WorldWideScience

Sample records for sources compatibility accuracy

  1. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography, and map sources - Compatibility, accuracy and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed to merge land cover/use data from Landsat, aerial photography and map sources into a grid-based geographic information system. The method basically involves computer-assisted categorization of Landsat data to provide certain user-specified land cover categories; manual interpretation of aerial photography to identify other selected land cover/use categories that cannot be obtained from Landsat data; identification of special features from aerial photography or map sources; merging of the interpreted data from all the sources into a computer compatible file under a standardized coding structure; and the production of land cover/use maps, thematic maps, and tabular data. The specific tasks accomplished in producing the merged land cover/use data file and subsequent output products are identified and discussed. It is shown that effective implementation of the merging method is critically dependent on selecting the 'best' data source for each user-specified category in terms of accuracy and time/cost tradeoffs.

  2. A procedure for merging land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography, and map sources: Compatibility, accuracy, and cost. Remote Sensing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enslin, W. R.; Tilmann, S. E.; Hill-Rowley, R.; Rogers, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Regional planning agencies are currently expressing a need for detailed land cover/use information to effectively meet the requirements of various federal programs. Individual data sources have advantages and limitations in fulfilling this need, both in terms of time/cost and technological capability. A methodology has been developed to merge land cover/use data from LANDSAT, aerial photography and map sources to maximize the effective use of a variety of data sources in the provision of an integrated information system for regional analysis. A test of the proposed inventory method is currently under way in four central Michigan townships. This test will evaluate the compatibility, accuracy and cost of the integrated method with reference to inventories developed from a single data source, and determine both the technological feasibility and analytical potential of such a system.

  3. Accuracy of MRI-compatible contrast media injectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saake, M; Wuest, W; Becker, S; Uder, M; Janka, R

    2014-03-01

    To analyze the exactness of MRI-compatible contrast media (CM) injectors in an experimental setup and clinical use. Ejected fluid volumes and amounts of CM were quantified for single and double piston injections. The focus was on small volumes, as used in pediatric examination and test-bolus measurements. Samples were collected before and after clinical MRI scans and amounts of CM were measured. For single piston injections the volume differences were minimal (mean difference 0.01  ml). For double piston injections the volume of the first injection was decreased (mean 20.74  ml, target 21.00  ml, p pistons of modern CM injectors work exactly. However, for small CM volumes the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value in both directions. Influence factors are an incomplete elimination of air and exchange processes between the CM and saline chaser in the injection system. • In MRI examinations of children and test-bolus measurements, small amounts of CM are used. • The accuracy of single piston injections is high. • In double piston injections the injected amount of CM can differ significantly from the target value. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Materials compatibility studies for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; Manneschmidt, E.T.

    1998-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high power facility for producing neutrons that utilizes flowing liquid mercury inside an austenitic stainless steel container as the target for a 1.0 GeV proton beam. Type 316 SS has been selected as the container material for the mercury and consequences of exposure of 316 SS to radiation, thermal shock, thermal stress, cavitation and hot, flowing mercury are all being addressed by R and D programs. In addition, corrosion studies also include evaluation of Inconel 718 because it has been successfully used in previous spallation neutron systems as a window material. Two types of compatibility issues relative to 316 SS/mercury and Inconel 718/mercury are being examined: (1) liquid metal embrittlement (LME) and (2) temperature gradient mass transfer. Studies have shown that mercury does not easily wet type 316 SS below 275 C. In the LME experiments, attempts were made to promote wetting of the steel by mercury either by adding gallium to the mercury or coating the specimen with a tin-silver solder that the mercury easily wets. The latter proved more reliable in establishing wetting, but there was no evidence of LME in any of the constant extension rate tensile tests either at 23 or 100 C. Inconel 718 also showed no change in room temperature properties when tested in mercury or mercury-gallium. However, there was evidence that the fracture was less ductile. Preliminary evaluation of mass transfer of either type 316 SS or Inconel 718 in mercury or mercury-gallium at 350 C (maximum temperature) did not reveal significant effects. Two 5,000 h thermal convection loop tests of type 316 SS are in progress, with specimens in both hot and cold test regions, at 300 and 240 C, respectively

  5. Development of Thread-compatible Open Source Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Lukas; Mars, Nidhal; Schappacher, Manuel; Sikora, Axel

    2017-07-01

    The Thread protocol is a recent development based on 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4), but with extensions regarding a more media independent approach, which - additionally - also promises true interoperability. To evaluate and analyse the operation of a Thread network a given open source 6LoWPAN stack for embedded devices (emb::6) has been extended in order to comply with the Thread specification. The implementation covers Mesh Link Establishment (MLE) and network layer functionality as well as 6LoWPAN mesh under routing mechanism based on MAC short addresses. The development has been verified on a virtualization platform and allows dynamical establishment of network topologies based on Thread’s partitioning algorithm.

  6. Coarse-mesh rebalance methods compatible with the spherical harmonic fictitious source in neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.F. Jr.

    1975-10-01

    The coarse-mesh rebalance method, based on neutron conservation, is used in discrete ordinates neutron transport codes to accelerate convergence of the within-group scattering source. Though very powerful for this application, the method is ineffective in accelerating the iteration on the discrete-ordinates-to-spherical-harmonics fictitious sources used for ray-effect elimination. This is largely because this source makes a minimum contribution to the neutron balance equation. The traditional rebalance approach is derived in a variational framework and compared with new rebalance approaches tailored to be compatible with the fictitious source. The new approaches are compared numerically to determine their relative advantages. It is concluded that there is little incentive to use the new methods. (3 tables, 5 figures)

  7. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible source of single photons at near-visible wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernansky, Robert; Martini, Francesco; Politi, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate on chip generation of correlated pairs of photons in the near-visible spectrum using a CMOS compatible PECVD Silicon Nitride photonic device. Photons are generated via spontaneous four wave mixing enhanced by a ring resonator with high quality Q-factor of 320,000 resulting in a generation rate of 950,000 $\\frac{pairs}{mW}$. The high brightness of this source offers the opportunity to expand photonic quantum technologies over a broad wavelength range and provides a path to develop fully integrated quantum chips working at room temperature.

  8. Magnetoencephalographic accuracy profiles for the detection of auditory pathway sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Martin; Trahms, Lutz; Sander, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    The detection limits for cortical and brain stem sources associated with the auditory pathway are examined in order to analyse brain responses at the limits of the audible frequency range. The results obtained from this study are also relevant to other issues of auditory brain research. A complementary approach consisting of recordings of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data and simulations of magnetic field distributions is presented in this work. A biomagnetic phantom consisting of a spherical volume filled with a saline solution and four current dipoles is built. The magnetic fields outside of the phantom generated by the current dipoles are then measured for a range of applied electric dipole moments with a planar multichannel SQUID magnetometer device and a helmet MEG gradiometer device. The inclusion of a magnetometer system is expected to be more sensitive to brain stem sources compared with a gradiometer system. The same electrical and geometrical configuration is simulated in a forward calculation. From both the measured and the simulated data, the dipole positions are estimated using an inverse calculation. Results are obtained for the reconstruction accuracy as a function of applied electric dipole moment and depth of the current dipole. We found that both systems can localize cortical and subcortical sources at physiological dipole strength even for brain stem sources. Further, we found that a planar magnetometer system is more suitable if the position of the brain source can be restricted in a limited region of the brain. If this is not the case, a helmet-shaped sensor system offers more accurate source estimation.

  9. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  10. Motion compensation for MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device: estimation of targeting accuracy in MRI-guided kidney cryoablations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Chauvin, Laurent; Ninni, Brian; Kato, Takahisa; King, Franklin; Tuncali, Kemal; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    Patient-mounted needle guide devices for percutaneous ablation are vulnerable to patient motion. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device that can adaptively compensate for displacement of the device due to patient motion using a novel image-based automatic device-to-image registration technique. We have developed a software system for an MRI-compatible patient-mounted needle guide device for percutaneous ablation. It features fully-automated image-based device-to-image registration to track the device position, and a device controller to adjust the needle trajectory to compensate for the displacement of the device. We performed: (a) a phantom study using a clinical MR scanner to evaluate registration performance; (b) simulations using intraoperative time-series MR data acquired in 20 clinical cases of MRI-guided renal cryoablations to assess its impact on motion compensation; and (c) a pilot clinical study in three patients to test its feasibility during the clinical procedure. FRE, TRE, and success rate of device-to-image registration were mm, mm, and 98.3% for the phantom images. The simulation study showed that the motion compensation reduced the targeting error for needle placement from 8.2 mm to 5.4 mm (p  <  0.0005) in patients under general anesthesia (GA), and from 14.4 mm to 10.0 mm () in patients under monitored anesthesia care (MAC). The pilot study showed that the software registered the device successfully in a clinical setting. Our simulation study demonstrated that the software system could significantly improve targeting accuracy in patients treated under both MAC and GA. Intraprocedural image-based device-to-image registration was feasible.

  11. Effect of Brain-to-Skull Conductivity Ratio on EEG Source Localization Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Gang Wang; Doutian Ren

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of the brain-to-skull conductivity ratio (BSCR) on EEG source localization accuracy. In this study, we evaluated four BSCRs: 15, 20, 25, and 80, which were mainly discussed according to the literature. The scalp EEG signals were generated by BSCR-related forward computation for each cortical dipole source. Then, for each scalp EEG measurement, the source reconstruction was performed to identify the estimated dipole sources by the actual ...

  12. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos Mb; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses.Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse's disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. A randomised factorial design was used in 2008-2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse's age and the reasoning skills of `deduction' and `analysis'. Improving nurses' dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses.

  13. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paans Wolter

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1 a knowledge inventory, (2 the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3 the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249 were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses.

  14. Source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity: a study of diagnostic accuracy following STARD criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Lantz, Göran; Rosenzweig, Ivana; Åkeson, Per; Pedersen, Birthe; Pinborg, Lars H; Ziebell, Morten; Jespersen, Bo; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders

    2013-10-01

    Although precise identification of the seizure-onset zone is an essential element of presurgical evaluation, source localization of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) signals has received little attention. The aim of our study was to estimate the accuracy of source localization of rhythmic ictal EEG activity using a distributed source model. Source localization of rhythmic ictal scalp EEG activity was performed in 42 consecutive cases fulfilling inclusion criteria. The study was designed according to recommendations for studies on diagnostic accuracy (STARD). The initial ictal EEG signals were selected using a standardized method, based on frequency analysis and voltage distribution of the ictal activity. A distributed source model-local autoregressive average (LAURA)-was used for the source localization. Sensitivity, specificity, and measurement of agreement (kappa) were determined based on the reference standard-the consensus conclusion of the multidisciplinary epilepsy surgery team. Predictive values were calculated from the surgical outcome of the operated patients. To estimate the clinical value of the ictal source analysis, we compared the likelihood ratios of concordant and discordant results. Source localization was performed blinded to the clinical data, and before the surgical decision. Reference standard was available for 33 patients. The ictal source localization had a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 76%. The mean measurement of agreement (kappa) was 0.61, corresponding to substantial agreement (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.84). Twenty patients underwent resective surgery. The positive predictive value (PPV) for seizure freedom was 92% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 43%. The likelihood ratio was nine times higher for the concordant results, as compared with the discordant ones. Source localization of rhythmic ictal activity using a distributed source model (LAURA) for the ictal EEG signals selected with a standardized method

  15. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? : a randomised study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; Krijnen, Wim P.; van der Schans, Cees P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of

  16. Incentive Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    Ledyard, John O.

    1987-01-01

    Incentive compatibility is described and discussed. A summary of the current state of understanding is provided. Key words are: incentive compatibility, game theory, implementation, mechanism, Bayes, Nash, and revelation.

  17. Two Simon tasks with different sources of conflict: an ERP study of motion- and location-based compatibility effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Wittfoth, Matthias; Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2008-07-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of two Simon tasks were examined using comparable stimuli but different task-irrelevant and conflict-inducing stimulus features. Whereas target shape was always the task-relevant stimulus attribute, either target location (location-based task) or motion direction within the target stimuli (motion-based task) was used as a source of conflict. Data from ten healthy participants who performed both tasks are presented. In the motion-based task the incompatible condition showed smaller P300 amplitudes at Pz than the compatible condition and the location-based task yielded a trend towards a reduced P300 amplitude in the incompatible condition. For both tasks, no P300 latency differences between the conditions were found at Pz. The results suggest that the motion-based task elicits behavioral and electrophysiological effects comparable with regular Simon tasks. As all stimuli in the motion-based Simon task were presented centrally the present data strongly argue against the attention-shifting account as an explanatory approach.

  18. The accuracy of webcams in 2D motion analysis: sources of error and their control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A; Candelas, P; Belmar, F; Moreno, R

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented. Finally, an experiment with controlled movement is performed to experimentally measure the errors described above and to assess the effectiveness of the proposed corrective measures. It will be shown that when these aspects are considered, it is possible to obtain errors lower than 0.1%. This level of accuracy demonstrates that webcams should be considered as very precise and accurate measuring instruments at a remarkably low cost

  19. The accuracy of webcams in 2D motion analysis: sources of error and their control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, A; Candelas, P; Belmar, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Moreno, R [Instituto de Biomecanica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: alvaro.page@ibv.upv.es

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, we show the potential of webcams as precision measuring instruments in a physics laboratory. Various sources of error appearing in 2D coordinate measurements using low-cost commercial webcams are discussed, quantifying their impact on accuracy and precision, and simple procedures to control these sources of error are presented. Finally, an experiment with controlled movement is performed to experimentally measure the errors described above and to assess the effectiveness of the proposed corrective measures. It will be shown that when these aspects are considered, it is possible to obtain errors lower than 0.1%. This level of accuracy demonstrates that webcams should be considered as very precise and accurate measuring instruments at a remarkably low cost.

  20. Relationship between the pitch of modulation collimators and the determination accuracy of source positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    The celestial positions of X-ray bursters and gamma-ray burst sources can be accurately determined with rotating modulation collimators which possess wide fields of view and also high angular resolutions. Since the determination accuracy is dependent on the signal to noise ratio of incident photons, the distribution of signal power is analysed and the optimum pitch of the modulation collimator for a burst of a given size is discussed. (author)

  1. A new source difference artificial neural network for enhanced positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Deepak; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Bhattacharya, Prabir

    2012-01-01

    Integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) units provide reliable navigation solution compared to standalone INS or GPS. Traditional Kalman filter-based INS/GPS integration schemes have several inadequacies related to sensor error model and immunity to noise. Alternatively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks with three layers have been implemented to improve the position accuracy of the integrated system. However, MLP neural networks show poor accuracy for low-cost INS because of the large inherent sensor errors. For the first time the paper demonstrates the use of knowledge-based source difference artificial neural network (SDANN) to improve navigation performance of low-cost sensor, with or without external aiding sources. Unlike the conventional MLP or artificial neural networks (ANN), the structure of SDANN consists of two MLP neural networks called the coarse model and the difference model. The coarse model learns the input–output data relationship whereas the difference model adds knowledge to the system and fine-tunes the coarse model output by learning the associated training or estimation error. Our proposed SDANN model illustrated a significant improvement in navigation accuracy of up to 81% over conventional MLP. The results demonstrate that the proposed SDANN method is effective for GPS/INS integration schemes using low-cost inertial sensors, with and without GPS

  2. Travel-time source-specific station correction improves location accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Alessandra; Materni, Valerio; Chiappini, Stefano; Carluccio, Roberto; Console, Rodolfo; Chiappini, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Accurate earthquake locations are crucial for investigating seismogenic processes, as well as for applications like verifying compliance to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Earthquake location accuracy is related to the degree of knowledge about the 3-D structure of seismic wave velocity in the Earth. It is well known that modeling errors of calculated travel times may have the effect of shifting the computed epicenters far from the real locations by a distance even larger than the size of the statistical error ellipses, regardless of the accuracy in picking seismic phase arrivals. The consequences of large mislocations of seismic events in the context of the CTBT verification is particularly critical in order to trigger a possible On Site Inspection (OSI). In fact, the Treaty establishes that an OSI area cannot be larger than 1000 km2, and its larger linear dimension cannot be larger than 50 km. Moreover, depth accuracy is crucial for the application of the depth event screening criterion. In the present study, we develop a method of source-specific travel times corrections based on a set of well located events recorded by dense national seismic networks in seismically active regions. The applications concern seismic sequences recorded in Japan, Iran and Italy. We show that mislocations of the order of 10-20 km affecting the epicenters, as well as larger mislocations in hypocentral depths, calculated from a global seismic network and using the standard IASPEI91 travel times can be effectively removed by applying source-specific station corrections.

  3. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Joint Source Location and Focal Mechanism Inversion: efficiency, accuracy and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Yu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The analysis of induced seismicity has become a common practice to evaluate the results of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Liang et al (2016) proposed a joint Source Scanning Algorithms (jSSA for short) to obtain microseismic events and focal mechanisms simultaneously. The jSSA is superior over traditional SSA in many aspects, but the computation cost is too significant to be applied in real time monitoring. In this study, we have developed several scanning schemas to reduce computation time. A multi-stage scanning schema is proved to be able to improve the efficiency significantly while also retain its accuracy. A series of tests have been carried out by using both real field data and synthetic data to evaluate the accuracy of the method and its dependence on noise level, source depths, focal mechanisms and other factors. The surface-based arrays have better constraints on horizontal location errors (0.5). For sources with varying rakes, dips, strikes and depths, the errors are mostly controlled by the partition of positive and negative polarities in different quadrants. More evenly partitioned polarities in different quadrants yield better results in both locations and focal mechanisms. Nevertheless, even with bad resolutions for some FMs, the optimized jSSA method can still improve location accuracies significantly. Based on much more densely distributed events and focal mechanisms, a gridded stress inversion is conducted to get a evenly distributed stress field. The full potential of the jSSA has yet to be explored in different directions, especially in earthquake seismology as seismic array becoming incleasingly dense.

  5. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  6. Accuracy and Sources of Error for an Angle Independent Volume Flow Estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates sources of error for a vector velocity volume flow estimator. Quantification of the estima tor’s accuracy is performed theoretically and investigated in vivo . Womersley’s model for pulsatile flow is used to simulate velo city profiles and calculate volume flow errors....... A BK Medical UltraView 800 ultrasound scanner with a 9 MHz linear array transducer is used to obtain Vector Flow Imaging sequences of a superficial part of the fistulas. Cross-sectional diameters of each fistu la are measured on B-mode images by rotating the scan plane 90 degrees. The major axis...

  7. INFLUENCE OF THE GALACTIC GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON THE POSITIONAL ACCURACY OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larchenkova, Tatiana I.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Lyskova, Natalya S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the influence of random variations of the Galactic gravitational field on the apparent celestial positions of extragalactic sources. The basic statistical characteristics of a stochastic process (first-order moments, an autocorrelation function and a power spectral density) are used to describe a light ray deflection in a gravitational field of randomly moving point masses as a function of the source coordinates. We map a 2D distribution of the standard deviation of the angular shifts in positions of distant sources (including reference sources of the International Celestial Reference Frame) with respect to their true positions. For different Galactic matter distributions the standard deviation of the offset angle can reach several tens of μ as (microarcsecond) toward the Galactic center, decreasing down to 4–6 μ as at high galactic latitudes. The conditional standard deviation (“jitter”) of 2.5 μ as is reached within 10 years at high galactic latitudes and within a few months toward the inner part of the Galaxy. The photometric microlensing events are not expected to be disturbed by astrometric random variations anywhere except the inner part of the Galaxy as the Einstein–Chvolson times are typically much shorter than the jittering timescale. While a jitter of a single reference source can be up to dozens of μ as over some reasonable observational time, using a sample of reference sources would reduce the error in relative astrometry. The obtained results can be used for estimating the physical upper limits on the time-dependent accuracy of astrometric measurements.

  8. INFLUENCE OF THE GALACTIC GRAVITATIONAL FIELD ON THE POSITIONAL ACCURACY OF EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larchenkova, Tatiana I. [ASC of P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninskiy prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Lyskova, Natalya S. [Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-20

    We investigate the influence of random variations of the Galactic gravitational field on the apparent celestial positions of extragalactic sources. The basic statistical characteristics of a stochastic process (first-order moments, an autocorrelation function and a power spectral density) are used to describe a light ray deflection in a gravitational field of randomly moving point masses as a function of the source coordinates. We map a 2D distribution of the standard deviation of the angular shifts in positions of distant sources (including reference sources of the International Celestial Reference Frame) with respect to their true positions. For different Galactic matter distributions the standard deviation of the offset angle can reach several tens of μ as (microarcsecond) toward the Galactic center, decreasing down to 4–6 μ as at high galactic latitudes. The conditional standard deviation (“jitter”) of 2.5 μ as is reached within 10 years at high galactic latitudes and within a few months toward the inner part of the Galaxy. The photometric microlensing events are not expected to be disturbed by astrometric random variations anywhere except the inner part of the Galaxy as the Einstein–Chvolson times are typically much shorter than the jittering timescale. While a jitter of a single reference source can be up to dozens of μ as over some reasonable observational time, using a sample of reference sources would reduce the error in relative astrometry. The obtained results can be used for estimating the physical upper limits on the time-dependent accuracy of astrometric measurements.

  9. Demonstrating High-Accuracy Orbital Access Using Open-Source Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Christian; Welch, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Orbit propagation is fundamental to almost every space-based analysis. Currently, many system analysts use commercial software to predict the future positions of orbiting satellites. This is one of many capabilities that can replicated, with great accuracy, without using expensive, proprietary software. NASAs SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Center for Engineering, Networks, Integration, and Communications (SCENIC) project plans to provide its analysis capabilities using a combination of internal and open-source software, allowing for a much greater measure of customization and flexibility, while reducing recurring software license costs. MATLAB and the open-source Orbit Determination Toolbox created by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) were utilized to develop tools with the capability to propagate orbits, perform line-of-sight (LOS) availability analyses, and visualize the results. The developed programs are modular and can be applied for mission planning and viability analysis in a variety of Solar System applications. The tools can perform 2 and N-body orbit propagation, find inter-satellite and satellite to ground station LOS access (accounting for intermediate oblate spheroid body blocking, geometric restrictions of the antenna field-of-view (FOV), and relativistic corrections), and create animations of planetary movement, satellite orbits, and LOS accesses. The code is the basis for SCENICs broad analysis capabilities including dynamic link analysis, dilution-of-precision navigation analysis, and orbital availability calculations.

  10. DETERMINANTS OF THE ACCURACY OF NURSING DIAGNOSES : INFLUENCE OF READY KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGE SOURCES, DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING, AND REASONING SKILLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; Van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  11. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses : influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  12. Variation in Microbial Identification System Accuracy for Yeast Identification Depending on Commercial Source of Sabouraud Dextrose Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Kellogg, James A.; Bankert, David A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    1999-01-01

    The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc.) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system’s accuracy.

  13. Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, J A; Bankert, D A; Chaturvedi, V

    1999-06-01

    The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy.

  14. Design of a UHV-compatible rf plasma source and its application to self-assembled layers of CoPt3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehl, B.; Leist, U.; Aleksandrovic, V.; Nickut, P.; Zielasek, V.; Weller, H.; Al-Shamery, K.; Baeumer, M.

    2006-01-01

    A compact, versatile, and simple rf plasma source with capacitive coupling compatible to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) requirements was designed and built to allow sequences of sample surface modification in plasma and surface preparation and analysis in vacuum without breaking the vacuum. The plasma source was operated at working pressures of less than 1 to a few millibars. Sample transfer to UHV was performed at pressures around 10 -9 mbar. For easy integration into an existing UHV setup, the sample recipient and transfer system were made to accept standard commercial sample holders. Preliminary experiments were performed by exposing monolayers of colloidal CoPt 3 nanoparticles to oxygen and hydrogen plasmas. The structural and chemical effects of the plasma treatments were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  15. Accuracy of open-source software segmentation and paper-based printed three-dimensional models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymor, Piotr; Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to verify the accuracy of models created with the help of open-source Slicer 3.6.3 software (Surgical Planning Lab, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA) and the Mcor Matrix 300 paper-based 3D printer. Our study focused on the accuracy of recreating the walls of the right orbit of a cadaveric skull. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the skull was performed (0.25-mm pixel size, 0.5-mm slice thickness). Acquired DICOM data were imported into Slicer 3.6.3 software, where segmentation was performed. A virtual model was created and saved as an .STL file and imported into Netfabb Studio professional 4.9.5 software. Three different virtual models were created by cutting the original file along three different planes (coronal, sagittal, and axial). All models were printed with a Selective Deposition Lamination Technology Matrix 300 3D printer using 80 gsm A4 paper. The models were printed so that their cutting plane was parallel to the paper sheets creating the model. Each model (coronal, sagittal, and axial) consisted of three separate parts (∼200 sheets of paper each) that were glued together to form a final model. The skull and created models were scanned with a three-dimensional (3D) optical scanner (Breuckmann smart SCAN) and were saved as .STL files. Comparisons of the orbital walls of the skull, the virtual model, and each of the three paper models were carried out with GOM Inspect 7.5SR1 software. Deviations measured between the models analysed were presented in the form of a colour-labelled map and covered with an evenly distributed network of points automatically generated by the software. An average of 804.43 ± 19.39 points for each measurement was created. Differences measured in each point were exported as a .csv file. The results were statistically analysed using Statistica 10, with statistical significance set at p paper-based Mcor Matrix 300 3D printer is comparable to those of other commonly used

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: Meta analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Gang, E-mail: cjr.sungang@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Li, Min [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jiang, Zhi-wei [Department of Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 169, Changle West Road, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Lin [Department of Medical Cardiology, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Peng, Zhao-hui; Ding, Juan; Li, Li [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinan Military General Hospital, No. 25, Shifan Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250031 (China); Jin, Zhi-tao [Department of Cardiology, General Hospital of the Second Artillery, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Rationale and objective: To synthesize the available data to underscore the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Materials and methods: We searched in the electronic databases of PubMed for all published studies that examined patients with AF using DSCT. We used an exact binomial rendition of the bivariate mixed-effects regression model to synthesize the diagnostic data. Results: The positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) at the patient level were 6.0 (CI, 3.6–10.1) and 0.03(CI, 0.004–0.2), respectively. The negative predictive values higher than 90% were available for a CAD prevalence <78%. The pooled vessel- and segment-level estimates showed higher positive and negative LRs than the patient-level estimates (15.3 [CI, 9.8–23.9] and 0.1 [CI, 0.07–0.3]; 25.1 [CI, 10.8–58.5] and 0.2 [CI, 0.2–0.3], respectively). No statistically significant heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were found at the patient level estimate. A sensitivity analysis showed that no study influenced the pooled results larger than 0.02. Conclusions: Cardiac angiography with DSCT can be applied as an imaging test for ruling out CAD in patient with AF. However, DSCT angiography may be not an effective tool for risk stratification for the high negative LR at the artery and segment levels.

  17. Accuracy of Dual-Energy Virtual Monochromatic CT Numbers: Comparison between the Single-Source Projection-Based and Dual-Source Image-Based Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueguchi, Takashi; Ogihara, Ryota; Yamada, Sachiko

    2018-03-21

    To investigate the accuracy of dual-energy virtual monochromatic computed tomography (CT) numbers obtained by two typical hardware and software implementations: the single-source projection-based method and the dual-source image-based method. A phantom with different tissue equivalent inserts was scanned with both single-source and dual-source scanners. A fast kVp-switching feature was used on the single-source scanner, whereas a tin filter was used on the dual-source scanner. Virtual monochromatic CT images of the phantom at energy levels of 60, 100, and 140 keV were obtained by both projection-based (on the single-source scanner) and image-based (on the dual-source scanner) methods. The accuracy of virtual monochromatic CT numbers for all inserts was assessed by comparing measured values to their corresponding true values. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the dependency of measured CT numbers on tissue attenuation, method, and their interaction. Root mean square values of systematic error over all inserts at 60, 100, and 140 keV were approximately 53, 21, and 29 Hounsfield unit (HU) with the single-source projection-based method, and 46, 7, and 6 HU with the dual-source image-based method, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed that the interaction between the attenuation and the method had a statistically significant effect on the measured CT numbers at 100 and 140 keV. There were attenuation-, method-, and energy level-dependent systematic errors in the measured virtual monochromatic CT numbers. CT number reproducibility was comparable between the two scanners, and CT numbers had better accuracy with the dual-source image-based method at 100 and 140 keV. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Family of Quantum Sources for Improving Near Field Accuracy in Transducer Modeling by the Distributed Point Source Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Placko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The distributed point source method, or DPSM, developed in the last decade has been used for solving various engineering problems—such as elastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, electrostatic, and fluid flow problems. Based on a semi-analytical formulation, the DPSM solution is generally built by superimposing the point source solutions or Green’s functions. However, the DPSM solution can be also obtained by superimposing elemental solutions of volume sources having some source density called the equivalent source density (ESD. In earlier works mostly point sources were used. In this paper the DPSM formulation is modified to introduce a new kind of ESD, replacing the classical single point source by a family of point sources that are referred to as quantum sources. The proposed formulation with these quantum sources do not change the dimension of the global matrix to be inverted to solve the problem when compared with the classical point source-based DPSM formulation. To assess the performance of this new formulation, the ultrasonic field generated by a circular planer transducer was compared with the classical DPSM formulation and analytical solution. The results show a significant improvement in the near field computation.

  19. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to nitrates from agricultural sources using a GIS-compatible logic multicriteria model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolledo, Boris; Gil, Antonia; Flotats, Xavier; Sánchez, José Ángel

    2016-04-15

    In the present study an overlay method to assess groundwater vulnerability is proposed. This new method based on multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) was developed and validated using an appropriate case study in Aragon area (NE Spain). The Vulnerability Index to Nitrates from Agricultural Sources (VINAS) incorporates a novel Logic Scoring of Preferences (LSP) approach, and it has been developed using public geographic information from the European Union. VINAS-LSP identifies areas with five categories of vulnerability, taking into account the hydrogeological and environmental characteristics of the territory as a whole. The resulting LSP map is a regional screening tool that can provide guidance on the potential risk of nitrate pollution, as well as highlight areas where specific research and farming planning policies are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement in the accuracy of flux measurement of radio sources by exploiting an arithmetic pattern in photon bunching noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Richard

    2018-01-01

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed, to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level, with the help of high precision computers, to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  1. Improvement in the Accuracy of Flux Measurement of Radio Sources by Exploiting an Arithmetic Pattern in Photon Bunching Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieu, Richard [Department of Physics, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    A hierarchy of statistics of increasing sophistication and accuracy is proposed to exploit an interesting and fundamental arithmetic structure in the photon bunching noise of incoherent light of large photon occupation number, with the purpose of suppressing the noise and rendering a more reliable and unbiased measurement of the light intensity. The method does not require any new hardware, rather it operates at the software level with the help of high-precision computers to reprocess the intensity time series of the incident light to create a new series with smaller bunching noise coherence length. The ultimate accuracy improvement of this method of flux measurement is limited by the timing resolution of the detector and the photon occupation number of the beam (the higher the photon number the better the performance). The principal application is accuracy improvement in the signal-limited bolometric flux measurement of a radio source.

  2. Impact of the diagnostic process on the accuracy of source identification and time to antibiotics in septic emergency department patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uittenbogaard, Annemieke J M; de Deckere, Ernie R J T; Sandel, Maro H; Vis, Alice; Houser, Christine M; de Groot, Bas

    2014-06-01

    Timely administration of effective antibiotics is important in sepsis management. Source-targeted antibiotics are believed to be most effective, but source identification could cause time delays. First, to describe the accuracy/time delays of a diagnostic work-up and the association with time to antibiotics in septic emergency department (ED) patients. Second, to assess the fraction in which source-targeted antibiotics could have been administered solely on the basis of patient history and physical examination. Secondary analysis of the prospective observational study on septic ED patients was carried out. The time to test result availability was associated with time to antibiotics. The accuracy of the suspected source of infection in the ED was assessed. For patients with pneumosepsis, urosepsis, and abdominal sepsis, combinations of signs and symptoms were assessed to achieve a maximal positive predictive value for the sepsis source, identifying a subset of patients in whom source-targeted antibiotics could be administered without waiting for diagnostic test results. The time to antibiotics increased by 18 (95% confidence interval: 12-24) min/h delay in test result availability (n=323). In 38-79% of patients, antibiotics were administered after additional tests, whereas the ED diagnosis was correct in 68-85% of patients. The maximal positive predictive value of signs and symptoms was 0.87 for patients with pneumosepsis and urosepsis and 0.75 for those with abdominal sepsis. Use of signs and symptoms would have led to correct ED diagnosis in 33% of patients. Diagnostic tests are associated with delayed administration of antibiotics to septic ED patients while increasing the diagnostic accuracy to only 68-85%. In one-third of septic ED patients, the choice of antibiotics could have been accurately determined solely on the basis of patient history and physical examination.

  3. The impact of catchment source group classification on the accuracy of sediment fingerprinting outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, Simon; Foster, Ian; Collins, Adrian L

    2017-06-01

    The objective classification of sediment source groups is at present an under-investigated aspect of source tracing studies, which has the potential to statistically improve discrimination between sediment sources and reduce uncertainty. This paper investigates this potential using three different source group classification schemes. The first classification scheme was simple surface and subsurface groupings (Scheme 1). The tracer signatures were then used in a two-step cluster analysis to identify the sediment source groupings naturally defined by the tracer signatures (Scheme 2). The cluster source groups were then modified by splitting each one into a surface and subsurface component to suit catchment management goals (Scheme 3). The schemes were tested using artificial mixtures of sediment source samples. Controlled corruptions were made to some of the mixtures to mimic the potential causes of tracer non-conservatism present when using tracers in natural fluvial environments. It was determined how accurately the known proportions of sediment sources in the mixtures were identified after unmixing modelling using the three classification schemes. The cluster analysis derived source groups (2) significantly increased tracer variability ratios (inter-/intra-source group variability) (up to 2122%, median 194%) compared to the surface and subsurface groupings (1). As a result, the composition of the artificial mixtures was identified an average of 9.8% more accurately on the 0-100% contribution scale. It was found that the cluster groups could be reclassified into a surface and subsurface component (3) with no significant increase in composite uncertainty (a 0.1% increase over Scheme 2). The far smaller effects of simulated tracer non-conservatism for the cluster analysis based schemes (2 and 3) was primarily attributed to the increased inter-group variability producing a far larger sediment source signal that the non-conservatism noise (1). Modified cluster analysis

  4. Improving mass measurement accuracy in mass spectrometry based proteomics by combining open source tools for chromatographic alignment and internal calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmblad, Magnus; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Dalebout, Hans; Derks, Rico J E; Schoenmaker, Bart; Deelder, André M

    2009-05-02

    Accurate mass determination enhances peptide identification in mass spectrometry based proteomics. We here describe the combination of two previously published open source software tools to improve mass measurement accuracy in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The first program, msalign, aligns one MS/MS dataset with one FTICRMS dataset. The second software, recal2, uses peptides identified from the MS/MS data for automated internal calibration of the FTICR spectra, resulting in sub-ppm mass measurement errors.

  5. Analysis of point source size on measurement accuracy of lateral point-spread function of confocal Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shihang; Zhang, Li; Hu, Yao; Ding, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) has matured to become one of the most powerful instruments in analytical science because of its molecular sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Compared with conventional Raman Microscopy, CRM can perform three dimensions mapping of tiny samples and has the advantage of high spatial resolution thanking to the unique pinhole. With the wide application of the instrument, there is a growing requirement for the evaluation of the imaging performance of the system. Point-spread function (PSF) is an important approach to the evaluation of imaging capability of an optical instrument. Among a variety of measurement methods of PSF, the point source method has been widely used because it is easy to operate and the measurement results are approximate to the true PSF. In the point source method, the point source size has a significant impact on the final measurement accuracy. In this paper, the influence of the point source sizes on the measurement accuracy of PSF is analyzed and verified experimentally. A theoretical model of the lateral PSF for CRM is established and the effect of point source size on full-width at half maximum of lateral PSF is simulated. For long-term preservation and measurement convenience, PSF measurement phantom using polydimethylsiloxane resin, doped with different sizes of polystyrene microspheres is designed. The PSF of CRM with different sizes of microspheres are measured and the results are compared with the simulation results. The results provide a guide for measuring the PSF of the CRM.

  6. Sources of pre-admission medication information: observational study of accuracy and availability.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzsimons, Michelle

    2011-12-01

    To identify the accessibility of sources of pre-admission medication (PAM) information, to quantify agreement between the PAM list and the \\'gold-standard\\' PAM list (GS-PAML) and to categorise disagreements.

  7. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  8. Generation of point isotropic source dose buildup factor data for the PFBR special concretes in a form compatible for usage in point kernel computer code QAD-CGGP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, G.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Around the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) reactor assembly, in the peripheral shields special concretes of density 2.4 g/cm 3 and 3.6 g/cm 3 are to be used in complex geometrical shapes. Point-kernel computer code like QAD-CGGP, written for complex shield geometry comes in handy for the shield design optimization of peripheral shields. QAD-CGGP requires data base for the buildup factor data and it contains only ordinary concrete of density 2.3 g/cm 3 . In order to extend the data base for the PFBR special concretes, point isotropic source dose buildup factors have been generated by Monte Carlo method using the computer code MCNP-4A. For the above mentioned special concretes, buildup factor data have been generated in the energy range 0.5 MeV to 10.0 MeV with the thickness ranging from 1 mean free paths (mfp) to 40 mfp. Capo's formula fit of the buildup factor data compatible with QAD-CGGP has been attempted

  9. Accuracy of advanced cancer patients' life expectancy estimates: The role of race and source of life expectancy information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Zhang, Baohui; Shen, Megan J; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-06-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the source of advanced cancer patients' information about their prognosis and determine whether this source of information could explain racial disparities in the accuracy of patients' life expectancy estimates (LEEs). Coping With Cancer was a prospective, longitudinal, multisite study of terminally ill cancer patients followed until death. In structured interviews, patients reported their LEEs and the sources of these estimates (ie, medical providers, personal beliefs, religious beliefs, and other). The accuracy of LEEs was calculated through a comparison of patients' self-reported LEEs with their actual survival. The sample for this analysis included 229 patients: 31 black patients and 198 white patients. Only 39.30% of the patients estimated their life expectancy within 12 months of their actual survival. Black patients were more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. A minority of the sample (18.3%) reported that a medical provider was the source of their LEEs; none of the black patients (0%) based their LEEs on a medical provider. Black race remained a significant predictor of an inaccurate LEE, even after the analysis had been controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and the source of LEEs. The majority of advanced cancer patients have an inaccurate understanding of their life expectancy. Black patients with advanced cancer are more likely to have an inaccurate LEE than white patients. Medical providers are not the source of information for LEEs for most advanced cancer patients and especially for black patients. The source of LEEs does not explain racial differences in LEE accuracy. Additional research into the mechanisms underlying racial differences in prognostic understanding is needed. Cancer 2016;122:1905-12. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons

  10. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, W.; Sermeus, W.; Nieweg, R.M.; Krijnen, W.P.; van der Schans, C.P.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the

  11. Problems of accuracy and sources of error in trace analysis of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porat, Ze'ev.

    1995-07-01

    The technological developments in the field of analytical chemistry in recent years facilitates trace analysis of materials in sub-ppb levels. This provides important information regarding the presence of various trace elements in the human body, in drinking water and in the environment. However, it also exposes the measurements to more severe problems of contamination and inaccuracy due to the high sensitivity of the analytical methods. The sources of error are numerous and can be included in three main groups: (a) impurities of various sources; (b) loss of material during sample processing; (c) problems of calibration and interference. These difficulties are discussed here in detail, together with some practical solutions and examples.(authors) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.,

  12. Problems of accuracy and sources of error in trace analysis of elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porat, Ze` ev

    1995-07-01

    The technological developments in the field of analytical chemistry in recent years facilitates trace analysis of materials in sub-ppb levels. This provides important information regarding the presence of various trace elements in the human body, in drinking water and in the environment. However, it also exposes the measurements to more severe problems of contamination and inaccuracy due to the high sensitivity of the analytical methods. The sources of error are numerous and can be included in three main groups: (a) impurities of various sources; (b) loss of material during sample processing; (c) problems of calibration and interference. These difficulties are discussed here in detail, together with some practical solutions and examples.(authors) 8 figs., 2 tabs., 18 refs.,.

  13. Dosimetry audit on the accuracy of 192Ir brachytherapy source strength determinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa

    2007-11-15

    The absorbed dose delivered to the patient in brachytherapy is directly proportional to the source strength in terms of the reference air-kerma rate (RAKR). Verification of this quantity by the hospitals is widely recognized as an important part of a quality assurance program. An external audit was performed on behalf of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The aim was to investigate how accurately the source-strength in 192Ir brachytherapy is determined at Swedish hospitals. The SSI reference well-type ion chamber and calibrated equipment were used to measure the RAKR of an 192Ir source in each of the 14 Swedish afterloading units. Comparisons with values determined by vendors and hospitals were made. Agreement in values of RAKR as determined by SSI, hospitals and vendors were in all cases within the +-3% uncertainty (at a coverage factor of k=2), typically guaranteed by the vendors. The good agreement reflects the robustness and easy handling of well-type chambers designed for brachytherapy in use by all Swedish hospitals. The 192Ir calibration service planned at SSI will solve the hospitals current problem with recalibration of equipment. SSI can also advise hospitals to follow the IAEA recommendations for measurement techniques and maintenance of equipment. It is worthwhile for the hospitals to establish their own ratio (or deviation) with the vendor and follow it as function of time. Such a mean-ratio embeds systematic differences of various origins and have a lower uncertainty than has the RAKR alone, making it useful for early detection of problems with equipment or routines. SSI could also define requirements for the agreement between source strengths as determined by hospitals and vendors and couple this to an action plan, dependent on level of disagreement, and some kind of reporting to SSI

  14. Dosimetry audit on the accuracy of 192Ir brachytherapy source strength determinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa

    2007-11-01

    The absorbed dose delivered to the patient in brachytherapy is directly proportional to the source strength in terms of the reference air-kerma rate (RAKR). Verification of this quantity by the hospitals is widely recognized as an important part of a quality assurance program. An external audit was performed on behalf of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The aim was to investigate how accurately the source-strength in 192 Ir brachytherapy is determined at Swedish hospitals. The SSI reference well-type ion chamber and calibrated equipment were used to measure the RAKR of an 192 Ir source in each of the 14 Swedish afterloading units. Comparisons with values determined by vendors and hospitals were made. Agreement in values of RAKR as determined by SSI, hospitals and vendors were in all cases within the ±3% uncertainty (at a coverage factor of k=2), typically guaranteed by the vendors. The good agreement reflects the robustness and easy handling of well-type chambers designed for brachytherapy in use by all Swedish hospitals. The 192 Ir calibration service planned at SSI will solve the hospitals current problem with recalibration of equipment. SSI can also advise hospitals to follow the IAEA recommendations for measurement techniques and maintenance of equipment. It is worthwhile for the hospitals to establish their own ratio (or deviation) with the vendor and follow it as function of time. Such a mean-ratio embeds systematic differences of various origins and have a lower uncertainty than has the RAKR alone, making it useful for early detection of problems with equipment or routines. SSI could also define requirements for the agreement between source strengths as determined by hospitals and vendors and couple this to an action plan, dependent on level of disagreement, and some kind of reporting to SSI

  15. Dosimetry audit on the accuracy of {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source strength determinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa

    2007-11-15

    The absorbed dose delivered to the patient in brachytherapy is directly proportional to the source strength in terms of the reference air-kerma rate (RAKR). Verification of this quantity by the hospitals is widely recognized as an important part of a quality assurance program. An external audit was performed on behalf of the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory at the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI). The aim was to investigate how accurately the source-strength in {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy is determined at Swedish hospitals. The SSI reference well-type ion chamber and calibrated equipment were used to measure the RAKR of an {sup 192}Ir source in each of the 14 Swedish afterloading units. Comparisons with values determined by vendors and hospitals were made. Agreement in values of RAKR as determined by SSI, hospitals and vendors were in all cases within the {+-}3% uncertainty (at a coverage factor of k=2), typically guaranteed by the vendors. The good agreement reflects the robustness and easy handling of well-type chambers designed for brachytherapy in use by all Swedish hospitals. The {sup 192}Ir calibration service planned at SSI will solve the hospitals current problem with recalibration of equipment. SSI can also advise hospitals to follow the IAEA recommendations for measurement techniques and maintenance of equipment. It is worthwhile for the hospitals to establish their own ratio (or deviation) with the vendor and follow it as function of time. Such a mean-ratio embeds systematic differences of various origins and have a lower uncertainty than has the RAKR alone, making it useful for early detection of problems with equipment or routines. SSI could also define requirements for the agreement between source strengths as determined by hospitals and vendors and couple this to an action plan, dependent on level of disagreement, and some kind of reporting to SSI.

  16. Thermophysical properties of rocks: a perspective on data needs, sources and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, H.P.; Sinnock, S.

    1979-01-01

    Recent emphasis on research in geologic isolation of nuclear wastes and geoenergy resource development has created a renewed demand for engineering thermophysical property data for rocks and other geologic materials at elevated pressures and temperatures. In contrast to fabricated engineering materials, with properties which can be specified, rocks used in engineering design are complex, naturally occurring materials having properties which must be characterized, rather than specified, for engineering studies. Much difficulty in measuring, reporting, and using thermophysical properties of rocks results from (1) rock inhomogeneity and anisotropy on both microscopic and macroscopic scales; (2) inclusion of pore fluids, such as water; and (3) measurement of laboratory properties under conditions quite different from those of in situ material. Because measurements on in situ materials are scarce, many analyses must depend on extrapolated values of uncertain accuracy. A survey of thermophysical property data available for geologic thermal transport studies indicates that caution must be taken to effectively match data abstracted from the literature with project objectives

  17. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  18. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Naviation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  19. Evaluation of a finite-element reciprocity method for epileptic EEG source localization: Accuracy, computational complexity and noise robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvany, Yazdan; Rubæk, Tonny; Edelvik, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of an EEG source localization method that combines a finite element method (FEM) and the reciprocity theorem.The reciprocity method is applied to solve the forward problem in a four-layer spherical head model for a large number of test dipoles...... noise and electrode misplacement.The results show approximately 3% relative error between numerically calculated potentials done by the reciprocity theorem and the analytical solutions. When adding EEG noise with SNR between 5 and 10, the mean localization error is approximately 4.3 mm. For the case...... with 10 mm electrode misplacement the localization error is 4.8 mm. The reciprocity EEG source localization speeds up the solution of the inverse problem with more than three orders of magnitude compared to the state-of-the-art methods.The reciprocity method has high accuracy for modeling the dipole...

  20. [Accuracy of attenuation coefficient obtained by 137Cs single-transmission scanning in PET: comparison with conventional germanium line source].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Kitamura, Keishi; Mizuta, Tetsuro; Shimizu, Keiji; Murase, Kenya; Senda, Michio

    2006-02-20

    Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a Cs-137 single-photon-emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. This method was effective for postinjection transmission scanning because of differences in physical energy. However, scatter contamination in the transmission data lowers measured attenuation coefficients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the influence of object scattering by measuring the attenuation coefficients on the transmission images. We also compared the results with the conventional germanium line source method. Two different types of PET scanner, the SET-3000 G/X (Shimadzu Corp.) and ECAT EXACT HR(+) (Siemens/CTI) , were used. For the transmission scanning, the SET-3000 G/X and ECAT HR(+) were the Cs-137 point source and Ge-68/Ga-68 line source, respectively. With the SET-3000 G/X, we performed transmission measurement at two energy gate settings, the standard 600-800 keV as well as 500-800 keV. The energy gate setting of the ECAT HR(+) was 350-650 keV. The effects of scattering in a uniform phantom with different cross-sectional areas ranging from 201 cm(2) to 314 cm(2) to 628 cm(2) (apposition of the two 20 cm diameter phantoms) and 943 cm(2) (stacking of the three 20 cm diameter phantoms) were acquired without emission activity. First, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients of the two different types of transmission scanning using region of interest (ROI) analysis. In addition, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients with and without segmentation for Cs-137 transmission images using the same analysis. The segmentation method was a histogram-based soft-tissue segmentation process that can also be applied to reconstructed transmission images. In the Cs-137 experiment, the maximum underestimation was 3% without segmentation, which was reduced to less than 1% with segmentation at the center of the largest phantom. In the Ge-68/Ga-68 experiment, the difference in mean attenuation

  1. Accuracy of attenuation coefficient obtained by 137Cs single-transmission scanning in PET. Comparison with conventional germanium line source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Kitamura, Keishi; Mizuta, Tetsuro; Murase, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    Transmission scanning can be successfully performed with a Cs-137 single-photon-emitting point source for three-dimensional PET imaging. This method was effective for postinjection transmission scanning because of differences in physical energy. However, scatter contamination in the transmission data lowers measured attenuation coefficients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the influence of object scattering by measuring the attenuation coefficients on the transmission images. We also compared the results with the conventional germanium line source method. Two different types of PET scanner, the SET-3000 G/X (Shimadzu Corp.) and ECAT EXACT HR + (Siemens/CTI), were used. For the transmission scanning, the SET-3000 G/X and ECAT HR + were the Cs-137 point source and Ge-68/Ga-68 line source, respectively. With the SET-3000 G/X, we performed transmission measurement at two energy gate settings, the standard 600-800 keV as well as 500-800 keV. The energy gate setting of the ECAT HR 2 + was 350-650 keV. The effects of scattering in a uniform phantom with different cross-sectional areas ranging from 201 cm 2 to 314 cm 2 to 628 cm 2 (apposition of the two 20 cm diameter phantoms) and 943 cm 2 (stacking of the three 20 cm diameter phantoms) were acquired without emission activity. First, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients of the two different types of transmission scanning using region of interest (ROI) analysis. In addition, we evaluated the attenuation coefficients with and without segmentation for Cs-137 transmission images using the same analysis. The segmentation method was a histogram-based soft-tissue segmentation process that can also be applied to reconstructed transmission images. In the Cs-137 experiment, the maximum underestimation was 3% without segmentation, which was reduced to less than 1% with segmentation at the center of the largest phantom. In the Ge-68/Ga-68 experiment, the difference in mean attenuation coefficients

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography: a randomized comparison of different acquisition protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neefjes, Lisan A.; Kate, Gert-Jan R. ten; Rossi, Alexia; Nieman, Koen; Papadopoulou, Stella L.; Dharampal, Anoeshka S.; Dedic, Admir; Feyter, Pim J. de; Mollet, Nico R.; Genders, Tessa S.S.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Schultz, Carl J.; Weustink, Annick C.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Straten, Marcel van; Cademartiri, Filippo; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance and radiation exposure of 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) protocols to detect coronary stenosis with more than 50 % lumen obstruction. We prospectively included 459 symptomatic patients referred for CTCA. Patients were randomized between high-pitch spiral vs. narrow-window sequential CTCA protocols (heart rate below 65 bpm, group A), or between wide-window sequential vs. retrospective spiral protocols (heart rate above 65 bpm, group B). Diagnostic performance of CTCA was compared with quantitative coronary angiography in 267 patients. In group A (231 patients, 146 men, mean heart rate 58 ± 7 bpm), high-pitch spiral CTCA yielded a lower per-segment sensitivity compared to sequential CTCA (89 % vs. 97 %, P = 0.01). Specificity, PPV and NPV were comparable (95 %, 62 %, 99 % vs. 96 %, 73 %, 100 %, P > 0.05) but radiation dose was lower (1.16 ± 0.60 vs. 3.82 ± 1.65 mSv, P 0.05). Radiation dose of sequential CTCA was lower compared to retrospective CTCA (6.12 ± 2.58 vs. 8.13 ± 4.52 mSv, P < 0.001). Diagnostic performance was comparable in both groups. Sequential CTCA should be used in patients with regular heart rates using 128-slice dual-source CT, providing optimal diagnostic accuracy with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation dose. circle 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography offers several different acquisition protocols. (orig.)

  3. Accuracy evaluation of distance inverse square law in determining virtual electron source location in Siemens Primus linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douk, Hamid Shafaei; Aghamiri, Mahmoud Reza; Ghorbani, Mahdi; Farhood, Bagher; Bakhshandeh, Mohsen; Hemmati, Hamid Reza

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the inverse square law (ISL) method for determining location of virtual electron source ( S Vir ) in Siemens Primus linac. So far, different experimental methods have presented for determining virtual and effective electron source location such as Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), Multiple Coulomb Scattering (MCS), and Multi Pinhole Camera (MPC) and Inverse Square Law (ISL) methods. Among these methods, Inverse Square Law is the most common used method. Firstly, Siemens Primus linac was simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Then, by using dose profiles obtained from the Monte Carlo simulations, the location of S Vir was calculated for 5, 7, 8, 10, 12 and 14 MeV electron energies and 10 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm, 20 cm × 20 cm and 25 cm × 25 cm field sizes. Additionally, the location of S Vir was obtained by the ISL method for the mentioned electron energies and field sizes. Finally, the values obtained by the ISL method were compared to the values resulted from Monte Carlo simulation. The findings indicate that the calculated S Vir values depend on beam energy and field size. For a specific energy, with increase of field size, the distance of S Vir increases for most cases. Furthermore, for a special applicator, with increase of electron energy, the distance of S Vir increases for most cases. The variation of S Vir values versus change of field size in a certain energy is more than the variation of S Vir values versus change of electron energy in a certain field size. According to the results, it is concluded that the ISL method can be considered as a good method for calculation of S Vir location in higher electron energies (14 MeV).

  4. Compatible Lie Bialgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ming-Zhong; Bai Cheng-Ming

    2015-01-01

    A compatible Lie algebra is a pair of Lie algebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie brackets is a Lie bracket. We construct a bialgebra theory of compatible Lie algebras as an analogue of a Lie bialgebra. They can also be regarded as a “compatible version” of Lie bialgebras, that is, a pair of Lie bialgebras such that any linear combination of the two Lie bialgebras is still a Lie bialgebra. Many properties of compatible Lie bialgebras as the “compatible version” of the corresponding properties of Lie bialgebras are presented. In particular, there is a coboundary compatible Lie bialgebra theory with a construction from the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras as a combination of two classical Yang–Baxter equations in Lie algebras. Furthermore, a notion of compatible pre-Lie algebra is introduced with an interpretation of its close relation with the classical Yang–Baxter equation in compatible Lie algebras which leads to a construction of the solutions of the latter. As a byproduct, the compatible Lie bialgebras fit into the framework to construct non-constant solutions of the classical Yang–Baxter equation given by Golubchik and Sokolov. (paper)

  5. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT and conventional angiography in detecting congenital heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedaghat, Fariborz; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Motevalli, Marzieh; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Armand, Sandbad

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) is primarily used for coronary arteries. There are limited studies about the application of DSCT for congenital heart diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of DSCT in the cardiac anomalies. The images of DSCTs and conventional angiographies of 36 patients (21 male; mean age: 8.5 month) with congenital heart diseases were reviewed and the parameters of diagnostic value of these methods were compared. Cardiac surgery was the gold standard. A total of 105 cardiac anomalies were diagnosed at surgery. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of DSCT were 98.25%, 97.9%, 98.1%, 99.07%, and 98.2%, respectively. The corresponding values of angiography were 95.04%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 98.1%, and 98%, respectively. Only one atrial septal defect (ASD) and two patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) were missed by DSCT. Angiography missed two ASD and two PDA. DSCT also provided important additional findings (n=35) about the intrathoracic or intraabdominal organs. DSCT is a highly accurate diagnostic modality for congenital heart diseases, obviating the need for invasive modalities. Beside its noninvasive nature, the advantage of DSCT over the angiography is its ability to provide detailed anatomical information about the heart, vessels, lungs and intraabdominal organs

  6. Accuracy of iodine quantification using dual energy CT in latest generation dual source and dual layer CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, P.O. Box EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); Hamersvelt, Robbert W. van; Willemink, Martin J.; Schilham, Arnold; Leiner, Tim [Utrecht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schmidt, Bernhard T.; Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim (Germany); Milles, Julien [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, P.O. Box EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    To determine the accuracy of iodine quantification with dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in two high-end CT systems with different spectral imaging techniques. Five tubes with different iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were analysed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Adding two phantom rings simulated increased patient size. For third-generation dual source CT (DSCT), tube voltage combinations of 150Sn and 70, 80, 90, 100 kVp were analysed. For dual layer CT (DLCT), 120 and 140 kVp were used. Scans were repeated three times. Median normalized values and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for all kVp settings and phantom sizes. Correlation between measured and known iodine concentrations was excellent for both systems (R = 0.999-1.000, p < 0.0001). For DSCT, median measurement errors ranged from -0.5% (IQR -2.0, 2.0%) at 150Sn/70 kVp and -2.3% (IQR -4.0, -0.1%) at 150Sn/80 kVp to -4.0% (IQR -6.0, -2.8%) at 150Sn/90 kVp. For DLCT, median measurement errors ranged from -3.3% (IQR -4.9, -1.5%) at 140 kVp to -4.6% (IQR -6.0, -3.6%) at 120 kVp. Larger phantom sizes increased variability of iodine measurements (p < 0.05). Iodine concentration can be accurately quantified with state-of-the-art DECT systems from two vendors. The lowest absolute errors were found for DSCT using the 150Sn/70 kVp or 150Sn/80 kVp combinations, which was slightly more accurate than 140 kVp in DLCT. (orig.)

  7. Accuracy of iodine quantification using dual energy CT in latest generation dual source and dual layer CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; Schmidt, Bernhard T; Flohr, Thomas; Schilham, Arnold; Milles, Julien; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-09-01

    To determine the accuracy of iodine quantification with dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in two high-end CT systems with different spectral imaging techniques. Five tubes with different iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were analysed in an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom. Adding two phantom rings simulated increased patient size. For third-generation dual source CT (DSCT), tube voltage combinations of 150Sn and 70, 80, 90, 100 kVp were analysed. For dual layer CT (DLCT), 120 and 140 kVp were used. Scans were repeated three times. Median normalized values and interquartile ranges (IQRs) were calculated for all kVp settings and phantom sizes. Correlation between measured and known iodine concentrations was excellent for both systems (R = 0.999-1.000, p < 0.0001). For DSCT, median measurement errors ranged from -0.5% (IQR -2.0, 2.0%) at 150Sn/70 kVp and -2.3% (IQR -4.0, -0.1%) at 150Sn/80 kVp to -4.0% (IQR -6.0, -2.8%) at 150Sn/90 kVp. For DLCT, median measurement errors ranged from -3.3% (IQR -4.9, -1.5%) at 140 kVp to -4.6% (IQR -6.0, -3.6%) at 120 kVp. Larger phantom sizes increased variability of iodine measurements (p < 0.05). Iodine concentration can be accurately quantified with state-of-the-art DECT systems from two vendors. The lowest absolute errors were found for DSCT using the 150Sn/70 kVp or 150Sn/80 kVp combinations, which was slightly more accurate than 140 kVp in DLCT. • High-end CT scanners allow accurate iodine quantification using different DECT techniques. • Lowest measurement error was found in scans with largest photon energy separation. • Dual-source CT quantified iodine slightly more accurately than dual layer CT.

  8. On a second order of accuracy stable difference scheme for the solution of a source identification problem for hyperbolic-parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyyeva, Maral; Ashyraliyev, Maksat

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, a second order of accuracy difference scheme for the approximate solution of a source identification problem for hyperbolic-parabolic equations is constructed. Theorem on stability estimates for the solution of this difference scheme and their first and second order difference derivatives is presented. In applications, this abstract result permits us to obtain the stability estimates for the solutions of difference schemes for approximate solutions of two source identification problems for hyperbolic-parabolic equations.

  9. Identifying the source of farmed escaped Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Bayesian clustering analysis increases accuracy of assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, Kevin A.; Hansen, Michael Møller; Skaala, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    44 cages located on 26 farms in the Hardangerfjord, western Norway. This fjord represents one of the major salmon farming areas in Norway, with a production of 57,000 t in 2007. Based upon genetic data from 17 microsatellite markers, significant but highly variable differentiation was observed among....... Accuracy of assignment varied greatly among the individual samples. For the Bayesian clustered data set consisting of five genetic groups, overall accuracy of self-assignment was 99%, demonstrating the effectiveness of this strategy to significantly increase accuracy of assignment, albeit at the expense...

  10. Materials compatibility information data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    A major concern in the design of weapons systems is the compatibility of the materials used with each other and with the enclosed environment. Usually these systems require long term storage with a high reliability for proper function at the end of this storage period. Materials selection is then based on both past experience and laboratory accelerated aging experiments to assure this long term reliability. To assist in the task of materials selection a computerized materials compatibility data bank is being established. This data bank will provide a source of annotated information and references to personnel and documents for both the designer and materials engineer to draw on for guidance in materials selection. The data bank storage and information retrieval philosophy will be discussed and procedures for information gathering outlined. Examples of data entries and search routines will be presented to demonstrate the usefulness and versatility of the proposed system

  11. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  12. Accuracy of iodine quantification using dual energy CT in latest generation dual source and dual layer CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrim, Gert Jan; van Hamersvelt, Robbert W; Willemink, Martin J; Schmidt, Bernhard T; Flohr, Thomas; Schilham, Arnold; Milles, Julien; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Leiner, Tim; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of iodine quantification with dual energy computed tomography (DECT) in two high-end CT systems with different spectral imaging techniques. METHODS: Five tubes with different iodine concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/ml) were analysed in an anthropomorphic

  13. Children's Ability to Distinguish between Memories from Multiple Sources: Implications for the Quality and Accuracy of Eyewitness Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kim P.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines five perspectives addressing alternate aspects of the development of children's source monitoring: source-monitoring theory, fuzzy-trace theory, schema theory, person-based perspective, and mental-state reasoning model. Discusses research areas with relation to forensic developmental psychology: agent identity, prospective processing,…

  14. Conditional Dependence between Response Time and Accuracy: An Overview of its Possible Sources and Directions for Distinguishing between Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsinova, Maria; Tijmstra, Jesper; Molenaar, Dylan; De Boeck, Paul

    2017-01-01

    With the widespread use of computerized tests in educational measurement and cognitive psychology, registration of response times has become feasible in many applications. Considering these response times helps provide a more complete picture of the performance and characteristics of persons beyond what is available based on response accuracy alone. Statistical models such as the hierarchical model (van der Linden, 2007) have been proposed that jointly model response time and accuracy. However, these models make restrictive assumptions about the response processes (RPs) that may not be realistic in practice, such as the assumption that the association between response time and accuracy is fully explained by taking speed and ability into account (conditional independence). Assuming conditional independence forces one to ignore that many relevant individual differences may play a role in the RPs beyond overall speed and ability. In this paper, we critically consider the assumption of conditional independence and the important ways in which it may be violated in practice from a substantive perspective. We consider both conditional dependences that may arise when all persons attempt to solve the items in similar ways (homogeneous RPs) and those that may be due to persons differing in fundamental ways in how they deal with the items (heterogeneous processes). The paper provides an overview of what we can learn from observed conditional dependences. We argue that explaining and modeling these differences in the RPs is crucial to increase both the validity of measurement and our understanding of the relevant RPs. PMID:28261136

  15. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  16. A study on the accuracy of source position in HDR brachytherapy according to the curvature of universal application transfer tube and applicator type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyeon Kyung; Lee, Sang Kyoo; Kim, Joo Ho; Cho, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to verify and analyze the source position according to the curvature of the universal applicator and 4 different angle applicators when using RALS(Remote After Loading System). An interval of 1 cm and 15 second dwell times in each source position were applied for plan. To verify the accuracy of source position, we narrowed the distance between MultiSource container and GAFCHROMIC? EBT3 film by 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm so that the universal applicator transfer tube had some curvature. Also 4 applicators(Intrauterine tube: 0° , 15°, 30° , Ovoid tube: 65° ) were used in the same condition. The differences between desired and actual source position were measured by using Image J. In case of using 4 different angles of applicator with the straight universal applicator transfer tube, the average error was the lowest for 0°applicator, greatest for 65°applicator. However, All average errors were within ±2 mm recommended in TG-56. When MultiSource container was moved 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm towards the EBT3 film, the average errors were beyond ±2 mm. The first dwell position was relatively located in accuracy, while the second and third dwells were displaced by an increasing magnitude with increasing curvature of the transfer tube. Furthermore, with increasing the angle of applicators, the error of all other dwell positioning was increased. The results of this study showed that both the curvature of universal applicator transfer tube and the angle of applicators affect the source dwell position. It is recommended that using straight universal applicator transfer tubes is followed in all cases, in order to avoid deviations in the delivered source dwell position. Also, It is advisable to verify the actual dwell position, using video camera quality control tool prior to all treatments

  17. Effect of Heart Rate and Coronary Calcification on the Diagnostic Accuracy of the Dual-Source CT Coronary Angiography in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Lingdong; Cui, Lianqun; Cheng, Yuntao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yuansheng; Wang, Yong; Xu, Fayun

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography, with a particular focus on the effect of heart rate and calcifications. One hundred and nine patients with suspected coronary disease were divided into 2 groups according to a mean heart rate ( 400). Next, the effect of heart rate and calcification on the accuracy of coronary artery stenosis detection was analyzed by using an invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. Coronary segments of less than 1.5 mm in diameter in an American Heart Association (AHA) 15-segment model were independently assessed. The mean heart rate during the scan was 71.8 bpm, whereas the mean Agatston score was 226.5. Of the 1,588 segments examined, 1,533 (97%) were assessable. A total of 17 patients had calcium scores above 400 Agatston U, whereas 50 had heart rates ≥ 70 bpm. Overall the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) for significant stenoses were: 95%, 91%, 65%, and 99% (by segment), respectively and 97%, 90%, 81%, and 91% (by artery), respectively (n = 475). Heart rate showed no significant impact on lesion detection; however, vessel calcification did show a significant impact on accuracy of assessment for coronary segments. The specificity, PPV and accuracy were 96%, 80%, and 96% (by segment), respectively for an Agatston score less than 100% and 99%, 96% and 98% (by artery). For an Agatston score of greater to or equal to 400 the specificity, PPV and accuracy were reduced to 79%, 55%, and 83% (by segment), respectively and to 79%, 69%, and 85% (by artery), respectively. The DSCT provides a high rate of accuracy for the detection of significant coronary artery disease, even in patients with high heart rates and evidence of coronary calcification. However, patients with severe coronary calcification (> 400 U) remain a challenge to diagnose

  18. a Free and Open Source Tool to Assess the Accuracy of Land Cover Maps: Implementation and Application to Lombardy Region (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratic, G.; Brovelli, M. A.; Molinari, M. E.

    2018-04-01

    The availability of thematic maps has significantly increased over the last few years. Validation of these maps is a key factor in assessing their suitability for different applications. The evaluation of the accuracy of classified data is carried out through a comparison with a reference dataset and the generation of a confusion matrix from which many quality indexes can be derived. In this work, an ad hoc free and open source Python tool was implemented to automatically compute all the matrix confusion-derived accuracy indexes proposed by literature. The tool was integrated into GRASS GIS environment and successfully applied to evaluate the quality of three high-resolution global datasets (GlobeLand30, Global Urban Footprint, Global Human Settlement Layer Built-Up Grid) in the Lombardy Region area (Italy). In addition to the most commonly used accuracy measures, e.g. overall accuracy and Kappa, the tool allowed to compute and investigate less known indexes such as the Ground Truth and the Classification Success Index. The promising tool will be further extended with spatial autocorrelation analysis functions and made available to researcher and user community.

  19. Socially compatible technology management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschiedel, R.

    1989-01-01

    The public has a critical eye on the impacts of technology, and there is a growing awareness of the social impacts in addition to health hazards and economic and ecologic impacts. 'Socially compatible technology management' is the magic formula frequently used which has emerged as a political demand in the course of the social controversy about the hazards of large-scale technology. It marks a position in the conflict between those who declare existing market and policy instruments to be sufficient regulatory tools, and those who understand the incidents ranging from inadequacy to desaster as a warning, and call for more precaution in decisions with an impact on the future. The concept of 'social compatibility' has to be given shape by elaborating criteria and methods for achieving this goal. The book shows that social compatibility cannot sufficiently be defined either as a quality of a technology and of a socio-technical system (acceptability), or as the willingness of the people concerned to accept a technology (acceptance). The investigation explains by means of empirical analysis and examples that participation is the only way to combine acceptability and acceptance into a socially compatibly designed technology. The leading theoretical and political formula developed for this purpose is 'acquisition'. To put it in a provocative way: Man has to learn to manage and master technical systems as if they were an integral part of themselves. Which means, man has to acquire the required knowledge and skill in the changing social structures, and the real power of disposal. Sociology of technology is a branch of research that can and should give support in the process of designing and managing technological systems in a way compatible with social needs. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Relative accuracy and availability of an Irish National Database of dispensed medication as a source of medication history information: observational study and retrospective record analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimes, T

    2013-01-27

    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The medication reconciliation process begins by identifying which medicines a patient used before presentation to hospital. This is time-consuming, labour intensive and may involve interruption of clinicians. We sought to identify the availability and accuracy of data held in a national dispensing database, relative to other sources of medication history information. METHODS: For patients admitted to two acute hospitals in Ireland, a Gold Standard Pre-Admission Medication List (GSPAML) was identified and corroborated with the patient or carer. The GSPAML was compared for accuracy and availability to PAMLs from other sources, including the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Scheme (HSE-PCRS) dispensing database. RESULTS: Some 1111 medication were assessed for 97 patients, who were median age 74 years (range 18-92 years), median four co-morbidities (range 1-9), used median 10 medications (range 3-25) and half (52%) were male. The HSE-PCRS PAML was the most accurate source compared to lists provided by the general practitioner, community pharmacist or cited in previous hospital documentation: the list agreed for 74% of the medications the patients actually used, representing complete agreement for all medications in 17% of patients. It was equally contemporaneous to other sources, but was less reliable for male than female patients, those using increasing numbers of medications and those using one or more item that was not reimbursable by the HSE. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: The HSE-PCRS database is a relatively accurate, available and contemporaneous source of medication history information and could support acute hospital medication reconciliation.

  1. Accuracy of Combined Computed Tomography Colonography and Dual Energy Iiodine Map Imaging for Detecting Colorectal masses using High-pitch Dual-source CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Han, Ruijuan; Han, Yang; Shi, Xuesen; Hu, Jiang; Lu, Bin

    2018-02-28

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of combined computed tomography colonography (CTC) and dual-energy iodine map imaging for detecting colorectal masses using high-pitch dual-source CT, compared with optical colonography (OC) and histopathologic findings. Twenty-eight consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were underwent contrast-enhanced CTC acquisition using dual-energy mode and OC and pathologic examination. The size of the space-occupied mass, the CT value after contrast enhancement, and the iodine value were measured and statistically compared. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, and positive predictive and negative predictive values of dual-energy contrast-enhanced CTC were calculated and compared between conventional CTC and dual-energy iodine images. The iodine value of stool was significantly lower than the colonic neoplasia (P dual-energy iodine maps imaging was 95.6% (95% CI = 77.9%-99.2%). The specificity of the two methods was 42.8% (95% CI = 15.4%-93.5%) and 100% (95% CI = 47.9%-100%; P = 0.02), respectively. Compared with optical colonography and histopathology, combined CTC and dual-energy iodine maps imaging can distinguish stool and colonic neoplasia, distinguish between benign and malignant tumors initially and improve the diagnostic accuracy of CTC for colorectal cancer screening.

  2. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn; Kang, Eun Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  3. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu Whan; Ham, Soo Youn [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ki Yeol [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 +/- 0.9%, and 1.7 +/- 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 +/- 7.4%) was significantly greater (p < 0.01) than that in the CPM (18.4 +/- 5.3%), with an IVV of 13.1 +/- 6.6%. However, the IVVs were in an acceptable range (< 25%), regardless of nodule size. The accuracy of 3D volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  4. Relationship between the Prediction Accuracy of Tsunami Inundation and Relative Distribution of Tsunami Source and Observation Arrays: A Case Study in Tokyo Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    A rapid and precise tsunami forecast based on offshore monitoring is getting attention to reduce human losses due to devastating tsunami inundation. We developed a forecast method based on the combination of hierarchical Bayesian inversion with pre-computed database and rapid post-computing of tsunami inundation. The method was applied to Tokyo bay to evaluate the efficiency of observation arrays against three tsunamigenic earthquakes. One is a scenario earthquake at Nankai trough and the other two are historic ones of Genroku in 1703 and Enpo in 1677. In general, rich observation array near the tsunami source has an advantage in both accuracy and rapidness of tsunami forecast. To examine the effect of observation time length we used four types of data with the lengths of 5, 10, 20 and 45 minutes after the earthquake occurrences. Prediction accuracy of tsunami inundation was evaluated by the simulated tsunami inundation areas around Tokyo bay due to target earthquakes. The shortest time length of accurate prediction varied with target earthquakes. Here, accurate prediction means the simulated values fall within the 95% credible intervals of prediction. In Enpo earthquake case, 5-minutes observation is enough for accurate prediction for Tokyo bay, but 10-minutes and 45-minutes are needed in the case of Nankai trough and Genroku, respectively. The difference of the shortest time length for accurate prediction shows the strong relationship with the relative distance from the tsunami source and observation arrays. In the Enpo case, offshore tsunami observation points are densely distributed even in the source region. So, accurate prediction can be rapidly achieved within 5 minutes. This precise prediction is useful for early warnings. Even in the worst case of Genroku, where less observation points are available near the source, accurate prediction can be obtained within 45 minutes. This information can be useful to figure out the outline of the hazard in an early

  5. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  6. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography in a population unselected for degree of coronary artery calcification and without heart rate modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-J.; Hsu, J.-C.; Lai, Y.-J.; Wang, K.-L.; Lee, J.-Y.; Li, A.-H.; Chu, S.-H.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To assess the ability of coronary angiography performed using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) to evaluate coronary artery disease (CAD) in a population with unselected heart rates and extensive coronary calcification. Materials and methods: Forty-four patients at intermediate to high risk for CAD underwent both DSCT coronary angiography and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) within 30 days. No beta blockers were administered prior to imaging. Image quality and quantitatively stenosis of all coronary segments with a diameter ≥1.5 mm were accessed. Patients were stratified according to mean heart rate (<70 versus ≥70 bpm) and heart rate variability (<10 versus ≥10 bpm). DSCT detection of coronary stenosis by segment, vessel, and patient characteristics were compared to the reference standard of ICA. Results: Diagnostic accuracy for all patients was high regarding sensitivity (97%), positive predictive value (PPV, 84.2%), and negative predictive value (NPV, 83.3%) but low regarding specificity (45.5%) with a moderate interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.50). The accuracy for vessel-based diagnosis was high regarding sensitivity (96.6%), specificity (80.8%), PPV (80.3%), and NPV (96.7%). The segment-based diagnostic results revealed a moderate interobserver agreement for image quality and sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for all segments of 66.9, 97.8, 90.8, and 89.9%, respectively. Conclusion: DSCT coronary angiography has high diagnostic accuracy in assessing CAD among patients at intermediate to high risk without using heart rate-modulating premedication. DSCT is not superior to ICA for diagnosis of calcified segments.

  8. Effect of the high-pitch mode in dual-source computed tomography on the accuracy of three-dimensional volumetry of solid pulmonary nodules: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Oh, Yu-Whan; Ham, Soo-Youn; Kang, Eun-Young; Lee, Ki Yeol

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of high-pitch mode (HPM) in dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) on the accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) volumetry for solid pulmonary nodules. A lung phantom implanted with 45 solid pulmonary nodules (n = 15 for each of 4-mm, 6-mm, and 8-mm in diameter) was scanned twice, first in conventional pitch mode (CPM) and then in HPM using DSCT. The relative percentage volume errors (RPEs) of 3D volumetry were compared between the HPM and CPM. In addition, the intermode volume variability (IVV) of 3D volumetry was calculated. In the measurement of the 6-mm and 8-mm nodules, there was no significant difference in RPE (p > 0.05, respectively) between the CPM and HPM (IVVs of 1.2 ± 0.9%, and 1.7 ± 1.5%, respectively). In the measurement of the 4-mm nodules, the mean RPE in the HPM (35.1 ± 7.4%) was significantly greater (p volumetry with HPM for solid pulmonary nodule is comparable to that with CPM. However, the use of HPM may adversely affect the accuracy of 3D volumetry for smaller (< 5 mm in diameter) nodule.

  9. Versatile piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source for gaseous compounds and organic molecules with femtomole accuracy for UHV and surface science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiesser, Alexander; Schaefer, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    This note describes the construction of a piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source based upon a design presented in an earlier work [D. Proch and T. Trickl, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 713 (1988)]. The design features significant modifications that permit the determination of the number of molecules in a beam pulse with an accuracy of 1x10 11 molecules per pulse. The 21 cm long plunger-nozzle setup allows the molecules to be brought to any point of the UHV chamber with very high intensity. Furthermore, besides typical gaseous compounds, also smaller organic molecules with a vapor pressure higher than 0.1 mbar at room temperature may serve as feed material. This makes the new design suitable for various applications in chemical and surface science studies.

  10. An investigation into the accuracy of Acuros(TM) BV in heterogeneous phantoms for a (192)Ir HDR source using LiF TLDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Siobhan; Nyathi, Thulani

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the new Acuros(TM) BV algorithm using well characterized LiF:Mg,Ti TLD 100 in heterogeneous phantoms. TLDs were calibrated using an (192)Ir source and the AAPM TG-43 calculated dose. The Tölli and Johansson Large Cavity principle and Modified Bragg Gray principle methods confirm the dose calculated by TG-43 at a distance of 5 cm from the source to within 4 %. These calibrated TLDs were used to measure the dose in heterogeneous phantoms containing air, stainless steel, bone and titanium. The TLD results were compared with the AAPM TG-43 calculated dose and the Acuros calculated dose. Previous studies by other authors have shown a change in TLD response with depth when irradiated with an (192)Ir source. This TLD depth dependence was assessed by performing measurements at different depths in a water phantom with an (192)Ir source. The variation in the TLD response with depth in a water phantom was not found to be statistically significant for the distances investigated. The TLDs agreed with Acuros(TM) BV within 1.4 % in the air phantom, 3.2 % in the stainless steel phantom, 3 % in the bone phantom and 5.1 % in the titanium phantom. The TLDs showed a larger discrepancy when compared to TG-43 with a maximum deviation of 9.3 % in the air phantom, -11.1 % in the stainless steel phantom, -14.6 % in the bone phantom and -24.6 % in the titanium phantom. The results have shown that Acuros accounts for the heterogeneities investigated with a maximum deviation of -5.1 %. The uncertainty associated with the TLDs calibrated in the PMMA phantom is ±8.2 % (2SD).

  11. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dual-Source Computerized Tomography Coronary Angiography in Symptomatic Patients Presenting to a Referral Cardiovascular Center During Daily Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, Arash; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Joodi, Golsa; Tabatabaei, Mohammad Reza; Sheikholeslami, Farhad; Motevalli, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    There are numerous studies that address the diagnostic value of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) as an alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA). However, the benefit of application of DSCT in a real world clinical setting should be evaluated. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DSCT technique compared with CCA as the gold standard method in detection of coronary artery stenosis among symptomatic patients who are presented to a referral cardiovascular center during daily clinical practice. Evaluating the medical records of a tertiary care referral cardiovascular center, 47 patients who had undergone DSCT and CCA, and also met the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study were selected. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and likelihood ratios (LRs) of the DSCT imaging technique were calculated. In total, 97.8% of the segments (628/642) could be visualized with diagnostic image quality via DSCT coronary angiography. The mean heart rate during DSCT was 69.2 ± 12.2 bpm (range: 39 - 83 bpm), and the mean Agatston score was 507.7 ± 590.5 (range: 0 - 2328). Per segment analysis of the findings revealed that the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, positive LR (PLR) and negative LR (NLR) of DSCT technique for evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease were 93.7%, 96.8%, 92.7%, 97.2%, 29.4, and 0.066, respectively. Also per vessel, analysis of the findings showed a sensitivity of 97.1%, a specificity of 94.0%, PPV of 95.3%, NPV of 96.3%, PLR of 16.1, and NLR of 0.030. Our results indicate that DSCT coronary angiography provides high diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of CAD patients during daily routine practice of a referral cardiovascular setting

  13. Evaluating horizontal positional accuracy of low-cost UAV orthomosaics over forest terrain using ground control points extracted from different sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patias, Petros; Giagkas, Fotis; Georgiadis, Charalampos; Mallinis, Giorgos; Kaimaris, Dimitris; Tsioukas, Vassileios

    2017-09-01

    Within the field of forestry, forest road mapping and inventory plays an important role in management activities related to wood harvesting industry, sentiment and water run-off modelling, biodiversity distribution and ecological connectivity, recreation activities, future planning of forest road networks and wildfire protection and fire-fighting. Especially in countries of the Mediterranean Rim, knowledge at regional and national scales regarding the distribution and the characteristics of rural and forest road network is essential in order to ensure an effective emergency management and rapid response of the fire-fighting mechanism. Yet, the absence of accurate and updated geodatabases and the drawbacks related to the use of traditional cartographic methods arising from the forest environment settings, and the cost and efforts needed, as thousands of meters need to be surveyed per site, trigger the need for new data sources and innovative mapping approaches. Monitoring the condition of unpaved forest roads with unmanned aerial vehicle technology is an attractive option for substituting objective, laboursome surveys. Although photogrammetric processing of UAV imagery can achieve accuracy of 1-2 centimeters and dense point clouds, the process is commonly based on the establishment of control points. In the case of forest road networks, which are linear features, there is a need for a great number of control points. Our aim is to evaluate low-cost UAV orthoimages generated over forest areas with GCP's captured from existing national scale aerial orthoimagery, satellite imagery available through a web mapping service (WMS), field surveys using Mobile Mapping System and GNSS receiver. We also explored the direct georeferencing potential through the GNSS onboard the low cost UAV. The results suggest that the GNSS approach proved to most accurate, while the positional accuracy derived using the WMS and the aerial orthoimagery datasets deemed satisfactory for the

  14. goGPS: open source software for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost receivers by single-frequency relative kinematic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Realini, Eugenio; Reguzzoni, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    goGPS is a free and open source satellite positioning software package aiming to provide a collaborative platform for research and teaching purposes. It was first published in 2009 and since then several related projects are on-going. Its objective is the investigation of strategies for enhancing the accuracy of low-cost single-frequency GPS receivers, mainly by relative positioning with respect to a base station and by a tailored extended Kalman filter working directly on code and phase observations. In this paper, the positioning algorithms implemented in goGPS are presented, emphasizing the modularity of the software design; two specific strategies to support the navigation with low-cost receivers are also proposed and discussed, namely an empirical observation weighting function calibrated on the receiver signal-to-noise ratio and the inclusion of height information from a digital terrain model as an additional observation in the Kalman filter. The former is crucial when working with high-sensitivity receivers, while the latter can significantly improve the positioning in the vertical direction. The overall goGPS positioning accuracy is assessed by comparison with a dual-frequency receiver and with the positioning computed by a standard low-cost receiver. The benefits of the calibrated weighting function and the digital terrain model are investigated by an experiment in a dense urban environment. It comes out that the use of goGPS and low-cost receivers leads to results comparable with those obtained by higher level receivers; goGPS has good performances also in a dense urban environment, where its additional features play an important role. (paper)

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of second-generation dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography with iterative reconstructions: a real-world experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, E; Martini, C; Rossi, A; Mollet, N; Lario, C; Castiglione Morelli, M; Clemente, A; Gentile, G; Arcadi, T; Seitun, S; Catalano, O; Aldrovandi, A; Cademartiri, F

    2012-08-01

    The authors evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of second-generation dual-source (DSCT) computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) with iterative reconstructions for detecting obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Between June 2010 and February 2011, we enrolled 160 patients (85 men; mean age 61.2±11.6 years) with suspected CAD. All patients underwent CTCA and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). For the CTCA scan (Definition Flash, Siemens), we use prospective tube current modulation and 70-100 ml of iodinated contrast material (Iomeprol 400 mgI/ ml, Bracco). Data sets were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction algorithm (IRIS, Siemens). CTCA and CCA reports were used to evaluate accuracy using the threshold for significant stenosis at ≥50% and ≥70%, respectively. No patient was excluded from the analysis. Heart rate was 64.3±11.9 bpm and radiation dose was 7.2±2.1 mSv. Disease prevalence was 30% (48/160). Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of CTCA in detecting significant stenosis were 90.1%, 93.3%, 53.2% and 99.1% (per segment), 97.5%, 91.2%, 61.4% and 99.6% (per vessel) and 100%, 83%, 71.6% and 100% (per patient), respectively. Positive and negative likelihood ratios at the per-patient level were 5.89 and 0.0, respectively. CTCA with second-generation DSCT in the real clinical world shows a diagnostic performance comparable with previously reported validation studies. The excellent negative predictive value and likelihood ratio make CTCA a first-line noninvasive method for diagnosing obstructive CAD.

  16. Compatible quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-01-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call ‘compatible quantum theory (CQT)’, consists of a ‘microscopic’ part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a ‘macroscopic’ part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths (‘c-truths’), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The

  17. Evaluating arguments during instigations of defence motivation and accuracy motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-Hong

    2017-05-01

    When people evaluate the strength of an argument, their motivations are likely to influence the evaluation. However, few studies have specifically investigated the influences of motivational factors on argument evaluation. This study examined the effects of defence and accuracy motivations on argument evaluation. According to the compatibility between the advocated positions of arguments and participants' prior beliefs and the objective strength of arguments, participants evaluated four types of arguments: compatible-strong, compatible-weak, incompatible-strong, and incompatible-weak arguments. Experiment 1 revealed that participants possessing a high defence motivation rated compatible-weak arguments as stronger and incompatible-strong ones as weaker than participants possessing a low defence motivation. However, the strength ratings between the high and low defence groups regarding both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar. Experiment 2 revealed that when participants possessed a high accuracy motivation, they rated compatible-weak arguments as weaker and incompatible-strong ones as stronger than when they possessed a low accuracy motivation. However, participants' ratings on both compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments were similar when comparing high and low accuracy conditions. The results suggest that defence and accuracy motivations are two major motives influencing argument evaluation. However, they primarily influence the evaluation results for compatible-weak and incompatible-strong arguments, but not for compatible-strong and incompatible-weak arguments. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Prospective versus retrospective ECG gating for dual source CT of the coronary stent: Comparison of image quality, accuracy, and radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Lei, E-mail: zhaolei219@sohu.com [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China); Zhang Zhaoqi; Fan Zhanming; Yang Lin; Du Jing [Beijing Anzhen Hospital of the Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: To compare image quality, diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose of prospective and retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gated dual source computed tomography (DSCT) for the evaluation of the coronary stent, using conventional coronary angiography (CA) as a standard reference. Design, setting and patients: Sixty patients (heart rates {<=}70 bpm) with previous stent implantation who were scheduled for CA were divided in two groups, receiving either prospective or retrospective ECG gated DSCT separately. Two reviewers scored coronary stent image quality and evaluated stent lumen. Results: There was no significant difference in image quality between the two groups. In the prospective group, there were 86.4% (51/59) stents with interpretable images, in the retrospective group, there were 87.5% (49/56) stents with interpretable images. Image quality was not influenced by age, body mass index or heart rate in either group, but heart rate variability had a weak impact on the image quality of the prospective group. Image noise was higher in the prospective group, but this difference reached statistical significance only by using a smooth kernel reconstruction. Per-stent based sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were 100%, 84.1%, 68.2%, and 100%, respectively, in the prospective CT angiography group and 94.4%, 86.8%, 77.3%, and 97.1%, respectively, in the retrospective CT angiography group. There was a significant difference in the effective radiation dose between the two groups, mean effective dose in the prospective and retrospective group was 2.2 {+-} 0.5 mSv (1.5-3.2 mSv) and 14.6 {+-} 3.3 mSv (10.0-20.4 mSv) (p < .001) respectively. Conclusions: Compared with retrospective CT angiography, prospective CT angiography has a similar performance in assessing coronary stent patency, but a lower effective dose in selected patients with regular heart rates {<=}70 bpm.

  19. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  20. Source of errors and accuracy of a two-dimensional/three-dimensional fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Claude; Douane, Frédéric; Therasse, Eric; Lessard, Simon; Elkouri, Stephane; Gilbert, Patrick; Beaudoin, Nathalie; Pfister, Marcus; Blair, Jean François; Soulez, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the accuracy and source of errors using a two-dimensional (2D)/three-dimensional (3D) fusion road map for endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm. A rigid 2D/3D road map was tested in 16 patients undergoing EVAR. After 3D/3D manual registration of preoperative multidetector computed tomography (CT) and cone beam CT, abdominal aortic aneurysm outlines were overlaid on live fluoroscopy/digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Patient motion was evaluated using bone landmarks. The misregistration of renal and internal iliac arteries were estimated by 3 readers along head-feet and right-left coordinates (z-axis and x-axis, respectively) before and after bone and DSA corrections centered on the lowest renal artery. Iliac deformation was evaluated by comparing centerlines before and during intervention. A score of clinical added value was estimated as high (z-axis 5 mm). Interobserver reproducibility was calculated by the intraclass correlation coefficient. The lowest renal artery misregistration was estimated at x-axis = 10.6 mm ± 11.1 and z-axis = 7.4 mm ± 5.3 before correction and at x-axis = 3.5 mm ± 2.5 and z-axis = 4.6 mm ± 3.7 after bone correction (P = .08), and at 0 after DSA correction (P artery was estimated at x-axis = 2.4 mm ± 2.0 and z-axis = 2.2 mm ± 2.0. Score of clinical added value was low (n = 11), good (n= 0), and high (n= 5) before correction and low (n = 5), good (n = 4), and high (n = 7) after bone correction. Interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for misregistration measurements was estimated at 0.99. Patient motion before stent graft delivery was estimated at x-axis = 8 mm ± 5.8 and z-axis = 3.0 mm ± 2.7. The internal iliac artery misregistration measurements were estimated at x-axis = 6.1 mm ± 3.5 and z-axis = 5.6 mm ± 4.0, and iliac centerline deformation was estimated at 38.3 mm ± 15.6. Rigid registration is feasible and fairly accurate. Only a partial reduction of vascular

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants

  2. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  3. Blood compatibility--a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, B D

    2000-01-01

    This perspective on blood- materials interactions is intended to introduce the set of papers stemming from the symposium, "Devices and Diagnostics in Contact with Blood: Issues in Blood Compatibility at the Close of the 20th Century," organized on August 4-6, 1999 at the University of Washington by the University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) Engineering Research Center. This article outlines some of the history of blood contacting materials, overviews the work that has originated at the University of Washington over the past 28 years, speculates on the origins of the controversies on blood compatibility and considers the issues that should be addressed in future studies.

  4. Environmental factors affecting the accuracy of surface fluxes from a two-source model in Mediterranean drylands: Upscaling instantaneous to daytime estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Villagarcia, Luis; Domingo, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    latent heat flux, LE, if expressed in energy terms), making sensible heat flux (H) the dominant turbulent heat flux. In this study, we present a detailed analysis of the main environmental factors affecting the TSM effectiveness under such challenging conditions. The accuracy of the TSM, evaluated via...... of the TSM (TSMP) showed overall lower errors and a lower tendency to underestimate at high H values, but the series resistances scheme of the TSM (TSMS) increased the model accuracy under some specific circumstances such as low energy supply and atmospheric neutral conditions. Finally, two extrapolation...

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  6. Socio-compatible energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Albrecht, G.; Kotte, U.; Peters, H.P.; Stegelmann, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    The socio-compatibility project comprises three central analytical elements: 1) The arborescent value analysis: Eminent social groups (such as the trade-unions or the ecological institutes) were questioned on their values and criteria applied to evaluate different energy systems. 2) The energy system and scenario impact analysis: Indicators deduced from the arborescent value analysis serve to approximately cover the value dimensions affected by above criteria. 3) Impact analysis weighing executed by a group of arbitrarily chosen citizens. All reflections considered, it is evident that none of the energy policies discussed may claim the title 'socio-compatible'. The individual, i.e. neither scientist nor politician, cannot decide upon the socio-compatibility of one or the other concept. An altogether socially compatible solution accepted and classified as such by different social groups may only crystallize and be set against different options by the political formation of opinion. The studys' primary concern lies in furnishing information, i.e. aids for politicians having to decide on energy policies. Above all the study aimed at finding out about reactions, social protest, opposition or approval to be coped with by those who, having the say in political matters, want to speak up for one of the energy policies under public discussion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  7. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  8. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  9. Localization Accuracy of Distributed Inverse Solutions for Electric and Magnetic Source Imaging of Interictal Epileptic Discharges in Patients with Focal Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heers, Marcel; Chowdhury, Rasheda A; Hedrich, Tanguy; Dubeau, François; Hall, Jeffery A; Lina, Jean-Marc; Grova, Christophe; Kobayashi, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Distributed inverse solutions aim to realistically reconstruct the origin of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) from noninvasively recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. Our aim was to compare the performance of different distributed inverse solutions in localizing IEDs: coherent maximum entropy on the mean (cMEM), hierarchical Bayesian implementations of independent identically distributed sources (IID, minimum norm prior) and spatially coherent sources (COH, spatial smoothness prior). Source maxima (i.e., the vertex with the maximum source amplitude) of IEDs in 14 EEG and 19 MEG studies from 15 patients with focal epilepsy were analyzed. We visually compared their concordance with intracranial EEG (iEEG) based on 17 cortical regions of interest and their spatial dispersion around source maxima. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) maxima from cMEM were most often confirmed by iEEG (cMEM: 14/19, COH: 9/19, IID: 8/19 studies). COH electric source imaging (ESI) maxima co-localized best with iEEG (cMEM: 8/14, COH: 11/14, IID: 10/14 studies). In addition, cMEM was less spatially spread than COH and IID for ESI and MSI (p < 0.001 Bonferroni-corrected post hoc t test). Highest positive predictive values for cortical regions with IEDs in iEEG could be obtained with cMEM for MSI and with COH for ESI. Additional realistic EEG/MEG simulations confirmed our findings. Accurate spatially extended sources, as found in cMEM (ESI and MSI) and COH (ESI) are desirable for source imaging of IEDs because this might influence surgical decision. Our simulations suggest that COH and IID overestimate the spatial extent of the generators compared to cMEM.

  10. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b)

  11. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  12. Influence of multi-source and multi-temporal remotely sensed and ancillary data on the accuracy of random forest classification of wetlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jennifer M.; Knight, Joseph F.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Wetland mapping at the landscape scale using remotely sensed data requires both affordable data and an efficient accurate classification method. Random forest classification offers several advantages over traditional land cover classification techniques, including a bootstrapping technique to generate robust estimations of outliers in the training data, as well as the capability of measuring classification confidence. Though the random forest classifier can generate complex decision trees with a multitude of input data and still not run a high risk of over fitting, there is a great need to reduce computational and operational costs by including only key input data sets without sacrificing a significant level of accuracy. Our main questions for this study site in Northern Minnesota were: (1) how does classification accuracy and confidence of mapping wetlands compare using different remote sensing platforms and sets of input data; (2) what are the key input variables for accurate differentiation of upland, water, and wetlands, including wetland type; and (3) which datasets and seasonal imagery yield the best accuracy for wetland classification. Our results show the key input variables include terrain (elevation and curvature) and soils descriptors (hydric), along with an assortment of remotely sensed data collected in the spring (satellite visible, near infrared, and thermal bands; satellite normalized vegetation index and Tasseled Cap greenness and wetness; and horizontal-horizontal (HH) and horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization using L-band satellite radar). We undertook this exploratory analysis to inform decisions by natural resource managers charged with monitoring wetland ecosystems and to aid in designing a system for consistent operational mapping of wetlands across landscapes similar to those found in Northern Minnesota.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography using 3{sup rd}-generation dual-source CT and automated tube voltage selection: Clinical application in a non-obese and obese patient population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Heart Centre Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology, Munich (Germany); Steinberg, Daniel H.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C.; Biancalana, Matthew; De Cecco, Carlo N. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Nikolaou, Konstantin [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of 3{sup rd}-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography in obese and non-obese patients. We retrospectively analyzed 76 patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography. Prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition was performed with automated tube voltage selection (ATVS). Patients were dichotomized based on body mass index in groups A (<30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 37) and B (≥30 kg/m{sup 2}, n = 39) and based on tube voltage in groups C (<120 kV, n = 46) and D (120 kV, n = 30). Coronary arteries were assessed for significant stenoses (≥50 % luminal narrowing) and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Per-patient overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were 96.9 %, 95.5 %, 93.9 %, 97.7 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Sensitivity and NPV were lower in groups B and D compared to groups A and C, but no statistically significant differences were observed (group A vs. B: sensitivity, 100.0 % vs. 93.3 %, p = 0.9493; NPV, 100 % vs. 95.5 %, p = 0.9812; group C vs. D: sensitivity, 100.0 % vs. 92.3 %, p = 0.8462; NPV, 100.0 % vs. 94.1 %, p = 0.8285). CCTA using 3{sup rd}-generation DSCT and (ATVS) provides high diagnostic accuracy in both non-obese and obese patients. (orig.)

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of coronary CT angiography using 3"r"d-generation dual-source CT and automated tube voltage selection: Clinical application in a non-obese and obese patient population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, Stefanie; Wichmann, Julian L.; Schoepf, U.J.; Caruso, Damiano; Tesche, Christian; Steinberg, Daniel H.; Bayer, Richard R.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Stubenrauch, Andrew C.; Biancalana, Matthew; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Nikolaou, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of 3"r"d-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) coronary angiography in obese and non-obese patients. We retrospectively analyzed 76 patients who underwent coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography. Prospectively ECG-triggered acquisition was performed with automated tube voltage selection (ATVS). Patients were dichotomized based on body mass index in groups A (<30 kg/m"2, n = 37) and B (≥30 kg/m"2, n = 39) and based on tube voltage in groups C (<120 kV, n = 46) and D (120 kV, n = 30). Coronary arteries were assessed for significant stenoses (≥50 % luminal narrowing) and diagnostic accuracy was calculated. Per-patient overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were 96.9 %, 95.5 %, 93.9 %, 97.7 % and 96.1 %, respectively. Sensitivity and NPV were lower in groups B and D compared to groups A and C, but no statistically significant differences were observed (group A vs. B: sensitivity, 100.0 % vs. 93.3 %, p = 0.9493; NPV, 100 % vs. 95.5 %, p = 0.9812; group C vs. D: sensitivity, 100.0 % vs. 92.3 %, p = 0.8462; NPV, 100.0 % vs. 94.1 %, p = 0.8285). CCTA using 3"r"d-generation DSCT and (ATVS) provides high diagnostic accuracy in both non-obese and obese patients. (orig.)

  15. The impact of the in-orbit background and the X-ray source intensity on the centroiding accuracy of the Swift X-ray telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosi, R M; Hill, J; Cheruvu, C; Abbey, A F; Short, A D T

    2002-01-01

    The optical components of the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer X-ray Telescope (XRT), consisting of the JET-X spare flight mirror and a charge coupled device of the type used in the EPIC program, were used in a re-calibration study carried out at the Panter facility, which is part of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics. The objective of this study was to check the focal length and the off axis performance of the mirrors and to show that the half energy width (HEW) of the on-axis point spread function (PSF) was of the order of 16 arcsec at 1.5 keV (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543; SPIE 4140 (2000) 64) and that a centroiding accuracy better that 1 arcsec could be achieved within the 4 arcmin sampling area designated by the Burst Alert Telescope (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The centroiding accuracy of the Swift XRT's optical components was tested as a function of distance from the focus and off axis position of the PSF (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 488 (2002) 543). The presence ...

  16. Compatibility of elastomers in alternate jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfayan, S. H.; Fedors, R. F.; Reilly, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The compatibility of elastomeric compositions of known resistance to aircraft fuels was tested for potential use in Jet A type fuels obtainable from alternate sources, such as coal. Since such fuels were not available at the time, synthetic alternate fuels were prepared by adding tetralin to a petroleum based Jet A type fuel to simulate coal derived fuels which are expected to contain higher amounts of aromatic and hydroaromatic hydrocarbons. The elastomeric compounds tested were based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber, a castable Thiokol polysulfide rubber, and a castable fluorosilicone rubber. Batches of various cross-link densities of these rubbers were made and their chemical stress relaxation behavior in fuel, air, and nitrogen, their swelling properties, and response to mechanical testing were determined.

  17. Inheritance of graft compatibility in Douglas fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1973-01-01

    Graft compatibility of genetically related and unrelated rootstock-scion combinations was compared. Scion clones were 75% compatible when grafted on half-related rootstocks but only 56% compatible when grafted on unrelated rootstocks. Most variance associated with graft incompatibility in Douglas-fir appears to be caused by multiple genes.

  18. Prism-pair interferometry by homodyne interferometers with a common light source for high-accuracy measurement of the absolute refractive index of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yasuaki; Hirai, Akiko; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    A prism-pair interferometer comprising two homodyne interferometers with a common light source was developed for high-precision measurements of the refractive index of optical glasses with an uncertainty of the order of 10 -6 . The two interferometers measure changes in the optical path length in the glass sample and in air, respectively. Uncertainties in the absolute wavelength of the common light source are cancelled out by calculating a ratio between the results from the interferometers. Uncertainties in phase measurement are suppressed by a quadrature detection system. The combined standard uncertainty of the developed system is evaluated as 1.1x10 -6 .

  19. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  20. Detergent-compatible bacterial amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2014-10-01

    Proteases, lipases, amylases, and cellulases are enzymes used in detergent formulation to improve the detergency. The amylases are specifically supplemented to the detergent to digest starchy stains. Most of the solid and liquid detergents that are currently manufactured contain alkaline enzymes. The advantages of using alkaline enzymes in the detergent formulation are that they aid in removing tough stains and the process is environmentally friendly since they reduce the use of toxic detergent ingredients. Amylases active at low temperature are preferred as the energy consumption gets reduced, and the whole process becomes cost-effective. Most microbial alkaline amylases are used as detergent ingredients. Various reviews report on the production, purification, characterization, and application of amylases in different industry sectors, but there is no specific review on bacterial or fungal alkaline amylases or detergent-compatible amylases. In this mini-review, an overview on the production and property studies of the detergent bacterial amylases is given, and the stability and compatibility of the alkaline bacterial amylases in the presence of the detergents and the detergent components are highlighted.

  1. Application of remote handling compatibility on ITER plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, S.; Rolfe, A.; Mills, S.F.; Tesini, A.

    2011-01-01

    The ITER plant will require fully remote maintenance during its operational life. For this to be effective, safe and efficient the plant will have to be developed in accordance with remote handling (RH) compatibility requirements. A system for ensuring RH compatibility on plant designed for Tokamaks was successfully developed and applied, inter alia, by the authors when working at the JET project. The experience gained in assuring RH compatibility of plant at JET is now being applied to RH relevant ITER plant. The methodologies required to ensure RH compatibility of plant include the standardization of common plant items, standardization of RH features, availability of common guidance on RH best practice and a protocol for design and interface review and approval. The protocol in use at ITER is covered by the ITER Remote Maintenance Management System (IRMMS) defines the processes and utilization of management controls including Plant Definition Forms (PDF), Task Definition Forms (TDFs) and RH Compatibility Assessment Forms (RHCA) and the ITER RH Code of Practice. This paper will describe specific examples where the authors have applied the methodology proven at JET to ensure remote handling compatibility on ITER plant. Examples studied are: ·ELM coils (to be installed in-vessel behind the Blanket Modules) - handling both in-vessel, in Casks and at the Hot Cell as well as fully remote installation and connection (mechanical and electrical) in-vessel. ·Neutral beam systems (in-vessel and in the NB Cell) - beam sources, cesium oven, beam line components (accessed in the NB Cell) and Duct Liner (remotely replaced from in-vessel). ·Divertor (in-vessel) - cooling pipe work and remotely operated electrical connector. The RH compatibility process can significantly affect plant design. This paper should therefore be of interest to all parties who develop ITER plant designs.

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  3. A Novel Solid State Non-Dispersive Infrared CO2 Gas Sensor Compatible with Wireless and Portable Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Gibson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED and photodiode (PD light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second, longevity (>15 years, low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with “fit and forget” wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ’s, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery. Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration, comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  4. A novel solid state non-dispersive infrared CO2 gas sensor compatible with wireless and portable deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Desmond; MacGregor, Calum

    2013-05-29

    This paper describes development of a novel mid-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and photodiode (PD) light source/detector combination and use within a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) carbon dioxide gas sensor. The LED/PD based NDIR sensor provides fast stabilisation time (time required to turn on the sensor from cold, warm up, take and report a measurement, and power down again ≈1 second), longevity (>15 years), low power consumption and low cost. Described performance is compatible with "fit and forget" wireless deployed sensors in applications such as indoor air quality monitoring/control & energy conservation in buildings, transport systems, horticultural greenhouses and portable deployment for safety, industrial and medical applications. Fast stabilisation time, low intrinsic power consumption and cycled operation offer typical energy consumption per measurement of mJ's, providing extended operation using battery and/or energy harvesting strategies (measurement interval of ≈ 2 minutes provides >10 years operation from one AA battery). Specific performance data is provided in relation to measurement accuracy and noise, temperature performance, cross sensitivity, measurement range (two pathlength variants are described covering ambient through to 100% gas concentration), comparison with NDIR utilizing thermal source/pyroelectric light source/detector combination and compatibility with energy harvesting. Semiconductor based LED/PD processing together with injection moulded reflective optics and simple assembly provide a route to low cost high volume manufacturing.

  5. Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Han; Dong Hong; Mitch Warachka

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that stock price momentum and earnings momentum can result from uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of cash flow forecasts. Our model has multiple information sources issuing cash flow forecasts for a stock. The investor combines these forecasts into an aggregate cash flow estimate that has minimal mean-squared forecast error. This aggregate estimate weights each cash flow forecast by the estimated accuracy of its issuer, which is obtained from their past forecast errors. Mome...

  6. Role of value compatibility in IT adoption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunker, Deborah; Kautz, Karlheinz; Nguyen, Anne Luu Thanh

    2007-01-01

    Compatibility has been recognised as an important element in the adoption of IT innovations in organisations but as a concept it has been generally limited to technical or functional factors. Compatibility is also significant, however, with regard to value compatibility between the organisation......, and the adopted IT innovation. We propose a framework to determine value compatibility analysing the organisation's and information system's structure, practices and culture, and explore the value compatibility of an organisation with its adopted self-service computer-based information system. A case study......-service acceptance and training issues experienced by the case organisation. These findings add insight into the problems experienced with value compatibility and the adoption of the information systems, and show the potential use of the proposed framework in the detection of such problems.Journal of Information...

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility Design of the Computer Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitai, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Computers and the Internet have gradually penetrated into every aspect of people’s daily work. But with the improvement of electronic equipment as well as electrical system, the electromagnetic environment becomes much more complex. Electromagnetic interference has become an important factor to hinder the normal operation of electronic equipment. In order to analyse the computer circuit compatible with the electromagnetic compatibility, this paper starts from the computer electromagnetic and the conception of electromagnetic compatibility. And then, through the analysis of the main circuit and system of computer electromagnetic compatibility problems, we can design the computer circuits in term of electromagnetic compatibility. Finally, the basic contents and methods of EMC test are expounded in order to ensure the electromagnetic compatibility of equipment.

  8. Accuracy of Corneal Thickness by Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography and Scheimpflug Camera in Virgin and Treated Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Ortiz-Toquero, Sara; Auladell, Clara; Couceiro, Ana

    2018-06-01

    To assess intraobserver repeatability, intersession reproducibility, and agreement of swept-source Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and the Scheimpflug camera in measuring corneal thickness in virgin and grafted eyes with Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). Thirty-six control eyes, 35 FECD eyes, 30 FECD with corneal edema eyes, 25 Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) eyes, and 29 Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) eyes were included. The apical center, pupillary center, and thinnest corneal thickness were determined in 3 consecutive images and repeated 2 weeks later. Repeatability and reproducibility coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients, and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) between measurements were calculated. Agreement between devices was assessed using Bland-Altman analysis. Corneal thickness measurements were highly reproducible and repeatable with both systems. SS-OCT showed better repeatability in all corneal locations in the normal, FECD, FECD with edema, DSAEK, and DMEK groups (coefficient of variation ≤0.60%, ≤0.36%, ≤0.43%, ≤1.09%, and ≤0.48%, respectively) than the Scheimpflug (coefficient of variation ≤1.15%, ≤0.92%, ≤1.10%, ≤1.25%, and ≤1.14%, respectively). Between-session 95% LOA for SS-OCT was less than 3% for all groups except for the FECD with edema group, being almost double using the Scheimpflug camera. Differences between instruments were statistically significant in all groups and locations (P group (P ≤ 0.51); however, SS-OCT underestimated all measurements. SS-OCT provides better reproducible and repeatable measurements of corneal thickness than those obtained with the Scheimpflug camera in patients with FECD or an endothelial transplant. Variations between examinations higher than the 95% LOA observed in our study should raise awareness of changes in the endothelial function.

  9. Steganalysis based on JPEG compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Du, Rui

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new forensic tool that can reliably detect modifications in digital images, such as distortion due to steganography and watermarking, in images that were originally stored in the JPEG format. The JPEG compression leave unique fingerprints and serves as a fragile watermark enabling us to detect changes as small as modifying the LSB of one randomly chosen pixel. The detection of changes is based on investigating the compatibility of 8x8 blocks of pixels with JPEG compression with a given quantization matrix. The proposed steganalytic method is applicable to virtually all steganongraphic and watermarking algorithms with the exception of those that embed message bits into the quantized JPEG DCT coefficients. The method can also be used to estimate the size of the secret message and identify the pixels that carry message bits. As a consequence of our steganalysis, we strongly recommend avoiding using images that have been originally stored in the JPEG format as cover-images for spatial-domain steganography.

  10. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Systematic radiation dose optimization of abdominal dual-energy CT on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner: assessment of the accuracy of iodine uptake measurement and image quality in an in vitro and in vivo investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindera, Sebastian T; Zaehringer, Caroline; D'Errico, Luigia; Schwartz, Fides; Kekelidze, Maka; Szucs-Farkas, Zsolt; Benz, Matthias R

    2017-10-01

    To assess the accuracy of iodine quantification in a phantom study at different radiation dose levels with dual-energy dual-source CT and to evaluate image quality and radiation doses in patients undergoing a single-energy and two dual-energy abdominal CT protocols. In a phantom study, the accuracy of iodine quantification (4.5-23.5 mgI/mL) was evaluated using the manufacturer-recommended and three dose-optimized dual-energy protocols. In a patient study, 75 abdomino-pelvic CT examinations were acquired as follows: 25 CT scans with the manufacturer-recommended dual-energy protocol (protocol A); 25 CT scans with a dose-optimized dual-energy protocol (protocol B); and 25 CT scans with a single-energy CT protocol (protocol C). CTDI vol and objective noise were measured. Five readers scored each scan according to six subjective image quality parameters (noise, contrast, artifacts, visibility of small structures, sharpness, overall diagnostic confidence). In the phantom study, differences between the real and measured iodine concentrations ranged from -8.8% to 17.0% for the manufacturer-recommended protocol and from -1.6% to 20.5% for three dose-optimized protocols. In the patient study, the CTDI vol of protocol A, B, and C were 12.5 ± 1.9, 7.5 ± 1.2, and 6.5 ± 1.7 mGycm, respectively (p dual-energy and the single-energy protocol. A dose reduction of 41% is feasible for the manufacturer-recommended, abdominal dual-energy CT protocol, as it maintained the accuracy of iodine measurements and subjective image quality compared to a single-energy protocol.

  12. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  13. Common Fixed Points for Weakly Compatible Maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  14. New Commitment Options: Compatibility with Emissions Trading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers different options for quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments from the standpoint of their technical compatibility with emissions trading. These are dynamic targets, binding targets with price caps, non-binding targets, sector-wide targets/mechanisms, action targets, allowances and endowments, and long-term permits. This paper considers these options from the standpoint of their compatibility with emissions trading.

  15. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  16. 9 CFR 3.7 - Compatible grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compatible grouping. 3.7 Section 3.7... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.7 Compatible grouping. Dogs and cats that are housed...; (c) Puppies or kittens 4 months of age or less may not be housed in the same primary enclosure with...

  17. Mycelial compatibility groups and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and isolate aggressiveness comparisons. MCG, host specificity and aggressiveness of S. sclerotiorum isolates were assessed. Isolate pairs were designated compatible when no barrage zone formed at sites of contact. They were designated incompatible when a ...

  18. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process

  19. Subtraction with hadronic initial states at NLO: an NNLO-compatible scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Gábor

    2009-05-01

    We present an NNLO-compatible subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections of hadron-initiated processes at NLO accuracy. The scheme is constructed specifically with those complications in mind, that emerge when extending the subtraction algorithm to next-to-next-to-leading order. It is therefore possible to embed the present scheme in a full NNLO computation without any modifications.

  20. Subtraction with hadronic initial states at NLO: an NNLO-compatible scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Gabor

    2009-01-01

    We present an NNLO-compatible subtraction scheme for computing QCD jet cross sections of hadron-initiated processes at NLO accuracy. The scheme is constructed specifically with those complications in mind, that emerge when extending the subtraction algorithm to next-to-next-to-leading order. It is therefore possible to embed the present scheme in a full NNLO computation without any modifications.

  1. COSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN LEADERSHIP AND TEAMWORK SKILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Dana Duda Daianu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The team leader is the author of vision, mentor, guide, motivator, source of encouragement and supportive team. The leader helps team members to focus on the big picture of the project, to give the best of them, to follow the right path and stay united. Leader qualities must necessarily include its ability to work together, to be folded on the processes that describe functional and structural developments in embedded team. The issue of the leader development includes the necessity to concurrently form the skills of tem working. The working paper underlines that these two formative desiderate are compatible, correlative and complementary. So, in the study that we undertake we proposed to determine the degree of compatibility between the two demands of education, as follows: the training of leader capable to exercise also the specific activities of teamwork

  2. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  3. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff). Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti. Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were.

  4. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  5. Accuracy in Optical Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan Aslan

    Low computational accuracy is an important obstacle for optical processors which blocks their way to becoming a practical reality and a serious challenger for classical computing paradigms. This research presents a comprehensive solution approach to the problem of accuracy enhancement in discrete analog optical information processing systems. Statistical analysis of a generic three-plane optical processor is carried out first, taking into account the effects of diffraction, interchannel crosstalk, and background radiation. Noise sources included in the analysis are photon, excitation, and emission fluctuations in the source array, transmission and polarization fluctuations in the modulator, and photoelectron, gain, dark, shot, and thermal noise in the detector array. Means and mutual coherence and probability density functions are derived for both optical and electrical output signals. Next, statistical models for a number of popular optoelectronic devices are studied. Specific devices considered here are light-emitting and laser diode sources, an ideal noiseless modulator and a Gaussian random-amplitude-transmittance modulator, p-i-n and avalanche photodiode detectors followed by electronic postprocessing, and ideal free-space geometrical -optics propagation and single-lens imaging systems. Output signal statistics are determined for various interesting device combinations by inserting these models into the general formalism. Finally, based on these special-case output statistics, results on accuracy limitations and enhancement in optical processors are presented. Here, starting with the formulation of the accuracy enhancement problem as (1) an optimal detection problem and (2) as a parameter estimation problem, the potential accuracy improvements achievable via the classical multiple-hypothesis -testing and maximum likelihood and Bayesian parameter estimation methods are demonstrated. Merits of using proper normalizing transforms which can potentially stabilize

  6. Methane emissions and climate compatibility of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, B.

    1992-01-01

    Methane contributes directly and indirectly to the additional greenhouse effect caused by human activities. The vast majority of the anthropogenic methane release occurs worldwide in non-fossil sources such as rice cultivation, livestock operations, sanitary landfills and combustion of bio-mass. Methane emissions also occur during production, distribution and utilisation of fossil fuels. Also when considering the methane release and CO 2 -emissions of processes upstream of combustion, the ranking of environmental compatibility of natural gas, fuel oil and cool remains unchanged. Of all fossil fuels, natural gas contributes the least to the greenhouse effect. (orig.) [de

  7. Ion implantation and bio-compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kusakabe, Masahiro [Sony Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Corporate Research Labs.; Iwaki, Masaya

    1992-07-01

    Surface modification of polymers by ion implantation has been carried out to control surface properties such as conductivity, wettability, blood and tissue compatibility. Ion implantation into silicone rubber, polystyrene and segmented polyurethane was performed at 150 keV with doses ranging from 1 x 10[sup 15] to 3 x 10[sup 17] ions/cm[sup 2] to improve bio-compatibility. The platelet accumulation on ion implanted silicone rubber decreased and non-thrombogenicity of ion implanted specimens were improved. The ion implanted polystyrene and segmented polyurethane have been found to exhibit remarkably higher adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared to the non-implanted case. It is concluded that ion implantation into polymers is effective in controlling their bio-compatibility. (author).

  8. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  10. [Compatibility of family and medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, B D; Bellemann, N; Weber, M-A

    2011-09-01

    The compatibility of family and profession is especially difficult for employees in medical professions because of shift work and overtime. It seems that in the future women are going to represent the majority of medical professionals. Hence, with the manifest lack of physicians social aspects will also play a bigger role in the choice of the place of employment. In most families the classic role model prevails although women are well educated and men also set a high value on the compatibility of family and profession and would like to take parental leave and work in flexible working hours. This represents a chance, especially for radiology.

  11. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...... be improved at a very early stage of the process. It is also revealed what parameters are the most important ones when considering compatibility. It was observed that a change of capacitance in the collection grid shifts the resonance peaks. A change in WT transformer capacitances influences the admittance...

  12. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  13. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  14. Coal use in Italy and environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Fossil fuels have in Italy great importance. In Italy, in terms of environmental protection and for social acceptance, coal has had a real opposition not verified in other countries. Environmental compatibility of coal cycle and related technologies are discussed also consequently at the Kyoto protocol [it

  15. Conflicting Multi-Objective Compatible Optimization Control

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lihong; Hu, Qingsong; Hu, Haigen; Goodman, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Based on ideas developed in addressing practical greenhouse environmental control, we propose a new multi-objective compatible control method. Several detailed algorithms are proposed to meet the requirements of different kinds of problem: 1) A two-layer MOCC framework is presented for problems with a precise model; 2) To deal with situations

  16. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    , presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...

  17. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  18. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  19. Are Naturalism and Moral Realism Compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alvin Plantinga has argued that there is good reason to think that naturalism and moral realism are incompatible. He has done so by arguing that the most important argument for the compatibility of these two theses, which has been provided by Frank Jackson, fails and that any

  20. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  1. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  2. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  3. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  4. Compatibility of Motion Facilitates Visuomotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Spivey, Michael J.; Krumhansl, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1,…

  5. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  6. Accuracy Limitations in Optical Linear Algebra Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsell, Stephen Gordon

    1990-01-01

    One of the limiting factors in applying optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) to real-world problems has been the poor achievable accuracy of these processors. Little previous research has been done on determining noise sources from a systems perspective which would include noise generated in the multiplication and addition operations, noise from spatial variations across arrays, and from crosstalk. In this dissertation, we propose a second-order statistical model for an OLAP which incorporates all these system noise sources. We now apply this knowledge to determining upper and lower bounds on the achievable accuracy. This is accomplished by first translating the standard definition of accuracy used in electronic digital processors to analog optical processors. We then employ our second-order statistical model. Having determined a general accuracy equation, we consider limiting cases such as for ideal and noisy components. From the ideal case, we find the fundamental limitations on improving analog processor accuracy. From the noisy case, we determine the practical limitations based on both device and system noise sources. These bounds allow system trade-offs to be made both in the choice of architecture and in individual components in such a way as to maximize the accuracy of the processor. Finally, by determining the fundamental limitations, we show the system engineer when the accuracy desired can be achieved from hardware or architecture improvements and when it must come from signal pre-processing and/or post-processing techniques.

  7. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  8. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility design and cabling system rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report is devoted to establish EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) design and cabling system rules. It is intended for hardware designers in charge of designing electronic maps or integrating existing materials into a comprehensive system. It is a practical guide. The rules described in this document do not require enhanced knowledge of advanced mathematical or physical concepts. The key point is to understand phenomena with a pragmatic approach to highlight the design and protection rules. (author)

  10. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation i...... for integration with existing insulator-metal-insu lator plasmonic waveguides as well as novel photonic/electronic hybrid circuits...

  11. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    , presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...... recommendations for future designs and comment on the possibility of using the keyboard in magnetoencephalography (MEG) systems. Preliminary results indicate a comfortable playing experience with no disturbance of the imaging process....

  12. Batch Processing of CMOS Compatible Feedthroughs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, F.E.; Heschel, M.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    . The feedthrough technology employs a simple solution to the well-known CMOS compatibility issue of KOH by protecting the CMOS side of the wafer using sputter deposited TiW/Au. The fabricated feedthroughs exhibit excellent electrical performance having a serial resistance of 40 mOmega and a parasitic capacitance...... of 2.5 pF. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  13. Ecological significance of compatible solute accumulation by micro-organisms: from single cells to global climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, D T

    2000-07-01

    The osmoadaptation of most micro-organisms involves the accumulation of K(+) ions and one or more of a restricted range of low molecular mass organic solutes, collectively termed 'compatible solutes'. These solutes are accumulated to high intracellular concentrations, in order to balance the osmotic pressure of the growth medium and maintain cell turgor pressure, which provides the driving force for cell extension growth. In this review, I discuss the alternative roles which compatible solutes may also play as intracellular reserves of carbon, energy and nitrogen, and as more general stress metabolites involved in protection of cells against other environmental stresses including heat, desiccation and freezing. Thus, the evolutionary selection for the accumulation of a specific compatible solute may not depend solely upon its function during osmoadaptation, but also upon the secondary benefits its accumulation provides, such as increased tolerance of other environmental stresses prevalent in the organism's niche or even anti-herbivory or dispersal functions in the case of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). In the second part of the review, I discuss the ecological consequences of the release of compatible solutes to the environment, where they can provide sources of compatible solutes, carbon, nitrogen and energy for other members of the micro-flora. Finally, at the global scale the metabolism of specific compatible solutes (betaines and DMSP) in brackish water, marine and hypersaline environments may influence global climate, due to the production of the trace gases, methane and dimethylsulfide (DMS) and in the case of DMS, also couple the marine and terrestrial sulfur cycles.

  14. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  15. Fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride nanoantennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Justin A., E-mail: jabriggs@stanford.edu [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naik, Gururaj V.; Baum, Brian K.; Dionne, Jennifer A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Petach, Trevor A.; Goldhaber-Gordon, David [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    CMOS-compatible fabrication of plasmonic materials and devices will accelerate the development of integrated nanophotonics for information processing applications. Using low-temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD), we develop a recipe for fully CMOS-compatible titanium nitride (TiN) that is plasmonic in the visible and near infrared. Films are grown on silicon, silicon dioxide, and epitaxially on magnesium oxide substrates. By optimizing the plasma exposure per growth cycle during PEALD, carbon and oxygen contamination are reduced, lowering undesirable loss. We use electron beam lithography to pattern TiN nanopillars with varying diameters on silicon in large-area arrays. In the first reported single-particle measurements on plasmonic TiN, we demonstrate size-tunable darkfield scattering spectroscopy in the visible and near infrared regimes. The optical properties of this CMOS-compatible material, combined with its high melting temperature and mechanical durability, comprise a step towards fully CMOS-integrated nanophotonic information processing.

  16. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  17. Diagnosing Eyewitness Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Russ, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Eyewitnesses frequently mistake innocent people for the perpetrator of an observed crime. Such misidentifications have led to the wrongful convictions of many people. Despite this, no reliable method yet exists to determine eyewitness accuracy. This thesis explored two new experimental methods for this purpose. Chapter 2 investigated whether repetition priming can measure prior exposure to a target and compared this with observers’ explicit eyewitness accuracy. Across three experiments slower...

  18. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as screening technique for assessing compatibility between dika fat and drug substances. Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire ...

  19. Accuracy and precision in thermoluminescence dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1984-01-01

    The question of accuracy and precision in thermoluminescent dosimetry, particularly in relation to lithium fluoride phosphor, is discussed. The more important sources of error, including those due to the detectors, the reader, annealing and dosemeter design, are identified and methods of reducing their effects on accuracy and precision to a minimum are given. Finally, the accuracy and precision achievable for three quite different applications are discussed, namely, for personal dosimetry, environmental monitoring and for the measurement of photon dose distributions in phantoms. (U.K.)

  20. Rust transformation/rust compatible primers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeric, Dario A.; Miller, Christopher E.

    1993-01-01

    Proper surface preparation has been the key to obtain good performance by a surface coating. The major obstacle in preparing a corroded or rusted surface is the complete removal of the contaminants and the corrosion products. Sandblasting has been traditionally used to remove the corrosion products before painting. However, sandblasting can be expensive, may be prohibited by local health regulations and is not applicable in every situation. To get around these obstacles, Industry developed rust converters/rust transformers and rust compatible primers (high solids epoxies). The potential use of these products for military equipment led personnel of the Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center (BRDEC) to evaluate the commercially available rust transformers and rust compatible primers. Prior laboratory experience with commercially available rust converters, as well as field studies in Hawaii and Puerto Rico, revealed poor performance, several inherent limitations, and lack of reliability. It was obvious from our studies that the performance of rust converting products was more dependent on the amount and type of rust present, as well as the degree of permeability of the coating, than on the product's ability to form an organometallic complex with the rust. Based on these results, it was decided that the Military should develop their own rust converter formulation and specification. The compound described in the specification is for use on a rusted surface before the application of an organic coating (bituminous compounds, primer or topcoat). These coatings should end the need for sandblasting or the removing of the adherent corrosion products. They also will prepare the surface for the application of the organic coating. Several commercially available rust compatible primers (RCP) were also tested using corroded surfaces. All of the evaluated RCP failed our laboratory tests for primers.

  1. RSX system development under VAX/VMS compatibility mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuka, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Control System for the Proton Storage Ring now being built at Los Alamos will use a VAX-11/750 as its main control computer with several LSI-11/23 microprocessors reading and controlling the hardware. The VMS Compatibility Mode makes it possible to use the VAX as a development system for the LSI-11/23 microprocessors running the RSX-11S (stand-alone) operating system. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC)-supplied software is used to generate the RSX-11S operating system and DECNET-11S network software. We use the VMS editors to create source files, the Macro-11 assembler and the PDP-11 Fortran-77 compiler to generate object code, and the RSX Task Builder to link the executable RSX task image. The RSX task then can be tested to some extent on the VAX before it is down-line loaded to the LSI-11/23 for further testing

  2. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  3. Quadratic Poisson brackets compatible with an algebra structure

    OpenAIRE

    Balinsky, A. A.; Burman, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Quadratic Poisson brackets on a vector space equipped with a bilinear multiplication are studied. A notion of a bracket compatible with the multiplication is introduced and an effective criterion of such compatibility is given. Among compatible brackets, a subclass of coboundary brackets is described, and such brackets are enumerated in a number of examples.

  4. 47 CFR 76.1622 - Consumer education program on compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education program on compatibility. 76... SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1622 Consumer education program on compatibility. Cable system operators shall provide a consumer education program on compatibility matters to...

  5. Military electronic equipment shelter electrical wiring design of electromagnetic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility is the military electronics shelter design is an important indicator of the shelter's electrical wiring is the key to the design of electromagnetic compatibility. Introduces the basic concepts of electromagnetic compatibility, and focusing on the shelter layout design problems that need attention, and to solve these problems. (authors)

  6. The radiation destruction of blood compatible blockcopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, B.A.; Raygorodsky, I.M.; Dubinskaya, O.V.; Goldberg, E.Sh.; Listvoyb, G.I.

    1991-01-01

    Among the blood compatible polymers such blockcopolymers as polyurethanes and polycarbonatesiloxanes the main problem of the production is the method of sterilization. It is considered that the radiation sterilization promising for articles like catheters made from these polymers. There are some data in the literature about radiation stability of polycarbonates and polysiloxane, but the influence of ionizing irradiation on polycarbonatesiloxane was not studied until now. The irradiation was carried out by γ-cell RHM-γ-20 in air. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs

  7. Differential Equations Compatible with KZ Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, G.; Markov, Y.; Tarasov, V.; Varchenko, A.

    2000-01-01

    We define a system of 'dynamical' differential equations compatible with the KZ differential equations. The KZ differential equations are associated to a complex simple Lie algebra g. These are equations on a function of n complex variables z i taking values in the tensor product of n finite dimensional g-modules. The KZ equations depend on the 'dual' variable in the Cartan subalgebra of g. The dynamical differential equations are differential equations with respect to the dual variable. We prove that the standard hypergeometric solutions of the KZ equations also satisfy the dynamical equations. As an application we give a new determinant formula for the coordinates of a basis of hypergeometric solutions

  8. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  9. Martensitic textures: Multiscale consequences of elastic compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, S.R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    2001-03-01

    We show that a free energy entirely in the order-parameter strain variable(s), rather than the displacement field, provides a unified understanding of martensitic textures. We use compatibility equations, linking the strain tensor components in the bulk and at interfaces, that induce anisotropic order-parameter strain interactions. These two long-range bulk/interface potentials, together with local compositional fluctuations, drive the formation of global elastic textures. Relaxational simulations show the spontaneous formation (and evolution under stress/temperature quenches) of equal width parallel twins, branched twins, and tweed, including characteristic scaling of twin width with twin length. (author)

  10. Testing quantum contextuality. The problem of compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szangolies, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Jochen Szangolies contributes a novel way of dealing with the problem of the experimental testability of the Kochen-Specker theorem posed by realistic, that is, noisy, measurements. Such noise spoils perfect compatibility between successive measurements, which however is a necessary requirement to test the notion of contextuality in usual approaches. To overcome this difficulty, a new, extended notion of contextuality that reduces to Kochen-Specker contextuality in the limit of perfect measurement implementations is proposed by the author, together with a scheme to test this notion experimentally. Furthermore, the behaviour of these tests under realistic noise conditions is investigated.

  11. An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control with high gain step accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaofeng; Ye Tianchun; Mo Taishan; Ma Chengyan

    2012-01-01

    An output amplitude configurable wideband automatic gain control (AGC) with high gain step accuracy for the GNSS receiver is presented. The amplitude of an AGC is configurable in order to cooperate with baseband chips to achieve interference suppression and be compatible with different full range ADCs. And what's more, the gain-boosting technology is introduced and the circuit is improved to increase the step accuracy. A zero, which is composed by the source feedback resistance and the source capacity, is introduced to compensate for the pole. The AGC is fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The AGC shows a 62 dB gain control range by 1 dB each step with a gain error of less than 0.2 dB. The AGC provides 3 dB bandwidth larger than 80 MHz and the overall power consumption is less than 1.8 mA, and the die area is 800 × 300 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Overlay accuracy fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Daniel; Levinski, Vladimir; Sapiens, Noam; Cohen, Guy; Amit, Eran; Klein, Dana; Vakshtein, Irina

    2012-03-01

    Currently, the performance of overlay metrology is evaluated mainly based on random error contributions such as precision and TIS variability. With the expected shrinkage of the overlay metrology budget to DBO (1st order diffraction based overlay). It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of DBO to overlay mark asymmetry is larger than the sensitivity of imaging overlay. Finally, we show that a recently developed measurement quality metric serves as a valuable tool for improving overlay metrology accuracy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accuracy of imaging overlay can be improved significantly by recipe setup optimized using the quality metric. We conclude that imaging overlay metrology, complemented by appropriate use of measurement quality metric, results in optimal overlay accuracy.

  13. Mixed waste chemical compatibility with packaging components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Conroy, M.; Blalock, L.B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a chemical compatibility testing program for packaging of mixed wastes at will be described. We will discuss the choice of four y-radiation doses, four time durations, four temperatures and four waste solutions to simulate the hazardous waste components of mixed wastes for testing materials compatibility of polymers. The selected simulant wastes are (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. A selection of 10 polymers with anticipated high resistance to one or more of these types of environments are proposed for testing as potential liner or seal materials. These polymers are butadiene acrylonitrile copolymer, cross-linked polyethylene, epichlorhyarin, ethylene-propylene rubber, fluorocarbon, glass-filled tetrafluoroethylene, high-density poly-ethylene, isobutylene-isoprene copolymer, polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber. We will describe the elements of the testing plan along with a metric for establishing time resistance of the packaging materials to radiation and chemicals

  14. Studies of environmental compatability. Umweltbundesamt - Texte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The evaluation of the methodical quality of the examples by means of a verification pattern had the result that approaches using quantitative methods - as for example the value in use analysis obtained better results: The representation of the state of the environment and of possible impairments of the environment, which had bejudged, achieved a higher degree of representativeness and completeness. Furthermore the concreteness of the used criteria for the description of the repercussions of a plan and the possibility to quantify same had to be judged more favourable. It must critically be remarked that by using quantitative methods difficulties may appear if impairments of the environment overlap or if there are correlations between the media respectively if there are non-linear repercussions of measures causing environmental damages. The present level of research should be developed to a strenghtened inclusion of complex and dynamic correlations of effects. More exacting investigations concerning environmental compatability are on the long term integrated in administrative procedures only at few authorities. With the demand for an extension of environmental compatability assessment to all steps of planning and procedure for the realization of a plan an early and more intensive participation of the public should be connected.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  16. Improving shuffler assay accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Drums of uranium waste should be disposed of in an economical and environmentally sound manner. The most accurate possible assays of the uranium masses in the drums are required for proper disposal. The accuracies of assays from a shuffler are affected by the type of matrix material in the drums. Non-hydrogenous matrices have little effect on neutron transport and accuracies are very good. If self-shielding is known to be a minor problem, good accuracies are also obtained with hydrogenous matrices when a polyethylene sleeve is placed around the drums. But for those cases where self-shielding may be a problem, matrices are hydrogenous, and uranium distributions are non-uniform throughout the drums, the accuracies are degraded. They can be greatly improved by determining the distributions of the uranium and then applying correction factors based on the distributions. This paper describes a technique for determining uranium distributions by using the neutron count rates in detector banks around the waste drum and solving a set of overdetermined linear equations. Other approaches were studied to determine the distributions and are described briefly. Implementation of this correction is anticipated on an existing shuffler next year

  17. Matters of Accuracy and Conventionality: Prior Accuracy Guides Children's Evaluations of Others' Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Jason; Gilpin, Ansley Tullos; Pierucci, Jillian; Morgan, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that children trust previously reliable sources over previously unreliable ones (e.g., Koenig, Clement, & Harris, 2004). However, it is unclear from these studies whether children rely on accuracy or conventionality to determine the reliability and, ultimately, the trustworthiness of a particular source. In the current study, 3- and…

  18. CMOS-compatible high-voltage integrated circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parpia, Z

    1988-01-01

    Considerable savings in cost and development time can be achieved if high-voltage ICs (HVICs) are fabricated in an existing low-voltage process. In this thesis, the feasibility of fabricating HVICs in a standard CMOS process is investigated. The high-voltage capabilities of an existing 5-{mu}m CMOS process are first studied. High-voltage n- and p-channel transistors with breakdown voltages of 50 and 190 V, respectively, were fabricated without any modifications to the process under consideration. SPICE models for these transistors are developed, and their accuracy verified by comparison with experimental results. In addition, the effect of the interconnect metallization on the high-voltage performance of these devices is also examined. Polysilicon field plates are found to be effective in preventing premature interconnect induced breakdown in these devices. A novel high-voltage transistor structure, the insulated base transistor (IBT), based on a merged MOS-bipolar concept, is proposed and implemented. In order to enhance the high-voltage device capabilities, an improved CMOS-compatible HVIC process using junction isolation is developed.

  19. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  20. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  1. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DC-- Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-01

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO 2 as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO 2 -based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined

  2. [Compatibility of different quality control systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Enrico

    2002-01-01

    Management of the good laboratory practice (GLP) quality system presupposes its linking to a basic recognized and approved quality system, from which it can draw on management procedures common to all quality systems, such as the ISO 9000 set of norms. A quality system organized in this way can also be integrated with other dedicated quality systems, or parts of them, to obtain principles or management procedures for specific topics. The aim of this organization is to set up a reliable, recognized quality system compatible with the principles of GLP and other quality management systems, which provides users with a simplified set of easily accessible management tools and answers. The organization of this quality system is set out in the quality assurance programme, which is actually the document in which the test facility incorporates the GLP principles into its own quality organization.

  3. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected.

  4. Chemical compatibility of DWPF canistered waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) require that the contents of the canistered waste form are compatible with one another and the stainless steel canister. The canistered waste form is a closed system comprised of a stainless steel vessel containing waste glass, air, and condensate. This system will experience a radiation field and an elevated temperature due to radionuclide decay. This report discusses possible chemical reactions, radiation interactions, and corrosive reactions within this system both under normal storage conditions and after exposure to temperatures up to the normal glass transition temperature, which for DWPF waste glass will be between 440 and 460 degrees C. Specific conclusions regarding reactions and corrosion are provided. This document is based on the assumption that the period of interim storage prior to packaging at the federal repository may be as long as 50 years

  5. Is Christian Education Compatible With Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael

    Science education and Christian education are not compatible if by Christian education one means teaching someone to be a Christian. One goal of science education is to give students factual knowledge. Even when there is no actual conflict of this knowledge with the dogmas of Christianity, there exists the potential for conflict. Another goal of science education is to teach students to have the propensity to be sensitive to evidence: to hold beliefs tentatively in light of evidence and to reject these beliefs in the light of new evidence if rejection is warranted by this evidence. This propensity conflicts with one way in which beliefs are often taught in Christian education: namely as fundamental dogmas, rather than as subject to revision in the light of the evidence.

  6. Incentive compatibility in kidney exchange problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Silvia; Patrone, Fioravante

    2009-12-01

    The problem of kidney exchanges shares common features with the classical problem of exchange of indivisible goods studied in the mechanism design literature, while presenting additional constraints on the size of feasible exchanges. The solution of a kidney exchange problem can be summarized in a mapping from the relevant underlying characteristics of the players (patients and their donors) to the set of matchings. The goal is to select only matchings maximizing a chosen welfare function. Since the final outcome heavily depends on the private information in possess of the players, a basic requirement in order to reach efficiency is the truthful revelation of this information. We show that for the kidney exchange problem, a class of (in principle) efficient mechanisms does not enjoy the incentive compatibility property and therefore is subject to possible manipulations made by the players in order to profit of the misrepresentation of their private information.

  7. An overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffi, M.; Qadeer, S.; Anwar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The world is becoming increasingly dependent upon the use of electrical and electronic equipment. In the recent years, introduction of semiconductor based devices, microprocessor and micro computer have brought about a technological revolution that has had far reaching effects in the home, in industry, in commerce and in defense. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) is the discipline which attempts to over come or, at least, minimize the effects of mismatch between equipment and the operating environment in accordance with agreed specifications, standards and regulations. Increased electromagnetic pollution in the environment has caused tremendous concern in the electronic industry and among users. Designers of the electronic products and systems want to be sure that their products do not emit excessive, unintentional radiation to interfere with the operation of the other systems, nor should these products be susceptible to electromagnetic interference which may degrade their performance. (author)

  8. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  9. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  10. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, Frauke; Weischer, Lutz; Thomae, Jakob; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  11. Compatibility testing of vitrified waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.

    1978-01-01

    The compatibility of vitrified radioactive waste with candidate canister materials will be evaluated with both cast and in-can melted vitrified waste. Both real and simulated sludges will be used. In addition, the compatibility of these materials with salt from a possible final storage location will be determined. Cast vitrified waste will be tested with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels and Type 304L stainless steel at 100, 600 and 800 0 C. Cast vitrified waste that has been devitrified by heat treatment will be tested at 100 0 C. Two types of test specimens will be used with either simulated or real sludges: (1) unsealed capsules made of pieces of mill-finished pipe into which vitrified waste is cast, and (2) sealed capsules containing a small container of vitrified waste identical to the ones in the unsealed capsule. In-can melted vitrified waste will be tested with synthetic sludge only and with ASTM A 333 and ASTM A 516 low-carbon steels, Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 600. Two types of tests will be carried out: (1) melting vitrified waste in miniature metal canisters and (2) exposure of small (carefully measured) metal coupons to molten glass. The air oxidation rates of candidate canister materials will be determined, and specimens will also be exposed to salt from Drill Hole AEC-8 in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sealed capsules containing an ASTM A 516 low-carbon steel or Type 304L stainless steel specimen partially embedded in a small block of salt will be heated

  12. Compatibility of materials with liquid metal targets for SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.R.; Pawel, S.J.; DeVan, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Several heavy liquid metals are candidates as the target in a spallation neutron source: Hg, Pb, Bi, and Pb-Bi eutectic. Systems with these liquid metals have been used in the past and a data-base on compatibility already exists. Two major compatibility issues have been identified when selecting a container material for these liquid metals: temperature gradient mass transfer and liquid metal embrittlement or LME. Temperature gradient mass transfer refers to dissolution of material from the high temperature portions of a system and its deposition in the lower temperature areas. Solution and deposition rate constants along with temperature, ΔT, and velocity are usually the most important parameters. For most candidate materials mass transfer corrosion has been found to be proportionately worse in Bi compared with Hg and Pb. For temperatures to ∼550 degrees C, ferritic/martensitic steels have been satisfactory in Pb or Hg systems and the maximum temperature can be extended to ∼650 degrees C with additions of inhibitors to the liquid metal, e.g. Mg, Ti, Zr. Above ∼600 degrees C, austenitic stainless steels have been reported to be unsatisfactory, largely because of the mass transfer of nickel. Blockage of flow from deposition of material is usually the life-limiting effect of this type of corrosion. However, mass transfer corrosion at lower temperatures has not been studied. At low temperatures (usually < 150 degrees C), LME has been reported for some liquid metal/container alloy combinations. Liquid metal embrittlement, like hydrogen embrittlement, results in brittle fracture of a normally ductile material

  13. Positional Accuracy Assessment for Effective Shoreline Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... Data quality may be expressed in terms of several indicators such as attributes, temporal or positional accuracies. ... It is concluded that for the purpose of shoreline change analysis, such as shoreline change trends, large scale data sources should be used where possible for accurate ...

  14. Geoid undulation accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the geoid and equipotential surface of the Earth's gravity field, has long been of interest to geodesists and oceanographers. The geoid provides a surface to which the actual ocean surface can be compared with the differences implying information on the circulation patterns of the oceans. For use in oceanographic applications the geoid is ideally needed to a high accuracy and to a high resolution. There are applications that require geoid undulation information to an accuracy of +/- 10 cm with a resolution of 50 km. We are far from this goal today but substantial improvement in geoid determination has been made. In 1979 the cumulative geoid undulation error to spherical harmonic degree 20 was +/- 1.4 m for the GEM10 potential coefficient model. Today the corresponding value has been reduced to +/- 25 cm for GEM-T3 or +/- 11 cm for the OSU91A model. Similar improvements are noted by harmonic degree (wave-length) and in resolution. Potential coefficient models now exist to degree 360 based on a combination of data types. This paper discusses the accuracy changes that have taken place in the past 12 years in the determination of geoid undulations.

  15. Invited review, recent developments in brachytherapy source dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigooni, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radioactive isotopes is the treatment of choice around the globe for many cancer sites. In this technique, the accuracy of the radiation delivery is highly dependent on the accuracy of radiation dosimetry around individual brachytherapy sources. Moreover, in order to have compatible clinical results, an identical method of source dosimetry must be employed across the world. This problem has been recently addressed by task group 43 from the American Association of Medical Physics with a protocol for dosimetric characterization of brachytherapy sources. This new protocol has been further updated using published data from international sources, by a new Task Group from the American Association of Medical Physics. This has resulted in an updated protocol known as TG43U1 that has been published in March 2004 issue of Medical Physics. The goal of this presentation is to review the original Task Group 43 protocol and associated algorithms for brachytherapy source dosimetry. In addition, the shortcomings of the original protocol that has been resolved in the updated recommendation will be highlighted. I am sure that this is not the end of the line and more work is needed to complete this task. I invite the scientists to join this task and complete the project, with the hope of much better clinical results for cancer patients

  16. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  17. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAURICELLA, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility

  18. [Magnetic resonance compatibility research for coronary mental stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Li; Wang, Shuo; Shang, Ruyao; Wang, Chunren

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to research magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents, and to evaluate the magnetic resonance compatibility based on laboratory testing results. Coronary stents magnetic resonance compatibility test includes magnetically induced displacement force test, magnetically induced torque test, radio frequency induced heating and evaluation of MR image. By magnetic displacement force and torque values, temperature, and image distortion values to determine metal coronary stent demagnetization effect. The methods can be applied to test magnetic resonance compatibility for coronary mental stents and evaluate its demagnetization effect.

  19. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels, coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT levels and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  20. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahiro

    1994-01-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF 2 was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.)

  1. Studies of waste-canister compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compatibility studies were conducted between 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister structural materials. The waste forms were Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus silicon carbide. The canister materials included carbon steel (bare and with chromium or nickel coatings), copper, Monel, Cu-35% Ni, titanium (grades 2 and 12), several Inconels, aluminum alloy 5052, and two stainless steels. Tests of either 6888 or 8821 h were conducted at 100 and 300 0 C, which bracket the low and high limits expected during storage. Glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, which reacted preferentially with copper, nickel, and alloys of these metals. The Pb-Sn matrix alloy stuck to all samples and the carbon-coated particles to most samples at 300 0 C, but the extent of chemical reaction was not determined. Testing for 0.5 h at 800 0 C was included because it is representative of a transportation accident and is required of casks containing nuclear materials. During these tests (1) glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, (2) FUETAP evolved large amounts of gas, (3) Synroc stuck to titanium alloys, (4) glass was molten, and (5) both matrix alloys were molten with considerable chemical interactions with many of the canister samples. If this test condition were imposed on waste canisters, it would be design limiting in many waste storage concepts

  2. Maduramicin and tiamulin compatibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiola, J J; Luco, D F; Perez, V; Vargas, M A; Lujan, L; Marin, J F

    1994-03-01

    A total of 480 1-day-old Hybro broiler chickens were divided into five treatment groups (A: unmedicated control, B: maduramicin, C: maduramicin + tiamulin, D: monensin + tiamulin and E: tiamulin) to study the effect on performance parameters, organ weights, blood haematology and biochemistry, and histopathology of liver and selected striated muscles, when maduramicin at 5 parts/10(6) and monensin at 100 parts/10(6) were included in feed in starter and grower periods, and tiamulin 9 in water at 270 parts/10(6) the recommended therapeutic level, from day 28 to 31. Performance parameters were significantly and negatively affected by monensin but not by maduramicin after treatment with tiamulin. Histopathological examination of striated muscles showed no incompatibility of maduramicin + tiamulin, while lesions were found in the monensin + tiamulin treated group. It is concluded that the use of tiamulin to a therapeutic level for 3 consecutive days is compatible with the simultaneous presence of maduramicin in the feed of broilers.

  3. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I ampersand C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I ampersand C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper

  4. Blood Compatibility of Sulfonated Cladophora Nanocellulose Beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Igor; Lindh, Jonas; Hong, Jaan; Strømme, Maria; Mihranyan, Albert; Ferraz, Natalia

    2018-03-07

    Sulfonated cellulose beads were prepared by oxidation of Cladophora nanocellulose to 2,3-dialdehyde cellulose followed by sulfonation using bisulfite. The physicochemical properties of the sulfonated beads, i.e., high surface area, high degree of oxidation, spherical shape, and the possibility of tailoring the porosity, make them interesting candidates for the development of immunosorbent platforms, including their application in extracorporeal blood treatments. A desired property for materials used in such applications is blood compatibility; therefore in the present work, we investigate the hemocompatibility of the sulfonated cellulose beads using an in vitro whole blood model. Complement system activation (C3a and sC5b-9 levels), coagulation activation (thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels) and hemolysis were evaluated after whole blood contact with the sulfonated beads and the results were compared with the values obtained with the unmodified Cladophora nanocellulose. Results showed that neither of the cellulosic materials presented hemolytic activity. A marked decrease in TAT levels was observed after blood contact with the sulfonated beads, compared with Cladophora nanocellulose. However, the chemical modification did not promote an improvement in Cladophora nanocellulose hemocompatibility in terms of complement system activation. Even though the sulfonated beads presented a significant reduction in pro-coagulant activity compared with the unmodified material, further modification strategies need to be investigated to control the complement activation by the cellulosic materials.

  5. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compatibility of molten salt and structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Masahiro [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As the important factors for considering the compatibility of fuel salt and coolant salt with structural materials in molten salt reactors, there are the moisture remaining in molten salt and the fluorine potential in molten salt. In this study, as for the metals which are the main components of corrosion resistant alloys, the corrosion by the moisture remaining in molten salt and the dependence of the corrosion on fluorine potential were examined. As the molten salts, an eutectic molten salt LiF-BeF{sub 2} was mainly used, and LiF-KF was used in combination. As the metallic materials, Cr, Ni and Cu which are the main components of corrosion resistant and heat resistant alloys, Hastelloy and Monel, were used. In the experiment, the metal pieces were immersed in the molten salt, and by sampling the molten salt, the change with time lapse of the concentration of the dissolved metals was examined. Besides, the electrochemical measurement was carried out for Cr, of which the corrosion was remarkable, and the change with time lapse of the dissolved ions was examined. The experimental setup, the experimental method, and the results of the immersion test and the electrochemical test are reported. The experiment on the corrosion of metals depending on fluorine potential is also reported. (K.I.).

  7. Technical accuracy in historical writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    A guest editorial is presented on the question of accuracy in the writing of radiation protection history. The author has written several books and articles dealing with various aspects of the development of radiation protection standards and philosophy; some of his own minor errors which have been picked up and frequently repeated are confessed. The author also outlines some of the general faults he has encountered in other articles on the subject. A common complaint is that many writers give source references without checking back to the original sources which leads to much carelessness and misunderstanding in technical writing. In addition, some writers all too frequently refer mainly to review articles which can be especially troublesome if the review is of the interpretative type. The limited outlook of some writers is also deplored in that the scope of the literature referred to is often limited to the author's country. A few glaring examples of factual errors encountered in various radiation protection articles are highlighted; these errors have since been repeated in subsequent review articles. (U.K.)

  8. Fast and High Accuracy Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Koujili, M; Koopman, J; Ramos, D; Sapinski, M; De Freitas, J; Ait Amira, Y; Djerdir, A

    2009-01-01

    Scanning of a high intensity particle beam imposes challenging requirements on a Wire Scanner system. It is expected to reach a scanning speed of 20 m.s-1 with a position accuracy of the order of 1 μm. In addition a timing accuracy better than 1 millisecond is needed. The adopted solution consists of a fork holding a wire rotating by a maximum of 200°. Fork, rotor and angular position sensor are mounted on the same axis and located in a chamber connected to the beam vacuum. The requirements imply the design of a system with extremely low vibration, vacuum compatibility, radiation and temperature tolerance. The adopted solution consists of a rotary brushless synchronous motor with the permanent magnet rotor installed inside of the vacuum chamber and the stator installed outside. The accurate position sensor will be mounted on the rotary shaft inside of the vacuum chamber, has to resist a bake-out temperature of 200°C and ionizing radiation up to a dozen of kGy/year. A digital feedback controller allows maxi...

  9. TU-AB-BRA-06: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): An MRI Compatible Externally and Internally Deformable Lung Motion Phantom for Multi-Modality IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabouri, P; Sawant, A [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Arai, T [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MRI has become an attractive tool for tumor motion management. Current MR-compatible phantoms are only capable of reproducing translational motion. This study describes the construction and validation of a more realistic, MRI-compatible lung phantom that is deformable internally as well as externally. We demonstrate a radiotherapy application of this phantom by validating the geometric accuracy of the open-source deformable image registration software NiftyReg (UCL, UK). Methods: The outer shell of a commercially-available dynamic breathing torso phantom was filled with natural latex foam with eleven water tubes. A rigid foam cut-out served as the diaphragm. A high-precision programmable, in-house, MRI-compatible motion platform was used to drive the diaphragm. The phantom was imaged on a 3T scanner (Philips, Ingenia). Twenty seven tumor traces previously recorded from lung cancer patients were programmed into the phantom and 2D+t image sequences were acquired using a sparse-sampling sequence k-t BLAST (accn=3, resolution=0.66×0.66×5mm3; acquisition-time=110ms/slice). The geometric fidelity of the MRI-derived trajectories was validated against those obtained via fluoroscopy using the on board kV imager on a Truebeam linac. NiftyReg was used to perform frame by frame deformable image registration. The location of each marker predicted by using NiftyReg was compared with the values calculated by intensity-based segmentation on each frame. Results: In all cases, MR trajectories were within 1 mm of corresponding fluoroscopy trajectories. RMSE between centroid positions obtained from segmentation with those obtained by NiftyReg varies from 0.1 to 0.21 mm in the SI direction and 0.08 to 0.13 mm in the LR direction showing the high accuracy of deformable registration. Conclusion: We have successfully designed and demonstrated a phantom that can accurately reproduce deformable motion under a variety of imaging modalities including MRI, CT and x-ray fluodoscopy

  10. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  11. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  12. 47 CFR 76.1621 - Equipment compatibility offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment compatibility offer. 76.1621 Section... MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1621 Equipment compatibility offer. Cable system... offer to supply each subscriber with special equipment that will enable the simultaneous reception of...

  13. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 57.6400...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6400 - Compatibility of electric detonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting § 56.6400 Compatibility of electric detonators. All electric detonators to be fired in a round shall be from the same manufacturer and shall have similar electrical firing characteristics. ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compatibility of electric detonators. 56.6400...

  16. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  17. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  18. Accuracy Assessment of Different Digital Surface Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Alganci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs, which can occur in the form of digital surface models (DSMs or digital terrain models (DTMs, are widely used as important geospatial information sources for various remote sensing applications, including the precise orthorectification of high-resolution satellite images, 3D spatial analyses, multi-criteria decision support systems, and deformation monitoring. The accuracy of DEMs has direct impacts on specific calculations and process chains; therefore, it is important to select the most appropriate DEM by considering the aim, accuracy requirement, and scale of each study. In this research, DSMs obtained from a variety of satellite sensors were compared to analyze their accuracy and performance. For this purpose, freely available Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER 30 m, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM 30 m, and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS 30 m resolution DSM data were obtained. Additionally, 3 m and 1 m resolution DSMs were produced from tri-stereo images from the SPOT 6 and Pleiades high-resolution (PHR 1A satellites, respectively. Elevation reference data provided by the General Command of Mapping, the national mapping agency of Turkey—produced from 30 cm spatial resolution stereo aerial photos, with a 5 m grid spacing and ±3 m or better overall vertical accuracy at the 90% confidence interval (CI—were used to perform accuracy assessments. Gross errors and water surfaces were removed from the reference DSM. The relative accuracies of the different DSMs were tested using a different number of checkpoints determined by different methods. In the first method, 25 checkpoints were selected from bare lands to evaluate the accuracies of the DSMs on terrain surfaces. In the second method, 1000 randomly selected checkpoints were used to evaluate the methods’ accuracies for the whole study area. In addition to the control point approach, vertical cross

  19. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  20. Effects of in-vehicle warning information displays with or without spatial compatibility on driving behaviors and response performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yung-Ching; Jhuang, Jing-Wun

    2012-07-01

    A driving simulator study was conducted to evaluate the effects of five in-vehicle warning information displays upon drivers' emergent response and decision performance. These displays include visual display, auditory displays with and without spatial compatibility, hybrid displays in both visual and auditory format with and without spatial compatibility. Thirty volunteer drivers were recruited to perform various tasks that involved driving, stimulus-response, divided attention and stress rating. Results show that for displays of single-modality, drivers benefited more when coping with visual display of warning information than auditory display with or without spatial compatibility. However, auditory display with spatial compatibility significantly improved drivers' performance in reacting to the divided attention task and making accurate S-R task decision. Drivers' best performance results were obtained for hybrid display with spatial compatibility. Hybrid displays enabled drivers to respond the fastest and achieve the best accuracy in both S-R and divided attention tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Testing of Some Canine Blood Types in Transfusion Compatibility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ognean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136 and DEA1.1 (n=25 kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions and healthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE and slide (SLIDE methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05% of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81% and Romanian Shepherds (73.68% and group 1(-B (24.26%, frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%, these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%, associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.

  2. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, USP material compatibility with gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt Quiles, Maritza

    Gamma radiation is a commonly used method to reduce the microbial bioburden in compatible materials when it is applied at appropriate dose levels. Gamma irradiation kills bacteria and mold by breaking down the organism’s DNA and inhibiting cell division. The purpose of this study is to determine the radiation dosage to be used to treat Dibasic Calcium Phosphate Dihydrate, USP (DCPD) and to evaluate its physicochemical effects if any, on this material. This material will be submitted to various doses of gamma radiation that were selected based on literature review and existing regulations that demonstrate that this method is effective to reduce or eliminate microbial bioburden in natural source and synthetic materials. Analytical testing was conducted to the DCPD exposed material in order to demonstrate that gamma radiation does not alter the physicochemical properties and material still acceptable for use in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products. The results obtained through this study were satisfactory and demonstrated that the gamma irradiation dosages from 5 to 30 kGy can be applied to DCPD without altering its physicochemical properties. These are supported by the Assay test data evaluation of lots tested before and after gamma irradiation implementation that show no significant statistical difference between irradiated and non irradiated assay results. The results of this study represent an achievement for the industry since they provide as an alternative the use of Gamma irradiation technology to control the microbial growth in DCPD.

  3. PET Performance Evaluation of an MR-Compatible PET Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Catana, Ciprian; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert has been developed in our laboratory for simultaneous small animal PET/MR imaging. This system is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) photodetectors. The PET performance of this insert has been measured. The average reconstructed image spatial resolution was 1.51 mm. The sensitivity at the center of the field of view (CFOV) was 0.35%, which is comparable to the simulation predictions of 0.40%. The average photopeak energy resolution was 25%. The scatter fraction inside the MRI scanner with a line source was 12% (with a mouse-sized phantom and standard 35 mm Bruker 1H RF coil), 7% (with RF coil only) and 5% (without phantom or RF coil) for an energy window of 350–650 keV. The front-end electronics had a dead time of 390 ns, and a trigger extension dead time of 7.32 μs that degraded counting rate performance for injected doses above ~0.75 mCi (28 MBq). The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) of 1.27 kcps was achieved at 290 μCi (10.7 MBq). The system showed good imaging performance inside a 7-T animal MRI system; however improvements in data acquisition electronics and reduction of the coincidence timing window are needed to realize improved NECR performance. PMID:21072320

  4. Environmental Data Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This database includes gauging stations, climatic data centers, and storet sites. The accuracy of the locations is dependent on the source data for each of the...

  5. CMOS compatible thin-film ALD tungsten nanoelectromechanical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bradley Darren

    This research focuses on the development of a novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible, atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) enabled NEMS fabrication process for the development of ALD Tungsten (WALD) NEMS devices. The devices are intended for use in CMOS/NEMS hybrid systems, and NEMS based micro-processors/controllers capable of reliable operation in harsh environments not accessible to standard CMOS technologies. The majority of NEMS switches/devices to date have been based on carbon-nano-tube (CNT) designs. The devices consume little power during actuation, and as expected, have demonstrated actuation voltages much smaller than MEMS switches. Unfortunately, NEMS CNT switches are not typically CMOS integrable due to the high temperatures required for their growth, and their fabrication typically results in extremely low and unpredictable yields. Thin-film NEMS devices offer great advantages over reported CNT devices for several reasons, including: higher fabrication yields, low-temperature (CMOS compatible) deposition techniques like ALD, and increased control over design parameters/device performance metrics, i.e., device geometry. Furthermore, top-down, thin-film, nano-fabrication techniques are better capable of producing complicated device geometries than CNT based processes, enabling the design and development of multi-terminal switches well-suited for low-power hybrid NEMS/CMOS systems as well as electromechanical transistors and logic devices for use in temperature/radiation hard computing architectures. In this work several novel, low-temperature, CMOS compatible fabrication technologies, employing WALD as a structural layer for MEMS or NEMS devices, were developed. The technologies developed are top-down nano-scale fabrication processes based on traditional micro-machining techniques commonly used in the fabrication of MEMS devices. Using these processes a variety of novel WALD NEMS devices have been successfully fabricated and characterized. Using two different

  6. Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran C R Fox

    Full Text Available The accuracy of subjective reports, especially those involving introspection of one's own internal processes, remains unclear, and research has demonstrated large individual differences in introspective accuracy. It has been hypothesized that introspective accuracy may be heightened in persons who engage in meditation practices, due to the highly introspective nature of such practices. We undertook a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis, examining introspective accuracy in a cross-section of meditation practitioners (1-15,000 hrs experience. Introspective accuracy was assessed by comparing subjective reports of tactile sensitivity for each of 20 body regions during a 'body-scanning' meditation with averaged, objective measures of tactile sensitivity (mean size of body representation area in primary somatosensory cortex; two-point discrimination threshold as reported in prior research. Expert meditators showed significantly better introspective accuracy than novices; overall meditation experience also significantly predicted individual introspective accuracy. These results suggest that long-term meditators provide more accurate introspective reports than novices.

  7. Measurement Accuracy Limitation Analysis on Synchrophasors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Jiecheng [University of Tennessee (UT); Zhan, Lingwei [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yilu [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Qi, Hairong [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the theoretical accuracy limitation of synchrophasors measurements on phase angle and frequency of the power grid. Factors that cause the measurement error are analyzed, including error sources in the instruments and in the power grid signal. Different scenarios of these factors are evaluated according to the normal operation status of power grid measurement. Based on the evaluation and simulation, the errors of phase angle and frequency caused by each factor are calculated and discussed.

  8. Cardiomagnetic source imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pesola, Katja

    2000-01-01

    Magnetocardiographic (MCG) source imaging has received increasing interest in recent years. With a high enough localization accuracy of the current sources in the heart, valuable information can be provided, e.g., for the pre-ablative evaluation of arrhythmia patients. Furthermore, preliminary studies indicate that ischemic areas, i.e. areas which are suffering from lack of oxygen, and infarcted regions could be localized from multichannel MCG recordings. In this thesis, the accuracy of cardi...

  9. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  10. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  11. Adaptive transmission based on multi-relay selection and rate-compatible LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hualing; He, Yucheng; Zhou, Lin

    2017-08-01

    In order to adapt to the dynamical changeable channel condition and improve the transmissive reliability of the system, a cooperation system of rate-compatible low density parity check (RC-LDPC) codes combining with multi-relay selection protocol is proposed. In traditional relay selection protocol, only the channel state information (CSI) of source-relay and the CSI of relay-destination has been considered. The multi-relay selection protocol proposed by this paper takes the CSI between relays into extra account in order to obtain more chances of collabration. Additionally, the idea of hybrid automatic request retransmission (HARQ) and rate-compatible are introduced. Simulation results show that the transmissive reliability of the system can be significantly improved by the proposed protocol.

  12. Ontology: ambiguity and accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schiessl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ambiguity is a major obstacle to information retrieval. It is source of several researches in Information Science. Ontologies have been studied in order to solve problems related to ambiguities. Paradoxically, “ontology” term is also ambiguous and it is understood according to the use by the community. Philosophy and Computer Science seems to have the most accentuated difference related to the term sense. The former holds undisputed tradition and authority. The latter, in despite of being quite recent, holds an informal sense, but pragmatic. Information Science acts ranging from philosophical to computational approaches so as to get organized collections based on balance between users’ necessities and available information. The semantic web requires informational cycle automation and demands studies related to ontologies. Consequently, revisiting relevant approaches for the study of ontologies plays a relevant role as a way to provide useful ideas to researchers maintaining philosophical rigor, and convenience provided by computers.

  13. Development of materials with blood compatibility by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesinger, S.; Fischer, J.P.; Fuhge, P.

    1982-01-01

    Biomedical applications, for example for rendering plastic materials blood compatible, have become a very important problem in recent years. Surface-grafted materials for blood compatibility have attracted attention for intra- and extracorporal applications. Numerous aspects of grafting monomers on to polymer surfaces by different grafting methods have been given. A large amount of work has been done during the last ten years, but nobody has prepared materials with properties that are desirable for long-term medical application in the human body, for example as replacements for small arteries or veins. The evaluation of blood compatibility of different plastic materials, and the search for correlations between blood compatibility and physical properties of the plastic materials surfaces, are well-known problems in the biomedical applications of polymers. This paper briefly reviews an approach to help solving these problems. (author)

  14. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...

  15. Kinematical Compatibility Conditions for Vorticity Across Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roy

    2015-11-01

    This work develops the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity across arbitrary shock waves in compressible, inviscid fluids. The vorticity compatibility conditions are derived from the curl of the momentum equation using singular distributions defined on two-dimensional shock wave surfaces embedded in three-dimensional flow fields. The singular distributions are represented as generalized differential operators concentrated on moving shock wave surfaces. The derivation of the compatibility conditions for vorticity requires the application of second-order generalized derivatives and elementary tensor algebra. The well-known vorticity jump conditions across a shock wave are then shown to follow from the general kinematical compatibility conditions for vorticity by expressing the flow field velocity in vectorial components normal and tangential to a shock surface.

  16. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  17. Testing an Automated Accuracy Assessment Method on Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlies Olensky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates automated data accuracy assessment as described in data quality literature for its suitability to assess bibliographic data. The data samples comprise the publications of two Nobel Prize winners in the field of Chemistry for a 10-year-publication period retrieved from the two bibliometric data sources, Web of Science and Scopus. The bibliographic records are assessed against the original publication (gold standard and an automatic assessment method is compared to a manual one. The results show that the manual assessment method reflects truer accuracy scores. The automated assessment method would need to be extended by additional rules that reflect specific characteristics of bibliographic data. Both data sources had higher accuracy scores per field than accumulated per record. This study contributes to the research on finding a standardized assessment method of bibliographic data accuracy as well as defining the impact of data accuracy on the citation matching process.

  18. HDRMC, an accelerated Monte Carlo dose calculator for high dose rate brachytherapy with CT-compatible applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, Omar, E-mail: omar.chibani@fccc.edu; C-M Ma, Charlie [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a new accelerated Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations in high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. The new code (HDRMC) accounts for both tissue and nontissue heterogeneities (applicator and contrast medium). Methods: HDRMC uses a fast ray-tracing technique and detailed physics algorithms to transport photons through a 3D mesh of voxels representing the patient anatomy with applicator and contrast medium included. A precalculated phase space file for the{sup 192}Ir source is used as source term. HDRM is calibrated to calculated absolute dose for real plans. A postprocessing technique is used to include the exact density and composition of nontissue heterogeneities in the 3D phantom. Dwell positions and angular orientations of the source are reconstructed using data from the treatment planning system (TPS). Structure contours are also imported from the TPS to recalculate dose-volume histograms. Results: HDRMC was first benchmarked against the MCNP5 code for a single source in homogenous water and for a loaded gynecologic applicator in water. The accuracy of the voxel-based applicator model used in HDRMC was also verified by comparing 3D dose distributions and dose-volume parameters obtained using 1-mm{sup 3} versus 2-mm{sup 3} phantom resolutions. HDRMC can calculate the 3D dose distribution for a typical HDR cervix case with 2-mm resolution in 5 min on a single CPU. Examples of heterogeneity effects for two clinical cases (cervix and esophagus) were demonstrated using HDRMC. The neglect of tissue heterogeneity for the esophageal case leads to the overestimate of CTV D90, CTV D100, and spinal cord maximum dose by 3.2%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Conclusions: A fast Monte Carlo code for CT-based dose calculations which does not require a prebuilt applicator model is developed for those HDR brachytherapy treatments that use CT-compatible applicators. Tissue and nontissue heterogeneities should be taken into account in modern HDR

  19. Fusion-reactor blanket and coolant material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Keough, R.F.

    1981-01-01

    Fusion reactor blanket and coolant compatibility tests are being conducted to aid in the selection and design of safe blanket and coolant systems for future fusion reactors. Results of scoping compatibility tests to date are reported for blanket material and water interactions at near operating temperatures. These tests indicate the quantitative hydrogen release, the maximum temperature and pressures produced and the rates of interactions for selected blanket materials

  20. Analysis and Application of Antagonism Compound Prescription Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Wang, Can; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Deer horn glue is deer family animals deer or red deer horn made of solid plastic animal medicine, according to Chinese medicine “seven emotions together” theory, the antler and other Chinese herbal medicines compatibility can be better play its Medicinal value. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, compatibility analysis, clinical application and classic ancient prescriptions of antler are reviewed in recent years.

  1. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    -gene libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... factors governing the functionality and fitness of antibiotic resistance genes. These findings emphasize the importance of biochemical mechanism for heterologous gene compatibility, and suggest physiological constraints as a pivotal feature orienting the evolution of antibiotic resistance....

  2. Nonclassical Symmetries for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations via Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sabbagh, Mostafa F.; Ahmad, Ali T.

    2011-01-01

    The determining equations for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of nonlinear partial differential equations with arbitrary order can be obtained by requiring the compatibility between the original equations and the invariant surface conditions. The (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation, Boussinesq equation, and the dispersive wave equations in shallow water serve as examples illustrating how compatibility leads quickly and easily to the determining equations for their nonclassical symmetries. (general)

  3. Mechanical compatibility and stress analyses in composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmoeller, H.; Ruge, J.

    1976-01-01

    This paper gives a short description of the problem of mechanical interactions and mechanical compatibility in composite bodies. The formation of stress-strain states, caused by the mechanical compatibility by bonding of the interfaces, is discussed. The difference between the continuous and discontinuous type of material transition in the interface is described. Flat laminated materials are at first considered. For this type of composite bodies thermal stresses and thermal residual stresses are elastically-plastically calculated. (orig.) [de

  4. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  5. Coproduction of detergent compatible bacterial enzymes and stain removal evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyonzima, Francois N; More, Sunil S

    2015-10-01

    Most of the detergents that are presently produced contain the detergent compatible enzymes to improve and accelerate the washing performance by removing tough stains. The process is environment friendly as the use of enzymes in the detergent formulation reduces the utilization of toxic detergent constituents. The current trend is to use the detergent compatible enzymes that are active at low and ambient temperature in order to save energy and maintain fabric quality. As the detergent compatible bacterial enzymes are used together in the detergent formulation, it is important to co-produce the detergent enzymes in a single fermentation medium as the enzyme stability is assured, and production cost gets reduced enormously. The review reports on the production, purification, characterization and application of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases are available. However, there is no specific review or minireview on the concomitant production of detergent compatible amylases, lipases, and proteases. In this minireview, the coproduction of detergent compatible enzymes by bacterial species, enzyme stability towards detergents and detergent components, and stain release analysis were discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Computer program compatible with a laser nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroskie, R. M.; Blau, H. H., Jr.; Blinn, J. C., III

    1975-01-01

    The laser nephelometer data system was updated to provide magnetic tape recording of data, and real time or near real time processing of data to provide particle size distribution and liquid water content. Digital circuits were provided to interface the laser nephelometer to a Data General Nova 1200 minicomputer. Communications are via a teletypewriter. A dual Linc Magnetic Tape System is used for program storage and data recording. Operational programs utilize the Data General Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) and the ERT AIRMAP Real-Time Operating System (ARTS). The programs provide for acquiring data from the laser nephelometer, acquiring data from auxiliary sources, keeping time, performing real time calculations, recording data and communicating with the teletypewriter.

  7. Cesium glass irradiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The precipitation process for the decontamination of soluble SRP wastes produces a material whose radioactivity is dominated by 137 Cs. Potentially, this material could be vitrified to produce irradiation sources similar to the Hanford CsCl sources. In this report, process steps necessary for the production of cesium glass irradiation sources (CGS), and the nature of the sources produced, are examined. Three options are considered in detail: direct vitrification of precipitation process waste; direct vitrification of this waste after organic destruction; and vitrification of cesium separated from the precipitation process waste. Direct vitrification is compatible with DWPF equipment, but process rates may be limited by high levels of combustible materials in the off-gas. Organic destruction would allow more rapid processing. In both cases, the source produced has a dose rate of 2 x 10 4 rads/hr at the surface. Cesium separation produces a source with a dose rate of 4 x 10 5 at the surface, which is nearer that of the Hanford sources (2 x 10 6 rads/hr). Additional processing steps would be required, as well as R and D to demonstrate that DWPF equipment is compatible with this intensely radioactive material

  8. The Volpe Center GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Program Plan : GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Workshop, Volpe Center, Cambridge MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    Approach to DOT GPS Adjacent Band Compatibility Assessment. Identify forums and provide public outreach to make sure the progress and work are as open and transparent as possible. Develop an implementation plan that incorporates aspects from the DOT ...

  9. Ultra-wideband ranging precision and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGougan, Glenn; O'Keefe, Kyle; Klukas, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of ultra-wideband (UWB) in the context of ranging applications and assesses the precision and accuracy of UWB ranging from both a theoretical perspective and a practical perspective using real data. The paper begins with a brief history of UWB technology and the most current definition of what constitutes an UWB signal. The potential precision of UWB ranging is assessed using Cramer–Rao lower bound analysis. UWB ranging methods are described and potential error sources are discussed. Two types of commercially available UWB ranging radios are introduced which are used in testing. Actual ranging accuracy is assessed from line-of-sight testing under benign signal conditions by comparison to high-accuracy electronic distance measurements and to ranges derived from GPS real-time kinematic positioning. Range measurements obtained in outdoor testing with line-of-sight obstructions and strong reflection sources are compared to ranges derived from classically surveyed positions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the potential applications for UWB ranging

  10. Test Expectancy Affects Metacomprehension Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W.; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and…

  11. Designing a TRIGA for environmental compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profio, A.E.

    1972-01-01

    A 10 kW TRIGA Mark I teaching reactor is programmed for the new Engineering Unit 2 building on the main campus of UCSB. A special effort has been made to keep radioactivity in the reactor room air and exhaust air to a minimum. The regular pneumatic transfer system is being replaced by an inert-gas pressure system, or a closed-cycle air system, to avoid argon activation and release. Other experimental facilities will be filled with water or carbon dioxide, or sealed, to prevent release of argon-41. The remaining source of Ar-41, from the air dissolved in the pool water, cannot be completely eliminated. The campus has a policy of not discharging liquid radioactive wastes to the sewer. Experience at other installations indicates that the ion exchanger in the purification loop is effective in removing activated corrosion products or impurities, and aside from the short-lived N-16 and some Ar-41, radioactivity of the pool water should be quite low. Solid wastes, which would include the spent ion exchange resin, are collected by an independent firm for burial in a special nuclear disposal site in Nevada. Other important considerations in siting the UCSB reactor are the proximity to Santa Barbara Municipal Airport, and the seismic activity. We plan to project the fuel elements against damage by falling aircraft or parts by addition of a thick steel cover over the pool. Earthquakes have been taken into account in the design of the building, and especially the below-ground, reinforced-concrete, aluminum-lined pool

  12. Calorimeter for thermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shai, I.; Shaham, Ch.; Barnea, I.

    1978-12-01

    A calorimeter was built, enabling the thermal power of radioactive sources to be measured in the range of 50 to 120 mW. The system was calibrated with an electrical heater. The calibration curves serve to determine the power of radioactive sources with a reasonable accuracy

  13. [Compatible biomass models of natural spruce (Picea asperata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin Chi; Deng, Hua Feng; Huang, Guo Sheng; Wang, Xue Jun; Zhang, Lu

    2017-10-01

    By using nonlinear measurement error method, the compatible tree volume and above ground biomass equations were established based on the volume and biomass data of 150 sampling trees of natural spruce (Picea asperata). Two approaches, controlling directly under total aboveground biomass and controlling jointly from level to level, were used to design the compatible system for the total aboveground biomass and the biomass of four components (stem, bark, branch and foliage), and the total ground biomass could be estimated independently or estimated simultaneously in the system. The results showed that the R 2 of the one variable and bivariate compatible tree volume and aboveground biomass equations were all above 0.85, and the maximum value reached 0.99. The prediction effect of the volume equations could be improved significantly when tree height was included as predictor, while it was not significant in biomass estimation. For the compatible biomass systems, the one variable model based on controlling jointly from level to level was better than the model using controlling directly under total above ground biomass, but the bivariate models of the two methods were similar. Comparing the imitative effects of the one variable and bivariate compatible biomass models, the results showed that the increase of explainable variables could significantly improve the fitness of branch and foliage biomass, but had little effect on other components. Besides, there was almost no difference between the two methods of estimation based on the comparison.

  14. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Huaichu; Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  15. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  16. Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K. J; Leroy, S.; Corliss, J.; Anderson, J. G.; Ao, C. O.; Bantges, R.; Best, F.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change benchmarks with high absolute radiometric accuracy and high statistical confidence across a wide range of essential climate variables. CLARREO's inherently high absolute accuracy will be verified and traceable on orbit to Système Internationale (SI) units. The benchmarks established by CLARREO will be critical for assessing changes in the Earth system and climate model predictive capabilities for decades into the future as society works to meet the challenge of optimizing strategies for mitigating and adapting to climate change. The CLARREO benchmarks are derived from measurements of the Earth's thermal infrared spectrum (5-50 micron), the spectrum of solar radiation reflected by the Earth and its atmosphere (320-2300 nm), and radio occultation refractivity from which accurate temperature profiles are derived. The mission has the ability to provide new spectral fingerprints of climate change, as well as to provide the first orbiting radiometer with accuracy sufficient to serve as the reference transfer standard for other space sensors, in essence serving as a "NIST [National Institute of Standards and Technology] in orbit." CLARREO will greatly improve the accuracy and relevance of a wide range of space-borne instruments for decadal climate change. Finally, CLARREO has developed new metrics and methods for determining the accuracy requirements of climate observations for a wide range of climate variables and uncertainty sources. These methods should be useful for improving our understanding of observing requirements for most climate change observations.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of dual-source computed tomography in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... stenosis in patients with an intermediate pretest likelihood for coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have .... and specificity similar to that of ICA, without the financial burden and patient risk, and recovery time inherent with .... A reporting system on patients evaluated for coronary artery disease. Report ...

  18. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b)

  19. Chemical compatibility between cladding alloys and advanced fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fee, D.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1975-05-01

    The National Advanced Fuels Program requires chemical, mechanical, and thermophysical properties data for cladding alloys. The compatibility behavior of cladding alloys with advanced fuels is critically reviewed. in carbide fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding carburization, diffusion of carbon into the cladding matrix accompanied by carbide precipitation. Carburization changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. The extent of carburization increases in sodium (versus gas) bonded fuels. The depth of carburization increases with increasing sesquicarbide (M 2 C 3 ) content of the fuel. In nitride fuel pins, the principal compatibility problem is cladding nitriding, diffusion of nitrogen into the cladding matrix accompanied by nitride precipitation. Nitriding changes the mechanical properties of the cladding alloy. In both carbide and nitride fuel pins, fission products do not migrate appreciably to the cladding and do not appear to contribute to cladding attack. 77 references. (U.S.)

  20. Waste compatibility assessments to support project W-320

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLAAK, T.M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of this internal memo is to provide a recommendation for the transfer of tank 241-C-106 waste, Attachment 2, to tank 241-AY-102. This internal memo also identifies additional requirements which have been deemed necessary for safely receiving and storing the waste documented in Attachment 2 from tank 241-C-106 in tank 241-AY-102. This waste transfer is planned in support of tank 241-C-106 solids sluicing activities. Approximately 200,000 gallons of waste and flush water are expected to be pumped from tank 241-C-106 into tank 241-AY-102. Several transfers will be necessary to complete the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 solids. To assure ourselves that this waste transfer will not create any compatibility concerns, a waste compatibility assessment adhering to current waste compatibility requirements has been performed

  1. Compatibility of niobium, titanium, and vanadium metals with LMFBR cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1975-10-01

    A series of laboratory capsule annealing experiments were conducted to assess the compatibility of niobium, vanadium, and titanium with 316 stainless steel cladding in the temperature range of 700 to 800 0 C. Niobium, vanadium, and titanium are cantidate oxygen absorber materials for control of oxygen chemistry in LMFBR fuel pins. Capsule examination indicated good compatibility between niobium and 316 stainless steel at 800 0 C. Potential compatibility problems between cladding and vanadium or titanium were indicated at 800 0 C under reducing conditions. In the presence of Pu/sub 0.25/U/sub 0.75/O/sub 1.98/ fuel (Δanti G 02 congruent to -160 kcal/mole) no reaction was observed between vanadium or titanium and cladding at 800 0 C

  2. Fusion-reactor blanket-material safety-compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Keough, R.F.; Cohen, S.

    1982-11-01

    Blanket material selection for fusion reactors is strongly influenced by the desire to minimize safety and environmental concerns. Blanket material safety compatibility studies are being conducted to identify and characterize blanket-coolant-material interactions under postulated reactor accident conditions. Recently completed scoping compatibility tests indicate that : (1) ternary oxides (LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiTiO 3 ) at postulated blanket operating temperatures are compatible with water coolant, while liquid lithium and Li 7 Pb 2 alloy reactions with water generate heat, aerosol and hydrogen; (2) lithium oxide and Li 17 Pb 83 alloy react mildly with water requiring special precautions to control hydrogen release; (3) liquid lithium reacts substantially, while Li 17 Pb 83 alloy reacts mildly with concrete to produce hydrogen; and (4) liquid lithium-air reactions present some major safety concerns

  3. Compatibility and kidney transplantation: The way to go.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias I.N. eDoxiadis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Long lasting debates in the past questioned the relevance of any sort of compatibility in post mortal kidney transplantation. It is for no say that fully compatible transplants have the highest chances for a long patient and graft survival. In the present report the use of HLA-DR as a representative of the Major Histocompatibility Complex class II genes in the allocation of organs is discussed. The major arguments are the easiness to offer to patients a compatible graft in a relatively short waiting time, an increase in graft survival, the less sensitization during the transplantation period, and the lower waiting time for a retransplant. Even if the number of organ donors remains the same a lowering of the mean waiting time is expected because of the longer period of graft survival.

  4. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Optimization of a partially segmented block detector for MR-compatible small animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Yeon; Chung, Yong Hyun; Baek, Cheol-Ha; An, Su Jung; Kim, Hyun-Il; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible positron emission tomography (PET) scanners for both clinical and preclinical practice. The aim of this study was to design a novel PET detector module using a segmented block crystal readout with an array of multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs). A 16.5x16.5x10.0 mm 3 LSO block was segmented into an 11x11 array, and reflective material was used to fill in the cuts to optically isolate the elements. The block was attached to a 4x4 MPPC array (Hamamatsu S11064) of 3.0x3.0 mm 2 detectors to give a total effective area of 144 mm 2 . To visualize all the individual detector elements in this 11x11 detector module, the depth of the cuts was optimized by DETECT2000 simulations. The depth of the cuts determines the spread of scintillation light onto the MPPC array. The accuracy of positioning was evaluated by varying the depth of the cuts from 0.0 to 10.0 mm in steps of 0.5 mm. A spatial resolution of 1.5 mm was achieved using the optimized partially segmented block detector. The simulation results of this study can be used effectively as a guide for parameter optimization for the development of a partially segmented block detector for high-resolution MR-compatible PET scanners.

  6. Doppler ultrasound compatible plastic material for use in rigid flow models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Emily Y; Thorne, Meghan L; Nikolov, Hristo N; Poepping, Tamie L; Holdsworth, David W

    2008-11-01

    A technique for the rapid but accurate fabrication of multiple flow phantoms with variations in vascular geometry would be desirable in the investigation of carotid atherosclerosis. This study demonstrates the feasibility and efficacy of implementing numerically controlled direct-machining of vascular geometries into Doppler ultrasound (DUS)-compatible plastic for the easy fabrication of DUS flow phantoms. Candidate plastics were tested for longitudinal speed of sound (SoS) and acoustic attenuation at the diagnostic frequency of 5 MHz. Teflon was found to have the most appropriate SoS (1376 +/- 40 m s(-1) compared with 1540 m s(-1) in soft tissue) and thus was selected to construct a carotid bifurcation flow model with moderate eccentric stenosis. The vessel geometry was machined directly into Teflon using a numerically controlled milling technique. Geometric accuracy of the phantom lumen was verified using nondestructive micro-computed tomography. Although Teflon displayed a higher attenuation coefficient than other tested materials, Doppler data acquired in the Teflon flow model indicated that sufficient signal power was delivered throughout the depth of the vessel and provided comparable velocity profiles to that obtained in the tissue-mimicking phantom. Our results indicate that Teflon provides the best combination of machinability and DUS compatibility, making it an appropriate choice for the fabrication of rigid DUS flow models using a direct-machining method.

  7. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  8. Preparation of refractory cermet structures for lithium compatibility testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heestand, R. L.; Jones, R. A.; Wright, T. R.; Kizer, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    High-purity nitride and carbide cermets were synthesized for compatability testing in liquid lithium. A process was developed for the preparation of high-purity hafnium nitride powder, which was subsequently blended with tungsten powder or tantalum nitride and tungsten powders and fabricated into 3 in diameter billets by uniaxial hot pressing. Specimens were then cut from the billets for compatability testing. Similar processing techniques were applied to produce hafnium carbide and zirconium carbide cermets for use in the testing program. All billets produced were characterized with respect to chemistry, structure, density, and strength properties.

  9. Elements of a compatible optimization theory for coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemay, A.

    1969-01-01

    The first theory deals with the compatible optimization in coupled systems. A game theory for two players and with a non-zero sum is first developed. The conclusions are then extended to the case of a game with any finite number of players. After this essentially static study, the dynamic aspect of the problem is applied to the case of games which evolve. By applying PONTRYAGIN maximum principle it is possible to derive a compatible optimisation theorem which constitutes a necessary condition. (author) [fr

  10. Music and the brain - design of an MEG compatible piano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Castano, Julian; Rathbone, Daniel R; Hoffman, Rachel; Heng Yang; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Yang, Jason; Hornberger, Erik; Hanumara, Nevan C

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) neuroimaging has been used to study subjects' responses when listening to music, but research into the effects of playing music has been limited by the lack of MEG compatible instruments that can operate in a magnetically shielded environment without creating electromagnetic interference. This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an MEG compatible piano keyboard with 25 full size keys that employs a novel 3-state optical encoder design and electronics to provide realistic velocity-controlled volume modulation. This instrument will allow researchers to study musical performance on a finer timescale than fMRI and enable a range of MEG studies.

  11. Design of multichannel counting system for IBM PC and compatibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeed, B.; Ahmad, Z.; Osman, A.; Ysain, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    A Multichannel Counting System (MCCS), based on IBM-PC and compatible computer systems have been designed. The MCCS consists of a Multichannel Counting System plug-in interface card (MCCS-PC) for IBM PC and compatibles and a NIM-BIN module (MCCS-NB). The MCCS-PC provides simultaneous monitoring of upto seven independent SCA type inputs. An on board programmable timer provides elapsed time measurement. A menu-driven program for data acquisition and timer control has also been developed. (author) 8 figs

  12. A compatible high-order meshless method for the Stokes equations with applications to suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trask, Nathaniel; Maxey, Martin; Hu, Xiaozhe

    2018-02-01

    A stable numerical solution of the steady Stokes problem requires compatibility between the choice of velocity and pressure approximation that has traditionally proven problematic for meshless methods. In this work, we present a discretization that couples a staggered scheme for pressure approximation with a divergence-free velocity reconstruction to obtain an adaptive, high-order, finite difference-like discretization that can be efficiently solved with conventional algebraic multigrid techniques. We use analytic benchmarks to demonstrate equal-order convergence for both velocity and pressure when solving problems with curvilinear geometries. In order to study problems in dense suspensions, we couple the solution for the flow to the equations of motion for freely suspended particles in an implicit monolithic scheme. The combination of high-order accuracy with fully-implicit schemes allows the accurate resolution of stiff lubrication forces directly from the solution of the Stokes problem without the need to introduce sub-grid lubrication models.

  13. Social Power Increases Interoceptive Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrad Moeini-Jazani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Building on recent psychological research showing that power increases self-focused attention, we propose that having power increases accuracy in perception of bodily signals, a phenomenon known as interoceptive accuracy. Consistent with our proposition, participants in a high-power experimental condition outperformed those in the control and low-power conditions in the Schandry heartbeat-detection task. We demonstrate that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is not explained by participants’ physiological arousal, affective state, or general intention for accuracy. Rather, consistent with our reasoning that experiencing power shifts attentional resources inward, we show that the effect of power on interoceptive accuracy is dependent on individuals’ chronic tendency to focus on their internal sensations. Moreover, we demonstrate that individuals’ chronic sense of power also predicts interoceptive accuracy similar to, and independent of, how their situationally induced feeling of power does. We therefore provide further support on the relation between power and enhanced perception of bodily signals. Our findings offer a novel perspective–a psychophysiological account–on how power might affect judgments and behavior. We highlight and discuss some of these intriguing possibilities for future research.

  14. Trait Perception Accuracy and Acquaintance Within Groups: Tracking Accuracy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill A; Bernieri, Frank

    2017-05-01

    Previous work on trait perception has evaluated accuracy at discrete stages of relationships (e.g., strangers, best friends). A relatively limited body of literature has investigated changes in accuracy as acquaintance within a dyad or group increases. Small groups of initially unacquainted individuals spent more than 30 hr participating in a wide range of activities designed to represent common interpersonal contexts (e.g., eating, traveling). We calculated how accurately each participant judged others in their group on the big five traits across three distinct points within the acquaintance process: zero acquaintance, after a getting-to-know-you conversation, and after 10 weeks of interaction and activity. Judgments of all five traits exhibited accuracy above chance levels after 10 weeks. An examination of the trait rating stability revealed that much of the revision in judgments occurred not over the course of the 10-week relationship as suspected, but between zero acquaintance and the getting-to-know-you conversation.

  15. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  16. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei

    2009-01-01

    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  17. Desk-top publishing using IBM-compatible computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grencis, P W

    1991-01-01

    This paper sets out to describe one Medical Illustration Departments' experience of the introduction of computers for desk-top publishing. In this particular case, after careful consideration of all the options open, an IBM-compatible system was installed rather than the often popular choice of an Apple Macintosh.

  18. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  19. Development of a UNIX network compatible reactivity computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.F.; Edwards, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art UNIX network compatible controller and UNIX host workstation with MATLAB/SIMULINK software were used to develop, implement, and validate a digital reactivity calculation. An objective of the development was to determine why a Macintosh-based reactivity computer reactivity output drifted intolerably

  20. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, V.

    1981-01-01

    A review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors, is presented. The results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions are included. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (author) [es

  1. Compatibility of sodium with ceramic oxides employed in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Moreno, V.

    1981-01-01

    This work is a review of experiments carried out up to the present time on the corrosion and compatibility of ceramic oxides with liquid sodium at temperatures corresponding to those in fast breeder reactors. The review also includes the results of a thermo-dynamic/liquid sodium reactions. The exercise has been conducted with a view to effecting experimental studies in the future. (Author)

  2. Design and calibration of a vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum compatible scanning tunneling microscope was designed and built, capable of imaging solid surfaces with atomic resolution. The single piezoelectric tube design is compact, and makes use of sample mounting stubs standard to a commercially available surface analysis system. Image collection and display is computer controlled, allowing storage of images for further analysis. Calibration results from atomic scale images are presented.

  3. Compatibility of the holy Qur'an with sciences: anthropological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract - In holy Qur'an countless verses are related to topics on the nature and the ... concepts compatible with the most recent scientific conclusions as that relating to our ... In fact these concepts are often more and less masked within.

  4. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  5. Non-stochastic effects: compatibility with present ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, S.B.; Upton, A.C.; New York Univ., NY

    1985-01-01

    The present recommendations of the ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) are almost entirely based on 'stochastic effects' of ionizing radiation, i.e. cancer induction and heritable effects. In a recent report the compatibility of present recommendations with non-stochastic effects has been considered. The present paper is a summary of these findings. (author)

  6. The compatibility of student teacher beliefs with research on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings suggest that the student teachers in this study held strong beliefs on a number of issues, especially on discipline and control, which are not compatible with research-based findings on supportive classroom climates. The article highlights the implications for teacher educators and suggests one approach to ...

  7. Using statistical compatibility to derive advanced probabilistic fatigue models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández-Canteli, A.; Castillo, E.; López-Aenlle, M.; Seitl, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 1131-1140 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue models * Statistical compatibility * Functional equations Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  8. Compatible solutes in lactic acid bacteria subjected to water stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, E.P.W.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of the research project described in this thesis was to investigate the protective effect of compatible solutes on tactic acid bacteria subjected to drying. Dried preparations of lactic acid bacteria are applied as starter cultures in feed and food industries. Dried starter

  9. Overview on the standardization in the field of electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Georges

    1989-04-01

    Standardization in the domain of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is discussed, with specific reference to the standards of the International Electrotechnical Commission, the Comite International Special des Perturbations Radioelectriques, and the Comite Europeen de Normalisation Electrotechnique. EMC fields considered include radiocommunications, telecommunications, biological effects, and data transmission. Standards are presented for such electromagnetic disturbances as low-frequency, high-frequency, conduction, and radiation phenomena.

  10. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 150 - Noise Compatibility Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The implementation of any restriction on the use of airport by any type or class of aircraft based on... purpose. (a) This appendix prescribes the content and the methods for developing noise compatibility... identify existing and future noncompatible land uses, based on airport operation and off-airport land uses...

  11. A new technique for generating spectrum compatible accelerogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosh, A.K.; Muralidharan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A new technique for generating spectrum compatible earthquake accelerogram is presented. Simplified linearised schemes are used to determine the weights of the modulated sinewaves used to represent the ground acceleration in conformity with the instants of time of attaining the maximum responses of the SDOFs. Some typical numerical results are presented in the paper. (orig.)

  12. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... beneficial job creation, economic growth, and competitiveness, working closely with public and private sector... regulatory differences, and unnecessary red tape while respecting each other's right to protect public health... jurisdictions that may be impeding deeper regulatory compatibility in the sector--for example, differences with...

  13. Operation compatibility: a neglected contribution to dual-task costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in

  14. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible

  15. The Influence and Compatibility of Vegetable Oils and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetable oils used as skin permeation enhancers were selected on the basis of compatibility studies data. A total of eight monolithic systems were prepared by using different concentrations of drug-polymers-permeation enhancers. The permeation parameters, flux, permeability coefficient, enhancement ratio and ...

  16. Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

    2005-10-01

    This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor

  17. Progress of the DUPIC Fuel Compatibility Analysis (IV) - Fuel Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ryu, Ho Jin; Roh, Gyu Hong; Jeong, Chang Joon; Park, Chang Je; Song, Kee Chan; Lee, Jung Won

    2005-10-15

    This study describes the mechanical compatibility of the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) fuel, when it is loaded into a CANDU reactor. The mechanical compatibility can be assessed for the fuel management, primary heat transport system, fuel channel, and the fuel handling system in the reactor core by both the experimental and analytic methods. Because the physical dimensions of the DUPIC fuel bundle adopt the CANDU flexible (CANFLEX) fuel bundle design which has already been demonstrated for a commercial use in CANDU reactors, the experimental compatibility analyses focused on the generation of material property data and the irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel, which are used for the computational analysis. The intermediate results of the mechanical compatibility analysis have shown that the integrity of the DUPIC fuel is mostly maintained under the high power and high burnup conditions even though some material properties like the thermal conductivity is a little lower compared to the uranium fuel. However it is required to slightly change the current DUPIC fuel design to accommodate the high internal pressure of the fuel element. It is also strongly recommended to perform more irradiation tests of the DUPIC fuel to accumulate a database for the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance in the CANDU reactor.

  18. Developing Globally Compatible Institutional Infrastructures for Indian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Raj; Bartning, Augustine; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2010-01-01

    The authors profile developments in the globalization of Indian higher education, with an emphasis on emerging globally compatible institutional infrastructures. In recent decades, there has been an enormous amount of brain drain: the exodus of the brightest professionals and students to other countries. The article argues that the implementation…

  19. Development and study of airborne spectrometer system being compatible with nuclear emergency monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiangqi, Fang; Huaiwu, Wang; Mingkao, Hu; Renkang, Gu

    2002-01-01

    The exploitation and use of nuclear energy are of great importance to developing of national economy and maintaining state security. But it also has a possibility of serious accident. Based on the principles of airborne gamma ray spectrometry in the uranium exploration, nuclear emergency monitoring has been developed. This method has high sensitivity to the radioactive nuclides in the air and on the ground, and with the advantage of fast measuring in large area. Hence, in the middle of 1980s, some developed countries began to survey the scope and degree of nuclear accident contamination and environmental radiation level monitoring in the surrounding nuclear facilities, it can also be used to search for the lost radioactive sources. According to the actual situation and compatible guideline, National Nuclear Emergency Office consigned this project to our Center. After development and study on the Airborne gamma ray spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) used for the uranium exploration, a compatible spectrometer system associated NaI(Tl) was established in a short period by us, which can fulfill airborne nuclear emergency survey basically. In normal situation, it was proved that the start-up time is less than two hours including transport to the airport. The system has high sensitivity to radioactive plume of 41 Ar and can respond rapidly to artificial sources, such as 192 Ir, 60 Co, 137 Cs and 131 I etc

  20. Compatibility of heat resistant alloys with boron carbide, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shinichi; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Endow, Taichi; Someya, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Isao.

    1986-08-01

    This paper includes an experimental result of out-of-pile compatibility and capsule design for irradiation test in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The compatibility between sheath material and neutron absorber materials for control rod devices (CRD) was examined for potential use in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) which is under development at JAERI. The purpose of the compatibility tests are preliminary evaluation of safety prior to irradiation tests. Preliminary compatibility evaluation was concerned with three items as follows : 1) Lithium effects on the penetrating reaction of Incoloy 800H alloy in contact with a mixture of boronated graphite and lithium hydroxide powders, 2) Short term tensile properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite and fracture mode analysis, 3) Reaction behavior of both alloys under transient power conditions of a VHTR. It was clear that the reaction rate constant of the Incoloy 800H alloy was accelerated by doping lithium hydroxide into the boron carbide and graphite powder. The mechanical properties of Incoloy 800H and Hastelloy XR alloy reacted with boronated graphite were decreased. Ultimate tensile strength and tensile ductilities at temperatures over 850 deg C were reduced, but there was no change in the proof (yield) stress. Both alloys exhibited a brittle intergranular fracture mode during transient power conditions of a VHTR and also exhibited severe penetration. Irradiation capsules for compatibility test were designed to simulate three irradiation conditions of VHTR: 1) steady state for VHTR, 2) Transient power condition, 3) Service limited life of CRD. Capsule irradiation experiments have been carried out satisfactorily and thus confirm the validity of the capsule design procedure. (author)

  1. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... diagnostic accuracy of dermatopathologists and pathologists using photomicrographs vs. digitized images, through a self-assessment examination, and to elucidate assessment of virtual dermatopathology. Methods Forty-five dermatopathologists and pathologists received a randomized combination of 15 virtual...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...

  2. Roll-to-roll compatible organic thin film transistor manufacturing technique by printing, lamination, and laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassinen, Tomi; Ruotsalainen, Teemu; Laakso, Petri; Penttilä, Raimo; Sandberg, Henrik G.O.

    2014-01-01

    We present roll-to-roll printing compatible techniques for manufacturing organic thin film transistors using two separately processed foils that are laminated together. The introduction of heat-assisted lamination opens up possibilities for material and processing combinations. The lamination of two separately processed substrates together will allow usage of pre-patterned electrodes on both substrates and materials with non-compatible solvents. Also, the surface microstructure is formed differently when laminating dry films together compared to film formation from liquid phase. Demonstrator transistors, inverters and ring oscillators were produced using lamination techniques. Finally, a roll-to-roll compatible lamination concept is proposed where also the source and drain electrodes are patterned by laser ablation. The demonstrator transistors have shown very good lifetime in air, which is contributed partly to the good material combination and partly to the enhanced interface formation in heat-assisted lamination process. - Highlights: • A roll-to-roll compatible lamination technique for printed electronics is proposed. • Laser ablation allows highly defined metal top and bottom electrodes. • Method opens up processing possibilities for incompatible materials and solvents. • Shearing forces may enhance molecular orientation and packing. • An air stable polymer transistor is demonstrated with a lifetime of years

  3. Cadastral Database Positional Accuracy Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N. M.; Omar, A. H.; Ramli, S. N. M.; Omar, K. M.; Din, N.

    2017-10-01

    Positional Accuracy Improvement (PAI) is the refining process of the geometry feature in a geospatial dataset to improve its actual position. This actual position relates to the absolute position in specific coordinate system and the relation to the neighborhood features. With the growth of spatial based technology especially Geographical Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), the PAI campaign is inevitable especially to the legacy cadastral database. Integration of legacy dataset and higher accuracy dataset like GNSS observation is a potential solution for improving the legacy dataset. However, by merely integrating both datasets will lead to a distortion of the relative geometry. The improved dataset should be further treated to minimize inherent errors and fitting to the new accurate dataset. The main focus of this study is to describe a method of angular based Least Square Adjustment (LSA) for PAI process of legacy dataset. The existing high accuracy dataset known as National Digital Cadastral Database (NDCDB) is then used as bench mark to validate the results. It was found that the propose technique is highly possible for positional accuracy improvement of legacy spatial datasets.

  4. Classification Accuracy Is Not Enough

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A recent review of the research literature evaluating music genre recognition (MGR) systems over the past two decades shows that most works (81\\%) measure the capacity of a system to recognize genre by its classification accuracy. We show here, by implementing and testing three categorically...

  5. The hidden KPI registration accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorrosh, Paul

    2011-09-01

    Determining the registration accuracy rate is fundamental to improving revenue cycle key performance indicators. A registration quality assurance (QA) process allows errors to be corrected before bills are sent and helps registrars learn from their mistakes. Tools are available to help patient access staff who perform registration QA manually.

  6. Compatibility and stability of valsartan in a solid pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamíris Amanda Júlio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL is a highly selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor that has been widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Active pharmaceutical ingredient compatibility with excipients (crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and titanium dioxide is usually evaluated in solid pharmaceutical development. Compatibility and stability can be evaluated by liquid chromatography. Studies were performed using binary mixtures of 1:1 (w/w VAL/excipient; samples were stored under accelerated stability test conditions (40 ºC at 75% relative humidity. The results indicate that VAL is incompatible with crospovidone and hypromellose, which reduced the VAL content and gave rise to new peaks in the chromatogram due to degradation products.

  7. A review of magnetic resonance imaging compatible manipulators in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhawary, H; Zivanovic, A; Davies, B; Lampérth, M

    2006-04-01

    Developments in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coupled with parallel progress in the field of computer-assisted surgery, mean that an ideal environment has been created for the development of MRI-compatible robotic systems and manipulators, capable of enhancing many types of surgical procedure. However, MRI does impose severe restrictions on mechatronic devices to be used in or around the scanners. In this article a review of the developments in the field of MRI-compatible surgical manipulators over the last decade is presented. The manipulators developed make use of different methods of actuation, but they can be reduced to four main groups: actuation transmitted through hydraulics, pneumatic actuators, ultrasonic motors based on the piezoceramic principle and remote manual actuation. Progress has been made concerning material selection, position sensing, and different actuation techniques, and design strategies have been implemented to overcome the multiple restrictions imposed by the MRI environment. Most systems lack the clinical validation needed to continue on to commercial products.

  8. THE COMPATIBILITY STUDENT CHOICE OF UNIVERSITY MAJORING; A PRELIMINARY STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daharnis Daharnis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuous improvements in order to optimize the basic education to higher education are still running. Based on that purpose, there are many factors to supporting the students' learning activities success; one of the factors is suitability with majors in university. The purpose of this study is to reveal the condition of the compatibility of students majoring with their interest, then to describe the information when the student choose their majoring. Samples in this study were 122 peoples, taken by random sampling from the Padang State University. Data obtained by distributing questionnaires. The results showed that there are students that their major do not match with their interest (22.13%, only 3.28% of students who feel compatible with their major. This result should be a major concern, particularly for counselor in schools for design counseling services to solve these problems. The result of this study used as a grand tour or a preliminary study for further research.

  9. Materials Compatibility Testing in RSRM ODC: Free Cleaner Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Jill M.; Sagers, Neil W.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Government regulations have mandated production phase-outs of a number of solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC). This solvent was used extensively in the production of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRMs) for the Space Shuttle. Many tests have been performed to identify replacement cleaners. One major area of concern in the selection of a new cleaner has been compatibility. Some specific areas considered included cleaner compatibility with non-metallic surfaces, painted surfaces, support materials such as gloves and wipers as well as corrosive properties of the cleaners on the alloys used on these motors. The intent of this paper is to summarize the test logic, methodology, and results acquired from testing the many cleaner and material combinations.

  10. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  11. Compatibility Issues of IPSec and TCP in Wireless Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-yang; XIN Yang

    2004-01-01

    Due to the problems arising when the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is applied over wireless networks, many TCP performance enhancement mechanisms have been proposed. However, such mechanisms aren't compatible with IPSec protocol. The paper reviews the TCP performance enhancement mechanisms in wireless networks. Then the conflicts between them are analyzed. Several proposals for solving theconflicts are discussed, and their benefit and limitations are examined.

  12. Pointing Hand Stimuli Induce Spatial Compatibility Effects and Effector Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio eNishimura

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the automatic influence of perceiving a picture that indicates other’s action on one’s own task performance in terms of spatial compatibility and effector priming. Participants pressed left and right buttons with their left and right hands respectively, depending on the color of a central dot target. Preceding the target, a left or right hand stimulus (pointing either to the left or right with the index or little finger was presented. In Experiment 1, with brief presentation of the pointing hand, a spatial compatibility effect was observed: Responses were faster when the direction of the pointed finger and the response position were spatially congruent than when incongruent. The spatial compatibility effect was larger for the pointing index finger stimulus compared to the pointing little finger stimulus. Experiment 2 employed longer duration of the pointing hand stimuli. In addition to the spatial compatibility effect for the pointing index finger, the effector priming effect was observed: Responses were faster when the anatomical left/right identity of the pointing and response hands matched than when the pointing and response hands differed in left/right identity. The results indicate that with sufficient processing time, both spatial/symbolic and anatomical features of a static body part implying another’s action simultaneously influence different aspects of the perceiver’s own action. Hierarchical coding, according to which an anatomical code is used only when a spatial code is unavailable, may not be applicable if stimuli as well as responses contain anatomical features.

  13. Characterization of materials for waste-canister compatibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.; Mack, J.E.

    1981-10-01

    Sample materials of 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister materials were procured for compatibility tests. These materials were characterized before being placed in test, and the results are the main topic of this report. A test capsule was designed for the tests in which disks of a single waste form were contacted with duplicate samples of canister materials. The capsules are undergoing short-term tests at 800 0 C and long-term tests at 100 and 300 0 C

  14. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cy...

  15. Interfacial compatibility of polymer-based structures in electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Markus P. K.

    2004-01-01

    Interfacial compatibility of dissimilar materials was investigated to achieve a better understanding of interfacial adhesion in metal/polymer/metal systems. Surface modifications of polymers were applied to improve the adhesion. The modified surfaces were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements accompanied by surface free energy evaluations. The pull-off test was employed to asses...

  16. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification ...

  17. Southern Monterey Bay Littoral Cell CRSMP Potential Sediment Sources 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Three main criteria are used as an initial basis for screening source locations; availability of large quantities of beach compatible sand, levels of contamination,...

  18. ENGINEERING SPECIALTY ASSESSMENT OF TANK WASTE COMPATIBILITY REPORTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KNIGHT, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This Engineering Specialty Assessment was conducted to review the Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program to assess whether the program meets the needs of accelerated retrieval and closure and waste feed delivery and to identify areas and methods for streamlining the program. The assessment was conducted in June 2003 and resulted in two findings and thirteen observations. The assessment results indicate that significant opportunities exist for streamlining the program by reducing the number of criteria requiring evaluation from 21 to 11, with only six of the criteria requiring evaluation for the majority of transfers. The assessment identified areas where existing criteria require strengthening to ensure that the risks of undesirable solids precipitation, from either waste mixing or waste transfer, are minimized. The assessment further identified opportunities for using existing engineering tools to simplify the calculations involved with preparation of waste compatibility assessments. The need to ensure that a revision to the waste compatibility program is prepared to align the program criteria with those that will be implemented with the DSA approval was also identified. Finally, the assessment identified that corrective actions are required to implement a tank-by-tank PCB inventory within the Best Basis Inventory and to ensure that sample data from external waste generators is entered into the TWINS database

  19. A compatible electrocutaneous display for functional magnetic resonance imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, V; Cappelli, C; Vanello, N; Ricciardi, E; Scilingo, E P; Giovannetti, G; Santarelli, M F; Positano, V; Pietrini, P; Landini, L; Bicchi, A

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an MR (magnetic resonance) compatible electrocutaneous stimulator able to inject an electric current, variable in amplitude and frequency, into the fingertips in order to elicit tactile skin receptors (mechanoreceptors). The desired goal is to evoke specific tactile sensations selectively stimulating skin receptors by means of an electric current in place of mechanical stimuli. The field of application ranges from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) tactile studies to augmented reality technology. The device here proposed is designed using safety criteria in order to comply with the threshold of voltage and current permitted by regulations. Moreover, MR safety and compatibility criteria were considered in order to perform experiments inside the MR scanner during an fMRI acquisition for functional brain activation analysis. Psychophysical laboratory tests are performed in order to define the different evoked tactile sensation. After verifying the device MR safety and compatibility on a phantom, a test on a human subject during fMRI acquisition is performed to visualize the brain areas activated by the simulated tactile sensation.

  20. Materials compatibility and corrosion issues for accelerator transmutation of waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudhammer, K.

    1992-08-01

    The need to understand the materials issues in an accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system is essential. This report focuses on the spallation container material, as this material is exposed to some of the most crucial environmental conditions of simultaneous radiation and corrosion in the system. The most severe design being considered is that of liquid lead. In previous investigations of lead compatibility with materials, the chemistry of the system was derived solely from the corrosion products; however, in an ATW system, the chemistry of the lead changes not only with the derived corrosion products of the material being tested but also with the buildup of the daughter production with time. Daughter production builds up and introduces elements that may have a great effect on the corrosion activity of the liquid lead. Consequently, data on liquid lead compatibility can be regarded only as a guide and must be reevaluated when particular daughter products are added. This report is intended to be a response to specific materials issues and concerns expressed by the ATW design working group and addresses the compatibility/corrosion concerns

  1. Assessment of DUPIC fuel compatibility with CANDU-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, H B; Roh, G H; Jeong, C J; Rhee, B W; Choi, J W [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will require a quantitative analysis later. (author).

  2. A Zeroth Law Compatible Model to Kerr Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor G. Czinner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We consider the thermodynamic and stability problem of Kerr black holes arising from the nonextensive/nonadditive nature of the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy formula. Nonadditive thermodynamics is often criticized by asserting that the zeroth law cannot be compatible with nonadditive composition rules, so in this work we follow the so-called formal logarithm method to derive an additive entropy function for Kerr black holes also satisfying the zeroth law’s requirement. Starting from the most general, equilibrium compatible, nonadditive entropy composition rule of Abe, we consider the simplest non-parametric approach that is generated by the explicit nonadditive form of the Bekenstein–Hawking formula. This analysis extends our previous results on the Schwarzschild case, and shows that the zeroth law-compatible temperature function in the model is independent of the mass–energy parameter of the black hole. By applying the Poincaré turning point method, we also study the thermodynamic stability problem in the system.

  3. Preliminary assessment on compatibility of DUPIC fuel with CANDU-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang-Bok; Roh, G.H.; Jeong, C.J.; Rhee, B.W.; Choi, J.W.; Boss, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The compatibility of DUPIC fuel with the existing CANDU-6 reactor was assessed. The technical issues of DUPIC fuel compatibility were chosen based on the CANDU physics design requirements and inherent characteristics of DUPIC fuel. The compatibility was assessed for the reference DUPIC fuel composition which was determined to reduce the composition heterogeneity and improve the spent PWR fuel utilization. Preliminary studies on a CANDU core loaded with DUPIC fuel have shown that the nominal power distribution is flatter than that of a natural uranium core when a 2-bundle shift refueling scheme is used, which reduces the reactivity worths of devices in the core and, therefore, the performance of reactivity devices was assessed. The safety of the core was assessed by a LOCA simulation and it was found that the power pulse upon LOCA can be maintained below that in the natural uranium core when a poison material is used in the DUPIC fuel. For the feasibility of handling DUPIC fuel in the plant, it will be necessary to introduce new equipment to load the DUPIC fuel in the refueling magazine. The radiation effect of DUPIC fuel on both the reactor hardware and the environment will be qualitatively analyzed later. (author)

  4. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrochidou, E; Alvanitopoulos, P F; Andreadis, I; Mallousi, K; Elenas, A

    2014-01-01

    The Hilbert–Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert–Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature. (paper)

  5. A JPEG backward-compatible HDR image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is expected to become one of the technologies that could shape next generation of consumer digital photography. Manufacturers are rolling out cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering HDR images. The popularity and full public adoption of HDR content is however hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR technology with commonly used legacy image storage, rendering, and compression is necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms were developed for generating viewable LDR images from HDR content, there is no consensus on which algorithm to use and under which conditions. This paper, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrates the dependency of perceived quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on environmental parameters and image content. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, as the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to also deal with HDR pictures. To this end, the paper provides an architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG and demonstrates efficiency of a simple implementation of this framework when compared to the state of the art HDR image compression.

  6. Directional control-response compatibility of joystick steered shuttle cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Zupanc, Christine M; Wallis, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Shuttle cars are an unusual class of vehicle operated in underground coal mines, sometimes in close proximity to pedestrians and steering errors may have very serious consequences. A directional control-response incompatibility has previously been described in shuttle cars which are controlled using a steering wheel oriented perpendicular to the direction of travel. Some other shuttle car operators are seated perpendicular to the direction of travel and steer the car via a seat mounted joystick. A virtual simulation was utilised to determine whether the steering arrangement in these vehicles maintains directional control-response compatibility. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a condition corresponding to this design (consistent direction), or a condition in which the directional steering response was reversed while driving in-bye (visual field compatible). Significantly less accurate steering performance was exhibited by the consistent direction group during the in-bye trials only. Shuttle cars which provide the joystick steering mechanism described here require operators to accommodate alternating compatible and incompatible directional control-response relationships with each change of car direction. A virtual simulation of an underground coal shuttle car demonstrates that the design incorporates a directional control-response incompatibility when driving the vehicle in one direction. This design increases the probability of operator error, with potential adverse safety and productivity consequences.

  7. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  8. Eco-Anthropic Compatibility - a Multidisciplinary Model in Urban Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIANO L. BIANCA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a multidisciplinary model of urban development which goes beyond the notion of ecological sustainability, by building on the concept of eco-anthropic compatibility. First of all I will sketch the historical development of human aggregations and I will underline the difference between ancient and modern aggregations. On the basis of this analysis, I will take into consideration the notion of sustainability and its possible application to present conurbations. I will underline several limits of the notion of sustainable development and I will propose a multidisciplinary model grounded on a broader and new notion: the eco-anthropic compatibility. Using this notion, which includes the idea of sustainability, it is possible to handle, within the model, the human factors and human living conditions inside an urban aggregation. Finally, I will state that the actual urban model is decaying and therefore, sooner or later, we will have to face the end of urban civilization; for this reason we can start imagining new future ways for human aggregations on the planet based on the notion of eco-anthropic compatibility.

  9. Systematic Calibration for Ultra-High Accuracy Inertial Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An inertial navigation system (INS has been widely used in challenging GPS environments. With the rapid development of modern physics, an atomic gyroscope will come into use in the near future with a predicted accuracy of 5 × 10−6°/h or better. However, existing calibration methods and devices can not satisfy the accuracy requirements of future ultra-high accuracy inertial sensors. In this paper, an improved calibration model is established by introducing gyro g-sensitivity errors, accelerometer cross-coupling errors and lever arm errors. A systematic calibration method is proposed based on a 51-state Kalman filter and smoother. Simulation results show that the proposed calibration method can realize the estimation of all the parameters using a common dual-axis turntable. Laboratory and sailing tests prove that the position accuracy in a five-day inertial navigation can be improved about 8% by the proposed calibration method. The accuracy can be improved at least 20% when the position accuracy of the atomic gyro INS can reach a level of 0.1 nautical miles/5 d. Compared with the existing calibration methods, the proposed method, with more error sources and high order small error parameters calibrated for ultra-high accuracy inertial measurement units (IMUs using common turntables, has a great application potential in future atomic gyro INSs.

  10. Mating compatibility in the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Bailey, Mick; Gibson, Wendy

    2014-02-21

    Genetic exchange has been described in several kinetoplastid parasites, but the most well-studied mating system is that of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative organism of African sleeping sickness. Sexual reproduction takes place in the salivary glands (SG) of the tsetse vector and involves meiosis and production of haploid gametes. Few genetic crosses have been carried out to date and consequently there is little information about the mating compatibility of different trypanosomes. In other single-celled eukaryotes, mating compatibility is typically determined by a system of two or more mating types (MT). Here we investigated the MT system in T. brucei. We analysed a large series of F1, F2 and back crosses by pairwise co-transmission of red and green fluorescent cloned cell lines through experimental tsetse flies. To analyse each cross, trypanosomes were cloned from fly SG containing a mixture of both parents, and genotyped by microsatellites and molecular karyotype. To investigate mating compatibility at the level of individual cells, we directly observed the behaviour of SG-derived gametes in intra- or interclonal mixtures of red and green fluorescent trypanosomes ex vivo. Hybrid progeny were found in all F1 and F2 crosses and most of the back crosses. The success of individual crosses was highly variable as judged by the number of hybrid clones produced, suggesting a range of mating compatibilities among F1 progeny. As well as hybrids, large numbers of recombinant genotypes resulting from intraclonal mating (selfers) were found in some crosses. In ex vivo mixtures, red and green fluorescent trypanosome gametes were observed to pair up and interact via their flagella in both inter- and intraclonal combinations. While yellow hybrid trypanosomes were frequently observed in interclonal mixtures, such evidence of cytoplasmic exchange was rare in the intraclonal mixtures. The outcomes of individual crosses, particularly back crosses, were variable in numbers of both

  11. Preclinical evaluation of an MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for angulated needle placement in transperineal prostate interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Junichi; Song, Sang-Eun; Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Seifabadi, Reza; Cho, Bong Joon; Tuncali, Kemal; Fichtinger, Gabor; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the targeting accuracy of a small profile MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement that can angulate a needle insertion path into a large accessible target volume. Methods We extended our MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement to utilize its four degrees-of-freedom (4-DOF) mechanism with two parallel triangular structures and support transperineal prostate biopsies in a closed-bore magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The robot is designed to guide a needle towards a lesion so that a radiologist can manually insert it in the bore. The robot is integrated with navigation software that allows an operator to plan angulated needle insertion by selecting a target and an entry point. The targeting error was evaluated while the angle between the needle insertion path and the static magnetic field was between −5.7° and 5.7° horizontally and between −5.7° and 4.3° vertically in the MRI scanner after sterilizing and draping the device. Results The robot positioned the needle for angulated insertion as specified on the navigation software with overall targeting error of 0.8 ± 0.5 mm along the horizontal axis and 0.8 ± 0.8 mm along the vertical axis. The two-dimensional root-mean-square targeting error on the axial slices as containing the targets was 1.4 mm. Conclusions Our preclinical evaluation demonstrated that the MRI-compatible pneumatic robot for needle placement with the capability to angulate the needle insertion path provides targeting accuracy feasible for clinical MRI-guided prostate interventions. The clinical feasibility has to be established in a clinical study. PMID:22678723

  12. Biosynthesis of compatible solutes in rhizobial strains isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris nodules in Tunisian fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Joaquín J

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associated with appropriate crop and soil management, inoculation of legumes with microbial biofertilizers can improve food legume yield and soil fertility and reduce pollution by inorganic fertilizers. Rhizospheric bacteria are subjected to osmotic stress imposed by drought and/or NaCl, two abiotic constraints frequently found in semi-arid lands. Osmostress response in bacteria involves the accumulation of small organic compounds called compatible solutes. Whereas most studies on rhizobial osmoadaptation have focussed on the model species Sinorhizobium meliloti, little is known on the osmoadaptive mechanisms used by native rhizobia, which are good sources of inoculants. In this work, we investigated the synthesis and accumulations of compatible solutes by four rhizobial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris in Tunisia, as well as by the reference strain Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Results The most NaCl-tolerant strain was A. tumefaciens 10c2, followed (in decreasing order by R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3, R. etli 12a3 and R. gallicum bv. phaseoli 8a3. 13C- and 1H-NMR analyses showed that all Rhizobium strains synthesized trehalose whereas A. tumefaciens 10c2 synthesized mannosucrose. Glutamate synthesis was also observed in R. tropici CIAT 899, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli 31c3 and A. tumefaciens 10c2. When added as a carbon source, mannitol was also accumulated by all strains. Accumulation of trehalose in R. tropici CIAT 899 and of mannosucrose in A. tumefaciens 10c2 was osmoregulated, suggesting their involvement in osmotolerance. The phylogenetic analysis of the otsA gene, encoding the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase, suggested the existence of lateral transfer events. In vivo 13C labeling experiments together with genomic analysis led us to propose the uptake and conversion pathways of different carbon sources into trehalose. Collaterally, the β-1,2-cyclic glucan from R

  13. Major cultural-compatibility complex: considerations on cross-cultural dissemination of patient safety programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Heon-Jae; Pham, Julius C; Kim, Minji; Engineer, Cyrus; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-07-01

    As the importance of patient safety has been broadly acknowledged, various improvement programmes have been developed. Many of the programmes with proven efficacy have been disseminated internationally. However, some of those attempts may encounter unexpected cross-cultural obstacles and may fail to harvest the expected success. Each country has different cultural background that has shaped the behavior of the constituents for centuries. It is crucial to take into account these cultural differences in effectively disseminating these programmes. As an organ transplantation requires tissue-compatibility between the donor and the recipient, there needs to be compatibility between the country where the program was originally developed and the nation implementing the program. Though no detailed guidelines exist to predict success, small-scale pilot tests can help evaluate whether a safety programme will work in a new cultural environment. Furthermore, a pilot programme helps reveal the source of potential conflict, so we can modify the original programme accordingly to better suit the culture to which it is to be applied. In addition to programme protocols, information about the cultural context of the disseminated programme should be conveyed during dissemination. Original programme designers should work closely with partnering countries to ensure that modifications do not jeopardise the original intention of the programme. By following this approach, we might limit barriers originating from cultural differences and increase the likelihood of success in cross-cultural dissemination.

  14. Obtention of graft copolymers by ionizing radiation, characterization and study of hemo-compatible properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, A.A.A. de.

    1993-01-01

    The present work had as objectives the obtention and characterization of grafting copolymers by radiation induced polymerization and the study of its hemo compatible properties. The relationship between grafting conditions and anti-trombogenicity was examined for the purpose of clearing the necessity of controlling grafting conditions to enhance the copolymers blood compatibility. Two methods were chosen to accomplish the irradiation: mutual and pre-irradiation (peroxidation) of the films in 6O Co source and electron beam accelerator. Primarily grafting parameters were studied in the systems of the monomers N, N-dimethyl acrylamide (DMAA) and acrylic acid (AA) with the polymeric films: poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE), poly (ethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene) (PETFE), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC). The simultaneous irradiation was effective in the polymerization of all the substrates above mentioned, although the peroxidation method has given better results for PETFE-DMAA, LDPE-g-DMAA, LDPE-g-AA and PVC-g-AA. In the system AA/LDPE and AA/PVC the homo polymerization was controlled by the addition of the comonomer N, N-dimethyl acrylic acid (DMA). As for the grafting parameters, low dose rate and low irradiation dose, showed to be very effective for the graftability of DMAA and AA on the substrates. (author). 129 refs, 51 figs, 7 tabs

  15. A novel magnetic resonance imaging-compatible motor control method for image-guided robotic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Liao, Hongen; Kobayashi, Etsuko; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    For robotic surgery assistance systems that use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for guidance, the problem of electromagnetic interference is common. Image quality is particularly degraded if motors are running during scanning. We propose a novel MRI-compatible method considering the pulse sequence of imaging. Motors are driven for a short time when the MRI system stops signal acquisition (i.e., awaiting relaxation of the proton), so the image does not contain noise from the actuators. The MRI system and motor are synchronized using a radio frequency pulse signal (8.5 MHz) as the trigger, which is acquired via a special antenna mounted near the scanner. This method can be widely applied because it only receives part of the scanning signal and neither hardware nor software of the MRI system needs to be changed. As a feasibility evaluation test, we compared the images and signal-to-noise ratios between the cases with and without this method, under the condition that a piezoelectric motor was driven during scanning as a noise source, which was generally used as a MRI-compatible actuator. The results showed no deterioration in image quality and the benefit of the new method even though the choice of available scanning sequences is limited. (author)

  16. High accuracy satellite drag model (HASDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Mark F.; Bowman, Bruce R.; Branson, Major James I.; Casali, Stephen J.; Tobiska, W. Kent

    The dominant error source in force models used to predict low-perigee satellite trajectories is atmospheric drag. Errors in operational thermospheric density models cause significant errors in predicted satellite positions, since these models do not account for dynamic changes in atmospheric drag for orbit predictions. The Air Force Space Battlelab's High Accuracy Satellite Drag Model (HASDM) estimates and predicts (out three days) a dynamically varying global density field. HASDM includes the Dynamic Calibration Atmosphere (DCA) algorithm that solves for the phases and amplitudes of the diurnal and semidiurnal variations of thermospheric density near real-time from the observed drag effects on a set of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) calibration satellites. The density correction is expressed as a function of latitude, local solar time and altitude. In HASDM, a time series prediction filter relates the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) energy index E10.7 and the geomagnetic storm index ap, to the DCA density correction parameters. The E10.7 index is generated by the SOLAR2000 model, the first full spectrum model of solar irradiance. The estimated and predicted density fields will be used operationally to significantly improve the accuracy of predicted trajectories for all low-perigee satellites.

  17. Prognostic accuracy of electroencephalograms in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogtmann, Emilie Pi; Plomgaard, Anne Mette; Greisen, Gorm

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Brain injury is common in preterm infants, and predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome are relevant. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic test accuracy of the background activity of the EEG recorded as amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) or conventional EEG early in life in preterm infants...... for predicting neurodevelopmental outcome. DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. STUDY SELECTION: We included observational studies that had obtained an aEEG or EEG within 7 days of life in preterm infants and reported...... neurodevelopmental outcomes 1 to 10 years later. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently performed data extraction with regard to participants, prognostic testing, and outcomes. RESULTS: Thirteen observational studies with a total of 1181 infants were included. A metaanalysis was performed based on 3 studies...

  18. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  19. ArcticDEM Validation and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, S. G.; Howat, I.; Noh, M. J.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    ArcticDEM comprises a growing inventory Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) covering all land above 60°N. As of August, 2017, ArcticDEM had openly released 2-m resolution, individual DEM covering over 51 million km2, which includes areas of repeat coverage for change detection, as well as over 15 million km2 of 5-m resolution seamless mosaics. By the end of the project, over 80 million km2 of 2-m DEMs will be produced, averaging four repeats of the 20 million km2 Arctic landmass. ArcticDEM is produced from sub-meter resolution, stereoscopic imagery using open source software (SETSM) on the NCSA Blue Waters supercomputer. These DEMs have known biases of several meters due to errors in the sensor models generated from satellite positioning. These systematic errors are removed through three-dimensional registration to high-precision Lidar or other control datasets. ArcticDEM is registered to seasonally-subsetted ICESat elevations due its global coverage and high report accuracy ( 10 cm). The vertical accuracy of ArcticDEM is then obtained from the statistics of the fit to the ICESat point cloud, which averages -0.01 m ± 0.07 m. ICESat, however, has a relatively coarse measurement footprint ( 70 m) which may impact the precision of the registration. Further, the ICESat data predates the ArcticDEM imagery by a decade, so that temporal changes in the surface may also impact the registration. Finally, biases may exist between different the different sensors in the ArcticDEM constellation. Here we assess the accuracy of ArcticDEM and the ICESat registration through comparison to multiple high-resolution airborne lidar datasets that were acquired within one year of the imagery used in ArcticDEM. We find the ICESat dataset is performing as anticipated, introducing no systematic bias during the coregistration process, and reducing vertical errors to within the uncertainty of the airborne Lidars. Preliminary sensor comparisons show no significant difference post coregistration

  20. Compatibility of AlN ceramics with molten lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Sato, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ., Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    AlN ceramics were a candidate for electrically insulating materials and facing materials against molten breeder in a nuclear fusion reactor. In the nuclear fusion reactor, interactions of various structural materials with solid and liquid breeder materials as well as coolant materials are important. Therefore, corrosion tests of AlN ceramics with molten lithium were performed. AlN specimens of six kinds, different in sintering additives and manufacturing method, were used. AlN specimens were immersed into molten lithium at 823 K. Duration for the compatibility tests was about 2.8 Ms (32 days). Specimens with sintering additive of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by about 5 mass% formed the network structure of oxide in the crystals of AlN. It was considered that the corrosion proceeded by reduction of the oxide network and the penetration of molten lithium through the reduced pass of this network. For specimens without sintering additive, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing by about 1.3% in raw material was converted to fine oxynitride particles on grain boundary or dissolved in AlN crystals. After immersion into lithium, these specimens were found to be sound in shape but reduced in electrical resistivity. These degradation of the two types specimens were considered to be caused by the reduction of oxygen components. On the other hand, a specimen sintered using CaO as sintering additive was finally became appreciably high purity. This specimen showed good compatibility for molten lithium at least up to 823 K. It was concluded that the reduction of oxygen concentration in AlN materials was essential in order to improve the compatibility for molten lithium. (author)

  1. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  2. Compatibility with European law of opt-out legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, U.

    2000-01-01

    Should consensus with the utilities not be reached, Federal Minister for the Environment, Mr. Trittin, repeatedly announced to introduce opt-out legislation 'by dissent'. Both the constitutionality of such legislation and its compatibility with European law are topics of controversial debate in the literature. The decision taken by the Bavarian cabinet on February 8 in this year, to use all political and legal means against shutting down German nuclear power plants and, for this purpose, even to approach the European Commission on grounds of potential violation of European law, are reason enough to deal in more detail with the compatibility of an opt-out law with the Euratom Treaty and the EC Treaty. As the opt-out law does not yet exist, these considerations can only be of a theoretical nature. However, this is the working hypothesis assumed: Reprocessing is banned as of the entry into force of the opt-out law. This ban includes moving nuclear waste abroad for reprocessing. The peaceful use of nuclear power for electricity generation in power reactors operated for thirty years is forbidden. Older reactors may be run only for a transition period of another three years. (This includes abandoning the promotion purpose in the German Atomic Energy Act and a ban on building new power reactors). However, the operating life may be distributed in a flexible way. This contribution indicates that there are sound reasons and interesting approaches, respectively, in the literature for assuming that opting out by means of legislation, coupled with a ban on reprocessing, at least constitutes a violation of the freedom for goods and/or services. However, this cannot be derived unequivocally from either the Euratom Treaty or the EC Treaty or from rulings by the European Court of Justice. Ultimately, compatibility with European law of the ban on reprocessing can be decided only by the European Court of Justice. (orig.) [de

  3. Accuracy of a wireless localization system for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, James M.; Wright, J. Nelson; Newell, Laurence J.; Friemel, Barry; Dimmer, Steven; Cheng, Yuki; Wong, John; Vertatschitsch, Edward; Mate, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A system has been developed for patient positioning based on real-time localization of implanted electromagnetic transponders (beacons). This study demonstrated the accuracy of the system before clinical trials. Methods and materials: We describe the overall system. The localization component consists of beacons and a source array. A rigid phantom was constructed to place the beacons at known offsets from a localization array. Tests were performed at distances of 80 and 270 mm from the array and at positions in the array plane of up to 8 cm offset. Tests were performed in air and saline to assess the effect of tissue conductivity and with multiple transponders to evaluate crosstalk. Tracking was tested using a dynamic phantom creating a circular path at varying speeds. Results: Submillimeter accuracy was maintained throughout all experiments. Precision was greater proximal to the source plane (σx = 0.006 mm, σy = 0.01 mm, σz = 0.006 mm), but continued to be submillimeter at the end of the designed tracking range at 270 mm from the array (σx = 0.27 mm, σy = 0.36 mm, σz = 0.48 mm). The introduction of saline and the use of multiple beacons did not affect accuracy. Submillimeter accuracy was maintained using the dynamic phantom at speeds of up to 3 cm/s. Conclusion: This system has demonstrated the accuracy needed for localization and monitoring of position during treatment

  4. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions – Changes in Accuracy over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interest in 3D inertial motion tracking devices (AHRS) has been growing rapidly among the biomechanical community. Although the convenience of such tracking devices seems to open a whole new world of possibilities for evaluation in clinical biomechanics, its limitations haven’t been extensively documented. The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the change in absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of 3 commercially available AHRS over time; and 2) to identify different sources of errors affecting AHRS accuracy and to document how they may affect the measurements over time. Methods This study used an instrumented Gimbal table on which AHRS modules were carefully attached and put through a series of velocity-controlled sustained motions including 2 minutes motion trials (2MT) and 12 minutes multiple dynamic phases motion trials (12MDP). Absolute accuracy was assessed by comparison of the AHRS orientation measurements to those of an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was evaluated using the variation in relative orientation between modules during the trials. Findings Both absolute and relative accuracy decreased over time during 2MT. 12MDP trials showed a significant decrease in accuracy over multiple phases, but accuracy could be enhanced significantly by resetting the reference point and/or compensating for initial Inertial frame estimation reference for each phase. Interpretation The variation in AHRS accuracy observed between the different systems and with time can be attributed in part to the dynamic estimation error, but also and foremost, to the ability of AHRS units to locate the same Inertial frame. Conclusions Mean accuracies obtained under the Gimbal table sustained conditions of motion suggest that AHRS are promising tools for clinical mobility assessment under constrained conditions of use. However, improvement in magnetic compensation and alignment between AHRS modules are desirable in order for AHRS to reach their

  5. Implementation of an ISIS Compatible Stereo Processing Chain for 3D Stereo Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdelen, E.; Unbekannt, H.; Willner, K.; Oberst, J.

    2012-09-01

    The department for Planetary Geodesy at TU Berlin is developing routines for photogrammetric processing of planetary image data to derive 3D representations of planetary surfaces. The ISIS software, developed by USGS, Flagstaff, is readily available, open source, and very well documented. Hence, ISIS [1] was chosen as a prime processing platform and tool kit. However, ISIS does not provide a full photogrammetric stereo processing chain. Several components like image matching, bundle block adjustment (until recently) or digital terrain model (DTM) interpolation from 3D object points are missing. Our group aims to complete this photogrammetric stereo processing chain by implementing the missing components, taking advantage of already existing ISIS classes and functionality. With this abstract we would like to report on the development of a new image matching software that is optimized for both orbital and closeranged planetary images and compatible with ISIS formats and routines and an interpolation tool that is developed to create DTMs from large 3-D point clouds.

  6. Precision mechanical design of an UHV-compatible artificial channel-cut x-ray monochromator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Narayanan, S.; Sandy, A.; Sprung, M.; Preissner, C.; Sullivan, J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible x-ray monochromator has been designed and commissioned at the undulator beamline 8-ID-I at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy applications. To meet the challenging stability and x-ray optical requirements, the monochromator integrates two new precision angular positioning mechanisms into its crystal optics motion control system: An overconstrained weak-link mechanism that enables the positioning of an assembly of two crystals to achieve the same performance as a single channel-cut crystal, the so called 'artificial channel-cut crystal'; A ceramic motor driven in-vacuum sine-bar mechanism for the double crystal combined pitch motion. The mechanical design of the monochromator, as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  7. Precision mechanical design of an UHV-compatible artificial channel-cut x-ray monochromator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, D.; Narayanan, S.; Sandy, A.; Sprung, M.; Preissner, C.; Sullivan, J.; APS Engineering Support Division

    2007-01-01

    A novel ultra-high-vacuum (UHV)-compatible x-ray monochromator has been designed and commissioned at the undulator beamline 8-ID-I at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy applications. To meet the challenging stability and x-ray optical requirements, the monochromator integrates two new precision angular positioning mechanisms into its crystal optics motion control system: An overconstrained weak-link mechanism that enables the positioning of an assembly of two crystals to achieve the same performance as a single channel-cut crystal, the so called 'artificial channel-cut crystal'; A ceramic motor driven in-vacuum sine-bar mechanism for the double crystal combined pitch motion. The mechanical design of the monochromator, as well as the test results of its positioning performance are presented in this paper.

  8. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  9. Determination of boron isotope ratios by high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry using graphite furnace vaporizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Carlos; Florek, Stefan; Becker-Ross, Helmut; Huang, Mao-Dong; Heinrich, Hans-Joachim; Recknagel, Sebastian; Vogl, Jochen; Jakubowski, Norbert; Panne, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Boron isotope amount ratios n(10B)/n(11B) have been determined by monitoring the absorption spectrum of boron monohydride (BH) in a graphite furnace using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-MAS). Bands (0 → 0) and (1 → 1) for the electronic transition X1Σ+ → A1Π were evaluated around wavelengths 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm respectively. Clean and free of memory effect molecular spectra of BH were recorded. In order to eliminate the memory effect of boron, a combination of 2% (v/v) hydrogen gas in argon and 1% trifluoromethane in argon, an acid solution of calcium chloride and mannitol as chemical modifiers was used. Partial least square regression (PLS) for analysis of samples and reference materials were applied. For this, a spectral library with different isotopes ratios for PLS regression was built. Results obtained around the 433.1 nm and 437.1 nm spectral regions are metrologically compatible with those reported by mass spectrometric methods. Moreover, for the evaluated region of 437 nm, an accuracy of 0.15‰ is obtained as the average deviation from the isotope reference materials. Expanded uncertainties with a coverage factor of k = 2 range between 0.15 and 0.44‰. This accuracy and precision are compatible with those obtained by mass spectrometry for boron isotope ratio measurements.

  10. Central Cross-Talk in Task Switching : Evidence from Manipulating Input-Output Modality Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Denise Nadine; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the role of compatibility of input and output (I-O) modality mappings in task switching. We define I-O modality compatibility in terms of similarity of stimulus modality and modality of response-related sensory consequences. Experiment 1 included switching between 2 compatible tasks (auditory-vocal vs. visual-manual) and…

  11. 77 FR 14461 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Airport, Battle Creek, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ....K. Kellogg Airport noise compatibility program. All of the recommendations of the program were... Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Kellogg Airport is February 16, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... the Noise Compatibility Program for W.K. Kellogg Airport, effective February 16, 2012. Under section...

  12. 75 FR 11990 - Chicago Executive Airports Noise Exposure Map Approval and Noise Compatibility Program Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... meet applicable regulations and which depict non-compatible land uses as of the date of submission of... the Act. These functions are inseparable from the ultimate land use control and planning...-compatible land uses and preventing the introduction of additional non-compatible land uses. Interested...

  13. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  14. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup

    2013-01-01

    for research and development. This paper presents some research results related to laser welding of various polymer materials, including weld compatibility investigations related to the joining of different polymers. Theory for bonding mechanisms, strength development, mechanical properties testing and other......Laser welding of polymers is today a commonly used industrial technology. It has shown obvious advantages compared to e.g. adhesive bonding in terms of higher productivity, better quality and easiness for automation. The ongoing development of lasers tailored for polymer welding in coordination...

  15. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  16. CMOS-compatible plenoptic detector for LED lighting applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Alexander; Ghasemi, Javad; Nezhadbadeh, Shima; Nie, Xiangyu; Zarkesh-Ha, Payman; Brueck, S R J

    2015-09-07

    LED lighting systems with large color gamuts, with multiple LEDs spanning the visible spectrum, offer the potential of increased lighting efficiency, improved human health and productivity, and visible light communications addressing the explosive growth in wireless communications. The control of this "smart lighting system" requires a silicon-integrated-circuit-compatible, visible, plenoptic (angle and wavelength) detector. A detector element, based on an offset-grating-coupled dielectric waveguide structure and a silicon photodetector, is demonstrated with an angular resolution of less than 1° and a wavelength resolution of less than 5 nm.

  17. Some remarks on the compatibility between determinism and unpredictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, Sara

    2012-09-01

    Determinism and unpredictability are compatible since deterministic flows can produce, if sensitive to initial conditions, unpredictable behaviors. Within this perspective, the notion of scenario to chaos transition offers a new form of predictability for the behavior of sensitive to initial condition systems under the variation of a control parameter. In this paper I first shed light on the genesis of this notion, based on a dynamical systems approach and on considerations of structural stability. I then suggest a link to the figure of epigenetic landscape, partially inspired by a dynamical systems perspective, and offering a theoretical framework to apprehend developmental noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Maintenance, outages and chemistry really can be compatible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.; Deaconescu, R.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' In their address to the Canadian Nuclear Society, Bruce Power's Chemistry Design staff will describe how maintenance and outages can impact negatively on chemistry control and asset protection. Considerations of material impacts and material condition have significant influences on the approach to, and control of, chemistry. This applies equally to operation as it does during unit and/or system outages. Ideas will be presented as to how to facilitate making maintenance, outages and chemistry compatible. It will be shown how the lack of such an approach can lead to disastrous results. (author)

  19. Maintenance, outages and chemistry really can be compatible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, J.G.; Deaconescu, R. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    'Full text:' In their address to the Canadian Nuclear Society, Bruce Power's Chemistry Design staff will describe how maintenance and outages can impact negatively on chemistry control and asset protection. Considerations of material impacts and material condition have significant influences on the approach to, and control of, chemistry. This applies equally to operation as it does during unit and/or system outages. Ideas will be presented as to how to facilitate making maintenance, outages and chemistry compatible. It will be shown how the lack of such an approach can lead to disastrous results. (author)

  20. Radiation damage studies of detector-compatible Si JFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Candelori, Andrea; Pancheri, Lucio; Piemonte, Claudio; Ratti, Lodovico; Zorzi, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    We have largely improved the performance of our detector-compatible Si JFETs by optimizing the fabrication technology. New devices feature thermal noise values close to the theoretical ones, and remarkably low 1/f noise figures. In view of adopting these JFETs for X-ray imaging and HEP applications, bulk and surface radiation damage tests have been carried out by irradiating single transistors and test structures with neutrons and X-rays. Selected results from static and noise characterization of irradiated devices are discussed in this paper, and the impact of radiation effects on the performance of JFET-based circuits is addressed

  1. Environment 1994: Policy for sustainable, environmentally compatible development. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Economic, social and ecological development are inseparably interlaced. This is the essential message of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992 in Rio. Linking of economic, social and ecological aspects is also the main approach of German environmental policy. Environmentally compatible recycling, comprehensive product liability, and just attribution of environmental consumption costs are major targets of this national strategy for the promotion of sustainable development. High standards and strict limiting values form the foundation of effective environmental protection. The further integration of environmental protection in all areas of activity and policy fields will be a central concern especially in the 90s. (orig./TF) [de

  2. Chemical compatibility of structural materials in alkali metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L.; Haglund, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) evaluate the chemical compatibility of structural alloys such as V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloy and Type 316 stainless steel for application in liquid alkali metals such as lithium and sodium-78 wt.% potassium (NaK) at temperatures in the range that are of interest for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER); (b) evaluate the transfer of nonmetallic elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen between structural materials and liquid metals; and (c) evaluate the effects of such transfers on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the materials for long-term service in liquid-metal-environments

  3. Acquisition of decision making criteria: reward rate ultimately beats accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Simen, Patrick; Niyogi, Ritwik; Saxe, Andrew; Hughes, Jessica A; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2011-02-01

    Speed-accuracy trade-offs strongly influence the rate of reward that can be earned in many decision-making tasks. Previous reports suggest that human participants often adopt suboptimal speed-accuracy trade-offs in single session, two-alternative forced-choice tasks. We investigated whether humans acquired optimal speed-accuracy trade-offs when extensively trained with multiple signal qualities. When performance was characterized in terms of decision time and accuracy, our participants eventually performed nearly optimally in the case of higher signal qualities. Rather than adopting decision criteria that were individually optimal for each signal quality, participants adopted a single threshold that was nearly optimal for most signal qualities. However, setting a single threshold for different coherence conditions resulted in only negligible decrements in the maximum possible reward rate. Finally, we tested two hypotheses regarding the possible sources of suboptimal performance: (1) favoring accuracy over reward rate and (2) misestimating the reward rate due to timing uncertainty. Our findings provide support for both hypotheses, but also for the hypothesis that participants can learn to approach optimality. We find specifically that an accuracy bias dominates early performance, but diminishes greatly with practice. The residual discrepancy between optimal and observed performance can be explained by an adaptive response to uncertainty in time estimation.

  4. Adapting to Biology: Maintaining Container-Closure System Compatibility with the Therapeutic Biologic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrazio, Dominick

    Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to the dimension of evolving therapeutic biologics. Important concerns associated with this changeover are becoming forefront, as challenges develop of varying complexity uncommon with the synthesis and production of traditional drugs. Therefore, alternative measures must be established that aim to preserve the efficacy and functionality of a biologic that might not be implemented for small molecules. Conserving protein stability is relative to perpetuating a net equilibrium of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Key to sustaining this balance is the ability of container-closure systems to maintain their compatibility with the ever-changing dynamics of therapeutic biologics. Failure to recognize and adjust the material properties of packaging components to support compatibility with therapeutic biologics can compromise patient safety, drug productivity, and biological stability. This review will examine the differences between small-molecule drugs and therapeutic biologics, lay a basic foundation for understanding the stability of therapeutic biologics, and demonstrate potential sources of container-closure systems' incompatibilities with therapeutic biologics at a mechanistic level. Many pharmaceutical companies are transitioning their research and development drug product pipeline from traditional small-molecule injectables to recombinantly derived therapeutic biologics. Concerns associated with this transformation are becoming prominent, as therapeutic biologics are uncharacteristic to small-molecule drugs. Maintaining the stability of a therapeutic biologic is a combination of balancing intrinsic factors and external elements within the biologic's microenvironment. An important aspect of this balance is relegated to the overall compatibility of primary, parenteral container-closure systems with therapeutic biologics

  5. Accuracy of helium accumulation fluence monitor for fast reactor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikara; Aoyama, Takafumi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-03-01

    A helium (He) accumulation fluence monitor (HAFM) has been developed for fast reactor dosimetry. In order to evaluate the measurement accuracy of neutron fluence by the HAFM method, the HAFMs of enriched boron (B) and beryllium (Be) were irradiated in the Fast Neutron Source Reactor `YAYOI`. The number of He atoms produced in the HAFMs were measured and compared with the calculated values. As a result of this study, it was confirmed that the neutron fluence could be measured within 5 % by the HAFM method, and that met the required accuracy for fast reactor dosimetry. (author)

  6. Accuracy in activation analysis: count rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Fleming, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    The accuracy inherent in activation analysis is ultimately limited by the uncertainty of counting statistics. When careful attention is paid to detail, several workers have shown that all systematic errors can be reduced to an insignificant fraction of the total uncertainty, even when the statistical limit is well below one percent. A matter of particular importance is the reduction of errors due to high counting rate. The loss of counts due to random coincidence (pulse pileup) in the amplifier and to digitization time in the ADC may be treated as a series combination of extending and non-extending dead times, respectively. The two effects are experimentally distinct. Live timer circuits in commercial multi-channel analyzers compensate properly for ADC dead time for long-lived sources, but not for pileup. Several satisfactory solutions are available, including pileup rejection and dead time correction circuits, loss-free ADCs, and computed corrections in a calibrated system. These methods are sufficiently reliable and well understood that a decaying source can be measured routinely with acceptably small errors at a dead time as high as 20 percent

  7. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair; Reid, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO 4 ), with IC50 values of 0.82 μM and 0.85 μM, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF WIDE COMPATIBILITY VARIETIES IN SOME TROPICAL JAPONICA RICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hairmansis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The F1 hybrid sterility in indica/japonica crosses is the major barrier in developing hybrid rice varieties between these two diverse germplasm. The sterility problem in japonica/indica hybrids can be overcome by using wide compatibility genes. The objective of this study was to identify wide compatibility varieties (WCVs in some tropical japonica rice. Twenty five tropical japonica varieties as male parents were crossed with indica (IR64 and japonica (Akitakomachi testers as female parents. The crosses were planted following a randomized complete block design with three replications. Varieties having average spikelet fertility of more than 70% with both the indica and japonica testers were rated as WCVs. Result from this study showed that six tropical japonica varieties were classified as WCVs, i.e., Cabacu, Grogol, Kencana Bali, Klemas, Lampung Lawer, and Napa. Hybrid sterility is caused by partial sterility of male and female gametes. The WCVs from the present study can be used in hybrid rice breeding program to solve hybrid sterility in indica/japonica hybrids.

  9. An MRI-compatible hand sensory vibrotactile system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fa; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Slota, Gregory P; Seo, Na Jin; Webster, John G

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of vibrotactile noise to the wrist or back of the hand has been shown to enhance fingertip tactile sensory perception (Enders et al 2013), supporting the potential for an assistive device worn at the wrist, that generates minute vibrations to help the elderly or patients with sensory deficit. However, knowledge regarding the detailed physiological mechanism behind this sensory improvement in the central nervous system, especially in the human brain, is limited, hindering progress in development and use of such assistive devices. To enable investigation of the impact of vibrotactile noise on sensorimotor brain activity in humans, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible vibrotactile system was developed to provide vibrotactile noise during an MRI of the brain. The vibrotactile system utilizes a remote (outside the MR room) signal amplifier which provides a voltage from –40 to +40 V to drive a 12 mm diameter piezoelectric vibrator (inside the MR room). It is portable and is found to be MRI-compatible which enables its use for neurologic investigation with MRI. The system was also found to induce an improvement in fingertip tactile sensation, consistent with the previous study. (note)

  10. Are hospital quality improvement and public accountability compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, R J

    1994-07-01

    The goals of public accountability and quality improvement are compatible in theory but not necessarily in practice. Both concepts emphasize the customer. However, those working toward these two goals design systems with quite different roles and relationships between the providers and consumers of health care. Superficial interactions obstruct meaningful dialogue about how to build a better system meeting both sets of goals. Current practices of public accountability and quality improvement have fundamentally different paradigms concerning the roles and responsibilities of those who provide and those who consume health care. There are at least three ways to improve the current relationship between public accountability and quality improvement. First, optimizing the design and performance of each effort would be an improvement since the goals are highly compatible. Neither ideal currently meets its own expectations, creating distrust among the proponents of each when reality falls short. Second, the two efforts could be coordinated through joint community-level planning and sharing. Finally and optimally, the two concepts could be made part of the same community-level cooperative system, an approach that offers the greatest opportunity for achieving shared goals.

  11. Different domains are critical for oligomerization compatibility of different connexins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARTÍNEZ, Agustín D.; MARIPILLÁN, Jaime; ACUÑA, Rodrigo; MINOGUE, Peter J.; BERTHOUD, Viviana M.; BEYER, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Oligomerization of connexins is a critical step in gap junction channel formation. Some members of the connexin family can oligomerize with other members and form functional heteromeric hemichannels [e.g. Cx43 (connexin 43) and Cx45], but others are incompatible (e.g. Cx43 and Cx26). To find connexin domains important for oligomerization, we constructed chimaeras between Cx43 and Cx26 and studied their ability to oligomerize with wild-type Cx43, Cx45 or Cx26. HeLa cells co-expressing Cx43, Cx45 or Cx26 and individual chimaeric constructs were analysed for interactions between the chimaeras and the wild-type connexins using cell biological (subcellular localization by immunofluorescence), functional (intercellular diffusion of microinjected Lucifer yellow) and biochemical (sedimentation velocity through sucrose gradients) assays. All of the chimaeras containing the third transmembrane domain of Cx43 interacted with wild-type Cx43 on the basis of co-localization, dominant-negative inhibition of intercellular communication, and altered sedimentation velocity. The same chimaeras also interacted with co-expressed Cx45. In contrast, immunofluorescence and intracellular diffusion of tracer suggested that other domains influenced oligomerization compatibility when chimaeras were co-expressed with Cx26. Taken together, these results suggest that amino acids in the third transmembrane domain are critical for oligomerization with Cx43 and Cx45. However, motifs in different domains may determine oligomerization compatibility in members of different connexin subfamilies. PMID:21348854

  12. Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed method of constructing protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes provides for low iterative decoding thresholds and minimum distances proportional to block sizes, and can be used for various code rates. A code constructed by this method can have either fixed input block size or fixed output block size and, in either case, provides rate compatibility. The method comprises two submethods: one for fixed input block size and one for fixed output block size. The first mentioned submethod is useful for applications in which there are requirements for rate-compatible codes that have fixed input block sizes. These are codes in which only the numbers of parity bits are allowed to vary. The fixed-output-blocksize submethod is useful for applications in which framing constraints are imposed on the physical layers of affected communication systems. An example of such a system is one that conforms to one of many new wireless-communication standards that involve the use of orthogonal frequency-division modulation

  13. FUNGIBLE AND COMPATIBLE BIOFUELS: LITERATURE SEARCH, SUMMARY, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Bunce, Michael [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the study described in this report is to summarize the various barriers to more widespread distribution of bio-fuels through our common carrier fuel distribution system, which includes pipelines, barges and rail, fuel tankage, and distribution terminals. Addressing these barriers is necessary to allow the more widespread utilization and distribution of bio-fuels, in support of a renewable fuels standard and possible future low-carbon fuel standards. These barriers can be classified into several categories, including operating practice, regulatory, technical, and acceptability barriers. Possible solutions to these issues are discussed; including compatibility evaluation, changes to bio-fuels, regulatory changes, and changes in the distribution system or distribution practices. No actual experimental research has been conducted in the writing of this report, but results are used to develop recommendations for future research and additional study as appropriate. This project addresses recognized barriers to the wider use of bio-fuels in the areas of development of codes and standards, industrial and consumer awareness, and materials compatibility issues.

  14. Pathogenicity and diversity of vegetative compatibility of Fusarium verticillioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krnjaja Vesna S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenicity of 10 Fusarium verticillioides isolates, originated from grain of wheat (five isolates and maize (five isolates, were studied under greenhouse conditions. Based on different parameters of the pathogenicity estimate (a scale for % of nonemerged plants, % of survived plants, plant vigour - the growth and dry weight of roots and epicotyls and disease severity it was determined that all F. verticillioides isolates expressed a different degree of pathogenicity. According to % of nonemerged plants six three and one F. verticillioides isolates expressed low, moderate and high degree of pathogenicity, respectively. All F. verticillioides isolates reduced the plant survival rate and vigour, while the disease severity ranged from 2.0 to 3.54. Two types of nit mutants, nit1 and NitM, were obtained by the use of the method of vegetative compatibility. The frequency of nit1 mutants was greater (58.79% than the frequency of NitM mutants (5.77%. A total of 10 vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs of F. verticillioides were established in the complementation tests. These results point out to a high genetic diversity of F. verticillioides population.

  15. Efficient FPT Algorithms for (Strict) Compatibility of Unrooted Phylogenetic Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Julien; Paul, Christophe; Sau, Ignasi; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-04-01

    In phylogenetics, a central problem is to infer the evolutionary relationships between a set of species X; these relationships are often depicted via a phylogenetic tree-a tree having its leaves labeled bijectively by elements of X and without degree-2 nodes-called the "species tree." One common approach for reconstructing a species tree consists in first constructing several phylogenetic trees from primary data (e.g., DNA sequences originating from some species in X), and then constructing a single phylogenetic tree maximizing the "concordance" with the input trees. The obtained tree is our estimation of the species tree and, when the input trees are defined on overlapping-but not identical-sets of labels, is called "supertree." In this paper, we focus on two problems that are central when combining phylogenetic trees into a supertree: the compatibility and the strict compatibility problems for unrooted phylogenetic trees. These problems are strongly related, respectively, to the notions of "containing as a minor" and "containing as a topological minor" in the graph community. Both problems are known to be fixed parameter tractable in the number of input trees k, by using their expressibility in monadic second-order logic and a reduction to graphs of bounded treewidth. Motivated by the fact that the dependency on k of these algorithms is prohibitively large, we give the first explicit dynamic programming algorithms for solving these problems, both running in time [Formula: see text], where n is the total size of the input.

  16. A variable torque motor compatible with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeck, W W; Ha, S-H; Farmaka, S; Nalcioglu, O

    2009-04-01

    High magnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) do not allow the employment of conventional motors due to various incompatibility issues. This paper reports on a new motor that can operate in or near high field magnets used for MRI. The motor was designed to be operational with the MRI equipment and could be used in a rotating imaging gantry inside the magnet designed for dual modality imaging. Furthermore, it could also be used for image guided robotic interventional procedures inside a MRI system if so desired. The prototype motor was developed using magnetic resonance (MR) compatible materials, and its functionality with MR imaging was evaluated experimentally by measuring the performance of the motor and its effect on the MR image quality. Since in our application, namely, single photon emission tomography, the motor has to perform precise stepping of the gantry in small angular steps the most important parameter is the start-up torque. The experimental results showed that the motor has a start-up torque up to 1.37 Nm and rotates at 196 rpm when a constant voltage difference of 12 V is applied at a magnetic field strength of 1 T. The MR image quality was quantified by measuring the signal-to-noise of images acquired under different conditions. The results presented here indicate that the motor is MR compatible and could be used for rotating an imaging gantry or a surgical device inside the magnet.

  17. Evaluation of four methods for platelet compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, J.G.; Aster, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Four platelet compatibility assays were performed on serum and platelet or lymphocyte samples from 38 closely HLA-matched donor/recipient pairs involved in 55 single-donor platelet transfusions. The 22 patients studied were refractory to transfusions of pooled random-donor platelets. Of the four assays (platelet suspension immunofluorescence, PSIFT; 51 Cr release; microlymphocytotoxicity; and a monoclonal anti-IgG assay, MAIA), the MAIA was most predictive of platelet transfusion outcome (predictability, 74% for one-hour posttransfusion platelet recovery and 76% for 24-hour recovery). The only other assay to reach statistical significance was the PSIFT (63% predictability for one-hour posttransfusion recovery). The degree of HLA compatibility between donor and recipient (exact matches v those utilizing cross-reactive associations) was unrelated to the ability of the MAIA to predict transfusion results. The MAIA may be capable of differentiating HLA antibodies, ABO antibodies, and platelet-specific antibodies responsible for failure of HLA-matched and selectively mismatched single-donor platelet transfusions

  18. Towards water compatible MIPs for sensing in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, F; Weustenraed, A; Spivak, D; Cleij, T J

    2012-06-01

    When synthesizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), a few fundamental principles should be kept in mind. There is a strong correlation between porogen polarity, MIP microenvironment polarity and the imprinting effect itself. The combination of these parameters eventually determines the overall binding behavior of a MIP in a given solvent. In addition, it is shown that MIP binding is strongly influenced by the polarity of the rebinding solvent. Because the use of MIPs in biomedical environments is of considerable interest, it is important that these MIPs perform well in aqueous media. In this article, various approaches are explored towards a water compatible MIP for the target molecule l-nicotine. To this end, the imprinting effect together with the MIP matrix polarity is fine-tuned during MIP synthesis. The binding behavior of the resulting MIPs is evaluated by performing batch rebinding experiments that makes it possible to select the most suitable MIP/non-imprinted polymer couple for future application in aqueous environments. One method to achieve improved compatibility with water is referred to as porogen tuning, in which porogens of varying polarities are used. It is demonstrated that, especially when multiple porogens are mixed, this approach can lead to superior performance in aqueous environments. Another method involves the incorporation of polar or non-polar comonomers in the MIP matrix. It is shown that by carefully selecting these monomers, it is also possible to obtain MIPs, which can selectively bind their target in water. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed . under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

  1. Progress of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis (I) - reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Jeong, Chang Joon; Roh, Gyu Hong; Rhee, Bo Wook; Park, Jee Won

    2003-12-01

    Since 1992, the direct use of spent pressurized water reactor fuel in CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors (DUPIC) has been studied as an alternative to the once-through fuel cycle. The DUPIC fuel cycle study is focused on the technical feasibility analysis, the fabrication of DUPIC fuels for irradiation tests and the demonstration of the DUPIC fuel performance. The feasibility analysis was conducted for the compatibility of the DUPIC fuel with existing CANDU-6 reactors from the viewpoints of reactor physics, reactor safety, fuel cycle economics, etc. This study has summarized the intermediate results of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis, which includes the CANDU reactor physics design requirements, DUPIC fuel core physics design method, performance of the DUPIC fuel core, regional overpower trip setpoint, and the CANDU primary shielding. The physics analysis showed that the CANDU-6 reactor can accommodate the DUPIC fuel without deteriorating the physics design requirements by adjusting the fuel management scheme if the fissile content of the DUPIC fuel is tightly controlled.

  2. Why a Gunk World is Compatible with Nihilism about Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baptiste Le Bihan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ted Sider argues that nihilism about objects is incompatible with the metaphysical possibility of gunk and takes this point to show that nihilism is flawed. I shall describe one kind of nihilism able to answer this objection. I believe that most of the things we usually encounter do not exist. That is, I take talk of macroscopic objects and macroscopic properties to refer to sets of fundamental properties, which are invoked as a matter of linguistic convention. This view is a kind of nihilism: it rules out the existence of objects; that is, from an ontological point of view, there are no objects. But unlike the moderate nihilism of Mark Heller, Peter van Inwagen and Trenton Merricks that claims that most objects do not exist, I endorse a radical nihilism according to which there are no objects in the world, but only properties instantiated in spacetime. As I will show, radical nihilism is perfectly compatible with the metaphysical possibility of gunk. It is also compatible with the epistemic possibility that we actually live in a gunk world. The objection raised by Ted Sider only applies to moderate nihilism that admits some objects in its ontology.

  3. Action compatibility in spatial knowledge developed through virtual navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2018-01-09

    Action-compatibility effects (ACEs) arise due to incongruity between perceptuo-motor traces stored in memory and the perceptuo-motor demands of a retrieval task. Recent research has suggested that ACEs arising during spatial memory retrieval are additionally modulated by individual differences in how experienced participants are with a college campus environment. However, the extent and nature of experience with a real-world environment is difficult to assess and control, and characteristics of the retrieval task itself might modulate ACEs during spatial memory retrieval. The present study provides a more controlled and in-depth examination of how individual differences and task-based factors interact to shape ACEs when participants retrieve spatial memories. In two experiments, participants with varied video game experience learned a virtual environment and then used the computer mouse to verify spatial relationships from different perspectives. Mouse trajectories demonstrated ACEs, differing by retrieval perspective and video game experience. Videogame experts demonstrated the ACE based on learned spatial relationships during egocentric retrieval only, whereas videogame novices showed the ACE based on semantic processing of directional terms only. Specifically, gaming experts invoke perspective-specific perceptuo-motor associations to retrieve spatial knowledge, whereas non-experts are influenced by semantically based associations specific to the retrieval task. Results are discussed in the context of action-compatibility effects, the intentional weighting hypothesis, and the flexible encoding and retrieval of spatial information.

  4. Compatibility of hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin with algal toxicity bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fai, Patricia Bi; Grant, Alastair [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian J. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: b.reid@uea.ac.uk

    2009-01-15

    Numerous reports have indicated that hydrophobic organic compound bioaccessibility in sediment and soil can be determined by extraction using aqueous hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD) solutions. This study establishes the compatibility of HPCD with Selenastrum capricornutum and assesses whether its presence influences the toxicity of reference toxicants. Algal growth inhibition (72 h) showed no significant (P > 0.05) difference at HPCD concentrations up to and including 20 mM. HPCD presence did not influence the toxicity of the inorganic reference toxicant (ZnSO{sub 4}), with IC50 values of 0.82 {mu}M and 0.85 {mu}M, in the presence and absence of HPCD (20 mM), respectively. However, HPCD presence (20 mM) reduced the toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol and the herbicides diuron and isoproturon. These reductions were attributed to inclusion complex formation between the toxicants and the HPCD cavity. Liberation of complexed toxicants, by sample manipulation prior to toxicity assessment, is proposed to provide a sensitive, high throughput, bioassay that reflects compound bioaccessibility. - Compatibility of the biomimetic HPCD extraction method with algal cell growth inhibition bioassays to assess toxicity of reference toxicants and environmental relevant herbicides.

  5. A Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test for Monocular SLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Guerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM is a key problem to solve in order to build truly autonomous mobile robots. SLAM with a unique camera, or monocular SLAM, is probably one of the most complex SLAM variants, based entirely on a bearing-only sensor working over six DOF. The monocular SLAM method developed in this work is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D Feature Initialization, with the contribution of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The Delayed Inverse-Depth technique is used to initialize new features in the system and defines a single hypothesis for the initial depth of features with the use of a stochastic technique of triangulation. The introduced HOHCT method is based on the evaluation of statistically compatible hypotheses and a search algorithm designed to exploit the strengths of the Delayed Inverse-Depth technique to achieve good performance results. This work presents the HOHCT with a detailed formulation of the monocular DI-D SLAM problem. The performance of the proposed HOHCT is validated with experimental results, in both indoor and outdoor environments, while its costs are compared with other popular approaches.

  6. Indicators of Accuracy of Consumer Health Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallis, Don; Frické, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To identify indicators of accuracy for consumer health information on the Internet. The results will help lay people distinguish accurate from inaccurate health information on the Internet. Design: Several popular search engines (Yahoo, AltaVista, and Google) were used to find Web pages on the treatment of fever in children. The accuracy and completeness of these Web pages was determined by comparing their content with that of an instrument developed from authoritative sources on treating fever in children. The presence on these Web pages of a number of proposed indicators of accuracy, taken from published guidelines for evaluating the quality of health information on the Internet, was noted. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation between the accuracy of Web pages on treating fever in children and the presence of proposed indicators of accuracy on these pages. Likelihood ratios for the presence (and absence) of these proposed indicators. Results: One hundred Web pages were identified and characterized as “more accurate” or “less accurate.” Three indicators correlated with accuracy: displaying the HONcode logo, having an organization domain, and displaying a copyright. Many proposed indicators taken from published guidelines did not correlate with accuracy (e.g., the author being identified and the author having medical credentials) or inaccuracy (e.g., lack of currency and advertising). Conclusions: This method provides a systematic way of identifying indicators that are correlated with the accuracy (or inaccuracy) of health information on the Internet. Three such indicators have been identified in this study. Identifying such indicators and informing the providers and consumers of health information about them would be valuable for public health care. PMID:11751805

  7. Requisite accuracy for hot spot factors in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Kotaro

    1976-01-01

    In the thermal design of a fast reactor, it should be most effective to reduce hot spot factors to the lowest possible level compatible with safety considerations, in order to minimize the design margin for the temperature prevailing in the core. Hot spot factors account for probabilistic and statistic deviations from nominal value of fuel element temperatures, due to uncertainties in the data adopted for estimating various factors including the physical properties. Such temperature deviations necessitate the provision of correspondingly large design margins for temperatures in order to keep within permissible limits the probability of exceeding the allowable temperatures. Evaluation of the desired accuracy for hot spot factors is performed by a method of optimization, which permits determination of the degree of accuracy that should minimize the design margins, to give realistic results with consideration given not only to sensitivity coefficients but also to the present-day uncertainty levels in the data adopted in the calculations. A concept of ''degree of difficulty'' is introduced for the purpose of determining the hot spot factors to be given higher priority for reduction. Application of this method to the core of a prototype fast reactor leads to the conclusion that the hot spot factors to be given the highest priority are those relevant to the power distribution, the flow distribution, the fuel enrichment, the fuel-cladding gap conductance and the fuel thermal conductivity. (auth.)

  8. Transacting generation attributes across market boundaries: Compatible information systems and the treatment of imports and exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Robert; Wiser, Ryan

    2002-11-01

    Voluntary markets for ''green'' power, and mandatory policies such as fuel source disclosure requirements and renewables portfolio standards, each rely on the ability to differentiate electricity by the ''attributes'' of the generation. Throughout North America, electricity markets are devising accounting and verification systems for generation ''attributes'': those characteristics of a power plant's production such as fuel source and emissions that differentiate it from undifferentiated (or ''commodity'') electricity. These accounting and verification systems are intended to verify compliance with market mandates, create accurate disclosure labels, substantiate green power claims, and support emissions markets. Simultaneously, interest is growing in transacting (importing or exporting) generation attributes across electricity market borders, with or without associated electricity. Cross-border renewable attribute transactions have advantages and disadvantages. Broad access to markets may encourage more renewable generation at lower cost, but this result may conflict with desires to assure that at least some renewable resources are built locally to achieve either local policy goals or purchaser objectives. This report is intended to serve as a resource document for those interested in and struggling with cross-border renewable attribute transactions. The report assesses the circumstances under which renewable generation attributes from a ''source'' region might be recognized in a ''sink'' region. The report identifies several distinct approaches that might be used to account for and verify attribute import and export transactions, and assesses the suitability of these alternative approaches. Because policymakers have often made systems ''compatibility'' between market areas a pre-requisite to allowing cross

  9. Open magnetic resonance imaging using titanium-zirconium needles: improved accuracy for interstitial brachytherapy implants?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popowski, Youri; Hiltbrand, Emile; Joliat, Dominique; Rouzaud, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the benefit of using an open magnetic resonance (MR) machine and new MR-compatible needles to improve the accuracy of brachytherapy implants in pelvic tumors. Methods and Materials: The open MR machine, foreseen for interventional procedures, allows direct visualization of the pelvic structures that are to be implanted. For that purpose, we have developed MR- and CT-compatible titanium-zirconium (Ti-Zr) brachytherapy needles that allow implantations to be carried out under the magnetic field. In order to test the technical feasibility of this new approach, stainless steel (SS) and Ti-Zr needles were first compared in a tissue-equivalent phantom. In a second step, two patients implanted with Ti-Zr needles in the brachytherapy operating room were scanned in the open MR machine. In a third phase, four patients were implanted directly under open MR control. Results: The artifacts induced by both materials were significantly different, strongly favoring the Ti-Zr needles. The implantation in both first patients confirmed the excellent quality of the pictures obtained with the needles in vivo and showed suboptimal implant geometry in both patients. In the next 4 patients, the tumor could be punctured with excellent accuracy, and the adjacent structures could be easily avoided. Conclusion: We conclude that open MR using MR-compatible needles is a very promising tool in brachytherapy, especially for pelvic tumors

  10. Performance evaluation of a direct-conversion flat-panel detector system in imaging and quality assurance for a high-dose-rate 192Ir source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyahara, Yoshinori; Hara, Yuki; Nakashima, Hiroto; Nishimura, Tomonori; Itakura, Kanae; Inomata, Taisuke; Kitagaki, Hajime

    2018-03-01

    In high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, a direct-conversion flat-panel detector (d-FPD) clearly depicts a 192Ir source without image halation, even under the emission of high-energy gamma rays. However, it was unknown why iridium is visible when using a d-FPD. The purpose of this study was to clarify the reasons for visibility of the source core based on physical imaging characteristics, including the modulation transfer functions (MTF), noise power spectral (NPS), contrast transfer functions, and linearity of d-FPD to high-energy gamma rays. The acquired data included: x-rays, [X]; gamma rays, [γ] dual rays (X  +  γ), [D], and subtracted data for depicting the source ([D]  -  [γ]). In the quality assurance (QA) test for the positional accuracy of a source core, the coordinates of each dwelling point were compared between the planned and actual source core positions using a CT/MR-compatible ovoid applicator and a Fletcher-Williamson applicator. The profile curves of [X] and ([D]  -  [γ]) matched well on MTF and NPS. The contrast resolutions of [D] and [X] were equivalent. A strongly positive linear correlation was found between the output data of [γ] and source strength (r 2  >  0.99). With regard to the accuracy of the source core position, the largest coordinate difference (3D distance) was noted at the maximum curvature of the CT/MR-compatible ovoid and Fletcher-Williamson applicators, showing 1.74  ±  0.02 mm and 1.01  ±  0.01 mm, respectively. A d-FPD system provides high-quality images of a source, even when high-energy gamma rays are emitted to the detector, and positional accuracy tests with clinical applicators are useful in identifying source positions (source movements) within the applicator for QA.

  11. Vehicle compatibility in car-to-car collisions : literature review in the framework of the European research project "Improvement of crash compatibility between cars", Workpackage 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In this report, a literature review is given on the subject of crash compatibility and incompatibility between cars. The study is based on scientific publications on this subject published over the last 15 years. The compatibility problem is described from three points of view: statistical,

  12. Mirror neuron activation as a function of explicit learning: changes in mu-event-related power after learning novel responses to ideomotor compatible, partially compatible, and non-compatible stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Lawrence P; Fournier, Lisa R

    2016-11-01

    Questions regarding the malleability of the mirror neuron system (MNS) continue to be debated. MNS activation has been reported when people observe another person performing biological goal-directed behaviors, such as grasping a cup. These findings support the importance of mapping goal-directed biological behavior onto one's motor repertoire as a means of understanding the actions of others. Still, other evidence supports the Associative Sequence Learning (ASL) model which predicts that the MNS responds to a variety of stimuli after sensorimotor learning, not simply biological behavior. MNS activity develops as a consequence of developing stimulus-response associations between a stimulus and its motor outcome. Findings from the ideomotor literature indicate that stimuli that are more ideomotor compatible with a response are accompanied by an increase in response activation compared to less compatible stimuli; however, non-compatible stimuli robustly activate a constituent response after sensorimotor learning. Here, we measured changes in the mu-rhythm, an EEG marker thought to index MNS activity, predicting that stimuli that differ along dimensions of ideomotor compatibility should show changes in mirror neuron activation as participants learn the respective stimulus-response associations. We observed robust mu-suppression for ideomotor-compatible hand actions and partially compatible dot animations prior to learning; however, compatible stimuli showed greater mu-suppression than partially or non-compatible stimuli after explicit learning. Additionally, non-compatible abstract stimuli exceeded baseline only after participants explicitly learned the motor responses associated with the stimuli. We conclude that the empirical differences between the biological and ASL accounts of the MNS can be explained by Ideomotor Theory. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Asymptotically approaching the past: historiography and critical use of sources in art technological source research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, M.; Kroustallis, S.; Townsend, J.H.; Cenalmor Bruquetas, E.; Stijnman, A.; San Andres Moya, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes that historiographic methods should be applied during art technological source research. Sources cannot always be used uncritically as being simply reliable records of contemporary workshop practice. The accuracy, date and origin of the technical information embedded within

  14. Generation of synthetic time histories compatible with multiple-damping design response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilhanand, K.; Tseng, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Seismic design of nuclear power plants as currently practiced requires time history analyses be performed to generate floor response spectra for seismic qualification of piping, equipment, and components. Since design response spectra are normally prescribed in the form of smooth spectra, the generation of synthetic time histories whose response spectra closely match the ''target'' design spectra of multiple damping values, is often required for the seismic time history analysis purpose. Various methods of generation of synthetic time histories compatible with target response spectra have been proposed in the literature. Since the mathematical problem of determining a time history from a given set of response spectral values is not unique, an exact solution is not possible, and all the proposed methods resort to some forms of approximate solutions. In this paper, a new iteration scheme, is described which effectively removes the difficulties encountered by the existing methods. This new iteration scheme can not only improve the accuracy of spectrum matching for a single-damping target spectrum, but also automate the spectrum matching for multiple-damping target spectra. The applicability and limitations as well as the method adopted to improve the numerical stability of this new iteration scheme are presented. The effectiveness of this new iteration scheme is illustrated by two example applications

  15. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, 45 Via Enrico Fermi, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A. [ENEA CR Casaccia, 301 Via Anguillarese, 00123 Santa Maria di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Damiani, C.; Dubus, G. [Fusion For Energy c/Josep Pla, n° 2 Torres Diagonal Litoral, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  16. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  17. IVVS actuating system compatibility test to ITER gamma radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Paolo; Collibus, M. Ferri de; Florean, M.; Monti, C.; Mugnaini, G.; Neri, C.; Pillon, M.; Pollastrone, F.; Baccaro, S.; Piegari, A.; Damiani, C.; Dubus, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ENEA developed and tested a prototype of a laser In Vessel Viewing and ranging System (IVVS) for ITER. • One piezo-motor prototype has been tested on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility to verify its compatibility to ITER gamma radiation conditions. • After a total dose of more than 4 MGy the piezo-motor maintained almost the same working parameters monitored before test without any evident and significant degradation of functionality. • After the full gamma irradiation test, the same piezo-motor assembly will be tested with 14 MeV neutrons irradiation using ENEA FNG facility. -- Abstract: The In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) is a fundamental remote handling equipment, which will be used to make a survey of the status of the blanket first wall and divertor plasma facing components. A design and testing activity is ongoing, in the framework of a Fusion for Energy (F4E) grant agreement, to make the IVVS probe design compatible with ITER operating conditions and in particular, but not only, with attention to neutrons and gammas fluxes and both space constraints and interfaces. The paper describes the testing activity performed on the customized piezoelectric motors and the main components of the actuating system of the IVVS probe with reference to ITER gamma radiation conditions. In particular the test is performed on the piezoelectric motor, optical encoder and small scale optical samples .The test is carried out on the ENEA Calliope gamma irradiation facility at ITER relevant gamma fields at rate of about 2.5 kGy/h and doses of 4 MGy. The paper reports in detail the setup arrangement of the test campaign in order to verify significant working capability of the IVVS actuating components and the results are shown in terms of functional performances and parameters. The overall test campaign on IVVS actuating system will be completed on other ENEA testing facilities in order to verify compatibility to Magnetic field, neutrons and thermal

  18. Genetic differentiation among sexually compatible relatives of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipan Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of gene flow between Brassica napus L. and its sexually compatible relatives that could be found in the wild in Slovenia was performed by microsatellite analysis using fifteen selected primer pairs. Genotypes included in the study were obtained from the field survey of sexually compatible relatives of B. napus in natural habitats around Slovenia and from reference collections. Two different wild species of all the presented sexually compatible relatives of B. napus were found in Slovenia, B. rapa and Sinapis arvensis. The reference genotypes included varieties and wild forms from internal collections as marketable seeds or from gene banks. Reference genotypes were represented by the following species and subspecies: B. napus ssp. napobrassica, B. napus ssp. napus, B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa ssp. oleifera, Diplotaxis muralis; D. tenuifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, R. sativus, R. sativus var. oleiformis, Rapistrum rugosum, S. alba and S. arvensis. Estimation of gene flow described by average number of migrants was 0.72 followed by 0.20 migrants. Due to the observed gene migrations, genetic drift and selection, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was not met. The mean number of alleles over all loci was 16.9, the average polymorphic information content was 0.43. We found four highly divergent and polymorphic loci (Na12-C08, Na10-A08, Ni3-G04b and BRMS-050 at statistically significant level (p<0.05 of gene flow detected. Over all gene diversity intra-individual among populations (0.55 was lower than inter-individual among population (0.77. The results of genetic linkages based standard genetic distance and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean clustering method, generally divided the genotypes in three divergent groups. Similar results were obtained by principal coordinate analysis where three main groups were constructed according to three factors. A real number of genetic clusters demonstrated a clear separation between populations

  19. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Robert C

    2004-01-01

    We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.

  20. Accuracy Constraint Determination in Fixed-Point System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serizel R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of digital signal processing applications are specified and designed with floatingpoint arithmetic but are finally implemented using fixed-point architectures. Thus, the design flow requires a floating-point to fixed-point conversion stage which optimizes the implementation cost under execution time and accuracy constraints. This accuracy constraint is linked to the application performances and the determination of this constraint is one of the key issues of the conversion process. In this paper, a method is proposed to determine the accuracy constraint from the application performance. The fixed-point system is modeled with an infinite precision version of the system and a single noise source located at the system output. Then, an iterative approach for optimizing the fixed-point specification under the application performance constraint is defined and detailed. Finally the efficiency of our approach is demonstrated by experiments on an MP3 encoder.

  1. A study on temporal accuracy of OpenFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Crank–Nicolson scheme in native OpenFOAM source libraries was not able to provide 2nd order temporal accuracy of velocity and pressure since the volume flux of convective nonlinear terms was 1st accurate in time. In the present study the simplest way of getting the volume flux with 2nd order accuracy was proposed by using old fluxes. A possible numerical instability originated from an explicit estimation of volume fluxes could be handled by introducing a weighting factor which was determined by observing the ratio of the finally corrected volume flux to the intermediate volume flux at the previous step. The new calculation of volume fluxes was able to provide temporally accurate velocity and pressure with 2nd order. The improvement of temporal accuracy was validated by performing numerical simulations of 2D Taylor–Green vortex of which an exact solution was known and 2D vortex shedding from a circular cylinder.

  2. Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närman, Per; Holm, Hannes; Johnson, Pontus; König, Johan; Chenine, Moustafa; Ekstedt, Mathias

    2011-02-01

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  3. Performance and Compatibility of Phosphonate-Based Superplasticizers for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effectiveness of an innovative phosphonate-based superplasticizer (PNH for ready mixed concrete. Concrete specimens were manufactured by considering a constant initial workability, equal to 220 mm slump at the end of the mixing procedure. Workability was measured at 0, 30, and 60 min to evaluate the workability retention performances of the innovative superplasticizer. Compressive tests at 1, 7, and 28 days were carried out to evaluate the influence of the phosphonate-based superplasticizer on concrete setting and hardening. The concrete mixes were designed by considering 13 different cements to assess the superplasticizer-cement compatibility. The PNH-based admixture showed a better performance in terms of water reduction and workability retention with respect to napthalenesulphonate based admixtures (NSF; however, a higher dosage of PNH with respect to polycarboxylate ethers (PCEs was needed to get the same initial fluidity.

  4. Multi-damping earthquake design spectra-compatible motion histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    Two iterative methods of developing time histories compatible with multi-damping spectra are presented. The common method of forcing agreement among design and calculated spectral values at several frequencies and multiple damping values may give poor, even meaningless results. The two simple iterative techniques presented here use acceleration impulse functions for 'correcting' the time histories. In the first method the correction is calculated separately for each frequency and damping value and the maximum corresponding coefficient is used to correct the time history for the iteration. In the second method the solution is further improved by introducing a scale factor at each iteration. The effectiveness of the proposed techniques is illustrated by a comparison of a set of six multi-damping design spectra with spectral responses of a time history

  5. CAMAC-compatible differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    A differential pulse discriminator-counter for a Moessbauer spectrometer is described. Input pulses are collected according to the following algorithm; a pulse is admitted into the channel depending on whether or not the preceding pulse fell into the discrimination window. The circuit does not contain delay lines to allow for the delay lines to allow for the delay of the signal from the upper-level discriminator with respect to the signal from the lower-level discriminator due to the finite rise time of the input pulses, which makes it possible to reduce the dead time of the discriminator to the actuation time of the threshold circuits. The pulse count rate is 150 MHz, the input amplitude is +/-3 V, the dead time is 6 nsec, and the delay from input to output is 14 nsec. The unit is CAMAC-compatible

  6. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H G [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  7. Environmental compatibility of CRYOPLANE the cryogenic-fuel aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, H.G. [Daimler Benz Aerospace Airbus, Hamburg (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    `CRYOPLANE` is the project name for an aircraft powered by cryogenic fuel, either liquid natural gas (LNG, mainly consisting of methane) or liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}). Emission of CO{sub 2}, unburnt hydrocarbons, soot and sulfur will be completely avoided by hydrogen combustion: LH{sub 2} is an extremely pure liquid. Emission of water as a primary combustion product is increased by a factor of 2.6. Exhaust gases behind hydrogen engines contain more water than behind kerosene engines, and hence can form contrails under a wider range of atmospheric conditions. Liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft promise big advantages relative to kerosene aircraft in terms of environmental compatibility. (R.P.)

  8. Dynamics of ethylene production in response to compatible Nod factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Dugald; Liu, Huijun; Kelly, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Establishment of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in legumes is regulated by the plant hormone ethylene, but it has remained unclear whether and how its biosynthesis is regulated by the symbiotic pathway. We established a sensitive ethylene detection system for Lotus japonicus and found that ethylene...... production increased as early as six hours after inoculation with Mesorhizobium loti. This ethylene response was dependent on Nod factor production by compatible rhizobia. Analyses of nodulation mutants showed that perception of Nod factor was required for ethylene emission, while downstream transcription...... factors including CYCLOPS, NIN and ERN1 were not required for this response. Activation of the nodulation signalling pathway in spontaneously nodulating mutants was also sufficient to elevate ethylene production. Ethylene signalling is controlled by EIN2, which is duplicated in L. japonicus. We obtained...

  9. Is wave-particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2014-09-26

    Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions.

  10. Is wave–particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B.; Terno, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Wave–particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions. PMID:25256419

  11. RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.

  12. MRI compatibility of robot actuation techniques--a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L; Gabor, Fichtinger

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRJ images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles.

  13. MRI Compatibility of Robot Actuation Techniques – A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Krieger, Axel; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Whitcomb, Louis L.; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental evaluation of the following three different MRI-compatible actuators: a Shinsei ultrasonic motor, a Nanomotion ultrasonic motor and a pneumatic cylinder actuator. We report the results of a study comparing the effect of these actuators on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of MRI images under a variety of experimental conditions. Evaluation was performed with the controller inside and outside the scanner room and with both 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners. Pneumatic cylinders function with no loss of SNR with controller both inside and outside of the scanner room. The Nanomotion motor performs with moderate loss of SNR when moving during imaging. The Shinsei is unsuitable for motion during imaging. All may be used when motion is appropriately interleaved with imaging cycles. PMID:18982643

  14. Compatibility of candidate structural materials with static gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-01-01

    Scoping tests were conducted on compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chronimum. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant to corrosion in static gallium. At 400 degrees C, corrosion rates are ∼4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/y for Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than does nickel. The corrosion rates at 400 degrees C are ≥90 and 17 mm/y, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400 degrees C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds

  15. Development of environmentally compatible tribosystems with PVD-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugscheider, E.; Hornig, T.; Kienitz, S.; Klocke, F.; Krieg, T.

    2001-01-01

    PVD coatings offer a wide variety of applications. The focal point of this work is the development of an advanced type of PVD-hardcoating which allows machining with environmentally compatible lubricants. Representative examples for the investigations are the tribological systems 'turning of quenched and tempered steel 42CrMo4 V' and 'austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi18-10'. Ti-Hf-Cr-N and TiAlN/Al 2 O 3 were deposited by AIP- and H.I.S. TM - process respectively. These coating systems showed best results concerning oxidation wear and abrasive wear in former investigations. This was necessary because main cutting-edge life criterias are oxidation wear and abrasive wear at the minor cutting edge. Consequently, a high oxidation stability and a high hardness at high temperatures are required. (author)

  16. Testing the statistical compatibility of independent data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a goodness-of-fit method which tests the compatibility between statistically independent data sets. The method gives sensible results even in cases where the χ 2 minima of the individual data sets are very low or when several parameters are fitted to a large number of data points. In particular, it avoids the problem that a possible disagreement between data sets becomes diluted by data points which are insensitive to the crucial parameters. A formal derivation of the probability distribution function for the proposed test statistics is given, based on standard theorems of statistics. The application of the method is illustrated on data from neutrino oscillation experiments, and its complementarity to the standard goodness-of-fit is discussed

  17. DNA-Compatible Nitro Reduction and Synthesis of Benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huang-Chi; Huang, Hongbing

    2017-10-18

    DNA-encoded chemical libraries have emerged as a cost-effective alternative to high-throughput screening (HTS) for hit identification in drug discovery. A key factor for productive DNA-encoded libraries is the chemical diversity of the small molecule moiety attached to an encoding DNA oligomer. The library structure diversity is often limited to DNA-compatible chemical reactions in aqueous media. Herein, we describe a facile process for reducing aryl nitro groups to aryl amines. The new protocol offers simple operation and circumvents the pyrophoric potential of the conventional method (Raney nickel). The reaction is performed in aqueous solution and does not compromise DNA structural integrity. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the versatile synthesis of benzimidazoles on DNA.

  18. Biomedical Nanoparticles: Overview of Their Surface Immune-Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Gamucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic- and therapeutic release-aimed nanoparticles require the highest degree of biocompatibility. Some physical and chemical characteristics of such nanomaterials are often at odds with this requirement. For instance, metals with specific features used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging need particular coatings to improve their blood solubility and increase their biocompatibility. Other examples come from the development of nanocarriers exploiting the different characteristics of two or more materials, i.e., the ability to encapsulate a certain drug by one core-material and the targeting capability of a different coating surface. Furthermore, all these “human-non-self” modifications necessitate proofs of compatibility with the immune system to avoid inflammatory reactions and resultant adverse effects for the patient. In the present review we discuss the molecular interactions and responses of the immune system to the principal nanoparticle surface modifications used in nanomedicine.

  19. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: leonard@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  20. Integration of environmentally compatible soldering technologies for waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosking, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a concentrated effort throughout the international microelectronics industry to phase out chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) materials and alleviate the serious problem of ozone depletion created by the release of CFCS. The development of more environmentally compatible manufacturing technologies is the cornerstone of this effort. Alternative materials and processes for cleaning and soldering have received special attention. Electronic. soldering typically utilizes rosin-based fluxes to promote solder wettability. Flux residues must be removed from the soldered parts when high product reliability is essential. Halogenated or CFC solvents have been the principle chemicals used to clean the residues. With the accelerated push to eliminate CFCs in the US by 1995, CFC-free solvents, aqueous-based cleaning, water soluble or ''no clean'' fluxes, and fluxless soldering technologies are being developed and quickly integrated into manufacturing practice. Sandia's Center for Solder Science and Technology has been ch g a variety of fluxless and alternative soldering technologies for DOE's waste minimization program. The work has focused on controlled atmosphere, laser, and ultrasonic fluxless soldering, protective metallic and organic coatings, and fluxes which have water soluble or low solids-based chemistries. With the increasing concern that Pb will also be banned from electronic soldering, Sandia has been characterizing the wetting, aging, and mechanical properties of Pb-fire solder alloys. The progress of these integrated studies will be discussed. Their impact on environmentally compatible manufacturing will be emphasized. Since there is no universal solution to the various environmental, safety, and health issues which currently face industry, the proposed technologies offer several complementary materials and processing options from which one can choose

  1. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Jen Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropyleneamine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  2. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  3. Compatibility of Meropenem with Different Commercial Peritoneal Dialysis Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesholzer, Martin; Winter, Alexandra; Kussmann, Manuel; Zeitlinger, Markus; Pichler, Petra; Burgmann, Heinz; Reznicek, Gottfried; Poeppl, Wolfgang

    ♦ BACKGROUND: Intraperitoneal administration of antimicrobial agents is recommended for the treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. For home-based antimicrobial therapy it is common to supply patients with PD fluid bags with admixed antibiotic. Thus, the compatibility of meropenem with different PD fluids (PDFs), namely Extraneal, Physioneal 1.36% and Physioneal 2.27% (all Baxter Healthcare Corp., Deerfield, IL, USA), was investigated under varying storage conditions. ♦ METHODS: Meropenem (Venus Pharma, Werne, Germany) was stored at 6°C and 25°C over 14 days and at 37°C over 24 hours. Drug concentration over time was determined using high performance liquid chromatography, drug activity by a diffusion disk method, diluent stability by visual inspection and drug adsorption was calculated. Blank PD fluids and deionized water were used as comparator solutions. ♦ RESULTS: Compared to water, the stability of meropenem was minimally lower in Extraneal but markedly reduced in both Physioneal solutions. No significant drug adsorption was detected for any PDF investigated. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Meropenem is stable and compatible with Extraneal and might be stored for up to a week at refrigeration temperature (6°C). A loss of ~20% of meropenem after 2 days at room temperature should be considered. Mixed Physioneal appears not suitable for storage at any temperature after meropenem has been admixed. A considerable drug degradation due to the warming up to body temperature through heating plates should further be taken into account in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  4. Hydrophobic Modification of Layered Clays and Compatibility for Epoxy Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiang-Jen; Chan, Ying-Nan; Lan, Yi-Fen

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies on the intercalation and exfoliation of layered clays with polymeric intercalating agents involving poly(oxypropylene)-amines and the particular uses for epoxy nanocomposites are reviewed. For intercalation, counter-ionic exchange reactions of clays including cationic layered silicates and anionic Al-Mg layered double hydroxide (LDH) with polymeric organic ions afforded organoclays led to spatial interlayer expansion from 12 to 92 Å (X-ray diffraction) as well as hydrophobic property. The inorganic clays of layered structure could be modified by the poly(oxypropylene)amine-salts as the intercalating agents with molecular weights ranging from 230 to 5,000 g/mol. Furthermore, natural montmorillonite (MMT) clay could be exfoliated into thin layer silicate platelets (ca. 1 nm thickness) in one step by using polymeric types of exfoliating agents. Different lateral dimensions of MMT, synthetic fluorinated Mica and LDH clays had been cured into epoxy nanocomposites. The hydrophobic amine-salt modification resulting in high spacing of layered or exfoliation of individual clay platelets is the most important factor for gaining significant improvements of properties. In particular, these modified clays were reported to gain significant improvements such as reduced coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), enhanced thermal stability, and hardness. The utilization of these layered clays for initiating the epoxy self-polymerization was also reported to have a unique compatibility between clay and organic resin matrix. However, the matrix domain lacks of covalently bonded crosslink and leads to the isolation of powder material. It is generally concluded that the hydrophobic expansion of the clay inter-gallery spacing is the crucial step for enhancing the compatibility and the ultimate preparation of the advanced epoxy materials.

  5. Compatibility of packaging components with simulant mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of hazardous and radioactive materials packaging is to enable these materials to be transported without posing a threat to the health or property of the general public. To achieve this aim, regulations in the US have been written establishing general design requirements for such packagings. While no regulations have been written specifically for mixed waste packaging, regulations for the constituents of mixed wastes, i.e., hazardous and radioactive substances, have been codified by the US Department of Transportation (US DOT, 49 CFR 173) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC, 10 CFR 71). Based on these national requirements, a Chemical Compatibility Testing Program was developed in the Transportation Systems Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The program provides a basis to assure any regulatory body that the issue of packaging material compatibility towards hazardous and radioactive materials has been addressed. In this paper, the authors present the results of the second phase of this testing program. The first phase screened five liner materials and six seal materials towards four simulant mixed wastes. This phase involved the comprehensive testing of five candidate liner materials to an aqueous Hanford Tank simulant mixed waste. The comprehensive testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials a matrix of four gamma radiation doses (∼ 1, 3, 6, and 40 kGy), three temperatures (18, 50, and 60 C), and four exposure times (7, 14, 28, and 180 days). Following their exposure to these combinations of conditions, the materials were evaluated by measuring five material properties. These properties were specific gravity, dimensional changes, hardness, stress cracking, and mechanical properties

  6. DNA template dependent accuracy variation of nucleotide selection in transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Mellenius

    Full Text Available It has been commonly assumed that the effect of erroneous transcription of DNA genes into messenger RNAs on peptide sequence errors are masked by much more frequent errors of mRNA translation to protein. We present a theoretical model of transcriptional accuracy. It uses experimentally estimated standard free energies of double-stranded DNA and RNA/DNA hybrids and predicts a DNA template dependent transcriptional accuracy variation spanning several orders of magnitude. The model also identifies high-error as well a high-accuracy transcription motifs. The source of the large accuracy span is the context dependent variation of the stacking free energy of pairs of correct and incorrect base pairs in the ever moving transcription bubble. Our model predictions have direct experimental support from recent single molecule based identifications of transcriptional errors in the C. elegans transcriptome. Our conclusions challenge the general view that amino acid substitution errors in proteins are mainly caused by translational errors. It suggests instead that transcriptional error hotspots are the dominating source of peptide sequence errors in some DNA template contexts, while mRNA translation is the major cause of protein errors in other contexts.

  7. The effect of speed-accuracy strategy on response interference control in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, S A; van den Wildenberg, W P M; Ridderinkhof, K R; Bashore, T R; Powell, V D; Manning, C A; Wooten, G F

    2009-07-01

    Studies that used conflict paradigms such as the Eriksen Flanker task show that many individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) have pronounced difficulty resolving the conflict that arises from the simultaneous activation of mutually exclusive responses. This finding fits well with contemporary views that postulate a key role for the basal ganglia in action selection. The present experiment aims to specify the cognitive processes that underlie action selection deficits among PD patients in the context of variations in speed-accuracy strategy. PD patients (n=28) and healthy controls (n=17) performed an arrow version of the flanker task under task instructions that either emphasized speed or accuracy of responses. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy rates decreased with speed compared to accuracy instructions, although to a lesser extent for the PD group. Differences in flanker interference effects among PD and healthy controls depended on speed-accuracy strategy. Compared to the healthy controls, PD patients showed larger flanker interference effects under speed stress. RT distribution analyses suggested that PD patients have greater difficulty suppressing incorrect response activation when pressing for speed. These initial findings point to an important interaction between strategic and computational aspects of interference control in accounting for cognitive impairments of PD. The results are also compatible with recent brain imaging studies that demonstrate basal ganglia activity to co-vary with speed-accuracy adjustments.

  8. Anser EMT: the first open-source electromagnetic tracking platform for image-guided interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herman Alexander; Franz, Alfred Michael; O'Donoghue, Kilian; Seitel, Alexander; Trauzettel, Fabian; Maier-Hein, Lena; Cantillon-Murphy, Pádraig

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic tracking is the gold standard for instrument tracking and navigation in the clinical setting without line of sight. Whilst clinical platforms exist for interventional bronchoscopy and neurosurgical navigation, the limited flexibility and high costs of electromagnetic tracking (EMT) systems for research investigations mitigate against a better understanding of the technology's characterisation and limitations. The Anser project provides an open-source implementation for EMT with particular application to image-guided interventions. This work provides implementation schematics for our previously reported EMT system which relies on low-cost acquisition and demodulation techniques using both National Instruments and Arduino hardware alongside MATLAB support code. The system performance is objectively compared to other commercial tracking platforms using the Hummel assessment protocol. Positional accuracy of 1.14 mm and angular rotation accuracy of [Formula: see text] are reported. Like other EMT platforms, Anser is susceptible to tracking errors due to eddy current and ferromagnetic distortion. The system is compatible with commercially available EMT sensors as well as the Open Network Interface for image-guided therapy (OpenIGTLink) for easy communication with visualisation and medical imaging toolkits such as MITK and 3D Slicer. By providing an open-source platform for research investigations, we believe that novel and collaborative approaches can overcome the limitations of current EMT technology.

  9. Accuracy of Travel Time Estimation using Bluetooth Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araghi, Bahar Namaki; Skoven Pedersen, Kristian; Tørholm Christensen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Short-term travel time information plays a critical role in Advanced Traffic Information Systems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS). In this context, the need for accurate and reliable travel time information sources is becoming increasingly important. Bluetooth Technology (BT......) has been used as a relatively new cost-effective source of travel time estimation. However, due to low sampling rate of BT compared to other sensor technologies, existence of outliers may significantly affect the accuracy and reliability of the travel time estimates obtained using BT. In this study......, the concept of outliers and corresponding impacts on travel time accuracy are discussed. Four different estimators named Min-BT, Max-BT, Med-BT and Avg-BT with different outlier detection logic are presented in this paper. These methods are used to estimate travel times using a BT derived dataset. In order...

  10. Mammography: Technique and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chung Ja; Bahk, Yong Whee; Lee, Don Young

    1974-01-01

    Mammography is now in world wide use, But this has received rather scanty attention in Korea. The purposes of the present communication are twofold: (1) Detailing of technical and photographic aspects of mam in ography and (2) an assessment of its diagnostic accuracy as experienced by us. The clinical materials consisted of 88 cases of mammography performed at the Department of Radiology, St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Medical College during the 2 years-period from April 1972. We used nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine- grain films, and a special mammographic device that can be attached to any of the ordinary radiographic machine. Technical factors are shown in Table II. Of 88 cases 19 were operated on or biopsied. There were 7 cases of carcinoma. 8 cases of inflammatory diseases, and 4 cases of benign tumor. Mammographic diagnosis was correct in 85.7% of carcinoma and 87.5% of inflammatory diseases. One misdiagnosis of 7 cases of carcinoma was turned out to be cystosarcoma phylloides. Of 4 cases of benign tumors 2 were correctly diagnosed, and the other 2 mistaken for either inflammatory disease or simple lactating breast. However, none of the benign conditions were diagnosed as malignant process. We found that nonscreen type mammographic or industrial fine-grain films, and hand-processing were necessary in obtaining the mammograms of desirable quality

  11. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  12. Matter power spectrum and the challenge of percent accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Aurel; Teyssier, Romain; Potter, Doug; Stadel, Joachim; Onions, Julian; Reed, Darren S.; Smith, Robert E.; Springel, Volker; Pearce, Frazer R.; Scoccimarro, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Future galaxy surveys require one percent precision in the theoretical knowledge of the power spectrum over a large range including very nonlinear scales. While this level of accuracy is easily obtained in the linear regime with perturbation theory, it represents a serious challenge for small scales where numerical simulations are required. In this paper we quantify the precision of present-day $N$-body methods, identifying main potential error sources from the set-up of initial conditions to...

  13. Design and fabrication of a large rectangular magnetic cusp plasma source for high intensity neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, L.A.; Berkner, K.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Paterson, J.A.; Porter, J.R.

    1979-11-01

    The design and fabrication techniques for a large, rectangular magnetic bucket plasma source are described. This source is compatible with the accelerator structures for the TFTR and DIII neutral-beam systems

  14. Is compatible the idea of incommensurability with that of scientific progress? Some reasons in support of its compatibility [Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Jaramillo Uribe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of incommensurability and, particulary, the one of the scientific progress, is associated two names: Kuhn and Feyerabend, whose proposals caused than many put in doubt the apparent evidence of the call scientific progress, relativizing its validity to each school or paradigm. In this writing we will show that this type of epistemic relativism —just as convergentist theory of the truth— they lack of philosophical validity and historical and how the idea of scientific progress is compatible with the thesis of the incommensurability beyond the ontosemantics difficulties that it implies. This suppose to leave the the call statement view of the scientific theories and adopt a non-statement view where the intertheoretical relation of approach allows to subsink different non trivial incommensurability and to validate in them the notion oaf scientific progress.

  15. Examination of the Compatibility of the Photogrammetric Method with the Phenomenon of Mora Projection in the Evaluation of Scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Drzał-Grabiec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of external measurements of parameters characterizing scoliosis using the photogrammetric method. Material. The study involved 120 children between the ages of 7 and 11 years in Podkarpackie (Poland. Method. Measurements of body posture characteristics were performed using the photogrammetric method with mora projection. Each person was examined twice, once by two different therapists, with a time lapse of 20 minutes in between examinations. Results. High accuracy and no statistical significance were found among different measurements of asymmetry parameters characterizing the shoulder blades and hips. Regularities were also found in the characteristic measurements of curves of scoliosis. The POSTI parameter showed a significant variation and lack of compatibility of results. Conclusions. (1 The photogrammetric method used to assess the pathological changes caused by scoliosis gives significant results in terms of parameters characterizing the position of the shoulder blades and shoulders, as well as pelvis rotation. (2 High compliance measurements are also characterized by the length of the right and left arcs of scoliosis.

  16. The influence of different referencing methods on the accuracy of δ(13) C value measurement of ethanol fuel by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Laura A; Rodrigues, Janaína M; Daroda, Romeu J; Silva, Paulo R M; Ferreira, Alexandre A; Aranda, Donato A G; Eberlin, Marcos N; Fasciotti, Maíra

    2015-11-15

    Brazil is the largest producer of sugar cane bioethanol in the world. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is the technique of choice to certify the origin/raw materials for ethanol production, but the lack of certified reference materials (CRMs) for accurate measurements of δ(13) C values traceable to Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB), the international zero point for (13) C/(12) C measurements, certified and compatible with gas chromatography (GC)/IRMS instruments may compromise the accuracy of δ(13) C determinations. We evaluated the influence of methods for the calibration and normalization of raw δ(13) C values of ethanol samples. Samples were analyzed by GC/C/IRMS using two different GC columns. Different substances were used as isotopic standards for the working gas calibration. The δ(13) C values obtained with the three methods of normalization were statistically compared with those obtained with elemental analyzer (EA)/IRMS, since the δ(13) C results obtained using EA are traceable to VPDB via the NBS 22 reference material. It was observed that both the isotopic reference material for CO2 calibration and the GC column have a major effect on the δ(13) C measurements, leading to a bias of almost 2-3 ‰ in the δ(13) C values. All three methods of normalization were equivalent in performance, enabling an improvement in the GC/C/IRMS accuracy, compared with the EA/IRMS reference values for the samples. All the methods of CO2 calibration, chromatography and normalization presented in this work demonstrated several sources of traceability and accuracy loss for the determination of δ(13) C values in ethanol fuel samples by GC/C/IRMS. This work has also shown the importance of using proper CRMs traceable to VPBD that should be compatible and certified using GC/C/IRMS, ideally in a wide range of δ(13) C values. This is important not only for bioethanol fuel samples, but also for many analytes commonly analyzed by IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons

  17. The study on electromagnetic compatibility of DC electric motor in HAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junping, Geng; Ronghong, Jin; Yu, Fan; Bo, Liu; Jiaqiang, Li; Yuebo, Cheng; Zhongyuan, Wang [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Dpt. Electronic Engineering, Shanghai (China)

    2005-10-01

    The electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) problem of high altitude platform systems (HAPS) is investigated in this paper. A physical model for electromagnetic interferences (EMI) of electromagnetic radiation of spark discharge in DC electric motor is proposed. Based on this model, EMI frequency points has been estimated by approximative equation for the given structure and size of a motor, and EMI frequency points, peak values that received by the ports of antennas and far-field pattern have been calculated. The estimated results are consistent with the calculated ones. These frequency bands and spatial directions with max EMI should be avoided in the valid information when the HAPS system is being designed. Two methods are taken to shield electromagnetic radiation, either to mount a metal plate near the DC electric motor (EMI source), or to mount a perfect conductor board near the antenna array (sensitive element), are valid to shield electromagnetic radiation, but to mount a metal plate near the EMI source is more effective. (authors)

  18. Progressive transmission of images over fading channels using rate-compatible LDPC codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiang; Banihashemi, Amir H; Cuhadar, Aysegul

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a combined source/channel coding scheme for transmission of images over fading channels. The proposed scheme employs rate-compatible low-density parity-check codes along with embedded image coders such as JPEG2000 and set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT). The assignment of channel coding rates to source packets is performed by a fast trellis-based algorithm. We examine the performance of the proposed scheme over correlated and uncorrelated Rayleigh flat-fading channels with and without side information. Simulation results for the expected peak signal-to-noise ratio of reconstructed images, which are within 1 dB of the capacity upper bound over a wide range of channel signal-to-noise ratios, show considerable improvement compared to existing results under similar conditions. We also study the sensitivity of the proposed scheme in the presence of channel estimation error at the transmitter and demonstrate that under most conditions our scheme is more robust compared to existing schemes.

  19. Serum albumin: accuracy and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infusino, Ilenia; Panteghini, Mauro

    2013-04-18

    Albumin is the major plasma protein and its determination is used for the prognostic assessment of several diseases. Clinical guidelines call for monitoring of serum albumin with specific target cut-offs that are independent of the assay used. This requires accurate and equivalent results among different commercially available methods (i.e., result standardization) through a consistent definition and application of a reference measurement system. This should be associated with the definition of measurement uncertainty goals based on medical relevance of serum albumin to make results reliable for patient management. In this paper, we show that, in the current situation, if one applies analytical goals for serum albumin measurement derived from its biologic variation, the uncertainty budget derived from each step of the albumin traceability chain is probably too high to fulfil established quality levels for albumin measurement and to guarantee the accuracy needed for clinical usefulness of the test. The situation is further worsened if non-specific colorimetric methods are used for albumin measurement as they represent an additional random source of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Overlay accuracy with respect to device scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Laidler, David; Cheng, Shaunee

    2012-03-01

    Overlay metrology performance is usually reported as repeatability, matching between tools or optics aberrations distorting the measurement (Tool induced shift or TIS). Over the last few years, improvement of these metrics by the tool suppliers has been impressive. But, what about accuracy? Using different target types, we have already reported small differences in the mean value as well as fingerprint [1]. These differences make the correctables questionable. Which target is correct and therefore which translation, scaling etc. values should be fed back to the scanner? In this paper we investigate the sources of these differences, using several approaches. First, we measure the response of different targets to offsets programmed in a test vehicle. Second, we check the response of the same overlay targets to overlay errors programmed into the scanner. We compare overlay target designs; what is the contribution of the size of the features that make up the target? We use different overlay measurement techniques; is DBO (Diffraction Based Overlay) more accurate than IBO (Image Based Overlay)? We measure overlay on several stacks; what is the stack contribution to inaccuracy? In conclusion, we offer an explanation for the observed differences and propose a solution to reduce them.

  1. Multi-disciplinary System Engineering and the Compatibility Modeling Language (UCML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Eckl

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, technical systems such as automobiles or spacecraft have grown more complex due to the incorporation of increasingly more and different components. The integration of these components, which are frequently designed and constructed within separate departments and companies may lead to malfunctioning systems as their interplay cannot be tested within the earlier phases of development. This paper introduces compatibility management as one solution to the problems of late component integration. Compatibility management is carried out on a common crossdomain model of the system and therefore allows to test compatibility early on. We show how compatibility management can be embedded into the phased development of ECSS-M-30A and present the (Unified Compatibility Modeling Language ((UCML, which is used for the underlying cross-domain model. A case study demonstrates the application of (UCML in the development of a small satellite and explains different degrees of compatibility.

  2. Backward compatibility as a key measure for smooth upgrades to the LHC control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggiolini, V.; Csikos, D.; Tarasenko, P.; Zaharieva, Z.; Arruat, M.; Gorbosonov, R.

    2012-01-01

    It is a big challenge to smoothly upgrade the control system of a large operational accelerator such as the LHC without causing unnecessary downtime. We have identified backward compatibility as a key measure to achieve this, because a backward compatible component can be easily upgraded. This document describes the work the CERN Accelerator Controls group does to provide methods and tools supporting backward compatibility. We have identified four areas for which we want to provide tools: (1) dependency analysis to identify incoming dependencies, (2) backward compatibility validation to verify that API (Application Program Interface) changes are really backward compatible, (3) version upgrading with rules to clearly inform the dependent clients if a modification is backward compatible, and (4) API consolidation to clearly specify classes and methods belonging to the API and to enforce their appropriate usage

  3. Research on Horizontal Accuracy Method of High Spatial Resolution Remotely Sensed Orthophoto Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. M.; Zhang, J. X.; Yu, F.; Dong, S.

    2018-04-01

    At present, in the inspection and acceptance of high spatial resolution remotly sensed orthophoto image, the horizontal accuracy detection is testing and evaluating the accuracy of images, which mostly based on a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability. However, it is difficult to get a set of testing points with the same accuracy and reliability in the areas where the field measurement is difficult and the reference data with high accuracy is not enough. So it is difficult to test and evaluate the horizontal accuracy of the orthophoto image. The uncertainty of the horizontal accuracy has become a bottleneck for the application of satellite borne high-resolution remote sensing image and the scope of service expansion. Therefore, this paper proposes a new method to test the horizontal accuracy of orthophoto image. This method using the testing points with different accuracy and reliability. These points' source is high accuracy reference data and field measurement. The new method solves the horizontal accuracy detection of the orthophoto image in the difficult areas and provides the basis for providing reliable orthophoto images to the users.

  4. Recent materials compatibility studies in refractory metal-alkali metal systems for space power applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. W.; Hoffman, E. E.; Davies, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced Rankine and other proposed space power systems utilize refractory metals in contact with both single-phase and two-phase alkali metals at elevated temperatures. A number of recent compatibility experiments are described which emphasize the excellent compatibility of refractory metals with the alkali metals, lithium, sodium, and potassium, under a variety of environmental conditions. The alkali metal compatibilities of tantalum-, columbium-, molybdenum-, and tungsten-base alloys are discussed.

  5. Application of Hilbert-Huang Transform in Generating Spectrum-Compatible Earthquake Time Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Ni, Shun-Hao; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, Mahesh

    2011-01-01

    Spectrum-compatible earthquake time histories have been widely used for seismic analysis and design. In this paper, a data processing method, Hilbert-Huang transform, is applied to generate earthquake time histories compatible with the target seismic design spectra based on multiple actual earthquake records. Each actual earthquake record is decomposed into several components of time-dependent amplitude and frequency by Hilbert-Huang transform. The spectrum-compatible earthquake time history ...

  6. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  7. Magnetic field compatibility of components for ITER electrical distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourtoule, J.; Van Houtte, D.; Hertout, P.; Fejoz, P.

    2004-01-01

    The electrical distribution boards and control cubicles, installed inside the ITER Tokamak building, can be subject to a constant or slowly variable magnetic field up to 70 mT, 10 mT/s induced by ITER coils. This is a very unusual environmental condition and there are almost no data available on static magnetic field compatibility for the standard industrial electrical and electronic components that might be used inside standard low voltage distribution boards and standard control boards. CEA has especially taken in charge the test of electronic, control and signal conditioning units. For this purpose a test bed composed of a solenoid and a 30 V, 800 A power supply, has been developed at CEA Cadarache. Its characteristics are the following: - Magnetic field capability: 40 mT; - Variation of field: up to 10 mT/s. Useful dimensions for equipment under test: 500 x 500 x 500 mm. The list of the components to be tested has been identified trying to find common and recent components of different manufacturers. Test procedures have been written following the most relevant IEC standards and manufacturing recommendations and procedures. Magnetic compatibility tests on the basic components of standard low voltage control boards has been performed. All components tested are more or less sensitive to magnetic fields and the effect varies from the simple perturbation of the output signals to the partial destruction of some electronic card. The most sensitive are the ferromagnetic components like small power supplies transformers, relays, on inductors. For power supplies the most important consequence is the increase of the consumption (primary current). For most of the conditioning units the operational limits were found in the range of 30 mT (destruction of materials and overload of the supply) For PLC (Programme Logic Control) central units tested, the limit is in the order of 40 mT (components permanently out of service) Relays are limited to 15 mT (outputs oscillations, no

  8. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  9. Compatibility tests between molten salts and metal materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki

    2003-08-01

    Latent heat storage technology using molten salts can reduce temperature fluctuations of heat transfer fluid by latent heat for middle and high temperature regions. This enables us to operate several heat utilization systems in cascade connected to High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) from high to low temperature range by setting the latent heat storage system after a heat utilization system to reduce thermal load after the heat utilization systems. This latent heat technology is expected to be used for effective use of heat such as equalization of electric load between night and daytime. In the application of the latent heat technology, compatibility between molten salts and metal materials is very important because molten salts are corrosive, and heat transfer pipes and vessels will contact with the molten salts. It will be necessary to prevail the latent heat storage technique that normal metal materials can be used for the pipes and vessels. However, a few studies have been reported of compatibility between molten salts and metals in middle and high temperature ranges. In this study, four molten salts, range of the melting temperature from 490degC to 800degC, are selected and five metals, high temperature and corrosion resistance steels of Alloy600, HastelloyB2, HastelloyC276, SUS310S and pure Nickel are selected for the test with the consideration of metal composition. Test was performed in an electric furnace by setting the molten salts and the metals in melting pots in an atmosphere of nitrogen. Results revealed excellent corrosion resistance of pure Nickel and comparatively low corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys such as Alloy600 and Hastelloys against Li 2 CO 3 . Corrosion resistance of SUS310S was about same as nickel based alloys. Therefore, if some amount of corrosion is permitted, SUS310S would be one of the candidate alloys for structure materials. These results will be used as reference data to select metals in latent heat technology

  10. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Ni{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x})(Cr{sub 1-y}Fe{sub y}){sub 2}O{sub 4}, and FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications

  11. Corrosion Compatibility Studies on Inconel-600 in NP Decontamination Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Yoon; Jung, Jun Young; Won, Huijun; Choi, Wangkyu; Moon, Jeikwon

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that corrosion and contamination process in the primary cooling circuit of nuclear reactors are essentially interrelated: the contaminant isotopes are mostly corrosion products activated in the reactor core, and the contamination takes place on the out-core of Inconel-600 surface. This radionuclide uptake takes place up to the inner oxide layer and oxide/metal interface. So, it is necessary to remove inner oxide layer as well as outer oxide layer for excellent decontamination effects. The outer oxide layers are composed of Fe 3 O 4 and NiFe 2 O 4 . On the other hand, the inner oxide layers are composed of Cr 2 O 3 , (Ni 1-x Ni x )(Cr 1-y Fe y ) 2 O 4 , and FeCr 2 O 4 . Because of chromium in the trivalent oxidation state which is difficult to dissolve, the oxide layer has an excellent protectiveness and become hard to be decontaminated. Alkaline permanganate (AP) or nitric permanganate (NP) oxidative phase has been used to dissolve the chromium-rich oxide. A disadvantage of AP process is the generation of a large volume of secondary waste. On the other hand, that of NP process is the high corrosion rate for Ni-base alloys. Therefore, for the safe use of oxidative phase in PWR system decontamination, it is necessary to reformulate the NP chemicals for decrease of corrosion rate. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. To evaluate the general corrosion properties, weight change of NP treated specimens was measured. NP treated specimen surface was observed using optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for the evaluation of the localized corrosion. The effect of additives on the corrosion of the specimens was also evaluated. This study describes the corrosion compatibility on Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel in NP decontamination solution for PWR applications. It is revealed that Inconel-600 specimen is more

  12. Investigating Climate Compatible Development Outcomes and their Implications for Distributive Justice: Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin T.; Quinn, Claire H.; Stringer, Lindsay C.; Dougill, Andrew J.

    2017-09-01

    Governments and donors are investing in climate compatible development in order to reduce climate and development vulnerabilities. However, the rate at which climate compatible development is being operationalised has outpaced academic enquiry into the concept. Interventions aiming to achieve climate compatible development "wins" (for development, mitigation, adaptation) can also create negative side-effects. Moreover, benefits and negative side-effects may differ across time and space and have diverse consequences for individuals and groups. Assessments of the full range of outcomes created by climate compatible development projects and their implications for distributive justice are scarce. This article develops a framework using a systematic literature review that enables holistic climate compatible development outcome evaluation over seven parameters identified. Thereafter, we explore the outcomes of two donor-funded projects that pursue climate compatible development triple-wins in Malawi using this framework. Household surveys, semi-structured interviews and documentary material are analysed. Results reveal that uneven outcomes are experienced between stakeholder groups and change over time. Although climate compatible development triple-wins can be achieved through projects, they do not represent the full range of outcomes. Ecosystem—and community-based activities are becoming popularised as approaches for achieving climate compatible development goals. However, findings suggest that a strengthened evidence base is required to ensure that these approaches are able to meet climate compatible development goals and further distributive justice.

  13. ACCURACY DIMENSIONS IN REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Barsi

    2018-04-01

    selected, practice-oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  14. Accuracy Dimensions in Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Á.; Kugler, Zs.; László, I.; Szabó, Gy.; Abdulmutalib, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    -oriented approaches are evaluated too, finally widely-used dimension metrics like Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) or confusion matrix are discussed. The authors present data quality features of well-defined and poorly defined object. The central part of the study is the land cover mapping, describing its accuracy management model, presented relevance and uncertainty measures of its influencing quality dimensions. In the paper theory is supported by a case study, where the remote sensing technology is used for supporting the area-based agricultural subsidies of the European Union, in Hungarian administration.

  15. Skin compatibility and antimicrobial studies on biofunctionalized polypropylene fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjum, Sadiya [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika [Department of Pathology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok 737102 (India); Dalal, Prashansa [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.in [Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of antimicrobial fabric which can be used as skin contacting material. The nanosilver loaded bioactive nanogels of polyacrylamide were prepared by gamma irradiation process and the particle size was observed to be in the range of 10–50 nm. In this study, we used polyethylene glycol as carrier for the combination of functional nanogel and essential oils together. Plasma functionalized polypropylene fabric was used as the base material for the bio-immobilization. Bioactive emulsion was coated on the fabric which exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Skin irritation studies were carried out over a period of 3 d on Swiss albino mice. Histopathology studies of the fabric did not show adverse inflammatory response in contact with the skin. The biofunctionalized fabric offers appear to be promising material for skin contacting applications. - Highlights: • Antimicrobial processing of PP fabric for skin contacting material • Polyethylene glycol is used for the carrier of bioactive nanogels. • Synergistic effect of functional nanosilver and essential oil has been investigated. • Skin compatibility and histopathological studies of material have been observed.

  16. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-04-01

    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed

  17. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  18. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchenko, Oxana S; Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W; Witters, Donald M; Sponberg, Curt L

    2011-06-09

    The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz. The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  19. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel(4) - thermal hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok

    2000-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the DUPIC fuel bundle in the CANDU reactor has been studied. The critical channel power, the critical power ratio, the channel exit quality and the channel flow are calculated for the DUPIC and the standard fuels by using the NUCIRC code. The physical models and associated parametric values for the NUCIRC analysis of the fuels are also presented. Based upon the slave channel analysis, the critical channel power and the critical power ratios have been found to be very similar for the two fuel types. The same dryout model is used in this study for the standard and the DUPIC fuel bundles. To assess the dryout characteristics of the DUPIC fuel bundle, the ASSERT-PV code has been used for the subchannel analysis. Based upon the results of the subchannel analysis, it is found that the dryout location and the power for the two fuel types are indeed very similar. This study shows that thermal performance of the DUPIC fuel is not significantly different from that of the standard fuel.

  20. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel (part 3) - radiation physics analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Byung Yun; Koh, Young Kown

    2000-04-01

    As a part of the compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors, the radiation physics calculations have been performed for the CANDU primary shielding system, thermal shield, radiation damage, transportation cask and storage. At first, the primary shield system was assessed for the DUPIC fuel core, which has shown that the dose rates and heat deposition rates through the primary shield of the DUPIC fuel core are not much different from those of natural uranium core because the power levels on the core periphery are similar for both cores. Secondly, the radiation effects on the critical components and the themal shields were assessed when the DUPIC fuel is loaded in CANDU reactors. Compared with the displacement per atom (DPA) of the critical component for natural uranium core, that for the DUPIC fuel core was increased by -30% for the innermost groove and the weld points and by -10% for the corner of the calandria subshells and annular plates in the calandria, respectivdely. Finally, the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel handling was performed, which has shown that all handling and inspection of the DUPIC fuel bundles be done remotely and behind a shielding wall. For the transportation of the DUPIC fuel, the preliminary study has shown that there shold be no technical problem th design a transportation cask for the fresh and spent DUPIC fuel bundles. For the storage of the fresh and spent DUPIC fuels, there is no the criticality safety problem unless the fuel bundle geometry is destroyed.

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guag Joshua W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  2. Compatibility of stainless steels and lithiated ceramics with beryllium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, T.; Fauvet, P.; Sannier, J.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier in ceramic blankets of thermonuclear fusion reactors may give rise to the following compatibility problems: (i) oxidation of Be by ceramics (lithium aluminate and silicates) or by water vapour; (ii) interaction between beryllium and austenitic and martensitic steels. The studies were done in contact tests under vacuum and in tests under wet sweeping helium. The contact tests under vacuum have revealed that the interaction of beryllium with ceramics seems to be low up to 700°C, the interaction of beryllium with steels is significant and is characterized by the formation of a diffusion layer and of a brittle Be-Fe-Ni compound. With type 316 L austenitic steel, this interaction appears quite large at 600°C whereas it is noticeable only at 700°C with martensitic steels. The experiments carried out with sweeping wet helium at 600°C have evidenced a slight oxidation of beryllium due to water vapour which can be enhanced in the front of uncompletely dehydrated ceramics.

  3. Compatibility tests of steels in flowing liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, F.; Benamati, G.; Fazio, C.; Rusanov, A.

    2001-01-01

    The behaviour of steels exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi was evaluated. The materials tested are the two austenitic steels AISI 316L and 1.4970, and the six martensitic steels Optifer IVc, T91, Batman 27, Batman 28, EP823 and EM10 which were exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h and at two temperatures (573 and 743 K). The corrosion tests were conducted in the non-isothermal loop of IPPE-Obninsk under a controlled oxygen level (10 -6 wt%). The compatibility study showed that at a lower temperature, a very thin oxide layer (<1 μm) was formed on the steels. At higher temperature, austenitic steels also exhibited a thin oxide layer sufficient to prevent their dissolution in the melt. A thicker oxide, which grew according to a parabolic law, was observed on the surface of the martensitic steels. The oxidation resistance behaviour of the martensitic steels was correlated with their alloying elements

  4. Effects of stimulus response compatibility on covert imitation of vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Nuttall, Helen; Bekkering, Harold; Maegherman, Gwijde

    2018-03-13

    When we observe someone else speaking, we tend to automatically activate the corresponding speech motor patterns. When listening, we therefore covertly imitate the observed speech. Simulation theories of speech perception propose that covert imitation of speech motor patterns supports speech perception. Covert imitation of speech has been studied with interference paradigms, including the stimulus-response compatibility paradigm (SRC). The SRC paradigm measures covert imitation by comparing articulation of a prompt following exposure to a distracter. Responses tend to be faster for congruent than for incongruent distracters; thus, showing evidence of covert imitation. Simulation accounts propose a key role for covert imitation in speech perception. However, covert imitation has thus far only been demonstrated for a select class of speech sounds, namely consonants, and it is unclear whether covert imitation extends to vowels. We aimed to demonstrate that covert imitation effects as measured with the SRC paradigm extend to vowels, in two experiments. We examined whether covert imitation occurs for vowels in a consonant-vowel-consonant context in visual, audio, and audiovisual modalities. We presented the prompt at four time points to examine how covert imitation varied over the distracter's duration. The results of both experiments clearly demonstrated covert imitation effects for vowels, thus supporting simulation theories of speech perception. Covert imitation was not affected by stimulus modality and was maximal for later time points.

  5. System Interconnect Bus (SIB) compatible multi crate CAMAC Controller (CC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, K.; Borkar, S.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.; D'Costa, C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes design of SIB compatible crate controller with PC interface. SIB is a general-purpose parallel 1/O interface bus used for connecting multi crate system with single PC-interface. The crate controller comprises of a dedicated PC-AT add-on SIB interface card and two width CAMAC module designed to work at station 24 and station 25 of CAMAC crate. PC Interface card (SIBINT) is used for communication between PC/AT host computer and CAMAC Crates. The controller module incorporates a set of registers, logic to generate CAMAC data way timing. Transmission protocol used is RS485 standard. This controller is used for multiple CAMAC crates system, interfaced to PC, using a 60 core twisted pair flat ribbon cable. The crate controller is developed for use in process control, general-purpose data acquisition and control system and laboratory automation. Sustained data transfer rate achieved by controller is 115 Kword/sec each word being 32 bits in length. (author)

  6. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Romero, Dalia; Baez, Antonino; Quintero-Hernández, Verónica; Castañeda-Lucio, Miguel; Fuentes-Ramírez, Luis Ernesto; Bustillos-Cristales, María Del Rocío; Rodríguez-Andrade, Osvaldo; Morales-García, Yolanda Elizabeth; Munive, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium) apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02) strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  7. Materials and processing approaches for foundry-compatible transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jan-Kai; Fang, Hui; Bower, Christopher A.; Song, Enming; Yu, Xinge; Rogers, John A.

    2017-07-01

    Foundry-based routes to transient silicon electronic devices have the potential to serve as the manufacturing basis for “green” electronic devices, biodegradable implants, hardware secure data storage systems, and unrecoverable remote devices. This article introduces materials and processing approaches that enable state-of-the-art silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) foundries to be leveraged for high-performance, water-soluble forms of electronics. The key elements are (i) collections of biodegradable electronic materials (e.g., silicon, tungsten, silicon nitride, silicon dioxide) and device architectures that are compatible with manufacturing procedures currently used in the integrated circuit industry, (ii) release schemes and transfer printing methods for integration of multiple ultrathin components formed in this way onto biodegradable polymer substrates, and (iii) planarization and metallization techniques to yield interconnected and fully functional systems. Various CMOS devices and circuit elements created in this fashion and detailed measurements of their electrical characteristics highlight the capabilities. Accelerated dissolution studies in aqueous environments reveal the chemical kinetics associated with the underlying transient behaviors. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility for using foundry-based routes to sophisticated forms of transient electronic devices, with functional capabilities and cost structures that could support diverse applications in the biomedical, military, industrial, and consumer industries.

  8. Word Meaning Frequencies Affect Negative Compatibility Effects In Masked Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Koenig, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment. In this paper, we present data that suggest that NCEs are not restricted to S-R priming with low-level visual stimuli: The brief (50 ms), backward masked (250 ms) presentation of ambiguous words (bank) leads to slower responses than baseline to words related to the more frequent (rob) but not less frequent meaning (swim). Importantly, we found that slowed responses are preceded by a short phase of response facilitation, replicating the biphasic pattern reported for arrows and plus signs. The biphasic pattern of priming and the fact that the NCEs were found only for target words that are related to their prime word's more frequent meaning has strong implications for any theory of NCEs that locate these effects exclusively within the motor-response system.

  9. Design of molecular imprinted polymers compatible with aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Guerreiro, Antonio R; Romero-Guerra, Maria; Chianella, Iva; Turner, Anthony P F; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2008-01-21

    The main problem of poor water compatibility of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was addressed in examples describing design of synthetic receptors with high affinity for drugs of abuse. An extensive potentiometric titration of 10 popular functional monomers and corresponding imprinted and blank polymers was conducted in order to evaluate the subtleties of functional groups ionisation under aqueous conditions. It was found that polymers prepared using 2-trifluoromethacrylic acid (TFMAA) in combination with toluene as porogen possess superior properties which make them suitable for effective template recognition in water. The potential impact of phase separation during polymerisation on formation of high quality imprints has been discussed. Three drugs of abuse such as cocaine, deoxyephedrine and methadone were used as template models in polymer preparation for the practical validation of obtained results. The polymer testing showed that synthesized molecularly imprinted polymers have high affinity and selectivity for corresponding templates in aqueous environment, with imprinting factors of 2.6 for cocaine and 1.4 for methadone and deoxyephedrine. Corresponding blank polymers were unable to differentiate between analytes, suggesting that imprinting phenomenon was responsible for the recognition properties.

  10. The compatibility of flexible instruments under the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepma, C.J.; Van der Gaast, W.P.; Woerdman, E.

    1998-01-01

    The compatibility of the Kyoto Protocol flexible instruments and the lessons that can be learned form the AIJ-phase (AIJ stands for Activities Implemented Jointly) are discussed. The key point to be made is that there may be various applications of flexible instruments which can create situations where the various instruments would crowd out each other. On the other hand, applying flexible instruments may create a leverage for Parties in terms of achieving domestic environmental objectives. In addition, several issues related to the implementation of Joint Implementation (JI) , Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and international emissions trading are discussed. The issues concern mainly those that have been included in the working programme on flexible instruments for CoP4 and CoP5 (CoP stands for Convention of Parties). As such the report discusses the consequences of possible negotiations outcomes at CoP for the effectiveness of flexible instruments, Parties' capabilities to achieve their Kyoto Protocol commitments cost-effectively, and the role of the private sector on the national and international credits markets(s). 106 refs

  11. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  12. Liquid metal current collector applications and material compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.; Stevens, H.O.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this paper has been to summarize briefly the material considerations involved in the development of liquid metal current collectors for homopolar machinery applications. A significant amount of data in this regard has been obtained over the last several years by individual researchers for NaK exposure conditions. However, NaK material compatibility data over the entire time and temperature range of interest is highly desirable. At DTNSRDC, a 300 kW superconducting homopolar motor and generator are under test, both utilizing free surface tongue-and-groove current collectors with NaK as the working fluid. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of other aspects of machine design, the intention is to use these machines as vehicles for testing of the several liquid metal current collector concepts which are considered worthwhile candidates for incorporation in future full-scale machines. It is likely that the optimal collector approach for a large low speed motor may be quite different from that for a smaller high speed generator, possibly involving the use of different liquid metals

  13. Compatibility of 5-fluorouracil and total parenteral nutrition solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, T C; Clibon, U; Page, C P; Cruz, A B

    1982-01-01

    The physicochemical stability and availability of 0.1% 5-fluorouracil solutions in D5W and a typical total parenteral nutrition solution (hypertonic dextrose and crystalline amino acids) were studied in both glass and Viaflex delivery systems. Serial samples collected over a 48-hour period were assayed for 5-fluorouracil concentration using a high performance liquid chromatographic technique. Changes in the pH as well as precipitate formation were also investigated. There was no reduction in the amount of 5-fluorouracil at 48 hours in either the glass or plastic system, regardless of whether the drug was added to D5W or to the total parenteral nutrition solution. No pH changes or precipitates were observed. These findings indicate that 5-fluorouracil is compatible with and available from total parenteral solutions of hypertonic dextrose and amino acid in both plastic and glass containers. Use of such a system would allow for (1) a reduction in vascular access in patients receiving both treatments and (2) continued administration of nutritional support without the requirement for additional fluid volume.

  14. Hard tissue compatibility of natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaojun; Gui Lai; Lue Xiaoying

    2008-01-01

    The natural hydroxyapatite/chitosan (NHC) composite is a new synthesized material. The aim of this experiment was to assess the bone tissue compatibility of this NHC composite in vivo. Twenty-four healthy New Zealand rabbits were included in this study. Of those, 20 were used as the experimental group and four as the control group. In the experimental group, animals receive a cranium defect procedure and NHC composite repair. In the control group, animals underwent the cranium defect procedure without NHC composite repair. At 1, 4, 12, 24, and 40 weeks after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and samples were taken and assessed by gross observation, three-dimensional (3D) computerized tomographic (CT) reconstruction, histology and scanning electron microscope. Our results showed that at 1 week after repairing the bone defect with the NHC composite in the experimental group, new bone appeared around the composite and matured gradually. At 24 weeks after surgery, there were little collagenous tissues present between the material and surrounding bones. At 40 weeks after surgery, new bone had grown into the mature bone and total osseointegration had occurred. In the control group, however, no bone defect healing was observed at 40 weeks after surgery. All these results of the present in vivo work suggest that the NHC composite has a good hard tissue biocompatibility and an excellent osteoconductivity. It is suitable for artificial bone implants and frame materials of tissue engineering.

  15. Compatibility of gas turbine materials with steam cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, V.; Tamboli, D.; Patel, Y. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Gas turbines had been traditionally used for peak load plants and remote locations as they offer advantage of low installation costs and quick start up time. Their use as a base load generator had not been feasible owing to their poor efficiency. However, with the advent of gas turbines based combined cycle plants (CCPs), continued advances in efficiency are being made. Coupled with ultra low NO{sub x} emissions, coal compatibility and higher unit output, gas turbines are now competing with conventional power plants for base load power generation. Currently, the turbines are designed with TIT of 2300{degrees}F and metal temperatures are maintained around 1700{degrees}F by using air cooling. New higher efficiency ATS turbines will have TIT as high as 2700{degrees}F. To withstand this high temperature improved materials, coatings, and advances in cooling system and design are warranted. Development of advanced materials with better capabilities specifically for land base applications are time consuming and may not be available by ATS time frame or may prove costly for the first generation ATS gas turbines. Therefore improvement in the cooling system of hot components, which can take place in a relatively shorter time frame, is important. One way to improve cooling efficiency is to use better cooling agent. Steam as an alternate cooling agent offers attractive advantages because of its higher specific heat (almost twice that of air) and lower viscosity.

  16. Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    There are 177 waste storage tanks containing over 210,000 m 3 (55 million gal) of mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The River Protection Project (RPP) has adopted the data quality objective (DQO) process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 1994a) and implemented by RPP internal procedure (Banning 1999a) to identify the information and data needed to address safety issues. This DQO document is based on several documents that provide the technical basis for inputs and decision/action levels used to develop the decision rules that evaluate the transfer of wastes. A number of these documents are presently in the process of being revised. This document will need to be revised if there are changes to the technical criteria in these supporting documents. This DQO process supports various documents, such as sampling and analysis plans and double-shell tank (DST) waste analysis plans. This document identifies the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to determine whether transfer of supernatant can be performed safely. The requirements in this document are designed to prevent the mixing of incompatible waste as defined in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040. Waste transfers which meet the requirements contained in this document and the Double-Shell Tank Waste Analysis Plan (Mulkey 1998) are considered to be compatible, and prevent the mixing of incompatible waste

  17. Compatible bacterial mixture, tolerant to desiccation, improves maize plant growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Molina-Romero

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR increase plant growth and crop productivity. The inoculation of plants with a bacterial mixture (consortium apparently provides greater benefits to plant growth than inoculation with a single bacterial strain. In the present work, a bacterial consortium was formulated containing four compatible and desiccation-tolerant strains with potential as PGPR. The formulation had one moderately (Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and three highly desiccation-tolerant (Sphingomonas sp. OF178, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 and Acinetobacter sp. EMM02 strains. The four bacterial strains were able to adhere to seeds and colonize the rhizosphere of plants when applied in both mono-inoculation and multi-inoculation treatments, showing that they can also coexist without antagonistic effects in association with plants. The effects of the bacterial consortium on the growth of blue maize were evaluated. Seeds inoculated with either individual bacterial strains or the bacterial consortium were subjected to two experimental conditions before sowing: normal hydration or desiccation. In general, inoculation with the bacterial consortium increased the shoot and root dry weight, plant height and plant diameter compared to the non-inoculated control or mono-inoculation treatments. The bacterial consortium formulated in this work had greater benefits for blue maize plants even when the inoculated seeds underwent desiccation stress before germination, making this formulation attractive for future field applications.

  18. Compatibility of ITER candidate structural materials with static gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebbers, P.R.; Michaud, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1993-12-01

    Tests were conducted on the compatibility of gallium with candidate structural materials for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, e.g., Type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy, as well as Armco iron, Nickel 270, and pure chromium. Type 316 stainless steel is least resistant to corrosion in static gallium and Nb-5 Mo-1 Zr alloy is most resistant. At 400 degrees C, corrosion rates are ∼4.0, 0.5, and 0.03 mm/yr for type 316 SS, Inconel 625, and Nb-5 Mo- 1 Zr alloy, respectively. The pure metals react rapidly with gallium. In contrast to findings in earlier studies, pure iron shows greater corrosion than nickel. The corrosion rates at 400 degrees C are ≥88 and 18 mm/yr, respectively, for Armco iron and Nickel 270. The results indicate that at temperatures up to 400 degrees C, corrosion occurs primarily by dissolution and is accompanied by formation of metal/gallium intermetallic compounds. The solubility data for pure metals and oxygen in gallium are reviewed. The physical, chemical, and radioactive properties of gallium are also presented. The supply and availability of gallium, as well as price predictions through the year 2020, are summarized

  19. Compatibility and incompatibility in hyphal anastomosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candido Barreto de Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF, which live in symbiosis with 80 % of plants, are not able to grow when separated from their hosts. Spore germination is not host-regulated and germling growth is shortly arrested in the absence of host roots. Germling survival chances may be increased by hyphal fusions (anastomoses, which allow access to nutrients flowing in the extraradical mycelium (ERM. Perfect anastomoses, occurring with high frequency among germlings and the ERM of the same isolate, show protoplasm continuity and disappearance of hyphal walls. A low frequency of perfect fusions has been detected among co-specific genetically different isolates, although fungal nuclei have been consistently detected in all perfect fusions, suggesting active nuclear migration. When plants of different taxa establish symbioses with the same AMF species, anastomoses between ERM spreading from single root systems establish a common mycelium, which is an essential element to plant nutrition and communication. The interaction among mycelia produced by different isolates may also lead to pre-fusion incompatibility which hinders anastomosis formation, or to incompatibility after fusion, which separates the hyphal compartments. Results reported here, obtained by analyses of hyphal compatibility/incompatibility in AMF, suggest that anastomosis formation and establishment of protoplasm flow, fundamental to the maintenance of mycelial physiological and genetic continuity, may affect the fitness of these ecologically important biotrophic fungi.

  20. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achala de Mel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.