, reuse and/or enhance it for further studies.

  4. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  5. Solarization soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Ghraibe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energy could be used in pest control, in soil sterilization technology. The technique consists of covering humid soils by plastic films steadily fixed to the soil. Timing must be in summer during 4-8 weeks, where soil temperature increases to degrees high enough to control pests or to produce biological and chemical changes. The technique could be applied on many pests soil, mainly fungi, bacteria, nematods, weeds and pest insects. The technique could be used in greenhouses as well as in plastic film covers or in orchards where plastic films present double benefits: soil sterilization and production of black mulch. Mechanism of soil solarization is explained. Results show that soil solarization can be used in pest control after fruit crops cultivation and could be a method for an integrated pest control. 9 refs

  6. Solar engineering 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klett, D.E.; Hogan, R.E.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi

    1994-01-01

    This volume of 83 papers constitutes the Proceedings of the 1994 International Solar Energy Conference held March 27--30, 1994 in San Francisco, California. The Conference was jointly sponsored by the Solar Energy Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Japan Solar Energy Society. This is the fourth cooperation between ASME, JSME and JSES in cosponsoring the International Solar Energy Conference. The papers cover a wide range of solar technologies from low temperature solar ponds and desalinization to high temperature concentrators for space applications and central receivers for terrestrial power generation. Other topics covered include solar detoxification of hazardous waste, dish Stirling systems, solar cooling, photovoltaics, building energy analysis and conservation, simulation, and testing and measurement techniques. All papers were indexed separately for the data base

  7. Quantification of spatial temporal variability of snow cover and hydro-climatic variables based on multi-source remote sensing data in the Swat watershed, Hindukush Mountains, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Muhammad Naveed; Ding, Yongjian; Shangguan, Donghui; Liu, Junguo; Ahmad, Ijaz; Ijaz, Muhammad Wajid; Khan, Muhammad Imran

    2018-02-01

    The northern part of Hindukush Mountains has a perplexing environment due to the influence of adjacent mountains of Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibetan Plateau. Although reliable evidences of climate change are available; however, a clear knowledge of snow cover dynamics in the context of climate change is missing for this region. In this study, we used various remotely sensed (TRMM precipitation product, while MODIS temperature and snow cover products) and gauge-based datasets to quantify the spatiotemporal variability of climatic variables and their turn effects over the snow cover area (SCA) and river discharge in the Swat watershed, northern Hindukush Mountains, Pakistan. The Mann-Kendall method and Sen's slope estimator were used to estimate the trends in SCA and hydro-climatic variables, at 5% significant level (P = 0.05). Results show that the winter and springs temperatures have increased (at the rate of 0.079 and 0.059 °C year-1, respectively), while decreasing in the summer and autumn (at the rate of 0.049 and 0.070 °C year-1, respectively). Basin-wide increasing tendency of precipitation was identified with a highest increasing rate of 3.563 mm year-1 in the spring season. A decreasing trend in the winter SCA (at the rate of -0.275% year-1) and increasing trends in other seasons were identified. An increasing tendency of river discharge on annual and seasonal scales was also witnessed. The seasonal variations in discharge showed significant positive and negative relationships with temperature and SCA, respectively. We conclude that the future variations in the temperature and SCA in the higher altitudes of the Swat watershed could substantially affect the seasonality of the river discharge. Moreover, it implies that the effect of ongoing global warming on the SCA in the snowmelt-dominated river basins needs to be considered for sustainable regional planning and management of water resources, hydropower production, and downstream irrigation scheduling.

  8. Solar electricity and solar fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, David J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of solar radiation and its variation with location is described. The distribution of energy in the solar spectrum places immediate limits on the theoretical efficiency of conversion processes, since practical absorbers cannot convert all wavelengths received to useful energy. The principles of solar energy conversion methods are described. Absorption of solar energy can give rise to direct electrical generation, heating, or chemical change. Electrical generation from sunlight can be achieved by photovoltaic systems directly or by thermal systems which use solar heat to drive a heat engine and generator. The technology used and under research for promising ways of producing electricity or fuel from solar energy is described. Photovoltaic technology is established today for remote area, small power applications, and photovoltaic module sales alone are over 100 million dollars per year at present. The photovoltaic market has grown steadily since the mid-1970's, as prices have fallen continuously. Future energy options are briefly described. The merits of a sustainable energy economy, based on renewable energy resources, including solar energy, are emphasized, as this seems to provide the only hope of eliminating the problems caused by the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, acid rain pollution and nuclear waste disposal. There is no doubt that clean fuels which were derived from solar energy and either did not involve carbon dioxide and used atmospheric carbon dioxide as the source dioxide as the source of carbon would be a worthy ideal. Methods described could one day achieve this.

  9. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  10. CATALOG OF MATERIALS AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS - VOLUME 1. INSULATION, WALLCOVERINGS, RESI- LIENT FLOOR COVERINGS, CARPET, ADHESIVES, SEALANTS AND CAULKS, AND PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and presents data on constituents and emissions from products that have the potential to impact the indoor air environment. t is a tool to be used by researchers to help organize the study of materials as potential sources of indoor air emissions. ncluded are...

  11. Solar ultraviolet hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmah Ali

    1995-01-01

    The paper discussed the following subjects: the sources of ultraviolet radiation, solar ultraviolet radiation definition, effects of over exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation, exposure limits and radiation protection of this radiation

  12. Recent Progress of Solar Weather Forecasting at Naoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Du, Zhanle; Zhang, Liyun; Huang, Xin; Yan, Yan; Fan, Yuliang; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Guo, Xiaobo; Dai, Xinghua

    The history of solar weather forecasting services at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) can be traced back to 1960s. Nowadays, NAOC is the headquarters of the Regional Warning Center of China (RWC-China), which is one of the members of the International Space Environment Service (ISES). NAOC is responsible for exchanging data, information and space weather forecasts of RWC-China with other RWCs. The solar weather forecasting services at NAOC cover short-term prediction (within two or three days), medium-term prediction (within several weeks), and long-term prediction (in time scale of solar cycle) of solar activities. Most efforts of the short-term prediction research are concentrated on the solar eruptive phenomena, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar proton events, which are the key driving sources of strong space weather disturbances. Based on the high quality observation data of the latest space-based and ground-based solar telescopes and with the help of artificial intelligence techniques, new numerical models with quantitative analyses and physical consideration are being developed for the predictions of solar eruptive events. The 3-D computer simulation technology is being introduced for the operational solar weather service platform to visualize the monitoring of solar activities, the running of the prediction models, as well as the presenting of the forecasting results. A new generation operational solar weather monitoring and forecasting system is expected to be constructed in the near future at NAOC.

  13. Utilizing a Multi-Source Forest Inventory Technique, MODIS Data and Landsat TM Images in the Production of Forest Cover and Volume Maps for the Terai Physiographic Zone in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Eerikäinen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach based on the nearest neighbors techniques is presented for producing thematic maps of forest cover (forest/non-forest and total stand volume for the Terai region in southern Nepal. To create the forest cover map, we used a combination of Landsat TM satellite data and visual interpretation data, i.e., a sample grid of visual interpretation plots for which we obtained the land use classification according to the FAO standard. These visual interpretation plots together with the field plots for volume mapping originate from an operative forest inventory project, i.e., the Forest Resource Assessment of Nepal (FRA Nepal project. The field plots were also used in checking the classification accuracy. MODIS satellite data were used as a reference in a local correction approach conducted for the relative calibration of Landsat TM images. This study applied a non-parametric k-nearest neighbor technique (k-NN to the forest cover and volume mapping. A tree height prediction approach based on a nonlinear, mixed-effects (NLME modeling procedure is presented in the Appendix. The MODIS image data performed well as reference data for the calibration approach applied to make the Landsat image mosaic. The agreement between the forest cover map and the field observed values of forest cover was substantial in Western Terai (KHAT 0.745 and strong in Eastern Terai (KHAT 0.825. The forest cover and volume maps that were estimated using the k-NN method and the inventory data from the FRA Nepal project are already appropriate and valuable data for research purposes and for the planning of forthcoming forest inventories. Adaptation of the methods and techniques was carried out using Open Source software tools.

  14. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); Li, Gang [Department of Physics and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  15. Interchange Reconnection Associated with a Confined Filament Eruption: Implications for the Source of Transient Cold-dense Plasma in Solar Winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing; Li, Gang; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2017-01-01

    The cold-dense plasma is occasionally detected in the solar wind with in situ data, but the source of the cold-dense plasma remains illusive. Interchange reconnections (IRs) between closed fields and nearby open fields are known to contribute to the formation of solar winds. We present a confined filament eruption associated with a puff-like coronal mass ejection (CME) on 2014 December 24. The filament underwent successive activations and finally erupted, due to continuous magnetic flux cancelations and emergences. The confined erupting filament showed a clear untwist motion, and most of the filament material fell back. During the eruption, some tiny blobs escaped from the confined filament body, along newly formed open field lines rooted around the south end of the filament, and some bright plasma flowed from the north end of the filament to remote sites at nearby open fields. The newly formed open field lines shifted southward with multiple branches. The puff-like CME also showed multiple bright fronts and a clear southward shift. All the results indicate an intermittent IR existed between closed fields of the confined erupting filament and nearby open fields, which released a portion of filament material (blobs) to form the puff-like CME. We suggest that the IR provides a possible source of cold-dense plasma in the solar wind.

  16. The achievements of solar children from the natural created octave whose source is the emanating sun reflected by the Foundation for Solar Achievement with the Arts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petacchi, D.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Foundation for Solar Achievement With The Arts is a not-for-profit school training gifted children in the use of their talent in accordance with the philosophy and experience that children in harmony with their natural environment based upon the sun's position in the course of the day have the greater capacity of attention necessary to enhance learning and creativity. Uncluttered as much as possible by the distractions of technology or the artificial glare of electricity, the learning environment of the Foundation for Solar Achievement With The Arts is conducive to this hands-on action. The Foundation was started by an individual whose life long search for the meaning of his life and whose pondering on the meaning human life on this planet led him to many conclusions modern science is just beginning to reach. With the help of dedicated architect John Jehring and likeminded others, Mr. Petacchi is utilizing natural sunlight in an environment conducive to the psyche of children. A building is planned that will expand into indoor form the natural lighting and free space of the out-of-doors

  17. Experimental Study on Various Solar Still Designs

    OpenAIRE

    T. Arunkumar; K. Vinothkumar; Amimul Ahsan; R. Jayaprakash; Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Humankind has depended for ages on underground water reservoirs for its fresh water needs. But these sources do not always prove to be useful due to the presence of excessive salinity in the water. In this paper, the fabrication of seven solar still designs such as spherical solar still, pyramid solar still, hemispherical solar still, double basin glass solar still, concentrator coupled single slope solar still, tubular solar still and tubular solar still coupled with pyramid solar still and ...

  18. Investigation of solar cell radiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.; Reulet, R.; Arndt, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    Development of communications satellites has led to the requirement for a greater and longer lived solar cell power source. Accordingly, studies have been undertaken with the aim of determining which solar cell array provides the greatest power at end of life and the amount of degradation. Investigation of the damage done to thin silicon and thin film CdS solar cells is being carried out in two steps. First, irradiations were performed singly with 0.15, 1.0 and 2.0MeV electrons and 0.7, 2.5 and 22MeV proton. Solar cells and their cover materials were irradiated separately in order to locate the sites of the damage. Diffusion length and I.V. characteristics of the cells and transmission properties of the cover materials were measured. All neasurements were made in vacuum immediately after irradiation. In the second part it is intended to study the effect of various combinations of proton, electron and photon irradiation both with and without an electrical load. The results of this part show whether synergism is involved in solar cell damage and the relative importance of each of three radiation sources if synergism is found [fr

  19. Windows with selective covering to the solar radiation based in copper for saving energy; Ventanas con recubrimiento selectivo a la radiacion solar basado en cobre que permiten el ahorro de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Genaro; Almanza, Rafael [Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the development of new constructive elements for energy savings that satisfies the environmental, weather and human necessities of Mexico constructions. Windows with two types of coverings, one exclusively of cuprous oxide were developed (Cu{sub 2}O), and another made of a cupric sulfide film (CuS) deposited over one of cuprous oxide. The second type window presented a suitable control to the infrared radiation passage, reducing the amount of calorific radiation that crosses through it. During conditions of heating, these windows let pass in the worse one of the cases, half of the heat, reducing the thermal load to the interior of the room of the building. During conditions of cooling, the window allows to the exit of the heat to half of the speed, maintaining during long time the interior's comfort temperature. These copper thin films were made in the Institutes of Engineering and Physics of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The Cu{sub 2}O window obtained displays a pleasant yellowish coloration and great visibility, nevertheless, in the near infrared, blocks 50% solely. For the wished properties of thermal control it was necessary to still reduce the passage of the heat. To achieve this cupric sulfide film was gotten up with which it was possible to reach transmittances of up to 30%, in near infrared, with a decreasing tendency towards greater wavelengths. The visible transmittance for both types of films produces great luminosity and, therefore, results attractive the use of these windows in houses or buildings. The incorporation of sulfide confers to the window a coffee-grayish coloration, that raises, according to the thickness. Finally, it were developed a thermal behavior of the windows throughout the year in an apartment of 70 m{sup 2} and under two characteristic climates of the Mexican Republic. ENERGY-10 was used as a simulation tool. It was obtained the behaviors of the room throughout the year, the energy

  20. Simulation of the thermal performance of a hybrid solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system in a school building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis, N. D.; Armen, K. G.; Bozis, D. A.; Papakostas, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    A hybrid solar-assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system was designed, in the frame of an energy upgrade study, to serve as a heating system in a school building in Greece. The main scope of this study was to examine techniques to reduce the capacity of the heating equipment and to keep the primary energy consumption low. Simulations of the thermal performance of both the building and of five different heating system configurations were performed by using the TRNSYS software. The results are presented in this work and show that the hybrid SAGSHP system displays the lower primary energy consumption among the systems examined. A conventional ground-source heat pump system has the same primary energy consumption, while the heat pump's capacity is double and the ground heat exchanger 2.5 times longer. This work also highlights the contribution of simulation tools to the design of complex heating systems with renewable energy sources.

  1. The solar wind at solar maximum: comparisons of EISCAT IPS and in situ observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Breen

    Full Text Available The solar maximum solar wind is highly structured in latitude, longitude and in time. Coronal measurements show a very high degree of variability, with large variations that are less apparent within in situ spacecraft measurements. Interplanetary scintillation (IPS observations from EISCAT, covering distances from 20 to 100 solar radii (RS, are an ideal source of information on the inner solar wind and can be used, therefore, to cast light on its evolution with distance from the Sun. Earlier comparisons of in situ and IPS measurements under solar minimum conditions showed good large-scale agreement, particularly in the fast wind. In this study we attempt a quantitative comparison of measurements made over solar maximum by EISCAT (20–100 RS and the Wind and Ulysses spacecraft (at 215 RS and 300–1000 RS, respectively. The intervals studied were August–September 1999, May 2000, September 2000 and May 2001, the last-named being the period of the second Ulysses fast latitude scan. Both ballistic and – when possible – MHD/ballistic hybrid models were used to relate the data sets, and we compare the results obtained from these two mapping methods. The results of this study suggest that solar wind velocities measured in situ were less variable than those estimated from IPS measurements closer to the Sun, with the greatest divergence between IPS velocities and in situ measurements occurring in regions where steep longitudinal velocity gradients were seen in situ. We suggest that the interaction between streams of solar wind with different velocities leads to "smoothing" of solar wind velocities between 30–60 RS and 1 AU, and that this process continues at greater distances from the Sun.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (solar wind plasma; sources of the solar wind; instruments and techniques

  2. Response of dissolved trace metals to land use/land cover and their source apportionment using a receptor model in a subtropic river, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyue; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-06-15

    Water samples were collected for determination of dissolved trace metals in 56 sampling sites throughout the upper Han River, China. Multivariate statistical analyses including correlation analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression models, and principal component and factor analysis (PCA/FA) were employed to examine the land use influences on trace metals, and a receptor model of factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was used for source identification/apportionment of anthropogenic heavy metals in the surface water of the River. Our results revealed that land use was an important factor in water metals in the snow melt flow period and land use in the riparian zone was not a better predictor of metals than land use away from the river. Urbanization in a watershed and vegetation along river networks could better explain metals, and agriculture, regardless of its relative location, however slightly explained metal variables in the upper Han River. FA-MLR analysis identified five source types of metals, and mining, fossil fuel combustion, and vehicle exhaust were the dominant pollutions in the surface waters. The results demonstrated great impacts of human activities on metal concentrations in the subtropical river of China. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic Pumping as a Source of Particle Heating and Power-law Distributions in the Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichko, E.; Egedal, J.; Daughton, W.; Kasper, J.

    2017-12-01

    Based on the rate of expansion of the solar wind, the plasma should cool rapidly as a function of distance to the Sun. Observations show this is not the case. In this work, a magnetic pumping model is developed as a possible explanation for the heating and the generation of power-law distribution functions observed in the solar wind plasma. Most previous studies in this area focus on the role that the dissipation of turbulent energy on microscopic kinetic scales plays in the overall heating of the plasma. However, with magnetic pumping, particles are energized by the largest-scale turbulent fluctuations, thus bypassing the energy cascade. In contrast to other models, we include the pressure anisotropy term, providing a channel for the large-scale fluctuations to heat the plasma directly. A complete set of coupled differential equations describing the evolution, and energization, of the distribution function are derived, as well as an approximate closed-form solution. Numerical simulations using the VPIC kinetic code are applied to verify the model’s analytical predictions. The results of the model for realistic solar wind scenario are computed, where thermal streaming of particles are important for generating a phase shift between the magnetic perturbations and the pressure anisotropy. In turn, averaged over a pump cycle, the phase shift permits mechanical work to be converted directly to heat in the plasma. The results of this scenario show that magnetic pumping may account for a significant portion of the solar wind energization.

  4. Practical investigation for road lighting using renewable energy sources "Sizing and modelling of solar/wind hybrid system for road lighting application"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged A. Abu Adma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explains a design of a fully independent -off grid- hybrid solar and wind road lighting system according to geography and weather conditions recorded from the Egyptian National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics.Presenting here the virtual simulation by using Matlab/Simulink & real-time implementation of road lighting system consists of 150 W photovoltaic cell, 420 W wind generator, 100 Ah acid gel battery and LED lighting luminar 30 W -12 VDC . Over three different stages; 1.Operating the system with PV only as power source, 2. Switching to Wind generator only configuration and 3.  Running the hybrid design with both PV & Wind power sources ; load characteristics and output real-time data will be recorded, evaluated ,compared  and validated against the virtual simulation generated by Matlab/Simulink model.The results of this research will be used to investigate the advantages of using a hybrid system to counteract the limitations of solar and wind as solo renewable energy sources due to adverse weather conditions ,the efficiency of the proposed system as an alternative for the current conventional road lighting poles as well as the accuracy of the virtual model data in order to be used for future adaptation of the model for different geographical locations.

  5. Fundamentals of Solar Heating. Correspondence Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Vienna, VA.

    This course is designed for the use of employees of the air conditioning industry, and offers supervised correspondence instruction about solar technology. The following aspects of applied solar technology are covered: solar heating and cooling, solar radiation, solar collectors, heat storage control devices and specialty items, sizing solar…

  6. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  7. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  8. A Short Progress Report on High-Efficiency Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, He; He, Shengsheng; Peng, Chuangwei

    2017-12-01

    Faced with the increasingly serious energy and environmental crisis in the world nowadays, the development of renewable energy has attracted increasingly more attention of all countries. Solar energy as an abundant and cheap energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources. While high-performance solar cells have been well developed in the last couple of decades, the high module cost largely hinders wide deployment of photovoltaic devices. In the last 10 years, this urgent demand for cost-effective solar cells greatly facilitates the research of solar cells. This paper reviews the recent development of cost-effective and high-efficient solar cell technologies. This report paper covers low-cost and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells. The development and the state-of-the-art results of perovskite solar cell technologies are also introduced.

  9. a Free and Open Source Tool to Assess the Accuracy of Land Cover Maps: Implementation and Application to Lombardy Region (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratic, G.; Brovelli, M. A.; Molinari, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    The availability of thematic maps has significantly increased over the last few years. Validation of these maps is a key factor in assessing their suitability for different applications. The evaluation of the accuracy of classified data is carried out through a comparison with a reference dataset and the generation of a confusion matrix from which many quality indexes can be derived. In this work, an ad hoc free and open source Python tool was implemented to automatically compute all the matrix confusion-derived accuracy indexes proposed by literature. The tool was integrated into GRASS GIS environment and successfully applied to evaluate the quality of three high-resolution global datasets (GlobeLand30, Global Urban Footprint, Global Human Settlement Layer Built-Up Grid) in the Lombardy Region area (Italy). In addition to the most commonly used accuracy measures, e.g. overall accuracy and Kappa, the tool allowed to compute and investigate less known indexes such as the Ground Truth and the Classification Success Index. The promising tool will be further extended with spatial autocorrelation analysis functions and made available to researcher and user community.

  10. Land Cover - Minnesota Land Cover Classification System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Land cover data set based on the Minnesota Land Cover Classification System (MLCCS) coding scheme. This data was produced using a combination of aerial photograph...

  11. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ganghua; Wang, Xiao Fan; Yang, Xiao; Liu, Suo; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Haimin; Liu, Chang; Xu, Yan; Tlatov, Andrey; Demidov, Mihail; Borovik, Aleksandr; Golovko, Aleksey

    2017-06-01

    This article introduces our ongoing project "Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research". Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a time span of more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant signs of progress are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  12. Construction of a century solar chromosphere data set for solar activity related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganghua Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces our ongoing project “Construction of a Century Solar Chromosphere Data Set for Solar Activity Related Research”. Solar activities are the major sources of space weather that affects human lives. Some of the serious space weather consequences, for instance, include interruption of space communication and navigation, compromising the safety of astronauts and satellites, and damaging power grids. Therefore, the solar activity research has both scientific and social impacts. The major database is built up from digitized and standardized film data obtained by several observatories around the world and covers a timespan more than 100 years. After careful calibration, we will develop feature extraction and data mining tools and provide them together with the comprehensive database for the astronomical community. Our final goal is to address several physical issues: filament behavior in solar cycles, abnormal behavior of solar cycle 24, large-scale solar eruptions, and sympathetic remote brightenings. Significant progresses are expected in data mining algorithms and software development, which will benefit the scientific analysis and eventually advance our understanding of solar cycles.

  13. Compact seasonal PCM heat storage for solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark

    Space heating of buildings and preparation of domestic hot water accounts for a large part of the society’s energy consumption. Solar radiation is an abundant and renewable energy source which can be harvested by solar collectors and used to cover heating demands in the built environment....... The seasonal availability of solar energy does however not match with the heating demands in buildings which typically are large in winter periods when limited solar energy is available. Heat can be stored over a few days in water stores but continuous heat losses limits the storage periods. The possibility...... of storing heat from summer where solar energy is widely available to winter periods where the heating demands are large, allows for implementing more renewable energy in our energy system. The phase change material (PCM) sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) melts at 58 °C. The melting process requires...

  14. Determining of the optimal design of a closed loop solar dual source heat pump system coupled with a residential building application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Ridha; Awani, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Operation of the system in heating mode. - Highlights: • We examine the control function in the level of heat pump and collector. • We examine the temporal evolution of the temperature and energy in the all components of the system. • A better system with a significant energy saving was achieved. • The system gives good results in all operating states. - Abstract: This work highlights the results on the coupling of a flat plate collector coupled with a dual source heat pump system and a heat exchanger for building application. The novelty point of this work is to integrate a heat exchanger in the floor and in the interstitial space of the residential house roof in order to minimize the consumed electric power. This technology defining the operational state of the system has been developed and adapted in the present investigation by adopting the Tunisian climate. The dimensioning of this installation for different component makes it possible to operate the hot water heating systems ecologically. Hence, our objective is to ameliorate the performance of the system using the solar radiation converted to the thermal energy in the level of the flat plate collector and the heat pump. A several experimental data have been added for realizing a numerical model based on TRNSYS software. From this point of view, a numerical model was improved in building application using a 150 m 2 as surface area of the building which consists of two floor zones. The dual source heat pump was coupled with a ground heat exchanger (GHE) with 0.2 m of depth. The distance between two consecutive tubes is 0.3 m and the surface area of the solar collector is 8 m 2 . The simulation results have been obtained for 48 h operation in January and all inputs data of the system have been predicted during 48 h and 6 months of heating in Tunisia. It was demonstrated that the COP of the dual source heat pump was enhanced with the increase of the solar radiation during the typical

  15. Source Regions of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Variability in Heavy-Ion Elemental Composition in Gradual Solar Energetic Particle Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.; Wang, Yi-Ming; Dietrich, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events are those in which ions are accelerated to their observed energies by interactions with a shock driven by a fast coronal mass-ejection (CME). Previous studies have shown that much of the observed event-to-event variability can be understood in terms of shock speed and evolution in the shock-normal angle. But an equally important factor, particularly for the elemental composition, is the origin of the suprathermal seed particles upon which the shock acts. To tackle this issue, we (1) use observed solar-wind speed, magnetograms, and the PFSS model to map the Sun-L1 interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) line back to its source region on the Sun at the time of the SEP observations; and (2) then look for correlation between SEP composition (as measured by Wind and ACE at approx. 2-30 MeV/nucleon) and characteristics of the identified IMF-source regions. The study is based on 24 SEP events, identified as a statistically-significant increase in approx. 20 MeV protons and occurring in 1998 and 2003-2006, when the rate of newly-emergent solar magnetic flux and CMEs was lower than in solar-maximum years and the field-line tracing is therefore more likely to be successful. We find that the gradual SEP Fe/O is correlated with the field strength at the IMF-source, with the largest enhancements occurring when the footpoint field is strong, due to the nearby presence of an active region. In these cases, other elemental ratios show a strong charge-to-mass (q/M) ordering, at least on average, similar to that found in impulsive events. These results lead us to suggest that magnetic reconnection in footpoint regions near active regions bias the heavy-ion composition of suprathermal seed ions by processes qualitatively similar to those that produce larger heavy-ion enhancements in impulsive SEP events. To address potential technical concerns about our analysis, we also discuss efforts to exclude impulsive SEP events from our event sample.

  16. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickey, Charles D.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews information on solar radiation as an energy source. Discusses these topics: the key photovoltaic material; the bank theory of solids; conductors, semiconductors, and insulators; impurity semiconductors; solid-state photovoltaic cell operation; limitations on solar cell efficiency; silicon solar cells; cadmium sulfide/copper (I) sulfide…

  18. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  19. sin2 θ W estimate and bounds on nonstandard interactions at source and detector in the solar neutrino low-energy regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir N.; McKay, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    We explore the implications of the Borexino experiment's real time measurements of the lowest energy part of the neutrino spectrum from the primary pp fusion process up to 0.420 MeV through the 7Be decay at 0.862 MeV to the pep reaction at 1.44 MeV. We exploit the fact that at such low energies, the large mixing angle solution to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects in the sun are small for 7Be and pep and negligible for pp. Consequently, the neutrinos produced in the sun change their flavor almost entirely through vacuum oscillations during propagation from the sun's surface and through possible nonstandard interactions acting at the solar source and Borexino detector. We combine the different NSI effects at source and detector in a single framework and use the current Borexino data to bound NSI non-universal and flavor-changing parameters at energies below the reach of reactor neutrino experiments. We also study the implication of the current data for the weak-mixing angle at this "low-energy frontier" data from the Borexino experiment, where it is expected to be slightly larger than its value at the Z mass. We find sin2 θ W = 0.224 ± 0.016, the lowest energy-scale estimate to date. Looking to the future, we use projected sensitivities to solar neutrinos in next generation dedicated solar experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments and find a potential factor five improvement in determination of the weak-mixing angle and up to an order of magnitude improvement in probing the NSI parameters space.

  20. An economic analysis of space solar power and its cost competitiveness as a supplemental source of energy for space and ground markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, N. I.

    2002-01-01

    Economic Growth has been historically associated with nations that first made use of each new energy source. There is no doubt that Solar Power Satellites is high as a potential energy system for the future. A conceptual cost model of the economics value of space solar power (SSP) as a source of complementary power for in-space and ground applications will be discussed. Several financial analysis will be offered based on present and new technological innovations that may compete with or be complementary to present energy market suppliers depending on various institutional arrangements for government and the private sector in a Global Economy. Any of the systems based on fossil fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and synthetic fuels share the problem of being finite resources and are subject to ever-increasing cost as they grow ever more scarce with drastic increase in world population. Increasing world population and requirements from emerging underdeveloped countries will also increase overall demand. This paper would compare the future value of SSP with that of other terrestrial renewable energy in distinct geographic markets within the US, in developing countries, Europe, Asia, and Eastern Europe.

  1. Standardized performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 5 5/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    This preliminary data report gives basic test results of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  2. Standard performance tests of collectors of solar thermal energy: A selectively coated, flat-plate copper collector with one transparent cover and a tube-to-tube spacing of 3-7/8 inches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Basic test results are given of a flat-plate solar collector whose performance was determined in the NASA-Lewis solar simulator. The collector was tested over ranges of inlet temperatures, fluxes, and coolant flow rates. Collector efficiency is correlated in terms of inlet temperature and flux level.

  3. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  4. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  5. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  6. On the energy dependence of the relative contributions ionospheric and solar sources of the ring current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovtyukh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The energy dependence of a fraction of ring current protons of i onospheric origin is calculated using the AMPTE/CCE data for a typical magnetic storm (D st = -120 nT). It is shown that at L = 6-7 (L is the Mcllwain parameter) this fraction monotonically decreases from ∼83 to 25-30% with an increase in proton energy from 5 to 315 keV and is 30-40% at energy 40-50 keV corresponding to the maximum of proton energy density at L 6-7. It is evident that the core of the ring current (L = 3.7-4.7) is enriched by solar protons with E∼10-200 keV during storm main phase (the maximum effect is achieved at E∼20-50 keV). (author)

  7. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. II. IN THREE SOURCES OF A FLARING LOOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guangli; Li Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the spatially resolvable data of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH), co-analysis of solar hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolution is performed in three separate sources located in one looptop (LT) and two footpoints (FPs) of a huge flaring loop in the 2003 October 24 flare. The RHESSI image spectral evolution in 10-100 keV is always fitted by the well-known soft-hard-soft (SHS) pattern in the three sources. When the total energy is divided into four intervals similar to the Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope, i.e., 12.5-32.5 keV, 32.5-52.5 keV, 52.5-72.5 keV, and 72.5-97.5 keV, the SHS pattern in lower energies is converted gradually to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern in higher energies in all three sources. However, the break energy in the LT and the northeast FP (∼32.5 keV) is evidently smaller than that in the southwest FP (∼72.5 keV). Regarding microwave spectral evolution of the NoRH data, the well-known soft-hard-harder pattern appeared in the southwest FP, while the HSH pattern coexisted in the LT and the northeast FP. The different features of the hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions in the three sources may be explained by the loop-loop interaction with another huge loop in the LT and with a compact loop in the northeast FP, where the trapping effect is much stronger than that in the southwest FP. The comparison between the LT and FP spectral indices suggests that the radiation mechanism of X-rays may be quite different in different energy intervals and sources. The calculated electron spectral indices from the predicted mechanisms of X-rays gradually become closer to those from the microwave data with increasing X-ray energies.

  8. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  9. Solar Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Thomas R; Marino, Jose

    Adaptive optics (AO) has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO) and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO) will be given. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrsp-2011-2.

  10. Dataset of working conditions and thermo-economic performances for hybrid organic Rankine plants fed by solar and low-grade energy sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigno, Domenico; Fanelli, Emanuele; Viggiano, Annarita; Braccio, Giacobbe; Magi, Vinicio

    2016-06-01

    This article provides the dataset of operating conditions of a hybrid organic Rankine plant generated by the optimization procedure employed in the research article "A genetic optimization of a hybrid organic Rankine plant for solar and low-grade energy sources" (Scardigno et al., 2015) [1]. The methodology used to obtain the data is described. The operating conditions are subdivided into two separate groups: feasible and unfeasible solutions. In both groups, the values of the design variables are given. Besides, the subset of feasible solutions is described in details, by providing the thermodynamic and economic performances, the temperatures at some characteristic sections of the thermodynamic cycle, the net power, the absorbed powers and the area of the heat exchange surfaces.

  11. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  12. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  13. A comparison between evaporation ponds and evaporation surfaces as a source of the concentrated salt brine for salt gradient maintenance at Tajoura solar pond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Abdulghani M.; Agha, Khairy R.; Abughres, M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems that negatively affect the operation of salt gradient solar ponds and influence its thermal stability is the maintenance of salt gradient profile. Evaporation pond (EP) is designed to generate the salt which lost upward salt diffusion from the lower convective zone (LCZ) of the solar pond. Another attractive method is the evaporation surface facility (ES). Regions with moderate to high precipitation favor Evaporation Surface over Evaporation Ponds. Dry climates will generally favor Evaporation Ponds for the brine re-concentration. In previous studies [1-3], the authors have shown that the (EP) of Tajoura's Experimental Solar Pond (TESP) is under sized and can provide only about 30% of the salt required by a Salt Gradient Solar Pond (SGSP). The anticipated size of (EP) was estimated and presented in those studies under different design conditions, including Summer, Autumn and Spring designs, while the winter design was excluded due to the low rates of net evaporation during the winter season. In addition, the results presented were predicted for the first three years of operation. The daily variations of brine concentration in the (EP) of (TESP) and those based on different designs were predicted and discussed under different scenarios. The quantities of brine provided by the evaporation pond and that required by SGSP were predicted for both cases of surface water flushing (fresh water and sea-water) under the different design conditions as shown in Table 1. This paper investigates the differences between (EP) and (ES) both as a source for salt brine generation by evaporation. The effect of (EP) depth on the area ratio and daily variations of salt concentrations for three years of operation is shown. Results show that evaporation can be a reasonable method for salt brine generation. Reducing the depth of (EP) improves the capability of (EP) for brine re-concentration. It also increases the (EP) surface area for the same quantity of

  14. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  15. Harnessing solar heat

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Systems engineered by man to harness solar heat in a controlled manner now include a diverse range of technologies each serving distinctive needs in particular climate contexts. This text covers the breadth of solar energy technologies for the conversion of solar energy to provide heat, either as the directly-used output or as an intermediary to other uses such as power generation or cooling. It is a wholly updated, extended and revised version of “Solar Energy Thermal Technology” first published in 1992. The text draws on the own author’s research and that of numerous colleagues and

  16. Sun cover the Crimea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Ralph Heinrich

    2011-07-01

    The Ukraine is enticing investors with a high feed-in tariff for solar power. Among the first foreign companies to make use of the support system is Activ Solar from Vienna. Having completed a pilot project in Rodnikovoye (7.5 MW), the company is currently establishing one of the world's largest solar farms in the Crimea - and at the same time modernising a Soviet-era silicon factory. (orig.)

  17. Springtime warming and reduced snow cover from carbonaceous particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Flanner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Boreal spring climate is uniquely susceptible to solar warming mechanisms because it has expansive snow cover and receives relatively strong insolation. Carbonaceous particles can influence snow coverage by warming the atmosphere, reducing surface-incident solar energy (dimming, and reducing snow reflectance after deposition (darkening. We apply a range of models and observations to explore impacts of these processes on springtime climate, drawing several conclusions: 1 Nearly all atmospheric particles (those with visible-band single-scatter albedo less than 0.999, including all mixtures of black carbon (BC and organic matter (OM, increase net solar heating of the atmosphere-snow column. 2 Darkening caused by small concentrations of particles within snow exceeds the loss of absorbed energy from concurrent dimming, thus increasing solar heating of snowpack as well (positive net surface forcing. Over global snow, we estimate 6-fold greater surface forcing from darkening than dimming, caused by BC+OM. 3 Equilibrium climate experiments suggest that fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of BC+OM induce 95% as much springtime snow cover loss over Eurasia as anthropogenic carbon dioxide, a consequence of strong snow-albedo feedback and large BC+OM emissions from Asia. 4 Of 22 climate models contributing to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, 21 underpredict the rapid warming (0.64°C decade−1 observed over springtime Eurasia since 1979. Darkening from natural and anthropogenic sources of BC and mineral dust exerts 3-fold greater forcing on springtime snow over Eurasia (3.9 W m−2 than North America (1.2 W m−2. Inclusion of this forcing significantly improves simulated continental warming trends, but does not reconcile the low bias in rate of Eurasian spring snow cover decline exhibited by all models, likely because BC deposition trends are negative or near-neutral over much of Eurasia. Improved Eurasian

  18. Astronomical and Meteorological Conditions of a Solar System Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Acquisition and processing of as much solar energy for heating and electricity generation in Poland and in the world is a very important objective in the policy of alternative energy sources. The main problem with the reception of solar energy by solar collectors is vary energy supply at different times of day and year and low flux density of radiation. The term of solar radiation one mean transmission or emission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. The radiation emitted from the surface of the sun spreads out in all directions in space, reaches the Earth’s surface in only partly, especially the solar collectors. The most important parameters characterizing solar radiation are daily, monthly and annual sum of solar radiation. Its express the amount of solar energy which falls on a unit area at a given time. Number of hours of sunshine during the day are dependent on two key factors. The first one is the time from the sunrise to sunset, which strongly depends on the date and latitude. The second factor is the weather (clouds), influences solar radiation, radiation in touch with clouds is absorbed and dissipated. This publication shows the impact on the energy yield of the flat collector installation and astronomical conditions (angle of inclination and declination of solar), and climate. The calculations of determining the astronomical conditions of the place where the installation is located ware analyzed. The solar installation is located in Rzeszow (Poland) and the plate collector placed on the roof of building. Based on specific methodology for selected days the calculation of the elevation angle of the Sun, hourly angle, the sun azimuth and angle of incidence of the radiation on any plane were set. The results are shown in diagrams. The effect of cloud cover on the acquisition of solar energy by the collector is also shown.

  19. Hydrogen from solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    The long-range options of energy sources are the breeding reactor, nuclear fusion, and solar energy. Concerning solar energy three systems are being developed: First the photovoltaic cells which are almost ready for industrial production, but which are still too expensive - at least today. Secondly the thermal utilization of solar radiation. Compared to these, thirdly, the photobiological and photochemical possibilities of solar energy utilization have been somewhat neglected so far. However, the photolysis of water by solar energy is a very promising option for future energy demands. This can be done by making use of the photo-synthetic splitting of water in technical facilities or with semiconductors.

  20. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E H J; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and

  1. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  2. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  3. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Bankability and Debt Financing for Solar Projects in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-02-15

    This report looks at debt financing for solar projects in India from two perspectives: the lender’s point of view and the borrower’s point of view. The lender’s point of view addresses the bankability of solar projects in India by covering all the risks and their respective mitigation strategies. The goal is to help the developer’s understand the steps they need to take to increase their chances of receiving non-recourse financing. From the borrower’s point of view the report covers how the project finances can be structured in an optimum manner. Details are covered on how bridge financing can be used to solve liquidity issues. Also, various sources of financing have been discussed in detail.

  8. The Application Research of the Solar Energy Combines with Air Source Heat Pump System%太阳能结合空气源热泵系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文周

    2014-01-01

    太阳能结合空气源热泵系统作为生活热水、低温采暖热源、空调冷源,通过系统智能化优化控制及精准控温运行模式,完全采集太阳能、空气能免费能源,实现了工程上的节能、经济运行。%Solar energy combines with air source heat pump system as domestic hot water, low temperature heat sources for heating, and air conditioning cold source, which achieve the project on energy saving and economic operation through the intel igent optimization control system and precise temperature control operation mode with the completely col ection of solar energy and free air source energy.

  9. 太阳能—地源热泵联合循环技术研究%Study on Technologies of Solar Energy and Ground Source Heat Pump Combined Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洲阳; 陈武

    2011-01-01

    太阳能—地源热泵系统联合循环的研究目前还没有形成完备的理论体系,可供应用的基础数据不足,还不能为工程实际应用提供充足的理论依据.本文就太阳能与地源热泵系统联合运行的必要性和可行性进行探讨,提出了相应的技术方案;总结太阳能—地源热泵空调系统的特性,提出太阳能—地源热泵空调系统有待解决的问题,为太阳能—地源热泵联合循环技术在建筑上应用提供参考和借鉴.%Theory system of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump has not been mature, thereby lack basic data and theory thereunder for engineering application. Necessarity and feasibility of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump is discussed, bring forward corresponding technique scheme. Character of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump system is summarized, and bring forward await settle problems, provide reference for architecture application of solar energy combined with ground-source heat pump.

  10. New mounting improves solar-cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Method boosts output by about 20 percent by trapping and redirecting solar radiation without increasing module depth. Mounted solar-cell array is covered with internally reflecting plate. Plate is attached to each cell by transparent adhesive, and space between cells is covered with layer of diffusely reflecting material. Solar energy falling on space between cells is diffused and reflected internally by plate until it is reflected onto solar cell.

  11. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere....

  12. Solar ultraviolet radiation and the risk of infectious disease: summary of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, R.S.; Cooper, K.D.; De Faro, E.C.

    1995-01-01

    This invited review summarizes papers presented in a workshop on solar radiation and the risk of infectious disease. Nine reviewers cover the current state of knowledge in the following relevant fields:-ultraviolet climatology, infectious disease in humans, effects of U.V. from artificial light sources on animal and human immune systems, the influence of solar U.V. on animal and human immune systems, (lab, field, and clinical studies), biological consequences of unrepaired solar induced human DNA damage, and epidemiological considerations. Group discussions preceded the preparation of summary statements on each topic. Extensive bibliography. (UK)

  13. Annals of the International Geophysical Year solar radio emission during the International Geophysical Year

    CERN Document Server

    Smerd, S F

    1969-01-01

    Annals of the International Geophysical Year, Volume 34: Solar Radio Emission During the International Geophysical Year covers the significant solar radio emission events observed during the International Geophysical Year (IGY). This book is composed of six chapters, and begins with a summary of tabulated quantities describing solar radio emission during the IGY. The tabulated figures illustrate the method of recording the position of radio sources on the sun, the use of symbols in describing the structure of bursts observed at single frequencies, and the different types used in a spectral

  14. The Potential in Water Supply and Sanitation Services of the On Site Production of Sodium Hypochlorite (OSEC Driven by PV Solar Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Micangeli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the impact of an On Site Electro Chlorination (OSEC device, a system for the sodium hypochlorite production, on the improvement of health and hygienic standards in Mesoamerica focusing on Chiapas-Mexico and Costa Rica, as well as in Africa, Western Sahara (Refugees Camp and Tanzania. The threat of infectious diseases and the importance of cleaned and treated water with the consequent high impact on the vulnerable population have been studied in each of the above countries. In this framework the production of low cost sodium hypochlorite through a stand-alone system powered by PV solar source could be a good starting point in improving sanitation conditions, assuring the disinfection of water and clothes, and improve food safety. The cost analysis shows that producing sodium hypochlorite with an OSEC solar system could lead to 10 to 15 times saving with respect to the purchasing of it at market price, above all in developing countries. Furthermore, the LCA study highlights the low environmental impact of the on-site production of sodium hypochlorite through qualitative and quantitative data that demonstrate how this system has pollutant emissions from 14 to 56 times lower than the equivalent industrial process (N factor. The paper describes as well possible practical applications of the sodium hypochlorite in the African and Latin American context. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential to create an impact on the social context and microenterprises specialised in the production of hygiene and sanitation products, managed by local people selling at affordable prices and reaching the poorest villages of developing countries.

  15. Life from the stars?. [extraterrestrial sources contributing to chemical evolution on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1994-01-01

    Scientists are now seriously considering the possibility that organic matter from interstellar space could have influenced, or even spurred, the origin of life on Earth. Various aspects of chemical evolution are discussed along with possible extraterrestrial sources responsible for contributing to Earth's life-producing, chemical composition. Specific topics covered include the following: interstellar matter, molecular clouds, asteroid dust, organic molecules in our solar system, interplanetary dust and comets, meteoritic composition, and organic-rich solar-system bodies.

  16. Flat plate solar collector for water pre-heating using concentrated solar power (CSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Leonard Sunny; Shekh, Md. Al Amin; Sarker, Imran

    2017-12-01

    Numerous attempt and experimental conduction on different methods to harness energy from renewable sources are being conducted. This study is a contribution to the purpose of harnessing solar energy as a renewable source by using flat plate solar collector medium to preheat water. Basic theory of solar radiation and heat convection in water (working fluid) has been combined with heat conduction process by using copper tubes and aluminum absorber plate in a closed conduit, covered with a glazed through glass medium. By this experimental conduction, a temperature elevation of 35°C in 10 minutes duration which is of 61.58% efficiency range (maximum) has been achieved. The obtained data and experimental findings are validated with the theoretical formulation and an experimental demonstration model. A cost effective and simple form of heat energy extraction method for space heating/power generation has been thoroughly discussed with possible industrial implementation possibilities. Under-developed and developing countries can take this work as an illustration for renewable energy utilization for sustainable energy prospect. Also a full structure based data to derive concentrated solar energy in any geographical location of Bangladesh has been outlined in this study. These research findings can contribute to a large extent for setting up any solar based power plant in Bangladesh irrespective of its installation type.

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch ...... set. Particular studies are made of branched polynomial covering maps arising from Riemann surfaces and from knots in the 3-sphere. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.......A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  18. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the final cover of a landfill is to contain the waste and to provide for a physical separation between the waste and the environment for protection of public health. Most landfill covers are designed with the primary goal to reduce or prevent infiltration of precipitation...... into the landfill in order to minimize leachate generation. In addition the cover also has to control the release of gases produced in the landfill so the gas can be ventilated, collected and utilized, or oxidized in situ. The landfill cover should also minimize erosion and support vegetation. Finally the cover...... is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...

  19. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    OpenAIRE

    Petru Chioncel; Cristian Paul Chioncel; Nicoleta Gillich

    2013-01-01

    This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  20. 太阳能耦合地源热泵供暖系统的实验研究%Experimental Study on Heating System of Solar Coupled Ground Source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智超英; 赵宇含

    2017-01-01

    太阳能耦合地源热泵系统的设计以太阳能为辅助、地源热泵为主,最大化地利用太阳能资源,在满足地板采暖制备的情况下,富裕的热量可以补充到生活用水当中.通过实验验证了太阳能耦合地源热泵供暖系统可以有效恢复土壤温度,提高机组性能系数,实现热泵长期稳定的运行.%The design of solar coupled ground source heat pump system is based on solar energy and ground source heat pump.The system can maximize solar energy utilization in the preparation of floor heating.Rich heat can be added to the life water.This paper introduces the solar coupled ground source heat pump heating system.The experiment proves that the system can effectively restore the soil temperature, improve the performance coefficient of the crew, and realize the long-term stable operation of the heat pump.

  1. 地源热泵与太阳能联合供热系统集热器面积优化的研究%Collector Area Optimization of Ground Source Heat Pump and Solar Combined Heating System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智超英; 赵宇含

    2018-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes various influence factors on heat collector area of the ground source heat pump and solar combined heating system, studies the relationship of the cost of solar heat collection system,ground source heat pump operating costs per square meter,the maximum net benefit and solar collector area. In one run cycle,considering the maximum income,solar heating guarantee rate and ground source heat pump operating costs per square meter, the collector area of the combined heating system is optimized finally.%分析影响地源热泵与太阳能联合供热系统集热器面积的各种因素,研究太阳能集热系统造价、地源热泵每平方米运行费用、最大净受益、太阳能集热器面积相互间的关系.在一个循环周期内参考最大净收益,利用太阳能采暖保证率和地源热泵每平方米的运行费用的统计数据,最终联合供热系统的集热器面积达到最优.

  2. Worldwide cloud cover model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, O. E.; Sommerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Classifying worldwide cloudiness into homogeneous regions, using a satellite data set containing day IR, night IR, incoming, and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5-degree latitude-longitude grid is considered. Methods of analysis are presented.

  3. Comparative Study on Solar Collector’s Configuration for an Ejector-Refrigeration Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffles Senjaya

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar collector’s configuration plays important role on solar-powered refrigeration systems to work as heat source for generator. Three types of solar collector consisting of flat plate, evacuated tube, and compound parabolic solar collectors are compared to investigate their performances. The performances consist of the behavior of heat which can be absorbed by the collectors, heat loss from the collectors and outlet temperature of working fluid at several slopes of the solar collectors. The new accurate analysis method of heat transfer is conducted to predict the performance of the solar collectors. The analysis is based on several assumptions, i.e. sky condition at Bandung is clear and not raining from 08.00 until 17.00 and thermal resistance at cover and absorber plate is negligible. The numerical calculation results confirm that performance of the evacuated tubes solar collector at the same operating conditions is higher than the others. For the case of an evacuated-tubes solar collector system with aperture area of 3.5 m2, the maximum heat which can be absorbed is 3992 W for the highest solar intensity of 970 W/m2 at 12.00 and horizontal position of the solar collector. At this condition, the highest outlet temperature of water is 347.15 K with mass flow rate 0.02 kg/s and inlet temperature 298 K.

  4. Solar building

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Luxin

    2014-01-01

    In my thesis I describe the utilization of solar energy and solar energy with building integration. In introduction it is also mentioned how the solar building works, trying to make more people understand and accept the solar building. The thesis introduces different types of solar heat collectors. I compared the difference two operation modes of solar water heating system and created examples of solar water system selection. I also introduced other solar building applications. It is conv...

  5. Solar Energy: Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on heat storage is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies. The module…

  6. Status of the accretion flow solution in the Golden Jubilee year of the discovery of extra-solar X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, S. K.

    Fifty years have just passed since the first discovery of the extra-solar X-ray sources by Giacconi and his team which we know today to be some stellar mass black holes. By 1973, not only a catalog of these enigmatic objects were made, and their spectra were obtained. Today, forty years have passed since the revolutionary idea of the thin, axisymmetric, Keplerian, disk model by Shakura and Sunyaev was published. Yet, the complete predictability of their radiative properties remains as illusive as ever. The only available and self-consistent solution to date is the generalized viscous transonic flow solutions where both heating and cooling effects are included. I demonstrate that the latest `Avatar' of the accretion/outflow picture, the Generalized Two Component Advective Flow (GTCAF), is capable of explaining almost all the black hole observational results, when the results of the time dependent simulation of viscous and radiative processes are also taken into consideration. I also discuss the problems with predictability and argue that understanding companion's behaviour in terms of its habit of mass loss, ellipticity of its orbit, magnetic properties, etc. is extremely important for the prediction of emission properties of the accretion flow.

  7. Photobleaching response of different sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter exposed to natural solar radiation using absorption and excitation-emission matrix spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN:TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN:TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0-9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%-5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  8. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Energy Efficiency Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Solar-Thermal Components lntegrating with Double Source Heat Pump System%太阳能光伏光热组件与双源热泵一体化系统节能性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新锐; 陈剑波; 王成武

    2018-01-01

    The integration of distributed solar photovoltaic solar -thermal components and double source heat pump system is a system combined with a variety of energy - saving technology, so it is necessary to study its energy saving property. Based on the comparison with the solar heat pump and air-source heat pump, through opening the double source mode and separately opening the water source mode,or running air source mode,the water-heating time of heating water tank and the input power of the heat pump are compared,it is concluded that the double heat source heat pump unit has higher energy efficiency than the single air source heat pump and the conventional solar heat pump unit.%考虑到分布式太阳能光伏光热组件与双源热泵一体化系统是一种结合多种节能技术的系统,有必要对其节能性进行研究.在对该系统与常规太阳能热泵、空气源热泵比较的基础上,选取冬天开启双源模式和单独开启水源模式、空气源模式时的3种工况,通过比较供热水箱完成制热水的时间和热泵输入功率,分析得出双热源热泵机组比单一的空气源热泵、常规太阳能热泵机组具有较高的节能性.

  12. Elite silicon and solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasamanov, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The article is of popular character, the following issues being considered: conversion of solar energy into electric one, solar batteries in space and on the Earth, growing of silicon large-size crystals, source material problems relating to silicon monocrystals production, outlooks of solar silicon batteries production [ru

  13. Solar noise storms

    CERN Document Server

    Elgaroy, E O

    2013-01-01

    Solar Noise Storms examines the properties and features of solar noise storm phenomenon. The book also presents some theories that can be used to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. The coverage of the text includes topics that cover the features and behavior of noise storms, such as the observable features of noise storms; the relationship between noise storms and the observable features on the sun; and ordered behavior of storm bursts in the time-frequency plane. The book also covers the spectrum, polarization, and directivity of noise storms. The text will be of great use to astr

  14. Optical materials technology for energy efficiency and solar energy conversion 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: smart window coatings; Transparent infrared reflectors; Holographic concentrators and reflectors; Solar collecting devices; Solar absorber coatings; Optical properties and durability

  15. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Wei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed.

  16. Solar neutrino experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampel, W.

    1996-01-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial 51 Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs

  17. Solar Stereoscopy and Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Aschwanden

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We review stereoscopic and tomographic methods used in the solar corona, including ground-based and space-based measurements, using solar rotation or multiple spacecraft vantage points, in particular from the STEREO mission during 2007--2010. Stereoscopic and tomographic observations in the solar corona include large-scale structures, streamers, active regions, coronal loops, loop oscillations, acoustic waves in loops, erupting filaments and prominences, bright points, jets, plumes, flares, CME source regions, and CME-triggered global coronal waves. Applications in the solar interior (helioseismic tomography and reconstruction and tracking of CMEs from the outer corona and into the heliosphere (interplanetary CMEs are not included.

  18. Solar energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Sorensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    While solar is the fastest-growing energy source in the world, key concerns around solar power's inherent variability threaten to de-rail that scale-up . Currently, integration of intermittent solar resources into the grid creates added complication to load management, leading some utilities to reject it altogether, while other operators may penalize the producers via rate increases or force solar developers to include storage devices on-site to smooth out power delivery at the point of production. However these efforts at mitigation unfold, it is increasingly clear to parties on all sides th

  19. Solar neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hampel, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present status of experimental solar neutrino research is reviewed. Updated results from the Homestake, Kamiokande, GALLEX and SAGE detectors all show a deficit when compared to recent standard solar model calculations. Two of these detectors, GALLEX and SAGE, have recently been checked with artificial {sup 51}Cr neutrino sources. It is shown that astrophysical scenarios to solve the solar neutrino problems are not favoured by the data. There is hope that the results of forthcoming solar neutrino experiments can provide the answers to the open questions. (author) 6 figs., 3 tabs., 36 refs.

  20. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  1. Covered Bridge Security Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett Phares; Terry Wipf; Ryan Sievers; Travis Hosteng

    2013-01-01

    The design, construction, and use of covered timber bridges is all but a lost art in these days of pre-stressed concrete, high-performance steel, and the significant growth both in the volume and size of vehicles. Furthermore, many of the existing covered timber bridges are preserved only because of their status on the National Registry of Historic Places or the...

  2. Solar engineering - a condensed course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broman, Lars

    2011-11-15

    The document represents the material covered in a condensed two-week course focusing on the most important thermal and PV solar energy engineering topics, while also providing some theoretical background.

  3. Trends in Solar energy Driven Vertical Ground Source Heat Pump Systems in Sweden - An Analysis Based on the Swedish Well Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhlin, K.; Gehlin, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sweden is a world leader in developing and using vertical ground source heat pump (GSHP) technology. GSHP systems extract passively stored solar energy in the ground and the Earth's natural geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is an admitted renewable energy source in Sweden since 2007 and is the third largest renewable energy source in the country today. The Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) is the authority in Sweden that provides open access geological data of rock, soil and groundwater for the public. All wells drilled must be registered in the SGU Well Database and it is the well driller's duty to submit registration of drilled wells.Both active and passive geothermal energy systems are in use. Large GSHP systems, with at least 20 boreholes, are active geothermal energy systems. Energy is stored in the ground which allows both comfort heating and cooling to be extracted. Active systems are therefore relevant for larger properties and industrial buildings. Since 1978 more than 600 000 wells (water wells, GSHP boreholes etc) have been registered in the Well Database, with around 20 000 new registrations per year. Of these wells an estimated 320 000 wells are registered as GSHP boreholes. The vast majority of these boreholes are single boreholes for single-family houses. The number of properties with registered vertical borehole GSHP installations amounts to approximately 243 000. Of these sites between 300-350 are large GSHP systems with at least 20 boreholes. While the increase in number of new registrations for smaller homes and households has slowed down after the rapid development in the 80's and 90's, the larger installations for commercial and industrial buildings have increased in numbers over the last ten years. This poster uses data from the SGU Well Database to quantify and analyze the trends in vertical GSHP systems reported between 1978-2015 in Sweden, with special focus on large systems. From the new aggregated data, conclusions can be drawn about

  4. 太阳能与地源热泵复合系统的优化配置与运行方式%Optimizing configuring and running-mode of solar energy and ground-source heat pump hybrid systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓梅; 张昕宇; 邹瑜; 郑瑞澄

    2011-01-01

    以某实际工程为例,对太阳能系统与地源热泵系统联合运行时的优化配置与运行方式进行了模拟分析.得到结论:要优先利用太阳能系统;对太阳能资源要梯级利用;尽可能增大太阳能集热器面积,提高太阳能直接利用的可能性;单位面积太阳能集热器成本为250元/m2左右比较合适.%With a project, simulates and analyses optimizing configuring and running-mode of the hybrid system. Concludes that the solar energy system should be prior to the ground-source heat pump system in operation, the utilization of solar energy resource should be the way according to the energy grade, a possibly larger solar collector area is good for direct utilization of solar energy, and the solar collector cost of 250 RMB per square meter is appropriate.

  5. Theoretical analysis and experimental study to solar assisted ground-source heat pump system%太阳能辅助系统的理论分析和实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鹏; 刘自强; 侯静

    2011-01-01

    As a clean, renewable energy, the geothermal energy and solar energy are trend of develo- ping and using new energies in the future. This paper introduces solar assisted Ground Source Heat Pump system, combined with the advantage of t the geothermal energy and solar energy. Through theoretical analysis and experiment, the solar assisted Ground Source Heat Pump system is proved to be feasible and scientific.%地热能和太阳能作为清洁、可再生的能源,是未来开发和利用新能源的趋势,本文介绍了太阳能辅助地源热泵系统,是将二者结合,取长补短的一种热泵形式。通过理论分析和实验验证。证明了太阳能辅助地源热泵系统的可行性和科学性。

  6. Covering folded shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswin Aichholzer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Can folding a piece of paper flat make it larger? We explore whether a shape S must be scaled to cover a flat-folded copy of itself. We consider both single folds and arbitrary folds (continuous piecewise isometries \\(S\\to\\mathbb{R}^2\\. The underlying problem is motivated by computational origami, and is related to other covering and fixturing problems, such as Lebesgue's universal cover problem and force closure grasps. In addition to considering special shapes (squares, equilateral triangles, polygons and disks, we give upper and lower bounds on scale factors for single folds of convex objects and arbitrary folds of simply connected objects.

  7. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  8. A Distributed Lag Autoregressive Model of Geostationary Relativistic Electron Fluxes: Comparing the Influences of Waves, Seed and Source Electrons, and Solar Wind Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Laura; Engebretson, Mark; Clilverd, Mark; Rodger, Craig; Lessard, Marc; Gjerloev, Jesper; Reeves, Geoffrey

    2018-05-01

    Relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit depends on enhancement and loss processes driven by ultralow frequency (ULF) Pc5, chorus, and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, seed electron flux, magnetosphere compression, the "Dst effect," and substorms, while solar wind inputs such as velocity, number density, and interplanetary magnetic field Bz drive these factors and thus correlate with flux. Distributed lag regression models show the time delay of highest influence of these factors on log10 high-energy electron flux (0.7-7.8 MeV, Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites). Multiple regression with an autoregressive term (flux persistence) allows direct comparison of the magnitude of each effect while controlling other correlated parameters. Flux enhancements due to ULF Pc5 and chorus waves are of equal importance. The direct effect of substorms on high-energy electron flux is strong, possibly due to injection of high-energy electrons by the substorms themselves. Loss due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is less influential. Southward Bz shows only moderate influence when correlated processes are accounted for. Adding covariate compression effects (pressure and interplanetary magnetic field magnitude) allows wave-driven enhancements to be more clearly seen. Seed electrons (270 keV) are most influential at lower relativistic energies, showing that such a population must be available for acceleration. However, they are not accelerated directly to the highest energies. Source electrons (31.7 keV) show no direct influence when other factors are controlled. Their action appears to be indirect via the chorus waves they generate. Determination of specific effects of each parameter when studied in combination will be more helpful in furthering modeling work than studying them individually.

  9. Mekong Land Cover Dasboard: Regional Land Cover Mointoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saah, D. S.; Towashiraporn, P.; Aekakkararungroj, A.; Phongsapan, K.; Triepke, J.; Maus, P.; Tenneson, K.; Cutter, P. G.; Ganz, D.; Anderson, E.

    2016-12-01

    SERVIR-Mekong, a USAID-NASA partnership, helps decision makers in the Lower Mekong Region utilize GIS and Remote Sensing information to inform climate related activities. In 2015, SERVIR-Mekong conducted a geospatial needs assessment for the Lower Mekong countries which included individual country consultations. The team found that many countries were dependent on land cover and land use maps for land resource planning, quantifying ecosystem services, including resilience to climate change, biodiversity conservation, and other critical social issues. Many of the Lower Mekong countries have developed national scale land cover maps derived in part from remote sensing products and geospatial technologies. However, updates are infrequent and classification systems do not always meet the needs of key user groups. In addition, data products stop at political boundaries and are often not accessible making the data unusable across country boundaries and with resource management partners. Many of these countries rely on global land cover products to fill the gaps of their national efforts, compromising consistency between data and policies. These gaps in national efforts can be filled by a flexible regional land cover monitoring system that is co-developed by regional partners with the specific intention of meeting national transboundary needs, for example including consistent forest definitions in transboundary watersheds. Based on these facts, key regional stakeholders identified a need for a land cover monitoring system that will produce frequent, high quality land cover maps using a consistent regional classification scheme that is compatible with national country needs. SERVIR-Mekong is currently developing a solution that leverages recent developments in remote sensing science and technology, such as Google Earth Engine (GEE), and working together with production partners to develop a system that will use a common set of input data sources to generate high

  10. Solar Spectral Irradiance Reconstruction over 9 Millennia from a Composite 14C and 10Be Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. J.; Usoskin, I. G.; Krivova, N.; Kovaltsov, G.; Solanki, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun is the main external energy source to the Earth and thus the knowledge of solar variability on different time scales is important for understanding the solar influence on the terrestrial atmosphere and climate. The overall energy input and its spectral distribution are described by the total (TSI) and spectral (SSI) solar irradiance, respectively. Direct measurements of the solar irradiance provide information on solar variability on the decadal and shorter time scales, while the sunspot number record covers four centuries. On yet longer time scales only indirect proxies can be used, such as the concentrations of the cosmogenic isotopes 10Be and 14C in terrestrial archives. These isotopes are produced in the terrestrial atmosphere by impinging cosmic rays, whose flux is modulated by solar activity. Therefore the isotope data retrieved from various natural archives around the globe show a very high degree of similarity reflecting changes in the solar activity. Nevertheless, significant short-term deviations can be observed due to the different geochemical production processes and local climatic conditions. We will present the newest TSI/SSI reconstruction over the last 9000 years based on a new consistent composite multi-isotope proxy series. The solar irradiance reconstruction reveals the global and robust pattern of solar variability in the past.

  11. Percent of Impervious Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — High amounts of impervious cover (parking lots, rooftops, roads, etc.) can increase water runoff, which may directly enter surface water. Runoff from roads often...

  12. GAP Land Cover - Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This raster dataset is a simple image of the original detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of...

  13. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of...

  14. Percent Wetland Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  15. Percent Wetland Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Wetlands act as filters, removing or diminishing the amount of pollutants that enter surface water. Higher values for percent of wetland cover (WETLNDSPCT) may be...

  16. Catalog of solar particle events 1955--1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    This catalog, which is a common enterprise of solar physicists and space scientists, consists of three parts. The first part contains a complete list of 732 particle events of solar origin recorded at the Earth or in space from the first PCA observation in 1955 up to the end of 1969; it thus covers two solar cycle maxima. Each particle event is described in detail by using many unpublished data, kindly made available by more than 20 space scientists. A group of solar experts has tried to look up the source, or alternative sources, of each particle event on the Sun. These sources (with estimates of ''certainty'') are presented, and all the flares which have been considered to be obvious or probable sources of the particle events are summarized in the second part of the catalog, with a description of their characteristic features in the optical, radio, and X-ray spectral range. Finally, the third part describes the active regions in which these flares occurred, including magnetic field maps, plage and sunspot group configurations, flare positions (often with flare photographs), data on the active region development, and bibliography

  17. 北方地区应用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵效能分析%Efficiency Analysis of Utilizing Solar-assisted Ground Source Heat Pump in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵金秀

    2015-01-01

    针对北方寒冷地区气候特点,指出了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵或单独的太阳能应用的技术特点。对北方寒冷地区某学校综合楼建筑进行了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统设计;并针对该建筑采用太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统、采用单独的土壤源热泵系统或采用传统采暖空调系统,从三者经济效益、社会效益、环境效益等方面进行了比较,从而体现了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统相对于单独的土壤源热泵系统或传统采暖空调系统的高效、经济、节能、环保等优异性。%For the cold climate characteristics of the Northern China, the paper introduces the technical characteristics of solar-assisted ground source heat pump system relative to the separate ground source heat pump system or the separate solar energy application. For a complex building of a university in the cold northern area, the solar -assisted ground source heat pump system is designed, and economic benefits, social benefits, environmental benefits and other aspects about using the solar-assisted ground source heat pump system or using the ground source heat pump system alone or using the traditional air conditioning system are compared, thus reflects the excellent efficiency, cost-saving and energy -saving characteristics, and environmental protection about the solar assisted ground source heat pump system.

  18. 太阳能-地源热泵复合系统在医疗建筑中的应用分析%Application analysis of solar ground-source heat pump composite system to medical building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高世康; 卢志鹏

    2017-01-01

    太阳能-地源热泵复合系统具有良好的节能效果和运行特性,本文利用TRNSYS分析其应用于山东某医院综合楼的可行性,并分析其与常规系统(城市热网配套+冷水机组)的全寿命周期成本.分析结果表明,太阳能-地源热泵复合系统的全寿命周期成本比常规系统节省26.4%,在2.16年之后,太阳能-地源热泵复合系统经济性优势明显.%The solar ground-source heat pump composite system has good energy-saving effect and operation characteristic.The feasibility of its application to one medical building in Shandong is analyzed using TRNSYS, and the life cycle cost of solar ground-source heat pump composite system and the conventional system of urban network supporting & chiller is analyzed.The analysis results show that the former life cycle cost can be saved by 26.4% compared with the latter, and 2.16 years later, the solar ground-source heat pump composite system will have evident economy trend.

  19. Effects of auxiliary heat sources on energy efficiency of active solar heating systems%辅助热源对主动式太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于国清; 周继瑞

    2015-01-01

    According to the solar fraction and the energy efficiency of auxiliary heating equipments, analyses the effects of different auxiliary heat sources on the energy efficiency of active solar heating systems by converting energy consumption to primary energy,and believes that the active solar heating system must satisfy certain conditions for achieving energy saving effect.The results indicate that the auxiliary heat source and the solar fraction have a great impact on the energy efficiency of solar heating systems.Compared to the gas-fired boiler heating alone,the solar heating system assisted by electric heating is energy efficient only when the solar fraction is greater than 65.4%,which is very difficult to achieve for many real systems.The primary energy consumption of the solar heating system assisted by heat pump is lower in general instances (when the average COP of heat pump is 2.5,the solar fraction should be greater than 7%).When heat pumps with average COP above 3.0 or gas-fired boilers are used as auxiliary heat sources,the solar heating system is energy efficient,and the higher the solar fraction is,the more obvious the energy saving effect is.%根据太阳能贡献率和辅助加热设备的能源效率,将系统的能耗折算成一次能源,分析不同辅助热源对太阳能供暖系统节能性的影响,认为主动式太阳能供暖系统要达到节能效果必须满足一定的前提条件。研究结果表明:辅助热源方式和太阳能贡献率对系统的节能性影响很大;相对于燃气锅炉单独供暖,电加热辅助太阳能供暖系统只有在太阳能贡献率高于65.4%时才节能,而大多数系统的太阳能贡献率很难达到这么高,因此要尽量避免使用;热泵辅助太阳能供暖系统在大多数情况下都是节能的(热泵的平均 COP =2.5时,太阳能贡献率需高于7%);采用平均COP 高于3.0的热泵或采用燃气锅炉作为辅助热源时,系统都是节

  20. Photobleaching Response of Different Sources of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Exposed to Natural Solar Radiation Using Absorption and Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L.; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN∶TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN∶TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0–9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%–5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  1. Fifteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts from the Fifteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference hosted by the Solar Energy Research Institute which took place June 2--6, 1991. A large variety of topics pertinent to solar energy conversion are covered, including photoinduced electron transfer, photochemical energy conversion, and photosynthetic energy conversion. (GHH)

  2. Expanding Canadian renewable and conservation expenses class 43.1 to include solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Class 43.1 is a tax measure that allows for accelerated write-offs of renewable energy products for business use. Technologies that are included in the class for accelerated write off include renewable energy sources such as wind, small hydro, geo-thermal, fuel cells, bio-gas, cogeneration systems, and district heating and solar. In 2005, the federal budget announced 2 changes to class 43.1 The write off rate has been increased from 30 per cent to 50 per cent. This change would reduce the effective cost of solar energy for business owners. The class has also been extended to include distribution assets for district energy assets and biogas equipment. However, no changes to the restrictions for solar were announced. The Canadian Solar Industries Association (CanSIA) argues that class 43.1 currently does not help the solar industries, nor do the proposed changes solve this situation. The restrictions placed on solar eliminate about 90 per cent of the industrial applications for solar that class 43.1 should support. Class 43.1 currently covers only 1 per cent of photovoltaic applications, 2 per cent of solar hot water applications, and 9 per cent of solar air heating applications. CanSIA claims that an increase in tax write-offs for photovoltaic systems, solar hot water, and solar air heating would help increase the solar market from 1,060 kW to a market size of 11,600 kW. CanSIA has made recommendations to the federal government to remove the size restrictions for PV systems and to remove the restrictions on applications for solar thermal systems. 2 tabs

  3. PV solar system feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, Moh’d Sami S.; Kaylani, Hazem; Abdallah, Abdallah

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems. ► The aim is to develop the theory and application of a hybrid system. ► Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. ► A prototype of the PV solar system is designed and built. - Abstract: This research studies the feasibility of PV solar systems and aims at developing the theory and application of a hybrid system that utilizes PV solar system and another supporting source of energy to provide affordable heating and air conditioning. Relevant research topics are reviewed and some of them are discussed in details. Solar heating and air conditioning research and technology exist in many developed countries. To date, the used solar energy has been proved to be inefficient. Solar energy is an abundant source of energy in Jordan and the Middle East; with increasing prices of oil this source is becoming more attractive alternative. A good candidate for the other system is absorption. The overall system is designed such that it utilizes solar energy as a main source. When the solar energy becomes insufficient, electricity or diesel source kicks in. A prototype of the PV solar system that operates an air conditioning unit is built and proper measurements are collected through a data logging system. The measured data are plotted and discussed, and conclusions regarding the system performance are extracted.

  4. Solar energy in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, H.

    1981-12-01

    The past, present, and future of Peru is discussed in terms of solar energy development and the social, economic, climatic, and technical factors involved. It is pointed out that there are 3 geographical divisions in Peru including: (1) the foggy coastal strip where rain is infrequent, insolation is low and population is high; (2) the mountainous Andes region with high insolation and many populated high mountain valleys; and (3) the rainy, Amazon basin covered with jungle, and sparcely populated with high but inconsistent insolation. Since there is little competition with other forms of energy, solar energy shows promise. Passive solar heating of buildings, particularly in the Andes region, is described, as well as the use of solar water heaters. Prototypes are described and illustrated. Industrial use of solar heated water in the wool industry as well as solar food drying and solar desalination are discussed. High temperature applications (electrical generators and refrigeration) as well as photovoltaic systems are discussed briefly. It is concluded that social and political factors are holding back the development of solar energy but a start (in the form of prototypes and demonstration programs) is being made. (MJJ)

  5. A high resolution solar atlas for fluorescence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, M. F.; Ohlmacher, J. T.; Schleicher, D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics required of a solar atlas to be used for studying the fluorescence process in comets are examined. Several sources of low resolution data were combined to provide an absolutely calibrated spectrum from 2250 A to 7000A. Three different sources of high resolution data were also used to cover this same spectral range. The low resolution data were then used to put each high resolution spectrum on an absolute scale. The three high resolution spectra were then combined in their overlap regions to produce a single, absolutely calibrated high resolution spectrum over the entire spectral range.

  6. Solar Features - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A solar flare is a short-lived sudden increase in the intensity of radiation emitted in the neighborhood of sunspots. For many years it was best monitored in the...

  7. Solar storms; Tormentas solares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collaboration: Pereira Cuesta, S.; Pereira Pagan, B.

    2016-08-01

    Solar storms begin with an explosion, or solar flare, on the surface of the sun. The X-rays and extreme ultraviolet radiation from the flare reach the Earths orbit minutes later-travelling at light speed. The ionization of upper layers of our atmosphere could cause radio blackouts and satellite navigation errors (GPS). Soon after, a wave of energetic particles, electrons and protons accelerated by the explosion crosses the orbit of the Earth, and can cause real and significant damage. (Author)

  8. Photodegradation of the herbicide azimsulfuron using nanocrystalline titania films as photocatalyst and low intensity Black Light radiation or simulated solar radiation as excitation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelentridou, Katerina; Stathatos, Elias; Karasali, Helen; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of the herbicide azimsulfuron have been treated by a photocatalytic process employing titania nanocrystalline films as photocatalyst. Results showed that solutions of this herbicide at maximum possible concentration can be photodegraded in a time of a few hours by using low intensity UVA radiation comparable with that of the UVA of solar noon. Similar results have also been obtained with simulated solar radiation. Thus heterogeneous photocatalysis can be employed for the treatment of waters polluted by this herbicide

  9. Conversion of solar radiation using parabolic mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Fieducik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy to cover the energy needs of our society. The aim of the study will be to analyze the possibility of converting solar energy using parabolic reflectors to the heat energy needed to meet the needs of hot water for a family of 4 people. This study presents simulations of the use of solar radiation using radiant concentration systems. The parabolic mirror directs the concentrated beam of sunlight onto a tube located in the focal plane, which is filled with water that under the influence of solar radiation heats up. This article assumes constant mirror geometry and tube cross section, while simulation is performed for different coefficients. For calculations it was assumed that the reflection coefficient of sunlight from the mirror r is variable and an analysis of its effect on the amount of heated liquid is made. The radiation absorption coefficient across the tube surface was determined by a, the thermal surface emissivity coefficient was determined as e and the simulations were performed at variable values for the amount of heated liquid. The calculations and their analysis show that, with appropriately chosen coefficients, it is possible to meet the needs of a 4-person family in warm water using the proposed installation in Poland.

  10. Solar Assisted Water Source Heat Pump System for Heating in Winter%关于太阳能辅助水源热泵系统联合冬季供暖的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东森; 赵展

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increased awareness of energy shortage and environmental protection in China, solar energy and shallow geothermal energy as renewable energy are getting more and more atten-tion. But regardless of the solar system or single water source heat pump system has some limitations, few of joint operation for both applications. Based on the actual project as an example, the solar system can be combined with water source heat pump system, and the system will achieve the required indoor air temper-ature; and the technical analysis of operation cost for solar system with water source heat pump system shows the energy efficiency is completely obvious.%随着我国能源的紧缺和环保意识的加强,太阳能、浅层地热能作为可再生能源,越来越受到人们的重视。但无论是太阳能系统,还是水源热泵系统,单独运行时均有一定的局限性,两者联合运行的应用很少。通过实际工程分析,太阳能系统与水源热泵系统可以联合工作,并可达到预期的室内空调温度;对太阳能系统与水源热泵系统联合运行的运行费用做了技术分析,证实这种联合模式节能效果十分明显。

  11. Feasibility analysis of domestic solar water heating systems in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; El Samani, K.; Koronakis, P.

    2005-01-01

    The excessive usage of fossil fuels has world-widely caused chain environmental consequences. An interesting solution to this problem is the systematic exploitation of available renewable energy sources, including solar energy. Greece is located in a major geographical region with an abundant and reliable supply of solar energy, even during the winter. In as much, one cannot disregard the significant dependency of the country on imported fuels, since almost 70% of its domestic energy consumption is covered by oil and natural gas imports. Despite the relative local sun abundance, during the last 10 years the local solar collectors market illustrates a sluggish behaviour, in comparison with the impressive numbers of sales during the 1980-1990 decade. At a first glance, such an occurrence characterizes a controversy. In an attempt to find a rational explanation of this peculiar situation, an integrated cost-benefit analysis is carried out taking into consideration the vast majority of the parameters affecting solar thermal energy production cost. The resulting numerical values are then compared with the corresponding ones coming from alternative hot-water production techniques. Accordingly, a quite extensive sensitivity analysis is carried out, in order to demonstrate the impact of the main techno-economic parameters on the fiscal behaviour of contemporary solar hot water production systems. The results obtained not only explain with sufficient accuracy the current local market situation but also demonstrate the specific actions that if realized they may boost solar collector sales in the corresponding local market. (author)

  12. A comprehensive review on solar cookers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuce, Erdem; Cuce, Pinar Mert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a thorough review of the available literature on solar cookers is presented. The review is performed in a thematic way in order to allow an easier comparison, discussion and evaluation of the findings obtained by researchers, especially on parameters affecting the performance of solar cookers. The review covers a historic overview of solar cooking technology, detailed description of various types of solar cookers, geometry parameters affecting performance of solar cookers such as booster mirrors, glazing, absorber plate, cooking pots, heat storage materials and insulation. Moreover, thermodynamic assessment of solar cooking systems and qualitative evaluation of thermal output offered by solar cookers are analyzed in detail. Complex designs of solar cookers/ovens with and without heat storage material are illustrated and furthermore possible methods to be able to enhance the power outputs of solar cooking systems are presented. Feasibility analysis, environmental impacts and future potential of solar cookers are also considered in the study.

  13. An investigation of the magnetic field of Transient Disturbances (TD) at the Earth's orbit, and a determination of solar sources of TD from their characteristics at R = 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainshtein, V. .G.; Kaigorodov, A. P.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated and intercompared the typical features of the magnetic field of two types of solar wind transient disturbances with shock waves: the shock wave is accompanied by a magnetic cloud (MC), and the shock wave is followed by a region with bidirectional solar wind electron heat flux (BEHF), with no MC present. In this case, a separate study was made of the field features in two typical TD structures: in the region of impact-compressed solar wind between the shock wave and MC or BEHF, as well as in MC and BEHF. The study has provided new results on the influence of the ambient SW upon the TD magnetic field and the relationship between fields in various TD structures. A new test for the existence of interplanetary magnetic field draping around MC and BEHF is proposed and verified. It is concluded that the magnetic field configuration around MC is more adequately consistent with the concept of magnetic line draping than is the case around BEHF Two methods are proposed to infer the location of solar sources of TD from their characteristics at R = 1 AU.

  14. solar dryer with biomass backup heater for drying fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOLAR DRYER WITH BIOMASS BACKUP HEATER FOR DRYING FRUITS: DEVELOPMENT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... Most solar dryers rely on only solar energy as the heat source.

  15. Climate under cover

    CERN Document Server

    Takakura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    1.1. INTRODUCTION Plastic covering, either framed or floating, is now used worldwide to protect crops from unfavorable growing conditions, such as severe weather and insects and birds. Protected cultivation in the broad sense, including mulching, has been widely spread by the innovation of plastic films. Paper, straw, and glass were the main materials used before the era of plastics. Utilization of plastics in agriculture started in the developed countries and is now spreading to the developing countries. Early utilization of plastic was in cold regions, and plastic was mainly used for protection from the cold. Now plastic is used also for protection from wind, insects and diseases. The use of covering techniques started with a simple system such as mulching, then row covers and small tunnels were developed, and finally plastic houses. Floating mulch was an exception to this sequence: it was introduced rather recently, although it is a simple structure. New development of functional and inexpensive films trig...

  16. On Covering Approximation Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Ge

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Let (U';C' be a subspace of a covering approximation space (U;C and X⊂U'. In this paper, we show that and B'(X⊂B(X∩U'. Also, iff (U;C has Property Multiplication. Furthermore, some connections between outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U;C and outer (resp. inner definable subsets in (U';C' are established. These results answer a question on covering approximation subspace posed by J. Li, and are helpful to obtain further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

  17. Photovoltaic solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  18. Solar radiation over India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, A; Rangarajan, S

    1982-01-01

    Solar radiation data, on horizontal and sloped surfaces, are provided derived from other meteorological parameters at 145 stations covering all major climatic zones of the country. Two methods were used to compute solar radiation, one using regression techniques to derive radiation from sunshine and cloudiness, the other from extra-terrestrial radiation, allowing for its depletion by absorption and scattering in the atmosphere. The methods of calculating the daily global radiation tilt factor using an anisotropic model for diffuse solar radiation are described. The results of statistical analysis of global solar radiation data recorded at 16 stations are presented. Appendices contain an extensive bibliograpny, sun path diagrams for latitudes 6/sup 0/N to 36/sup 0/N, and tables for the calculation of Local Apparent Time from Indian Standard Time.

  19. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  20. SOLAR-ISS: A new reference spectrum based on SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Bureau, J.; Weber, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Hilbig, T.; Thiéblemont, R.; Marchand, M.; Lefèvre, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Bekki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Since April 5, 2008 and up to February 15, 2017, the SOLar SPECtrometer (SOLSPEC) instrument of the SOLAR payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) has performed accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from the middle ultraviolet to the infrared (165 to 3088 nm). These measurements are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and the impact of solar variability on climate. In particular, a new reference solar spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) is established in April 2008 during the solar minima of cycles 23-24 thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations, and advanced procedures to account for thermal and aging corrections of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument. Aims: The main objective of this article is to present a new high-resolution solar spectrum with a mean absolute uncertainty of 1.26% at 1σ from 165 to 3000 nm. This solar spectrum is based on solar observations of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC space-based instrument. Methods: The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument consists of three separate double monochromators that use concave holographic gratings to cover the middle ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) domains. Our best ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectra are merged into a single absolute solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm domain. The resulting solar spectrum has a spectral resolution varying between 0.6 and 9.5 nm in the 165-3000 nm wavelength range. We build a new solar reference spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) by constraining existing high-resolution spectra to SOLAR/SOLSPEC observed spectrum. For that purpose, we account for the difference of resolution between the two spectra using the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrumental slit functions. Results: Using SOLAR/SOLSPEC data, a new solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm wavelength range is built and is representative of the 2008 solar minimum. It has a resolution better than 0.1 nm below 1000 nm and 1 nm in the 1000-3000 nm wavelength range. The new

  1. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  2. 加热原油的太阳能-污水源热泵系统的开发%Development on solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system for crude oil heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱剑峰; 王强

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the situations of crude oil heating and oily water utilization were analyzed.The development situation of solar heat pump at home and abroad was introduced.It was put forward that the solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system could be used to reuse oily water for crude oil heating.The composition of the system and five kinds of operation mode were analyzed.The mathematical model was also established.It provided some references for the application of solar-assisted sewage source heat pump system.%分析了油田用热现状和含油污水利用现状,详述了太阳能热泵在国内外的发展现状.在此基础上,提出应用太阳能-污水源热泵系统回收含油污水余热来加热原油,进而分析了该系统的组成及五种运行模式,建立了系统的数学模型,为太阳能-污水源热泵系统的应用提供参考.

  3. Estimating Snow Cover from Publicly Available Images

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorov, Roman; Camerada, Alessandro; Fraternali, Piero; Tagliasacchi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of estimating snow cover in mountainous regions, that is, the spatial extent of the earth surface covered by snow. We argue that publicly available visual content, in the form of user generated photographs and image feeds from outdoor webcams, can both be leveraged as additional measurement sources, complementing existing ground, satellite and airborne sensor data. To this end, we describe two content acquisition and processing pipelines that are tailored to...

  4. Models for prediction of global solar radiation on horizontal surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimation of global solar radiation continues to play a fundamental role in solar engineering systems and applications. This paper compares various models for estimating the average monthly global solar radiation on horizontal surface for Akure, Nigeria, using solar radiation and sunshine duration data covering years ...

  5. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  6. Engineering Design and Economic Analysis of Air Source Heat Pump Assisted Solar Water Heating System%热泵+太阳能热水系统的工程设计与经济分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永华

    2013-01-01

    以空气源热泵为辅助热源的太阳能集中热水系统,不仅节能效率高,而且能保证全天候连续热水供应,是近年来太阳能利用的发展方向之一。淮海工学院学生浴室采用了空气源热泵辅助太阳能热水系统,设计用水人数17000人,日需热水量184 t。介绍了该热水系统的工作原理及设计计算,并对5种热水工程方案从初期投资和运行费用方面进行了详细的经济性分析,结果表明:以空气源热泵为辅助热源的热水方案较其他方案具有更好的经济、环保效益。%The high energy-efficient solar energy water heating system in conjunction with air source heat pump, supplying all-weather continuous hot water, is one of the developing direction of solar energy utilization in recent years. Students ’ Bathroom of Huaihai Institute of Technology use solar water heating system assisted with air source heat pump for 17000 students, requiring 184 tons of hot water every day. The working principle and design calculation of hot water system are expounded with detailed analysis of the initial investment and operating costs for five kinds of heating water engineering solutions. Results show that air source heat pump as auxiliary heat source has better economic and environmental benefits.

  7. 太阳能一空气双热源复合热泵系统性能研究%Studying of the System Performance of the Solar - air Dual - source Heat Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 赵晓丹; 周光辉

    2011-01-01

    太阳能—空气双热源复合热泵技术能有效解决空气源热泵室外温度低时蒸发器易结霜、系统性能降低的缺点.本文在课题组前期研究的基础上,针对一种新型的太阳能—空气双热源复合热泵系统,采用分布参数法建立了系统的数学模型.利用数学模拟的方法对单一空气源热泵系统和太阳能—空气双热源复合热泵系统在三种不同工况下的制热量和COP进行了模拟,并对模拟结果进行了对比分析.%The problems such as the easily frosting of the evaporator and the poor system performance in low outdoor temperature can be effectively solved with the solar-air dual-source heat pump technology. In this paper, based on the previous working of the research group, the steady distributed parameter method has been adopted to establish the mathematical model of a new solar-air dual-source heat pump system. The system performance of the single air source heat pump system and the solar-air dual-source heat pump system in three operation conditions have been studied with the mathematical simulation method, and the simulated results have been analyzed.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy of InP single junction and InP/In0.53Ga0.47As monolithically integrated tandem solar cells using solid phosphorous source material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, A.; Chin, K.; Street, S.; Newman, F.; Aguilar, L.; Ignatiev, A.; Monier, C.; Velela, M.; Freundlich, A.

    1998-01-01

    This work reports the first InP solar cells, InP/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As tandem solar cells and InP tunnel junctions to be grown using a solid phosphorous source cracker cell in a molecular beam epitaxy system. High p-type doping achieved with this system allowed for the development of InP tunnel junctions. These junctions which allow for improved current matching in subsequent monolithically integrated tandem devices also do not absorb photons which can be utilized in the InGaAs structure. Photocurrent spectral responses compared favorably to devices previously grown in a chemical beam epitaxy system. High resolution x-ray scans demonstrated good lattice matching between constituent parts of the tandem cell. AM0 efficiencies of both InP and InP/InGaAs tandem cells are reported

  9. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  10. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant's operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant's decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains

  11. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the full energy chain of solar and wind power and other energy sources. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    An international Advisory Group Meeting on Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emission from the Full Energy Chain of Solar and Wind Power was convened by the IAEA at its Headquarters in Vienna, 21-24 October, 1996. The meeting was attended by 12 experts from 9 countries and two international organizations, and including one consultant to the Agency. The objectives of the workshop were: to define and to analyze the solar and wind power chains in terms of emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole energy chain, i.e., during a plant`s operation, and from the construction of the plant to the plant`s decommissioning and waste storage; to evaluate existing assessments of full-energy-chain emissions of greenhouse gases from the wind and solar power chains and, where possible, compare these results with such emissions from nuclear power and other energy chains. Refs, figs, tabs.

  12. Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Presented is the utilization of solar radiation as an energy resource principally for the production of electricity. Included are discussions of solar thermal conversion, photovoltic conversion, wind energy, and energy from ocean temperature differences. Future solar energy plans, the role of solar energy in plant and fossil fuel production, and…

  13. Solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system design and case study%太阳能辅助地埋管地源热泵系统设计及实例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季永明; 端木琳; 李祥立

    2017-01-01

    Presents an improved method to determine the solar collector area of the solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system based on the heat balance method.For a commercial building in Dalian,proposes the design scheme of a solar-assisted ground-source heat pump system.Simulates the operating parameters of the system by TRNSYS,and the results show that,on the basis of ensuring the heating capacity of the building,the system guarantees the average temperature of the thermal storage soil which contains the ground heat exchanger periodic and consistent change,and the COP of the heat pump is improved significantly compared with that of the system without solar collectors in winter.%基于热平衡法提出了确定太阳能辅助地埋管地源热泵系统中太阳能集热器面积的方法.针对大连地区一公共建筑,提出了太阳能辅助地埋管地源热泵系统设计方案.采用TRNSYS软件对该系统运行参数进行了仿真模拟,结果显示,在保证建筑供热量的基础上,系统能长期保证热泵源侧换热器所在蓄热土壤平均温度呈周期性一致变化,且冬季热泵机组COP较无集热器工况显著提高.

  14. Thermo-hydraulic performance enhancement of solar air heater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Keywords: Solar air heater; Nusselt number; thermal efficiency; multiple arcs with ... loss; and one or two covers of glass or transparent plastic provide resistance to ..... Methods of testing to determine the thermal performance of solar collectors.

  15. A novel design for a cheap high temperature solar collector: The rotating solar boiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijtelaer, van J.P.H.; Kroon, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work a novel type of high temperature solar collector is designed: the rotating solar boiler. This rotating solar boiler consists of two concentric tubes. The inner tube, called absorber, absorbs sunlight and boils water. The outer transparent tube, called cover, is filled with air. The

  16. Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, D.

    1981-01-01

    The book opens with a review of the patterns of energy use and resources in the United States, and an exploration of the potential of solar energy to supply some of this energy in the future. This is followed by background material on solar geometry, solar intensities, flat plate collectors, and economics. Detailed attention is then given to a variety of solar units and systems, including domestic hot water systems, space heating systems, solar-assisted heat pumps, intermediate temperature collectors, space heating/cooling systems, concentrating collectors for high temperatures, storage systems, and solar total energy systems. Finally, rights to solar access are discussed.

  17. Solar Combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This note first introduces what is a solar combisystem, the structure how a solar combisystem is build up and what are criteria’s to evaluate a solar combisystem concept. Further on the main components of a solar combisystem, the main characteristics and possible advantages and disadvantages...... compared to each other are described. It is not the goal of this note to explain the technical details how to design all components of a solar combisystem. This is done during other lectures of the solar course and in other basic courses as well. This note tries to explain how a solar combisystem...

  18. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  19. Solar Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  20. 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas, Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the Sheriff RMS and E-911 map rolls. Cover is painstakingly maintained interactively by GIS staff. All atom boundaries are snapped to the road centerline cover, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — 911 Call Center (PSAP) Service Areas dataset current as of 2008. Master coverage of "atom" features used as a source to generate several derivative layers for the...

  1. Solar radiophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, D.J.; Labrum, N.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats all aspects of solar radioastronomy at metre wavelengths, particularly work carried out on the Australian radioheliograph at Culgoora, with which most of the authors have been associated in one way or another. After an introductory section on historical aspects, the solar atmosphere, solar flares, and coronal radio emission, the book deals with instrumentation, theory, and details of observations and interpretations of the various aspects of metrewave solar radioastronomy, including burst types, solar storms, and the quiet sun. (U.K.)

  2. Correlated declines in Pacific arctic snow and sea ice cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robert P.; Douglas, David C.; Belchansky, Gennady I.; Drobot, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Simulations of future climate suggest that global warming will reduce Arctic snow and ice cover, resulting in decreased surface albedo (reflectivity). Lowering of the surface albedo leads to further warming by increasing solar absorption at the surface. This phenomenon is referred to as “temperature–albedo feedback.” Anticipation of such a feedback is one reason why scientists look to the Arctic for early indications of global warming. Much of the Arctic has warmed significantly. Northern Hemisphere snow cover has decreased, and sea ice has diminished in area and thickness. As reported in the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment in 2004, the trends are considered to be outside the range of natural variability, implicating global warming as an underlying cause. Changing climatic conditions in the high northern latitudes have influenced biogeochemical cycles on a broad scale. Warming has already affected the sea ice, the tundra, the plants, the animals, and the indigenous populations that depend on them. Changing annual cycles of snow and sea ice also affect sources and sinks of important greenhouse gases (such as carbon dioxide and methane), further complicating feedbacks involving the global budgets of these important constituents. For instance, thawing permafrost increases the extent of tundra wetlands and lakes, releasing greater amounts of methane into the atmosphere. Variable sea ice cover may affect the hemispheric carbon budget by altering the ocean–atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. There is growing concern that amplification of global warming in the Arctic will have far-reaching effects on lower latitude climate through these feedback mechanisms. Despite the diverse and convincing observational evidence that the Arctic environment is changing, it remains unclear whether these changes are anthropogenically forced or result from natural variations of the climate system. A better understanding of what controls the seasonal distributions of snow and ice

  3. Alternative cover design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-11-01

    The special study on Alternative Cover Designs is one of several studies initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in response to the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards. The objective of this study is to investigate the possibility of minimizing the infiltration of precipitation through stabilized tailings piles by altering the standard design of covers currently used on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Prior. to the issuance of the proposed standards, UMTRA Project piles had common design elements to meet the required criteria, the most important of which were for radon diffusion, long-term stability, erosion protection, and groundwater protection. The standard pile covers consisted of three distinct layers. From top to bottom they were: rock for erosion protection; a sand bedding layer; and the radon barrier, usually consisting of a clayey sand material, which also functioned to limit infiltration into the tailings. The piles generally had topslopes from 2 to 4 percent and sideslopes of 20 percent

  4. Solar engineering 1995: Proceedings. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, W.B.; Tanaka, Tadayoshi; Claridge, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of the papers presented at the 1995 ASME/JSME/JSES International Solar Energy Conference. The topics of the papers include wind energy, heat pump performance, ground source and solar chemical heat pumps, analysis of measured building energy data, thermal storage, system modeling of buildings, evaluation of the Federal Building energy Efficiency program, sustainable projects, bioconversion, solar chemistry, solar detoxification innovative concepts and industrial applications, solar thermal power systems, DISH/engine power systems, power towers, solar thermal power advanced development, and solar thermal process heating and cooling

  5. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2009-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  6. Solar energy engineering processes and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogirou, Soteris A

    2013-01-01

    As perhaps the most promising of all the renewable energy sources available today, solar energy is becoming increasingly important in the drive to achieve energy independence and climate balance. This new book is the masterwork from world-renowned expert Dr. Soteris Kalogirou, who has championed solar energy for decades. The book includes all areas of solar energy engineering, from the fundamentals to the highest level of current research. The author includes pivotal subjects such as solar collectors, solar water heating, solar space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, solar desalina

  7. The efficiency analysis on solar energy auxiliary soil source heat pump heating in cold region%严寒地区太阳能辅助土壤源热泵供热经济性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杨洋

    2016-01-01

    To solve the suction and discharge heat imbalance problems in soil source heat pump system long running in cold region,this paper put forward the solar assisted soil source heat pump system,and compared the efficiency of this plan with traditional central heating system,pointed out that the solar assisted soil source heat pump system in service life cycle had good energy conservation and environmental protection benefits.%为解决严寒地区土壤源热泵系统长期运行出现吸排热量失衡的问题,提出了太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统方案,并将该方案与传统集中供热系统方案的经济性作了对比,指出太阳能辅助土壤源热泵系统在使用寿命周期内具有良好的节能环保效益。

  8. 太阳能与地源热泵联合温室大棚系统的设计%System design of solar greenhouses combined with ground source heat pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏伟; 穆青; 董继先; 王彬权

    2015-01-01

    Greenhouse is an irreplaceable technology in modern agriculture, but it was easily affected by weather. The combination of solar energy-ground source heat pump system can make full use of the complementary advantages of both of them.It confirmed the stable operation of greenhouses all year round.Therefore, a solar greenhouse com-bined with ground source heat pump system and the PLC control circuit of the system were designed, and the brief a-nalysis on the feasibility was carried out.It also provides certain reference and suggestion about subsequent applica-tion of the greenhouses combined with solar energy and ground source heat pump system.%温室大棚是现代农业中不可替代的技术,但其受天气影响比较大,采用太阳能—地源热泵联合系统作业的方式,可充分利用二者的优势,使得温室大棚一年四季稳定运行。为此,设计了太阳能与地源热泵联合温室大棚系统及该系统的PLC控制回路,并对其可行性进行了简要分析,可为后续太阳能—地源热泵联合系统在温室大棚中的应用提供参考。

  9. Discussion of the Integrate Designs between Solar Energy Water Heating System and Air-source Heat Pump%空气源热泵与太阳能热水系统集成设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 南晓红; 马俊; 李飞

    2011-01-01

    对不同地区应用的几种不同形式空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统设计方案进行介绍探讨,并以其为基础提出一种新的空气源热泵与太阳能热水系统集成的多功能系统设计方案。总结了不同地区、不同形式空气源热泵辅助型太阳能热水系统的设计方案、特点及新集成系统运行模式等,为我国不同地区应用此类系统时选择具体设计方案提供参考。%In this paper,different designs of the solar energy water heating system aided by air-source heat pump(SEWH-ASHP) are introduced and discussed,then a new integrate design between solar energy water heating system and air-source heat pump is given.Characters of different designs of the solar energy water heating system aided by air-source heat pump in different area are summed and the operational modes of the integrate system are analysed,which would be a useful reference to chose for designing and using the system of SEWH-ASHP and integrate system in different areas in China.

  10. Solar Cell Panel and the Method for Manufacturing the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Sarver, Charles F. (Inventor); Naidenkova, Maria (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    According to an aspect of an embodiment of the present disclosure, there is provided a solar cell panel and a method for manufacturing the same. The solar cell panel comprises: a solar cell for generating electric power from sunlight; a coverglass for covering the solar cell; transparent shims, which are disposed between the solar cell and the coverglass at the points where the distance between the solar cell and the coverglass needs to be controlled, and form a space between the solar cell and the coverglass; and adhesive layer, which fills the space between the solar cell and the coverglass and has the thickness the same as that of the transparent shims.

  11. Frontier of solar observation. Solar activity observed by 'HINODE' mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    After launched in September 2006, solar observation satellite 'HINODE' has been a solar observatory on orbit with the scientific instruments well operated and its continuous observation was conducted steadily on almost all solar atmospheres from photosphere to corona. 'HINODE' was equipped with the solar optical telescope, extreme-ultraviolet imaging spectrometer and x-ray telescope and aimed at clarifying the mystery of solar physics related with coronal heating and magnetic reconnection. Present state of 'HINODE' was described from observations made in initial observation results, which have made several discoveries, such as Alfven waves in the corona, unexpected dynamics in the chromosphere and photosphere, continuous outflowing plasma as a possible source of solar wind, and fine structures of magnetic field in sunspots and solar surface. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Monitoring of the solar activity and solar energetic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akioka, Maki; Kubo, Yuki; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Ohtaka, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Solar activity is the source of various space weather phenomena in geospace and deep space. Solar X-ray radiation in flare, energetic particles, coronal mass ejection (CME) can cause various kind of disturbance near earth space. Therefore, detailed monitoring of the solar activity and its propagation in the interplanetary space is essential task for space weather. For example, solar energetic particle which sometimes affect spacecraft operation and manned space flight, is considered to be produced by solar flares and travelling shockwave caused by flares and CME. The research and development of monitoring technique and system for various solar activity has been an important topic of space weather forecast program in NICT. In this article, we will introduce the real time data acquisitions of STEREO and optical and radio observations of the Sun at Hiraiso Solar Observatory. (author)

  13. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  14. Effective aerosol optical depth from pyranometer measurements of surface solar radiation (global radiation) at Thessaloniki, Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Lindfors, A. V.; Kouremeti, N.; Arola, A.; Kazadzis, S.; Bais, A. F.; Laaksonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pyranometer measurements of the solar surface radiation (SSR) are available at many locations worldwide, often as long time series covering several decades into the past. These data constitute a potential source of information on the atmospheric aerosol load. Here, we present a method for estimating the aerosol optical depth (AOD) using pyranometer measurements of the SSR together with total water vapor column information. The method, which is based on radiative transfer simulations, w...

  15. Solar and Hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirgan, F.; Beyhan, S.; Oezenler, S.

    2006-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the only sustainable and environmentally friendly energy is the solar energy and hydrogen energy, which can meet the increasing energy demand in the future. Solar Energy may be used either for solar thermal or for solar electricity conversion. Solar thermal collectors represent a wide-spread type of system for the conversion of solar energy. Radiation, convection and conduction are strongly coupled energy transport mechanisms in solar collector systems. The economic viability of lower temperature applications of solar energy may be improved by increasing the quantity of usable energy delivered per unit area of collector. This can be achieved by the use of selective black coatings which have a high degree of solar absorption, maintaining high energy input to the solar system while simultaneously suppressing the emission of thermal infrared radiation. Photovoltaic solar cells and modules are produced for: (1) large scale power generation, most commonly when modules are incorporated as part of a building (building integrated photovoltaic s) but also in centralised power stations, (2) supplying power to villages and towns in developing countries that are not connected to the supply grid, e.g. for lighting and water pumping systems, (3) supplying power in remote locations, e.g. for communications or weather monitoring equipment, (4) supplying power for satellites and space vehicles, (5) supplying power for consumer products, e.g. calculators, clocks, toys and night lights. In hydrogen energy systems, Proton exchange membrane (PEMFC) fuel cells are promising candidates for applications ranging from portable power sources (battery replacement applications) to power sources for future electric vehicles because of their safety, elimination of fuel processor system, thus, simple device fabrication and low cost. Although major steps forward have been achieved in terms of PEMFC design since the onset of research in this area, further

  16. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  17. Alternate cover materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    As an effort to enhance compliance with the proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) groundwater standards, several special studies are being performed by the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to identify and evaluate various design features that may reduce groundwater-related releases from tailings piles. The objective of this special study is to assess the suitability of using alternate cover materials (other than geomembranes) as infiltration barriers in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project piles to minimize leachate generation. The materials evaluated in this study include various types of asphalts, concretes, and a sodium bentonite clay/polypropylene liner system

  18. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  19. Suitability of peanut residue as a nitrogen source for a rye cover crop Resíduos da cultura de amendoim como fonte de nitrogênio para uma cultura de cobertura de centeio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling Shane Balkcom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous winter cover crops have been utilized in conservation systems to partially meet nitrogen (N requirements of succeeding summer cash crops, but the potential of summer legumes to reduce N requirements of a winter annual grass, used as a cover crop, has not been extensively examined. This study assessed the N contribution of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. residues to a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop grown in a conservation system on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic Plinthic Kandiudults at Headland, AL USA during the 2003-2005 growing seasons. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with main plots of peanut residue retained or removed from the soil surface, and subplots as N application rates (0, 34, 67 and 101 kg ha-1 applied in the fall. Peanut residue had minimal to no effect on rye biomass yields, N content, carbon (C /N ratio, or N, P, K, Ca and Zn uptake. Additional N increased rye biomass yield, and N, P, K, Ca, and Zn uptakes. Peanut residue does not contribute significant amounts of N to a rye cover crop grown as part of a conservation system, but retaining peanut residue on the soil surface could protect the soil from erosion early in the fall and winter before a rye cover crop grows sufficiently to protect the typically degraded southeastern USA soils.Culturas leguminosas de inverno tem sido utilizadas em sistemas conservacionistas para suprimento parcial das necessidades de nitrogênio (N de culturas subseqüentes de verão, mas o potencial destas culturas leguminosas de verão no sentido de reduzir as necessidades de N de gramíneas anuais de inverno, utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, ainda não foi extensivamente estudado. Este trabalho avaliou a contribuição dos resíduos de uma cultura de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. sobre as necessidades de N de uma cultura subsequente de centeio (Secale cereale L. como cobertura desenvolvida dentro de um sistema conservacionista, em um

  20. Performance analysis of a soil-based thermal energy storage system using solar-driven air-source heat pump for Danish buildings sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jradi, M.; Veje, C.; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2017-01-01

    and the economic and environmental aspects. However, the intermittent nature of solar energy and the lack of high solar radiation intensities in various climates favour the use of various energy storage techniques to eliminate the discrepancy between energy supply and demand. The current work presents an analysis......, Denmark, in addition to charging the soil storage medium in summer months when excess electric power is generated. The stored heat is discharged in December and January to provide the space heating and domestic hot water demands of the residential project without the utilization of an external heating...... losses and the surrounding soil temperature variation throughout the year. It was found that the overall system heating coefficient of performance is around 4.76, where the reported energetic efficiency is 5.88% for the standalone PV system, 19.1% for the combined PV-ASHP system, and 22...

  1. The Dependence of the Peak Velocity of High-Speed Solar Wind Streams as Measured in the Ecliptic by ACE and the STEREO satellites on the Area and Co-Latitude of their Solar Source Coronal Holes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmeister, Stefan J.; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela

    2018-01-01

    We study the properties of 115 coronal holes in the time‐range from 2010/08 to 2017/03, the peak velocities of the corresponding high‐speed streams as measured in the ecliptic at 1AU, and the corresponding changes of the Kp index as marker of their geo‐effectiveness. We find that the peak...... statistically to zero, indicating that the associated high‐speed streams have a high chance to miss the Earth. Similar, the Kp index per coronal hole area is highest for the coronal holes located near the solar equator and strongly decreases with increasing latitudes of the coronal holes. We interpret...

  2. Validation, Optimization and Simulation of a Solar Thermoelectric Generator Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkhali, Hadi Ali; Hamil, Ali; Lee, HoSung

    2017-12-01

    This study explores thermoelectrics as a viable option for small-scale solar thermal applications. Thermoelectric technology is based on the Seebeck effect, which states that a voltage is induced when a temperature gradient is applied to the junctions of two differing materials. This research proposes to analyze, validate, simulate, and optimize a prototype solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) model in order to increase efficiency. The intent is to further develop STEGs as a viable and productive energy source that limits pollution and reduces the cost of energy production. An empirical study (Kraemer et al. in Nat Mater 10:532, 2011) on the solar thermoelectric generator reported a high efficiency performance of 4.6%. The system had a vacuum glass enclosure, a flat panel (absorber), thermoelectric generator and water circulation for the cold side. The theoretical and numerical approach of this current study validated the experimental results from Kraemer's study to a high degree. The numerical simulation process utilizes a two-stage approach in ANSYS software for Fluent and Thermal-Electric Systems. The solar load model technique uses solar radiation under AM 1.5G conditions in Fluent. This analytical model applies Dr. Ho Sung Lee's theory of optimal design to improve the performance of the STEG system by using dimensionless parameters. Applying this theory, using two cover glasses and radiation shields, the STEG model can achieve a highest efficiency of 7%.

  3. An Analysis of the Use of Energy Audits, Solar Panels, and Wind Turbines to Reduce Energy Consumption from Non Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-15

    a need to reduce water consumption whenever possible. Congress issued the initial guidelines for flow control in various plumbing products via the...Base • Florida Solar Energy Center ( Cocoa , FL) • Houston County Solid Waste Disposal Facility (Kathleen, GA) Certification CDEP interns each... PRODUCTS · COMPIOP AGG $ 2,000,000 POUCY ~rg: LOC $ ~"’~"~ ~~~INGlE UMIT s All’f AUTO BODILY INJURY (Por pononj $ ........ ~~,~~ BODILY INJURY (Por

  4. Photurgen: The open source software for the analysis and design of hybrid solar wind energy systems in the Caribbean region: A brief introduction to its development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daren Watson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES use multiple renewable resources such as hydro, solar and wind collaboratively to produce energy that can meet a defined load demand continuously. Their combination can lead to the improvement in the systems efficiency and overall reliability. However, the level of penetration of HRES in the Caribbean region is less than its expected potential. The constraints generated by their complexity and the costly access to useful energy planning tools is a limitation to their implementation. Therefore, in collaboration with the Alternative Energy Research Group, UWI Mona, we develop a free Linear Optimization software, Photurgen, for the design and analysis of hybrid solar-wind systems within the Caribbean region. Solar-wind hybrid systems are simulated based on historic climatological resources and instantaneous load consumption data, providing the user with graphics and advice for their optimal configuration. This paper introduces the first version of Photurgen and its associated development policies. This tool is one simple solution to be applied to increase the rate of autonomous and grid-tied households within the region, with Jamaica being its experimental location.

  5. Investigation of Relationship between High-energy X-Ray Sources and Photospheric and Helioseismic Impacts of X1.8 Solar Flare of 2012 October 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharykin, I. N.; Zimovets, I. V. [Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kosovichev, A. G.; Sadykov, V. M. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); Myshyakov, I. I., E-mail: ivan.sharykin@phystech.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Research (ISTP) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-07-01

    The X-class solar flare of 2012 October 23 generated continuum photospheric emission and a strong helioseismic wave (“sunquake”) that points to an intensive energy release in the dense part of the solar atmosphere. We study properties of the energy release with high temporal and spatial resolutions, using photospheric data from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board Solar Dynamics Observatory , and hard X-ray observations made by RHESSI . For this analysis we use level-1 HMI data (filtergrams), obtained by scanning the Fe i line (6731 Å) with the time cadence of ∼3.6 s and spatial resolution of ∼0.″5 per pixel. It is found that the photospheric disturbances caused by the flare spatially coincide with the region of hard X-ray emission but are delayed by ≲4 s. This delay is consistent with predictions of the flare hydrodynamics RADYN models. However, the models fail to explain the magnitude of variations observed by the HMI. The data indicate that the photospheric impact and helioseismic wave might be caused by the electron energy flux, which is substantially higher than that in the current flare radiative hydrodynamic models.

  6. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, Christoph; Pfluger, Benjamin; Eichhammer, Wolfgang; Ragwitz, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research highlights: → This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. → The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. → Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. → Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. → Scenario outlook for the North African CSP

  7. Fruitful symbiosis: Why an export bundled with wind energy is the most feasible option for North African concentrated solar power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.kost@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Pfluger, Benjamin, E-mail: benjamin.pfluger@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Eichhammer, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.eichhammer@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ragwitz, Mario, E-mail: mario.ragwitz@isi.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Breslauer Strasse 48, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The idea of generating electricity in North Africa using concentrating solar thermal power (CSP) has been around for some time now but has recently gained momentum through the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the formation of the Desertec Industrial Initiative. This paper argues that while the large-scale deployment of CSP in North Africa does not seem economically attractive for either European or African institutions or countries on their own at present, combining domestic use and electricity exports could be profitable for both parties. A detailed economic portfolio covering both solar and wind power plants can achieve competitive price levels, which would accelerate the diffusion of solar technology in North Africa. This portfolio could be financed partially by exporting electricity from solar thermal plants in North Africa via HVDC interconnections to European consumers. Sharing the costs in this way makes it possible to generate solar electricity for the domestic market at a reasonable cost. Some of the electricity produced from the solar power plants and wind parks in North Africa is sold on European energy markets in the form of a long-term contracted solar-wind portfolio, which would qualify for support from the financial incentive schemes of the European Member States (e.g. feed-in tariffs). This transfer of green electricity could help to meet the targets for energy from renewable energy sources (RES) in the EU Member States as the new EU Directive of 2009 opened the European electricity market to imports from third states. - Research Highlights: > This paper describes a feasible approach to financing a larger deployment of CSP in North Africa. > The proposed portfolio includes local consumption and electricity export to Europe. > Bundling wind with solar power as a business model for exporting solar electricity. > Prices of the solar-wind mix are competitive with other renewable energy sources. > Scenario outlook for the North African CSP market in

  8. Solution for Improve the Efficiency of Solar Photovoltaic Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present a solution for improving efficiency of solar photovoltaic installation, realized with fixed solar photovoltaic modules, placed in solar parks or individual installations. The proposed solution to increase the radiation on the solar photovoltaic panels is to use some thin plates covered with a reflective blanket, mounted in front of the solar photovoltaic modules, with the possibility of their adjustment.

  9. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  10. Solar Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar photographic and illustrated datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide....

  11. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  12. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Solar energy applications in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilenikhena, P.A.; Ezemonye, L.I.N.

    2010-09-15

    Solar radiation being abundantly present in Nigeria was one area of focus in renewable energy sources. Researches were carried out and technologies produced for direct harnessing of the energy in six energy centres across the country. Some state governments in collaboration with non-governmental agencies also sponsored solar energy projects in some villages that are not connected to the national grid.

  14. Minnesota Land Use and Cover - A 1990's Census of the Land - Tiled

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set integrates six different source data sets to provide a simplified overall view of Minnesota's land use / cover. The six source data sets covered...

  15. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  16. Development in fiscal 1998 of technology to put solar systems for industrial use into practical use. Investigative research on solar system (Development, investigation and research of solar heat utilizing system); 1998 nendo sangyoyonado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Solar system no chosa kenkyu (taiyonetsu riyo system no gijutsu kaihatsu chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    With an objective to prepare a strategic technological development program for solar heat utilization, evaluations and discussions were given on solar heat utilization from the viewpoints of 'utilizing applications', 'demand' and 'possibility of the proliferation thereof'. In the solar heat utilization, the cost rising in approximate proportion with scale of the heat utilization must be considered as one of the predestined conditions. What can be conceived as a means to enhance the economic performance by using engineering approaches would include heat storage, elementary technologies for transportation and the standardization thereof, and the scale economy on the production side in mass production. As a required step in which the series of favorable circulation of standardization to mass production, cost reduction and large quantity proliferation can be induced, it is appropriate to assume household use with high calorie unit price as the target. The household area covers room heating and hot water supply, in which the temperature level is much lower than in industrial use. In this area, a system may be established with a conception to use solar heat as the main heat source, and calorific power by fossil fuel as the supplementary heat source. Solar heat utilization may be considered utilizable in foodstuff factories and school lunch supply centers. (NEDO)

  17. The Design And Development Of Solar Maize Dryer With Subsidiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solar Dryer with a subsidiary heating source for drying maize seed is designed and constructed. The dryer is made up a solar collector (heat source), the drying chamber (Product storage), and a subsidiary heating source (local oil). The plant when put in operation by expositing it to the solar rays, is capable of attaining a ...

  18. Application of Air Source Heat Pump plus Solar Energy in Domestic Hot Water Preparation System%空气源热泵+太阳能在热水制备系统中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李超; 卢强; 郭萌; 赵勇

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the commonly used heating modes and gives a detailed introduction of both air source heat pump technology and solar heating technology. Combined with the actual project, the steam heating system of hot water is changed into air source heat pump plus solar heating. By analyzing the actual enetgy consumption data, we obtain the energy -saving value, thus achieve the goal of energy efficiency.%通过对常用供热方式的分析,并对空气源热泵技术、太阳能制热技术原理的介绍,结合工程实际情况,将原蒸汽加热制热水方式改造为空气源热泵+太阳能制热。通过对实际能耗数据的经济分析,得出改造后的节能价值,达到了节约能源的目的。

  19. The Design of Hot Water Supply System of Solar Energy and Air Source Heat Pump%太阳能+空气源热泵的热水供应系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢春萍

    2015-01-01

    太阳能集中热水系统受到天气的影响难以全天候运行,需要设置辅助加热装置。以广州市宾馆热水供应为例,对太阳能空气源热泵的热水系统进行设计,包括空气源热泵热水机组选型计算、太阳能集热管面积计算、储热水箱的确定、集热循环水泵的确定。%Influenced by weather condition,it is difficult to run for hot water supply system of solar en-ergy all the time,and the auxiliary heating device need setting.Taking hot water supply in a hotel of Guangzhou city as an example in this paper,the heat pump system of solar energy and air source was designed,including the calculation of equipment selection of the air source heat pump, the calculation of the collector area,the determination of the heat storage tank,and the determina-tion of the circulating pump of the heat collection.

  20. Solar energy implementation in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Museckaite, Rasa; Kevelaitis, Karolis; Obialo, Gaisva R.; Raudonis, Vytautas

    2009-01-01

    This research focuses on energy sector in Nigeria, more precisely, the electricity sector. The current situation in the Nigeria is that energy supply is not covering the energy demand. We made a research to investigate if solar energy could be a solution for the present situation in the mentioned country acting as a supportive energy supply. We analyzed both economical and environmental costs/benefits of implementation of solar energy system. We analyzed environmental aspect by comparing sola...