252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.
1985-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor, k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily determined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables
252Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.; Blakeman, E.D.
1985-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method has been tested in a wide variety of experiments that have indicated the broad range of applicability of the method. The neutron multiplication factor k/sub eff/ has been satisfactorily detemined for a variety of materials including uranium metal, light water reactor fuel pins, fissile solutions, fuel plates in water, and interacting cylinders. For a uranyl nitrate solution tank which is typical of a fuel processing or reprocessing plant, the k/sub eff/ values were satisfactorily determined for values between 0.92 and 0.5 using a simple point kinetics interpretation of the experimental data. The short measurement times, in several cases as low as 1 min, have shown that the development of this method can lead to a practical subcriticality monitor for many in-plant applications. The further development of the method will require experiments oriented toward particular applications including dynamic experiments and the development of theoretical methods to predict the experimental observables
Physics of the 252Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.
1997-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method is a versatile measurements tool that has been applied to measurements for initial loading of reactors, quality assurance of reactor fuel elements, fuel processing facilities, fuel reprocessing facilities, fuel storage facilities, zero-power testing of reactors, verification of calculational methods, process monitoring, characterization of storage vaults, and nuclear weapons identification. This method's broad range of application is due to the wide variety of time- and frequency domain signatures, each with unique properties, obtained from the measurement. The following parameters are obtained from this measurement: average detector count rates, detector multiplicities, detector autocorrelations, cross-correlation between detectors, detector autopower spectral densities, cross-power spectral densities between detectors, coherences, and ratios of spectral densities. All of these measured parameters can also be calculated using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code. This paper presents a review of the time-domain signatures obtained from this measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; Ragan, G.E.; Blakeman, E.D.
1987-01-01
A portable measurement system consisting of a personal computer used as a Fourier analyzer and three detection channels (with associated electronics that provide the signals to analog-to-digital (A/D) convertors) has been assembled to measure subcriticality by the 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method. 8 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; Valentine, T.E.
1995-01-01
The development of MCNP-DSP, which allows direct calculation of the measured time and frequency analysis parameters from subcritical measurements using the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method, permits the validation of calculational methods for criticality safety with in-plant subcritical measurements. In addition, a method of obtaining the bias in the calculations, which is essential to the criticality safety specialist, is illustrated using the results of measurements with 17.771-cm-diam, enriched (93.15), unreflected, and unmoderated uranium metal cylinders. For these uranium metal cylinders the bias obtained using MCNP-DSP and ENDF/B-V cross-section data increased with subcriticality. For a critical experiment [height (h) = 12.629 cm], it was -0.0061 ± 0.0003. For a 10.16-cm-high cylinder (k ∼ 0.93), it was 0.0060 ± 0.0016, and for a subcritical cylinder (h = 8.13 cm, k ∼ 0.85), the bias was -0.0137 ± 0.0037, more than a factor of 2 larger in magnitude. This method allows the nuclear criticality safety specialist to establish the bias in calculational methods for criticality safety from in-plant subcritical measurements by the 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; Ragan, G.E.; Blakeman, E.D.
1988-01-01
A portable measurement system consisting of a personal computer used as a Fourier analyzer and three detection channels (with associated electronics that provide the signals to analog-to-digital (A/D) convertors) has been assembled to measure subcriticality by the /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method. The /sup 252/Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method for obtaining the subcritical neutron multiplication factor of a configuration of fissile material requires measurement of the frequency-dependent cross-power spectral density (CPSD), G/sub 23/(ω), between a pair of detectors (Nos. 2 and 3) located in or near the fissile material and CPSDs G/sub 12/(ω) and G/sub 13/(ω) between these same detectors and a source of neutrons emanating from an ionization chamber (No. 1) containing /sup 252/Cf, also positioned in or near the fissile material. The auto-power spectral density (APSD), G/sub 11/(ω), of the source is also required. A particular ratio of spectral densities, G/sub 12//sup */G/sub 13//G/sub 11/G/sub 23/ (/sup */ denotes complex conjugation), is then formed. This ratio is related to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor and is independent of detector efficiencies
Source-driven noise analysis measurements with neptunium metal reflected by high enriched uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, Timothy E.; Mattingly, John K.
2003-01-01
Subcritical noise analysis measurements have been performed with neptunium ( 237 Np) sphere reflected by highly enriched uranium. These measurements were performed at the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility in December 2002 to provide an estimate of the subcriticality of 237 Np reflected by various amounts of high-enriched uranium. This paper provides a description of the measurements and presents some preliminary results of the analysis of the measurements. The measured and calculated spectral ratios differ by 15% whereas the 'interpreted' and calculated k eff values differ by approximately 1%. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1993-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven noise analysis method has been used in measurements for subcritical configurations of fissile systems for a variety of applications. Measurements of 25 fissile systems have been performed with a wide variety of materials and configurations. This method has been applied to measurements for (1) initial fuel loading of reactors, (2) quality assurance of reactor fuel elements, (3) fuel preparation facilities, (4) fuel processing facilities, (5) fuel storage facilities, (6) zero-power testing of reactors, and (7) verification of calculational methods for assemblies with the neutron k 252 Cf source and commercially available detectors was feasible and to determine if the measurement could characterize the ability of the concrete to isolate the fissile material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.
1987-01-01
The 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis method was evaluated to determine if it could be used to measure the subcriticality of storage casks of burnt LWR fuel submerged in fuel storage pools, fully loaded and as they are being loaded. The motivation for this evaluation was that measurements of k/sub eff/ would provide the parameter most directly related to the criticality safety of storage cask configurations of LWR fuel and could allow proper credit for fuel burnup without reliance on calculations. This in turn could lead to more cost-effective cask designs. Evaluation of the method for this application was based on (1) experiments already completed at a critical experiments facility using arrays of PWR fuel pins typical of the size of storage cask configurations, (2) the existence of neutron detectors that can function in shipping cask environments, and (3) the ability to construct ionization chambers containing 252 Cf of adequate intensity for these measurements. These three considerations are discussed
Validating criticality calculations for spent fuel with 252Cf-source-driven noise measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; Krass, A.W.; Valentine, T.E.
1992-01-01
The 252 Cf-Source-driven noise analysis method can be used for measuring the subcritical neutron multiplication factor k of arrays of spent light water reactor (LWR) fuel. This type of measurement provides a parameter that is directly related to the criticality state of arrays of LWR fuel. Measurements of this parameter can verify the criticality safety margins of spent LWR fuel configurations and thus could be a means of obtaining the information to justify burnup credit for spent LWR transportation/storage casks. The practicality of a measurement depends on the ability to install the hardware required to perform the measurement. Source chambers containing the 252 Cf at the required source intensity for this application have been constructed and have operated successfully for ∼10 years and can be fabricated to fit into control rod guide tubes of PWR fuel elements. Fission counters especially developed for spent-fuel measurements are available that would allow measurements of a special 3 x 3 spent fuel array and a typical burnup credit rail cask with spent fuel in unborated water. Adding a moderator around these fission counters would allow measurements with the typical burnup credit rail cask with borated water and the special 3 x 3 array with borated water. The recent work of Ficaro on modifying the KENO Va code to calculate by the Monte Carlo method the time sequences of pulses at two detectors near a fissile assembly from the fission chain multiplication process, initiated by a 252 Cf source in the assembly allows a direct computer calculation of the noise analysis data from this measurement method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalczo, J.T.; Blakeman, E.D.; Ragan, G.E.; Kryter, R.C.; Robinson, R.C.; Seino, H.
1987-08-01
In order to study nuclear criticality safety related to the development of fast breeder technology, 252 Cf-source-driven neutron noise analysis measurements were performed with a Pu-U nitrate solution in a slab tank of various heights and thickness varying 11.43 cm to 19.05 cm. The results and conclusions of these experiments are (1) a capability to measure the subcriticality of a multiplying system of slab geometry to a k/sub eff/ as low as 0.7 was demonstrated, (2) calculated neutron multiplication factors agreed with those from the experiments within ∼0.02, and (3) the applicability of the method for plutonium solution systems was demonstrated. This paper describes measurements in which the height of the slab was varied for a fixed thickness and the thickness varied for a fixed height, which are the first applications of this measurement method to slab geometry
Sensitivity analysis of source driven subcritical systems by the HGPT methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gandini, A.
1997-01-01
The heuristically based generalized perturbation theory (HGPT) methodology has been extensively used in the last decades for analysis studies in the nuclear reactor field. Its use leads to fundamental reciprocity relationships from which perturbation, or sensitivity expressions can be derived, to first and higher order, in terms of simple integration operation of quantities calculated at unperturbed system conditions. Its application to subcritical, source-driven systems, now considered with increasing interest in many laboratories for their potential use as nuclear waste burners and/or safer energy producers, is here commented, with particular emphasis to problems implying an intensive system control variable. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1995-01-01
This paper describes calculations performed to validate the modified version of the MCNP code, the MCNP-DSP, used for: the neutron and photon spectra of the spontaneous fission of californium 252; the representation of the detection processes for scattering detectors; the timing of the detection process; and the calculation of the frequency analysis parameters for the MCNP-DSP code
Feasibility of fissile mass assay of spent nuclear fuel using 252Cf-source-driven frequency-analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.
1996-01-01
The feasibility was evaluated using MCNP-DSP, an analog Monte Carlo transport cod to simulate source-driven measurements. Models of an isolated Westinghouse 17x17 PWR fuel assembly in a 1500-ppM borated water storage pool were used. In the models, the fuel burnup profile was represented using seven axial burnup zones, each with isotopics estimated by the PDQ code. Four different fuel assemblies with average burnups from fresh to 32 GWd/MTU were modeled and analyzed. Analysis of the fuel assemblies was simulated by inducing fission in the fuel using a 252 Cf source adjacent to the assembly and correlating source fissions with the response of a bank of 3 He detectors adjacent to the assembly opposite the source. This analysis was performed at 7 different axial positions on each of the 4 assemblies, and the source-detector cross-spectrum signature was calculated for each of these 28 simulated measurements. The magnitude of the cross-spectrum signature follows a smooth upward trend with increasing fissile material ( 235 U and 239 Pu) content, and the signature is independent of the concentration of spontaneously fissioning isotopes (e.g., 244 Cm) and (α,n) sources. Furthermore, the cross-spectrum signature is highly sensitive to changes in fissile material content. This feasibility study indicated that the signature would increase ∼100% in response to an increase of only 0.1 g/cm 3 of fissile material
Noise and vibration analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsen, J.R.; Williams, R.L.
1985-01-01
The analysis of noise and vibration data from an operating nuclear plant can provide valuable information that can identify and characterize abnormal conditions. Existing plant monitoring equipment, such as loose parts monitoring systems (LPMS) and neutron flux detectors, may be capable of gathering noise data, but may lack the analytical capability to extract useful meanings hidden in the noise. By analyzing neutron noise signals, the structural motion and integrity of core components can be assessed. Computer analysis makes trending of frequency spectra within a fuel cycle and from one cycle to another a practical means of core internals monitoring. The Babcock and Wilcox Noise and Vibration Analysis System (NVAS) is a powerful, compact system that can automatically perform complex data analysis. The system can acquire, process, and store data, then produce report-quality plots of the important parameter. Software to perform neutron noise analysis and loose parts analysis operates on the same hardware package. Since the system is compact, inexpensive, and easy to operate, it allows utilities to perform more frequency analyses without incurring high costs and provides immediate results
Reactor surveillance by noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftcioglu, Ozer
1988-01-01
A real-time noise analysis system is designed for the TRIGA reactor at Istanbul Technical University. By means of the noise techniques, reactor surveillance is performed together with failure diagnosis. The fast data processing is carried out by FFT in real-time so that malfunction or non-stationary operation of the reactor in long term can be identified by comparing the noise power spectra with the corresponding reference patterns while the decision making procedure is accomplished by the method of hypothesis testing. The system being computer based safety instrumentation involves CAMAC in conjunction with the RT-11 (PDP-11) single user dedicated environment. (author)
BWR noise spectra and application of noise analysis to FBR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nomura, T.
1975-01-01
Work related to noise analysis, in Tokyo Shibaura Electric Co. Ltd. (Toshiba) and Nippon Atomic Industry Group Co. Ltd. (NAIG) for the past several years is reviewed. After considering the Japan-United States Seminar on Reactor Noise Analysis in 1968, other subjects discussed were boiling water reactor noise analysis and work in relation to FBR. Parts of these are related to each other. For example, boiling detection and temperature fluctuations are problems pertinent to both fields. As the main problems in zero-power-reactor noise are now basically understood, only a brief description of the experiments involving the advanced two detector method is made. Focus is rather placed on the area of power plant noise. (author)
Source driven breeding thermal power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.; Schneider, A.; Misulovin, A.; Gilai, D.; Levin, P.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba
1978-03-01
Improvements in the performance of fission power reactors made possible by designing them subcritical driven by D-T neutron sources are investigated. Light-water thermal systems are found to be most promising, neutronically and energetically, for the source driven mode of operation. The range of performance characteristics expected from breeding Light Water Hybrid Reactors (LWHR) is defined. Several promising types of LWHR blankets are identified. Options opened for the nuclear energy strategy by four types of the LWHRs are examined, and the potential contribution of these LWHRs to the nuclear energy economy are discussed. The power systems based on these LWHRs are found to enable a high utilization of the energy content of the uranium resources in all forms available - including depleted uranium and spent fuel from LWRs, while being free from the need for uranium enrichment and plutonium separation capabilities. (author)
Source driven breeding thermal power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.; Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba
1978-03-01
The feasibility of fusion devices operating in the semi-catalyzed deuterium (SCD) mode and of high energy proton accelerators to provide the neutron sources for driving subcritical breeding light water power reactors is assessed. The assessment is done by studying the energy balance of the resulting source driven light water reactors (SDLWR) and comparing it with the energy balance of the reference light water hybrid reactors (LWHR) driven by a D-T neutron source (DT-LWHR). The conditions the non-DT neutron sources should satisfy in order to make the SDLWR viable power reactors are identified. It is found that in order for a SCD-LWHR to have the same overall efficiency as a DT-LWHR, the fusion energy gain of the SCD device should be at least one half that the DT device. The efficienct of ADLWRs using uranium targets is comparable with that of DT-LWHRs having a fusion energy gain of unity. Advantages and disadvantages of the DT-LWHR, SCD-LWHR and ADLWR are discussed. (aurthor)
Kinetic parameters for source driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dulla, S.; Ravetto, P.; Carta, M.; D'Angelo, A.
2006-01-01
The definition of the characteristic kinetic parameters of a subcritical source-driven system constitutes an interesting problem in reactor physics with important consequences for practical applications. Consistent and physically meaningful values of the parameters allow to obtain accurate results from kinetic simulation tools and to correctly interpret kinetic experiments. For subcritical systems a preliminary problem arises for the adoption of a suitable weighting function to be used in the projection procedure to derive a point model. The present work illustrates a consistent factorization-projection procedure which leads to the definition of the kinetic parameters in a straightforward manner. The reactivity term is introduced coherently with the generalized perturbation theory applied to the source multiplication factor ks, which is thus given a physical role in the kinetic model. The effective prompt lifetime is introduced on the assumption that a neutron generation can be initiated by both the fission process and the source emission. Results are presented for simplified configurations to fully comprehend the physical features and for a more complicated highly decoupled system treated in transport theory. (authors)
Noise analysis of a digital radiography system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, B.A.; Scheibe, P.O.
1984-01-01
The sources of noise in a digital video subtraction angiography system were identified and analyzed. Signal-to-noise ratios of digital radiography systems were measured using the digital image data recorded in the computer. The major sources of noise include quantum noise, TV camera electronic noise, quantization noise from the analog-to-digital converter, time jitter, structure noise in the image intensifier, and video recorder electronic noise. A new noise source was identified, which results from the interplay of fixed pattern noise and the lack of image registration. This type of noise may result from image-intensifier structure noise in combination with TV camera time jitter or recorder time jitter. A similar noise source is generated from the interplay of patient absorption inhomogeneities and patient motion or image re-registration. Signal-to-noise ratios were measured for a variety of experimental conditions using subtracted digital images. Image-intensifier structure noise was shown to be a dominant noise source in unsubtracted images at medium to high radiation exposure levels. A total-system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 750:1 was measured for an input exposure of 1 mR/frame at the image intensifier input. The effect of scattered radiation on subtracted image SNR was found to be greater than previously reported. The detail SNR was found to vary approximately as one plus the scatter degradation factor. Quantization error noise with 8-bit image processors (signal-to-noise ratio of 890:1) was shown to be of increased importance after recent improvements in TV cameras. The results of the analysis are useful both in the design of future digital radiography systems and the selection of optimum clinical techniques
Noise Analysis of MAIA System and Possible Noise Suppression
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Švihlík, J.; Fliegel, K.; Koten, Pavel; Vítek, S.; Páta, P.
2011-01-01
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2011), s. 110-117 ISSN 1210-2512. [International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing /33./ - TSP 2010. Baden near Vienna, 17.08.2010-20.08.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : MAIA * meteor * noise analysis Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.739, year: 2011
Analysis of reactor noise; Analiza reaktorskih sumova
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Velickovic, Lj [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)
1967-11-15
This paper describes the theoretical model for interpretation of experimental results, experimental method for study of reactor noise at the RB reactor, numerical treatment of experimental results by correlation technique for analysis of reactor noise. A computer code was written to obtain autocorrelation function and spectral density function. Experimental results obtained by oscillator technique, pulse technique, and autocorrelation method are presented and discussed.
Sensor response time monitoring using noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Holbert, K.E.
1988-01-01
Random noise techniques in nuclear power plants have been developed for system surveillance and for analysis of reactor core dynamics. The noise signals also contain information about sensor dynamics, and this can be extracted using frequency, amplitude and time domain analyses. Even though noise analysis has been used for sensor response time testing in some nuclear power plants, an adequate validation of this method has never been carried out. This paper presents the results of limited work recently performed to examine the validity of the noise analysis for sensor response time testing in nuclear power plants. The conclusion is that noise analysis has the potential for detecting gross changes in sensor response but it cannot be used for reliable measurement of response time until more laboratory and field experience is accumulated. The method is more advantageous for testing pressure sensors than it is for temperature sensors. This is because: 1) for temperature sensors, a method called Loop Current Step Response test is available which is quantitatively more exact than noise analysis, 2) no method currently exists for on-line testing of pressure transmitters other than the Power-Interrupt test which is applicable only to force balance pressure transmitters, and 3) pressure sensor response time is affected by sensing line degradation which is inherently taken into account by testing with noise analysis. (author)
Reactor sensor surveillance using noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashemian, H.M.; Thie, J.A.; Upadhyaya, B.R.
1986-01-01
Reactor noise signals, as measured by neutron detectors and process sensors, contain information about the dynamics of the process and sensor characteristics. The extent of sensor characteristics that can be determined from such measurements depends on the sensor type, the property of the process noise exciting the sensor and its location. This paper addresses degradation monitoring of temperature and pressure sensors, analysis methods and results of application to operating pressurized water reactors. In addition, the use of noise analysis for monitoring of pressure sensing lines in nuclear power plants is discussed
Noise elimination algorithm for modal analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, X. X., E-mail: baoxingxian@upc.edu.cn [Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, China University of Petroleum (East China), Qingdao 266580 (China); Li, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Xiong, C. B. [The First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061 (China)
2015-07-27
Modal analysis is an ongoing interdisciplinary physical issue. Modal parameters estimation is applied to determine the dynamic characteristics of structures under vibration excitation. Modal analysis is more challenging for the measured vibration response signals are contaminated with noise. This study develops a mathematical algorithm of structured low rank approximation combined with the complex exponential method to estimate the modal parameters. Physical experiments using a steel cantilever beam with ten accelerometers mounted, excited by an impulse load, demonstrate that this method can significantly eliminate noise from measured signals and accurately identify the modal frequencies and damping ratios. This study provides a fundamental mechanism of noise elimination using structured low rank approximation in physical fields.
Complexity in White Noise Analysis
Hida, Takeyuki
We restrict our attention to random complex systems and discuss degree their degree of complexity based on a white noise. The white noise is realized as the time derivative of a Brownian motion B(t), and denoted by Ḃ(t). The collection {Ḃ(t)}, is a system of idealized elementary variables and at the same time the system is a stochastic representation of the time t, in other words it is time-oriented. Having expressed the given evolutional random phenomena in question in terms of the Ḃ(t), we introduce the notion of spectral multiplicity, which describes how much the phenomena are complex. The multiplicity is the number of cyclic subspaces that are spanned by the given random phenomena. Each cyclic subspace has further structure. Typical property is multiple Markov property, although this property appears only particular cases. As a related property, in fact as a characteristic of a complex system, one can speak of the time reversibility and irreversibility of certain random phenomena in terms of the white noise. We expect an irreversible random complex system may be decomposed into reversible systems.
Noise estimation for remote sensing image data analysis
Du, Qian
2004-01-01
Noise estimation does not receive much attention in remote sensing society. It may be because normally noise is not large enough to impair image analysis result. Noise estimation is also very challenging due to the randomness nature of the noise (for random noise) and the difficulty of separating the noise component from the signal in each specific location. We review and propose seven different types of methods to estimate noise variance and noise covariance matrix in a remotely sensed image. In the experiment, it is demonstrated that a good noise estimate can improve the performance of an algorithm via noise whitening if this algorithm assumes white noise.
Surveillance of instruments by noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thie, J.A.
1981-01-01
Random fluctuations of neutron flux, temperature, and pressure in a reactor provide multifrequency excitation of the corresponding instrumentation chains. Mathematical descriptors suitable for characterizing the output, or noise, of the instrumentation are reviewed with a view toward using such noise in detecting instrument faults. Demonstrations of the feasibility of this approach in a number of reactors provide illustrative examples. Comparisons with traditional surveillance testing are made, and a number of advantages and some disadvantages of using noise analysis as a supplementary technique are pointed out
Deaf Smith County noise analysis: Revision 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-11-01
An analysis of activities proposed for the three major phases of development of the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas, was conducted to quantify the noise levels and the effect of noise resulting from these activities. The report provides additional details of the predictive noise level modeling conducted for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operation phases. Equivalent day/night sound levels are presented for each phase as sound level contours. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activities are addressed including traffic on access routes, and railroad construction and operation. A description of the predictive models, the analysis methodologies, the noise source inventories, the model outputs, and the evaluation criteria are included. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Problems in the neutron dynamics of source-driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ravetto, P.
2001-01-01
The present paper presents some neutronic features of source-driven neutron multiplying systems, with special regards to dynamics, discussing the validity and limitations of classical methods, developed for systems in the vicinity of criticality. Specific characteristics, such as source dominance and the role of delayed neutron emissions are illustrated. Some dynamic peculiarities of innovative concepts proposed for accelerator-driven systems, such as fluid-fuel, are also discussed. The second portion of the work formulates the quasi-static methods for source-driven systems, evidencing its novel features and presenting some numerical results. (author)
Statistical analysis of brake squeal noise
Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.
2011-06-01
Despite substantial research efforts applied to the prediction of brake squeal noise since the early 20th century, the mechanisms behind its generation are still not fully understood. Squealing brakes are of significant concern to the automobile industry, mainly because of the costs associated with warranty claims. In order to remedy the problems inherent in designing quieter brakes and, therefore, to understand the mechanisms, a design of experiments study, using a noise dynamometer, was performed by a brake system manufacturer to determine the influence of geometrical parameters (namely, the number and location of slots) of brake pads on brake squeal noise. The experimental results were evaluated with a noise index and ranked for warm and cold brake stops. These data are analysed here using statistical descriptors based on population distributions, and a correlation analysis, to gain greater insight into the functional dependency between the time-averaged friction coefficient as the input and the peak sound pressure level data as the output quantity. The correlation analysis between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure data is performed by applying a semblance analysis and a joint recurrence quantification analysis. Linear measures are compared with complexity measures (nonlinear) based on statistics from the underlying joint recurrence plots. Results show that linear measures cannot be used to rank the noise performance of the four test pad configurations. On the other hand, the ranking of the noise performance of the test pad configurations based on the noise index agrees with that based on nonlinear measures: the higher the nonlinearity between the time-averaged friction coefficient and peak sound pressure, the worse the squeal. These results highlight the nonlinear character of brake squeal and indicate the potential of using nonlinear statistical analysis tools to analyse disc brake squeal.
Integrating neural network technology and noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhrig, R.E.; Oak Ridge National Lab., TN
1995-01-01
The integrated use of neural network and noise analysis technologies offers advantages not available by the use of either technology alone. The application of neural network technology to noise analysis offers an opportunity to expand the scope of problems where noise analysis is useful and unique ways in which the integration of these technologies can be used productively. The two-sensor technique, in which the responses of two sensors to an unknown driving source are related, is used to demonstration such integration. The relationship between power spectral densities (PSDs) of accelerometer signals is derived theoretically using noise analysis to demonstrate its uniqueness. This relationship is modeled from experimental data using a neural network when the system is working properly, and the actual PSD of one sensor is compared with the PSD of that sensor predicted by the neural network using the PSD of the other sensor as an input. A significant deviation between the actual and predicted PSDs indicate that system is changing (i.e., failing). Experiments carried out on check values and bearings illustrate the usefulness of the methodology developed. (Author)
Noise Analysis studies with neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seker, S.; Ciftcioglu, O.
1996-01-01
Noise analysis studies with neural network are aimed. Stochastic signals at the input of the network are used to obtain an algorithmic multivariate stochastic signal modeling. To this end, lattice modeling of a stochastic signal is performed to obtain backward residual noise sources which are uncorrelated among themselves. There are applied together with an additional input to the network to obtain an algorithmic model which is used for signal detection for early failure in plant monitoring. The additional input provides the information to the network to minimize the difference between the signal and the network's one-step-ahead prediction. A stochastic algorithm is used for training where the errors reflecting the measurement error during the training are also modelled so that fast and consistent convergence of network's weights is obtained. The lattice structure coupled to neural network investigated with measured signals from an actual power plant. (authors)
Applications of noise analysis to nuclear safety
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aguilar Martinez, Omar
2000-01-01
Noise Analysis techniques (analysis of the fluctuation of physical parameters) have been successfully applied to the operational vigilance of the technical equipment that plays a decisive role in the production cycle of a very complex industry. Although fluctuation measurements in nuclear installations started almost at the start of the nuclear era (see works by Feynman and Rossi on the development of neutron methodology), only recently have neutron noise diagnostic applications begun to be a part of the standard procedures for the performance of some modern nuclear installations. Following the relevant technical advances made in information sciences and analogical electronics, measuring the fluctuation of physical parameters has become a very effective tool for detecting, guarding and following up possible defects in a nuclear system. As the processing techniques for the fluctuation of a nuclear reactor's physical-neutron parameters have evolved (temporal and frequency analysis, multi-parameter self -regression analysis, etc.), the applications of the theory of non-lineal dynamics and chaos theory have progressed by focusing on the problem from another perspective. This work reports on those nuclear applications of noise analysis that increase nuclear safety in all types of nuclear facilities and that have been carried out by the author over the last decade, such as: -Void Force Critical Set Applications (Zero Power Reactor Applications, Central Institute of Physical Research, Budapest, Hungary); -Research Reactor Applications (Triga Mark III Reactor, National Institute of Nuclear Research, ININ, Mexico); -Power Reactor Applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (First Circuit of Block II, Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary); -Second Loop applications in a Nuclear Power Plant (Block I Paks Nuclear Center, Hungary; Block II Kalinin Nuclear Center, Russia); -Shield System Applications for the Transport of Radioisotopes (Nuclear Technology Center, Havana, Cuba) New trends in
The Analysis of Low Noise Protection Barriers Influence on Tram Traffic Noise Levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahac Maja
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the analysis of tram traffic noise situation in residential areas in the vicinity of Drzic Avenue, one of the major routes between the northern and southern part of the Croatian capital city Zagreb, and the effect of low barriers placed by the tracks on tram noise mitigation. In order to evaluate the effect of planned protection measure, noise models were produced and verified with short-term field measurements. Calculations were conducted by means of noise prediction software, using European interim noise prediction method and 3D model of analyzed area. Finally, the results of noise calculations for existing tram traffic situation and planned measure of protection are presented on noise maps.
NoiseMap and AEDT Gap Analysis
2017-09-30
NoiseMap and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) both use an integrated modeling approach to calculate aircraft noise in and around an airfield. Both models also employ the same general overall approach by using airfield operational data, s...
Noise analysis of switched integrator preamplifiers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Hongbo; Li Yulan; Zhu Weibin
2004-01-01
The main noise sources of switched integrator preamplifiers are discussed, and their noise performance are given combined PSpice simulation and experiments on them. Then, some practical methods on how to reduce noise of preamplifiers in two different integrator modes are provided. (authors)
Analysis of sharpness increase by image noise
Kurihara, Takehito; Aoki, Naokazu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki
2009-02-01
Motivated by the reported increase in sharpness by image noise, we investigated how noise affects sharpness perception. We first used natural images of tree bark with different amounts of noise to see whether noise enhances sharpness. Although the result showed sharpness decreased as noise amount increased, some observers seemed to perceive more sharpness with increasing noise, while the others did not. We next used 1D and 2D uni-frequency patterns as stimuli in an attempt to reduce such variability in the judgment. The result showed, for higher frequency stimuli, sharpness decreased as the noise amount increased, while sharpness of the lower frequency stimuli increased at a certain noise level. From this result, we thought image noise might reduce sharpness at edges, but be able to improve sharpness of lower frequency component or texture in image. To prove this prediction, we experimented again with the natural image used in the first experiment. Stimuli were made by applying noise separately to edge or to texture part of the image. The result showed noise, when added to edge region, only decreased sharpness, whereas when added to texture, could improve sharpness. We think it is the interaction between noise and texture that sharpens image.
Noise Analysis of Switched-Current Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur
1999-01-01
The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry in the discrete time domain. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presened. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implem...
Noise Analysis of Switched-Current Circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur
1998-01-01
The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presented. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implemented using switched...
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine. muffler, noise, vibration,modal analysis,
Noise analysis for CCD-based ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry.
Davenport, John J; Hodgkinson, Jane; Saffell, John R; Tatam, Ralph P
2015-09-20
We present the results of a detailed analysis of the noise behavior of two CCD spectrometers in common use, an AvaSpec-3648 CCD UV spectrometer and an Ocean Optics S2000 Vis spectrometer. Light sources used include a deuterium UV/Vis lamp and UV and visible LEDs. Common noise phenomena include source fluctuation noise, photoresponse nonuniformity, dark current noise, fixed pattern noise, and read noise. These were identified and characterized by varying light source, spectrometer settings, or temperature. A number of noise-limiting techniques are proposed, demonstrating a best-case spectroscopic noise equivalent absorbance of 3.5×10(-4) AU for the AvaSpec-3648 and 5.6×10(-4) AU for the Ocean Optics S2000 over a 30 s integration period. These techniques can be used on other CCD spectrometers to optimize performance.
Analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise from VS45
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dundabin, P. [Renewable Energy Systems Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)
1997-12-31
This paper describes the analysis of acoustic data taken from the VS45 at Kaiser-Wilhelm-Koog. The aim was to investigate the dependence of aerodynamic noise on tip speed and angle of attack. In particular, the dependence of noise in individual third octave bands on these variable is examined. The analysis is divided into 3 sections: data selection, data checks and analysis of broadband nacelle noise; analysis of broadband aerodynamic noise and its sensitivity to tip speed and angle of attack. (LN)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon; Song, Jee Hun; Joo, Won Ho
2012-01-01
Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sung Hee; Hong, Suk Yoon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jee Hun [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Won Ho [Hyundai Heavy Industries Co. Ltd, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2012-04-15
Noise from construction equipment affects not only surrounding residents, but also the operators of the machines. Noise that affects drivers must be evaluated during the preliminary design stage. This paper suggests an interior noise analysis procedure for construction equipment cabins. The analysis procedure, which can be used in the preliminary design stage, was investigated for airborne and structure borne noise. The total interior noise of a cabin was predicted from the airborne noise analysis and structure-borne noise analysis. The analysis procedure consists of four steps: modeling, vibration analysis, acoustic analysis and total interior noise analysis. A mesh model of a cabin for numerical analysis was made at the modeling step. At the vibration analysis step, the mesh model was verified and modal analysis and frequency response analysis are performed. At the acoustic analysis step, the vibration results from the vibration analysis step were used as initial values for radiated noise analysis and noise reduction analysis. Finally, the total cabin interior noise was predicted using the acoustic results from the acoustic analysis step. Each step was applied to a cabin of a middle-sized excavator and verified by comparison with measured data. The cabin interior noise of a middle-sized wheel loader and a large-sized forklift were predicted using the analysis procedure of the four steps and were compared with measured data. The interior noise analysis procedure of construction equipment cabins is expected to be used during the preliminary design stage.
Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...
Timing Noise Analysis of NANOGrav Pulsars
Perrodin, Delphine; Jenet, Fredrick; Lommen, Andrea; Finn, Lee; Demorest, Paul; Ferdman, Robert; Gonzalez, Marjorie; Nice, David; Ransom, Scott; Stairs, Ingrid
2013-01-01
We analyze timing noise from five years of Arecibo and Green Bank observations of the seventeen millisecond pulsars of the North-American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) pulsar timing array. The weighted autocovariance of the timing residuals was computed for each pulsar and compared against two possible models for the underlying noise process. The first model includes red noise and predicts the autocovariance to be a decaying exponential as a function of time lag. Th...
Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines
Narayan, S.
2015-12-01
In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.
Orbiter CCTV video signal noise analysis
Lawton, R. M.; Blanke, L. R.; Pannett, R. F.
1977-01-01
The amount of steady state and transient noise which will couple to orbiter CCTV video signal wiring is predicted. The primary emphasis is on the interim system, however, some predictions are made concerning the operational system wiring in the cabin area. Noise sources considered are RF fields from on board transmitters, precipitation static, induced lightning currents, and induced noise from adjacent wiring. The most significant source is noise coupled to video circuits from associated circuits in common connectors. Video signal crosstalk is the primary cause of steady state interference, and mechanically switched control functions cause the largest induced transients.
Analysis of landing gear noise during approach
Merino Martinez, R.; Snellen, M.; Simons, D.G.
2016-01-01
Airframe noise is becoming increasingly important during approach, even reaching higher noise levels than the engines in some cases. More people are a_ected due to low ight altitudes and _xed tra_c routing associated with typical approaches. For most air- craft types, the landing gear system is a
Davis Canyon noise analysis: Revision 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-11-01
A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Davis Canyon, Utah. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged sound levels, and of audibility levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used in relation to residences, schools, churches, noise-sensitive recreation areas, and noise-sensitive biological resources. Protective ground motion criteria for ruins and delicate rock formation in Canyonlands National Park and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation of blasting. The evaluations provide the basis for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 45 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs
Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acernese, F; Amico, P; Alshourbagy, M
2007-01-01
The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data
Analysis of noise lines in the Virgo C7 data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acernese, F [INFN, Sezione di Napoli and/or Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' Complesso Universitario di Monte S Angelo, and/or Universita di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy); Amico, P [INFN, Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Alshourbagy, M [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and/or Universita di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)] (and others)
2007-10-07
The paper presents a description of the work of detection and identification of frequency lines in the Virgo dark fringe data from run C7. A number of methods are highlighted by which noise frequency lines are detected by data analysis and measurements in the laboratory. In this paper we give a description of the list of noise line candidates provided by the pulsar search analysis, the investigation of 10 Hz (and harmonics) noise, violin modes, noise from the end station buildings' air conditioners, sidebands in calibration lines and aliasing in the 4 kHz reconstructed data.
Automated pattern recognition system for noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sides, W.H. Jr.; Piety, K.R.
1980-01-01
A pattern recognition system was developed at ORNL for on-line monitoring of noise signals from sensors in a nuclear power plant. The system continuousy measures the power spectral density (PSD) values of the signals and the statistical characteristics of the PSDs in unattended operation. Through statistical comparison of current with past PSDs (pattern recognition), the system detects changes in the noise signals. Because the noise signals contain information about the current operational condition of the plant, a change in these signals could indicate a change, either normal or abnormal, in the operational condition
Period analysis at high noise level
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovacs, G.
1980-01-01
Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of some types of the periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data. The equivalence of the Jurkevich and the Warner and Robinson methods is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner and Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form and noise level. The results are illustrated by numerical examples. (orig.)
Richton Dome noise analysis: Revision 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-11-01
A study was performed as part of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program to quantify the level and effect of noise from the various major phases of development of the proposed potentially acceptable nuclear waste repository site at Richton Dome, Mississippi. This report contains the results of a predictive noise level study for the site characterization, repository construction, and repository operational phases. Included herein are graphic representations of energy averaged day/night sound levels representing impact zones expected during each phase. Sound levels from onsite and offsite activity including traffic on highways and railroad routes are presented in isopleth maps. A description of the Environmental Noise Prediction Model used for the study, the study basis and methodologies, and actual modeling data are provided. Noise and vibration levels from blasting are also predicted and evaluated. Protective noise criteria containing a margin of safety are used for persons in relation to residences, schools, churches, and agricultural areas. Protective ground motion criteria for residential dwelling and for human annoyance are used in the evaluation. The evaluation provides the bases for assessing the noise impacts from the related activities at the proposed repository. 24 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs
Dynamical noise filter and conditional entropy analysis in chaos synchronization.
Wang, Jiao; Lai, C-H
2006-06-01
It is shown that, in a chaotic synchronization system whose driving signal is exposed to channel noise, the estimation of the drive system states can be greatly improved by applying the dynamical noise filtering to the response system states. If the noise is bounded in a certain range, the estimation errors, i.e., the difference between the filtered responding states and the driving states, can be made arbitrarily small. This property can be used in designing an alternative digital communication scheme. An analysis based on the conditional entropy justifies the application of dynamical noise filtering in generating quality synchronization.
Neutron noise analysis for malfunction diagnosis at sodium cooled reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoppe, P.
1978-09-01
For the investigation of the potential use of neutron noise analysis at sodium cooled power reactors, measurements have been performed at the KNK I reactor over a period of 18 month under different operational conditions. The signal fluctuations of the following tranducers have been recorded: In-core and Ex-core neutron detectors, temperature-, flow-, pressure-, vibration- and acoustic sensors. These extensive measurements have been analyzed in the frequency range from 0,001 Hz to 1000 Hz with all currently known methods for the identification of noise sources. The following results have been found: - Neutron noise for f 20 Hz the white detection noise prevails. In the region from 1 Hz to 20 Hz the vibrations of core components contribute to neutron noise. - Neutron noise is influenced by the state of the plant. - The contributions to neutron noise due to the fluctuations of coolant flow and inlet temperature are small compared to those produced by the movements of the control rod initiated by the reactor control system. The quantitatively unidentifiable amount of reactivity fluctuations (0,6 time-dependent thermal bowing of the core. With respect to these results and by calculation of the neutron noise patterns to be expected for the SNR 300, the following possible applications for neutron noise analysis have been found: By means of neutron noise analysis only reactivity fluctuations can be identified and supervised which are produced by time dependent changes of the core geometry. Furthermore neutron noise analysis is well suited for a sensitive detection of control rod vibrations and of local sodium boiling. Finally it can be used for the surveillance of the proper functioning of the reactor control system and of the control rod drive mechanism. (orig./HP) 891 HP [de
RB reactor noise analysis; Analiza sumova reaktora RB
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petrovic, M; Velickovic, Lj; Markovic, V; Jovanovic, S [Institut za nuklearne nauke Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Yugoslavia)
1964-07-01
Statistical fluctuations of reactivity represent reactor noise. Analysis of reactor noise enables determining a series of reactor kinetic parameters. Fluctuations of power was measured by ionization chamber placed next to the tank of the RB reactor. The signal was digitized by an analog-digital converter. After calculation of the mean power, 3000 data obtained by sampling were analysed.
Analysis of Subway Interior Noise at Peak Commuter Time.
Lee, Donguk; Kim, Gibbeum; Han, Woojae
2017-07-01
Although mass transit systems are convenient and efficient for urban people, little attention has been paid to the potential hearing hazard from their noise. The purpose of the current study was to measure and analyze levels of subway interior noise at peak commuter times and to provide information about commuters' daily dose of noise exposure. To measure the subway interior noise, nine subway lines inside Seoul (i.e., lines 1-9) and six lines surrounding the capital city area (i.e., Central, Bundang, Sinbundang, Incheon, Gyeongui, and Gyeongchun) were chosen. The noise was measured and recorded by a sound level meter for two-hour periods in the morning and evening. 1) In the LZeq analysis, the average noise level of all 15 lines was 72.78 dB; the maximum and minimum noise levels were 78.34 and 62.46 dB, respectively. The average noise level of the nine lines inside Seoul was 73.45 dB, which was 1.68-dB louder than that of the six lines surrounding the capital city area. 2) Based on the LZeq analysis of 33 measured frequencies, 12.5 Hz was the highest frequency and 20,000 Hz was the lowest. 3) There was no remarkable difference in the level of subway interior noise between morning and evening peak commuter times. We concluded that the level of subway interior noise was not loud enough for commuters to incur noise-induced hearing loss. Regardless, environmental noise control efforts in the subway system might be needed for commuters who take a subway every day.
Reactor noise analysis applications in NPP I and C systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloeckler, O. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strosse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria Ontario Power Generation, 230 Westney Road South, Ajax, Ont. L1S 7R3 (Canada)
2006-07-01
Reactor noise analysis techniques are used in many NPPs on a routine basis as 'inspection tools' to get information on the dynamics of reactor processes and their instrumentation in a passive, non-intrusive way. The paper discusses some of the tasks and requirements an NPP has to take to implement and to use the full advantages of reactor noise analysis techniques. Typical signal noise analysis applications developed for the monitoring of the reactor shutdown system and control system instrumentation of the Candu units of Ontario Power Generation and Bruce Power are also presented. (authors)
Second-order generalized perturbation theory for source-driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenspan, E.; Gilai, D.; Oblow, E.M.
1978-01-01
A second-order generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for the effect of multiple system variations on a general flux functional in source-driven systems is derived. The derivation is based on a functional Taylor series in which second-order derivatives are retained. The resulting formulation accounts for the nonlinear effect of a given variation accurate to third order in the flux and adjoint perturbations. It also accounts for the effect of interaction between any number of variations. The new formulation is compared with exact perturbation theory as well as with perturbation theory for altered systems. The usefulnes of the second-order GPT formulation is illustrated by applying it to optimization problems. Its applicability to areas of cross-section sensitivity analysis and system design and evaluation is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Byung Soo; Hwang, In Koo; Chung, Chong Eun; Kwon, Kee Choon; David, E. H.; Kisner, R.A.
2004-06-01
In this report, we first proved that a random signal obtained by taking the sum of a set of signal frequency signals generates a continuous Markov process. We used this random signal to simulate the Johnson noise and verified that the Johnson noise thermometry can be used to improve the measurements of the reactor coolant temperature within an accuracy of below 0.14%. Secondly, by using this random signal we determined the optimal sampling rate when the frequency band of the Johnson noise signal is given. Also the results of our examination on how good the linearity of the Johnson noise is and how large the relative error of the temperature could become when the temperature increases are described. Thirdly, the results of our analysis on a set of the Johnson noise signal blocks taken from a simple electric circuit are described. We showed that the properties of the continuous Markov process are satisfied even when some channel noises are present. Finally, we describe the algorithm we devised to handle the problem of the time lag in the long-term average or the moving average in a transient state. The algorithm is based on the Haar wavelet and is to estimate the transient temperature that has much smaller time delay. We have shown that the algorithm can track the transient temperature successfully
Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B.
1999-04-01
The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)
Development of fault diagnostic technique using reactor noise analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jin Ho; Kim, J. S.; Oh, I. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Joo, Y. S.; Choi, S.; Yoon, D. B
1999-04-01
The ultimate goal of this project is to establish the analysis technique to diagnose the integrity of reactor internals using reactor noise. The reactor noise analyses techniques for the PWR and CANDU NPP(Nuclear Power Plants) were established by which the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals and SPND instrumentations could be identified, and the noise database corresponding to each plant(both Korean and foreign one) was constructed and compared. Also the change of dynamic characteristics of the Ulchin 1 and 2 reactor internals were simulated under presumed fault conditions. Additionally portable reactor noise analysis system was developed so that real time noise analysis could directly be able to be performed at plant site. The reactor noise analyses techniques developed and the database obtained from the fault simulation, can be used to establish a knowledge based expert system to diagnose the NPP's abnormal conditions. And the portable reactor noise analysis system may be utilized as a substitute for plant IVMS(Internal Vibration Monitoring System). (author)
PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise
Le Maitre, Olivier; Knio, Omar
2015-01-01
A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads
To the analysis of reactor noise in boiling water reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seifritz, W.
1972-01-01
The paper contains some basic thoughts on the problem of neutron flux oscillations in power reactors. The advantages of self-powered detectors and their function are explained. In addition, noise measurements of the boiling water reactors at Lingen and Holden are described, and the possibilities of an employment of vanadium detectors for the analysis of reactor noise are discussed. The final pages of the paper contain a complete list of the author's publications in the field of reactor noise analysis. (RW/AK) [de
Application of autoregressive moving average model in reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran Dinh Tri
1993-01-01
The application of an autoregressive (AR) model to estimating noise measurements has achieved many successes in reactor noise analysis in the last ten years. The physical processes that take place in the nuclear reactor, however, are described by an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model rather than by an AR model. Consequently more correct results could be obtained by applying the ARMA model instead of the AR model to reactor noise analysis. In this paper the system of the generalised Yule-Walker equations is derived from the equation of an ARMA model, then a method for its solution is given. Numerical results show the applications of the method proposed. (author)
The Signal and Noise Analysis of Direct Conversion EHM Transceivers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shayegh
2006-01-01
Full Text Available A direct conversion modulator-demodulator with even harmonic mixers with emphasis on noise analysis is presented. The circuits consist of even harmonic mixers (EHMs realized with antiparallel diode pairs (APDPs. We evaluate the different levels of I/Q imbalances and DC offsets and use signal space concepts to analyze the bit error rate (BER of the proposed transceiver using M-ary QAM schemes. Moreover, the simultaneous analysis of the signal and noise has been presented.
Receive-Noise Analysis of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers.
Bozkurt, Ayhan; Yaralioglu, G Goksenin
2016-11-01
This paper presents an analysis of thermal (Johnson) noise received from the radiation medium by otherwise noiseless capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) membranes operating in their fundamental resonance mode. Determination of thermal noise received by multiple numbers of transducers or a transducer array requires the assessment of cross-coupling through the radiation medium, as well as the self-radiation impedance of the individual transducer. We show that the total thermal noise received by the cells of a CMUT has insignificant correlation, and is independent of the radiation impedance, but is only determined by the mass of each membrane and the electromechanical transformer ratio. The proof is based on the analytical derivations for a simple transducer with two cells, and extended to transducers with numerous cells using circuit simulators. We used a first-order model, which incorporates the fundamental resonance of the CMUT. Noise power is calculated by integrating over the entire spectrum; hence, the presented figures are an upper bound for the noise. The presented analyses are valid for a transimpedance amplifier in the receive path. We use the analysis results to calculate the minimum detectable pressure of a CMUT. We also provide an analysis based on the experimental data to show that output noise power is limited by and comparable to the theoretical upper limit.
Spectrogram Image Analysis of Error Signals for Minimizing Impulse Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeakwan Kim
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the theoretical and experimental study on the spectrogram image analysis of error signals for minimizing the impulse input noises in the active suppression of noise. Impulse inputs of some specific wave patterns as primary noises to a one-dimensional duct with the length of 1800 mm are shown. The convergence speed of the adaptive feedforward algorithm based on the least mean square approach was controlled by a normalized step size which was incorporated into the algorithm. The variations of the step size govern the stability as well as the convergence speed. Because of this reason, a normalized step size is introduced as a new method for the control of impulse noise. The spectrogram images which indicate the degree of the attenuation of the impulse input noises are considered to represent the attenuation with the new method. The algorithm is extensively investigated in both simulation and real-time control experiment. It is demonstrated that the suggested algorithm worked with a nice stability and performance against impulse noises. The results in this study can be used for practical active noise control systems.
Turbofan noise generation. Volume 1: Analysis
Ventres, C. S.; Theobald, M. A.; Mark, W. D.
1982-01-01
Computer programs were developed which calculate the in-duct acoustic modes excited by a fan/stator stae operating at subsonic tip speed. Three noise source mechanisms are included: (1) sound generated by the rotor blades interacting with turbulence ingested into, or generated within, the inlet duct; (2) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the turbulent wakes of the rotors blades; and (3) sound generated by the stator vanes interacting with the mean velocity deficit wakes of the rotor blades. The fan/stator stage is modeled as an ensemble of blades and vanes of zero camber and thickness enclosed within an infinite hard-walled annular duct. Turbulence drawn into or generated within the inlet duct is modeled as nonhomogeneous and anisotropic random fluid motion, superimposed upon a uniform axial mean flow, and convected with that flow. Equations for the duct mode amplitudes, or expected values of the amplitudes, are derived.
Study on statistical analysis of nonlinear and nonstationary reactor noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, Koji
1993-03-01
For the purpose of identification of nonlinear mechanism and diagnosis of nuclear reactor systems, analysis methods for nonlinear reactor noise have been studied. By adding newly developed approximate response function to GMDH, a conventional nonlinear identification method, a useful method for nonlinear spectral analysis and identification of nonlinear mechanism has been established. Measurement experiment and analysis were performed on the reactor power oscillation observed in the NSRR installed at the JAERI and the cause of the instability was clarified. Furthermore, the analysis and data recording methods for nonstationary noise have been studied. By improving the time resolution of instantaneous autoregressive spectrum, a method for monitoring and diagnosis of operational status of nuclear reactor has been established. A preprocessing system for recording of nonstationary reactor noise was developed and its usability was demonstrated through a measurement experiment. (author) 139 refs
Noise Pollution: Do We Need a Solution? An Analysis of Noise in a Cardiac Care Unit.
Ryan, Kevin M; Gagnon, Matthew; Hanna, Tyler; Mello, Brad; Fofana, Mustapha; Ciottone, Gregory; Molloy, Michael
2016-08-01
49.24% of alarms. The CCU cares for ill patients requiring constant monitoring. Despite advances in technology, measured noise levels for the hospital studied exceeded WHO standards of 40 dB and peaks of 45 dB, even during night hours when patients require rest. Further work is required to reduce noise levels and examine effects on patient satisfaction, clinical outcomes, and length of stay. Ryan KM , Gagnon M , Hanna T , Mello B , Fofana M , Ciottone G , Molloy M . Noise pollution: do we need a solution? An analysis of noise in a cardiac care unit. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):432-435.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez Escobar, A.; Lopez Cedillo, A.; Ortego Inigo, A.; Ortega Pascual, F.
2013-07-01
The NOISE application is an off-line tool developed by TECNATOM for Trillo, which simulates the power calculation circuit protection system and L-RELEB system function limitation. It is fed with real data of neutron flux with a frequency of 100 Hz and is designed for predictive analysis system alarms limitation as a result of the oscillations of neutron flux measurements. Addition is to be used as a tool for engineering support to adjust the effective value of the dead band surround filters preventing possible system alarms cause impact on the operation.
OPTIMAL AUTOMOBILE MUFFLER VIBRATION AND NOISE ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sujit Kumar Jha
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The muffler is the main part of the Automobile Exhaust System, consisting of fibrous and porous materials to absorb noise and vibrations. The exhaust gas mass coming from the engine can produce resonance, which may be the source of fatigue failure in the exhaust pipe due to the presence of continuous resonance. The modes on the muffler should be located away from the engine’s operating frequencies in order to minimise the resonance. The objective of this paper is to determine the frequencies that appear at the modes, which have the more adverse effect during the operation of the automobile. An impact test has been conducted by applying the force using a hard head hammer, and data generated have been used for plotting a graph of the transfer functions using MATLAB. Six points have been selected, namely 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 11 on the muffler for the impact test. The collected data from theses six points have been analysed for the addition of damping. Results suggests that increasing the mass increases the damping and lowers the modes of the transfer function. Further research will identify higher strength materials that can withstand the higher gas temperatures as well as the corrosion and erosion by the gas emitted from the engine.
Model of a source-driven plasma interacting with a wall in an oblique magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahedo, E.; Carralero, D.
2009-01-01
A fluid model of a magnetized source-driven plasma is discussed for regimes with (Debye length)<<(ion Larmor radius)<<(plasma size and collisional mean-free path). Plasma collection by the wall is determined in terms of angle of incidence, magnetic strength, and plasma collisionality. For nonparallel incidence, a three-scale asymptotic analysis reveals a three-region matched structure consisting of a magnetically aligned bulk region, the Chodura layer, and the Debye sheath. Sonic Chodura and Bohm conditions define the singular region transitions. For near-parallel incidence, a separate analysis demonstrates the presence of a diffusive-collisional bulk region followed by a thin collisionless layer, which differs partially from the Chodura layer. A parametric analysis unveils the presence of four regimes depending on plasma collisionality: (1) a collisionless regime, with the magnetically channeled bulk region governed by plasma production; (2) a resistive semicollisional regime, where collisions retard the plasma transport in the bulk region; (3) a diffusive semicollisional regime, where the ExB drift dominates the ion flux in the bulk region; and (4) a collisional regime, where collisions cancel out magnetic effects. At grazing incidence, plasma collection is found to vary nonmonotonically with plasma collisionality. Nonzero Debye-length effects are discussed briefly.
Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele
2011-01-01
LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3x10 -14 m s -2 /√(Hz) at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise
Benchmark Analysis of Subcritical Noise Measurements on a Nickel-Reflected Plutonium Metal Sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
John D. Bess; Jesson Hutchinson
2009-09-01
Subcritical experiments using californium source-driven noise analysis (CSDNA) and Feynman variance-to-mean methods were performed with an alpha-phase plutonium sphere reflected by nickel shells, up to a maximum thickness of 7.62 cm. Both methods provide means of determining the subcritical multiplication of a system containing nuclear material. A benchmark analysis of the experiments was performed for inclusion in the 2010 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Benchmark models have been developed that represent these subcritical experiments. An analysis of the computed eigenvalues and the uncertainty in the experiment and methods was performed. The eigenvalues computed using the CSDNA method were very close to those calculated using MCNP5; however, computed eigenvalues are used in the analysis of the CSDNA method. Independent calculations using KENO-VI provided similar eigenvalues to those determined using the CSDNA method and MCNP5. A slight trend with increasing nickel-reflector thickness was seen when comparing MCNP5 and KENO-VI results. For the 1.27-cm-thick configuration the MCNP eigenvalue was approximately 300 pcm greater. The calculated KENO eigenvalue was about 300 pcm greater for the 7.62-cm-thick configuration. The calculated results were approximately the same for a 5-cm-thick shell. The eigenvalues determined using the Feynman method are up to approximately 2.5% lower than those determined using either the CSDNA method or the Monte Carlo codes. The uncertainty in the results from either method was not large enough to account for the bias between the two experimental methods. An ongoing investigation is being performed to assess what potential uncertainties and/or biases exist that have yet to be properly accounted for. The dominant uncertainty in the CSDNA analysis was the uncertainty in selecting a neutron cross-section library for performing the analysis of the data. The uncertainty in the
Vibration and noise analysis in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-12-01
Results of the investigations on noise and vibration analysis are presented as a follow-up study of the work published in ''On-load Surveillance of Nuclear Power Plant Components by Noise and Vibration Analysis'' EUR 5036 e. The state of the art in on-load surveillance techniques of light water reactors is given by extending the preceding studies to investigations of boiling water reactors and by summarizing the latest results of pressurized water reactors, the basis being experimental and theoretical work performed by the different organizations involved in preparing this report. Finally, some developments with respect to measurement and identification methods are discussed
Application of noise analysis methods in nuclear reactor diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dach, K.
1985-01-01
By statistical evaluation of the fluctuation component of signals from selected detectors, noise diagnostics detects conditions of equipment which might later result in failure. The objective of early diagnostics is to detect the failed integrity of primary circuit components, failed detectors or anomalies of the thermohydraulic process. The commonest method of experimental data analysis is spectral analysis in the frequency range 0 to 50 Hz. Recently, expert diagnostic systems have been built based on artificial intelligence systems. Czechoslovakia participates in the experimental research of noise diagnostics in the context of the development of diagnostic assemblies for WWER-440 reactors. (M.D.)
Technical noise supplement : TeNS : a technical supplement to the Traffic Noise Analysis Protocol.
1998-10-01
The purpose of this Technical Noise Supplement (TeNS) is to provide technical background : information on transportation-related noise in general and highway traffic noise in : particular. It is designed to elaborate on technical concepts and procedu...
Bedload transport from spectral analysis of seismic noise near rivers
Hsu, L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.
2010-12-01
Channel change in rivers is driven by bedload sediment transport. However, the nonlinear nature of sediment transport combined with the difficulty of making direct observations in rivers at flood hinder prediction of the timing and magnitude of bedload movement. Recent studies have shown that spectral analysis of seismic noise from seismometers near rivers illustrate a correlation between the relative amplitude of high frequency (>1 Hz) seismic noise and conditions for bedload transport, presumably from the energy transferred from clast collisions with the channel. However, a previous study in the Himalayas did not contain extensive bedload transport or discharge measurements, and the correspondence of seismic noise with proxy variables such as regional hydrologic and meteorologic data was not exact. A more complete understanding of the relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise would be valuable for extending the spatial and temporal extent of bedload data. To explore the direct relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise, we examine data from several seismic stations near the Trinity River in California, where the fluvial morphodynamics and bedload rating curves have been studied extensively. We compare the relative amplitude of the ambient seismic noise with records of water discharge and sediment transport. We also examine the noise at hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales to determine other possible sources of noise. We report the influence of variables such as local river slope, adjacent geology, anthropogenic noise, and distance from the river. The results illustrate the feasibility of using existing seismic arrays to sense radiated energy from processes of bedload transport. In addition, the results can be used to design future seismic array campaigns to optimize information about bedload transport. This technique provides great spatial and temporal coverage, and can be performed where direct bedload measurements are difficult or
Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise
Livina, Valerie N.; Brouwer, Albert; Harris, Peter; Wang, Lian; Sotirakopoulos, Kostas; Robinson, Stephen
2018-02-01
We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations) of the time series.
Tipping point analysis of ocean acoustic noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Livina
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We apply tipping point analysis to a large record of ocean acoustic data to identify the main components of the acoustic dynamical system and study possible bifurcations and transitions of the system. The analysis is based on a statistical physics framework with stochastic modelling, where we represent the observed data as a composition of deterministic and stochastic components estimated from the data using time-series techniques. We analyse long-term and seasonal trends, system states and acoustic fluctuations to reconstruct a one-dimensional stochastic equation to approximate the acoustic dynamical system. We apply potential analysis to acoustic fluctuations and detect several changes in the system states in the past 14 years. These are most likely caused by climatic phenomena. We analyse trends in sound pressure level within different frequency bands and hypothesize a possible anthropogenic impact on the acoustic environment. The tipping point analysis framework provides insight into the structure of the acoustic data and helps identify its dynamic phenomena, correctly reproducing the probability distribution and scaling properties (power-law correlations of the time series.
Noise removing in encrypted color images by statistical analysis
Islam, N.; Puech, W.
2012-03-01
Cryptographic techniques are used to secure confidential data from unauthorized access but these techniques are very sensitive to noise. A single bit change in encrypted data can have catastrophic impact over the decrypted data. This paper addresses the problem of removing bit error in visual data which are encrypted using AES algorithm in the CBC mode. In order to remove the noise, a method is proposed which is based on the statistical analysis of each block during the decryption. The proposed method exploits local statistics of the visual data and confusion/diffusion properties of the encryption algorithm to remove the errors. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used at the receiving end for the possible solution for noise removing in visual data in encrypted domain.
Implementation of 252Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming
2012-01-01
The principle of 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement method is introduced. A measurement system and platform is realized accordingly, which is a combination of hardware and software, for measuring nuclear parameters. The detection method of neutron pulses based on an ultra-high-speed data acquisition card (three channels, 1 GHz sampling rate, 1 ns synchronization) is described, and the data processing process and the power spectrum density algorithm on PC are designed. This 252 Cf-source-driven power spectrum density measurement system can effectively obtain the nuclear tag parameters of nuclear random processes, such as correlation function and power spectrum density. (authors)
Analysis of a Shock-Associated Noise Prediction Model Using Measured Jet Far-Field Noise Data
Dahl, Milo D.; Sharpe, Jacob A.
2014-01-01
A code for predicting supersonic jet broadband shock-associated noise was assessed using a database containing noise measurements of a jet issuing from a convergent nozzle. The jet was operated at 24 conditions covering six fully expanded Mach numbers with four total temperature ratios. To enable comparisons of the predicted shock-associated noise component spectra with data, the measured total jet noise spectra were separated into mixing noise and shock-associated noise component spectra. Comparisons between predicted and measured shock-associated noise component spectra were used to identify deficiencies in the prediction model. Proposed revisions to the model, based on a study of the overall sound pressure levels for the shock-associated noise component of the measured data, a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters with emphasis on the definition of the convection velocity parameter, and a least-squares fit of the predicted to the measured shock-associated noise component spectra, resulted in a new definition for the source strength spectrum in the model. An error analysis showed that the average error in the predicted spectra was reduced by as much as 3.5 dB for the revised model relative to the average error for the original model.
Noise Measurement and Frequency Analysis of Commercially Available Noisy Toys
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shohreh Jalaie
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Objective: Noise measurement and frequency analysis of commercially available noisy toys were the main purposes of the study. Materials and Methods: 181 noisy toys commonly found in toy stores in different zones of Tehran were selected and categorized into 10 groups. Noise measurement were done at 2, 25, and 50 cm from toys in dBA. The noisiest toy of each group was frequency analyzed in octave bands. Results: The highest and the lowest intensity levels belonged to the gun (mean=112 dBA and range of 100-127 dBA and to the rattle-box (mean=84 dBA and range of 74-95 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity levels significantly decreased with increasing distance except for two toys. Noise frequency analysis indicated energy in effective hearing frequencies. Most of the toys energies were in the middle and high frequency region. Conclusion: As intensity level of the toys is considerable, mostly more than 90 dBA, and also their energy exist in the middle and high frequency region, toys should be considered as a cause of the hearing impairment.
Sensitivity of PPI analysis to differences in noise reduction strategies.
Barton, M; Marecek, R; Rektor, I; Filip, P; Janousova, E; Mikl, M
2015-09-30
In some fields of fMRI data analysis, using correct methods for dealing with noise is crucial for achieving meaningful results. This paper provides a quantitative assessment of the effects of different preprocessing and noise filtering strategies on psychophysiological interactions (PPI) methods for analyzing fMRI data where noise management has not yet been established. Both real and simulated fMRI data were used to assess these effects. Four regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen for the PPI analysis on the basis of their engagement during two tasks. PPI analysis was performed for 32 different preprocessing and analysis settings, which included data filtering with RETROICOR or no such filtering; different filtering of the ROI "seed" signal with a nuisance data-driven time series; and the involvement of these data-driven time series in the subsequent PPI GLM analysis. The extent of the statistically significant results was quantified at the group level using simple descriptive statistics. Simulated data were generated to assess statistical improvement of different filtering strategies. We observed that different approaches for dealing with noise in PPI analysis yield differing results in real data. In simulated data, we found RETROICOR, seed signal filtering and the addition of data-driven covariates to the PPI design matrix significantly improves results. We recommend the use of RETROICOR, and data-driven filtering of the whole data, or alternatively, seed signal filtering with data-driven signals and the addition of data-driven covariates to the PPI design matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis
Yang, Bing; Liu, Yan
2013-01-01
A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and ...
Neutron noise analysis of BWR using time series analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukunishi, Kohyu
1976-01-01
The main purpose of this paper is to give more quantitative understanding of noise source in neutron flux and to provide a useful tool for the detection and diagnosis of reactor. The space dependent effects of distributed neutron flux signals at the axial direction of two different strings are investigated by the power contribution ratio among neutron fluxes and the incoherent noise spectra of neutron fluxes derived from autoregressive spectra. The signals are measured on the medium sized commercial BWR of 460 MWe in Japan. From the obtained results, local and global noise sources in neutron flux are discussed. This method is indicated to be a useful tool for detection and diagnosis of anomalous phenomena in BWR. (orig./RW) [de
Reactor noise analysis of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, Hideji; Yamamoto, Hisashi
1980-01-01
As a part of dynamics tests in experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', reactor noise tests were carried out. The reactor noise analysis techniques are effective for study of plant characteristics by determining fluctuations of process signals (neutron signal, reactor inlet temperature signals, etc.), which are able to be measured without disturbances for reactor operations. The aims of reactor noise tests were to confirm that no unstable phenomenon exists in ''JOYO'' and to gain initial data of the plant for reference of the future data. Data for the reactor noise tests treated in this paper were obtained at 50 MW power level. Fluctuations of process signals were amplified and recorded on analogue tapes. The analysis was performed using noise code (NOISA) of digital computer, with which statistical values of ASPD (auto power spectral density), CPSD (cross power spectral density), and CF (coherence function) were calculated. The primary points of the results are as follows. 1. RMS value of neutron signal at 50 MW power level is about 0.03 MW. This neutron fluctuation is not disturbing reactor operations. 2. The fluctuations of A loop reactor inlet temperatures (T sub(AI)) are larger than the fluctuations of B loop reactor inlet temperature (T sub(BI)). For this reason, the major driving force of neutron fluctuations seems to be the fluctuations of T sub(AI). 3. Core and blanket subassemblies can be divided into two halves (A and B region), with respect to the spacial motion of temperature in the reactor core. A or B region means the region in which sodium temperature fluctuations in subassembly are significantly affected by T sub(AI) or T sub(BI), respectively. This phenomenon seems to be due to the lack of mixing of A and B loop sodium in lower plenum of reactor vessel. (author)
Data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa Oliveira, J.; Morais Da Veiga, C.; Forjaz Trigueiros, D.; Pombo Duarte, J.
1975-01-01
A data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis by time correlation methods is described, consisting in one to four data feeding channels (transducer, associated electronics and V/f converter), a sampling unit, a landline transmission system and a PDP 15 computer. This system is being applied to study the kinetic parameters of the 'Reactor Portugues de Investigacao', a swimming-pool 1MW reactor. The main features that make such a data acquisition and processing system a useful tool to perform noise analysis are: the improved characteristics of analog-to-digital converters employed to quantize the signals; the use of an on-line computer which allows a great accumulation and a rapid treatment of data together with an easy check of the correctness of the experiments; and the adoption of the time cross-correlation technique using two-detectors which by-pass the limitation of low efficiency detectors. (author)
NOASYS, a system for on-line noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Massier, H.
1978-07-01
This report describes NOASYS, a versatile NOise Analysis SYStem for digital on-line signal processing. The system based on a minicomputer, was originally developed for the analysis of noise signals from nuclear reactors. NOASYS computes various statistical functions e.g. cross- und auto-correlation functions and power spectral densities resp., which may be used for reactor diagnosis and malfunction detection. The system processes up to 16 analog signals with a maximum sampling frequency of 100 kcps (1 channel). The processing of the sampled data is done by a number of software tasks, which may be called from a teletype or linked together for specific measuring programs. The standard configuration contains the often used processing routines e.g. Fast Fourier Transform, complex multiplication, summation etc. In addition NOASYS may be extended by users own tasks (in Assembler or Fortran) to fit for specific applications. (orig.) 891 HP [de
Current applications of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damiano, B.; Kryter, R.C.
1990-02-01
Monitoring programs using vibration monitoring or neutron noise analysis have demonstrated the ability to detect and, in some cases, diagnose the nature of reactor vessel internals structural degradation. Detection of compromised mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internal components in its early stages allows corrective action to be taken before weakening or damage occurs. In addition to the economic benefits early detection and correction can provide, they can also help maintain plant safety. Information on the condition of reactor vessel internal components gained from a monitoring program supplements in-service inspection results and may be useful in justifying plant license extension. This report, which was prepared under the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, discusses the application of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis for monitoring light-water reactor vessel internals. The report begins by describing the effects of structural integrity loss on internals vibration and how measurable parameters can be used to detect and track the progress of degradation. This is followed by a description and comparison of vibration monitoring and neutron noise analysis, two methods for monitoring the mechanical integrity of reactor vessel internals condition monitoring programs in the United States, Federal Republic of Germany, and France, three countries having substantial commitments to nuclear power. The last section presents guidelines for US utilities wishing to establish reactor internals condition monitoring programs. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs
Analysis of Noise Mechanisms in Cell-Size Control.
Modi, Saurabh; Vargas-Garcia, Cesar Augusto; Ghusinga, Khem Raj; Singh, Abhyudai
2017-06-06
At the single-cell level, noise arises from multiple sources, such as inherent stochasticity of biomolecular processes, random partitioning of resources at division, and fluctuations in cellular growth rates. How these diverse noise mechanisms combine to drive variations in cell size within an isoclonal population is not well understood. Here, we investigate the contributions of different noise sources in well-known paradigms of cell-size control, such as adder (division occurs after adding a fixed size from birth), sizer (division occurs after reaching a size threshold), and timer (division occurs after a fixed time from birth). Analysis reveals that variation in cell size is most sensitive to errors in partitioning of volume among daughter cells, and not surprisingly, this process is well regulated among microbes. Moreover, depending on the dominant noise mechanism, different size-control strategies (or a combination of them) provide efficient buffering of size variations. We further explore mixer models of size control, where a timer phase precedes/follows an adder, as has been proposed in Caulobacter crescentus. Although mixing a timer and an adder can sometimes attenuate size variations, it invariably leads to higher-order moments growing unboundedly over time. This results in a power-law distribution for the cell size, with an exponent that depends inversely on the noise in the timer phase. Consistent with theory, we find evidence of power-law statistics in the tail of C. crescentus cell-size distribution, although there is a discrepancy between the observed power-law exponent and that predicted from the noise parameters. The discrepancy, however, is removed after data reveal that the size added by individual newborns in the adder phase itself exhibits power-law statistics. Taken together, this study provides key insights into the role of noise mechanisms in size homeostasis, and suggests an inextricable link between timer-based models of size control and
Properties of autoregressive model in reactor noise analysis, 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamada, Sumasu; Kishida, Kuniharu; Bekki, Keisuke.
1987-01-01
Under appropriate conditions, stochastic processes are described by the ARMA model, however, the AR model is popularly used in reactor noise analysis. Hence, the properties of AR model as an approximate representation of the ARMA model should be made clear. Here, convergence of AR-parameters and PSD of AR model were studied through numerical analysis on specific examples such as the neutron noise in subcritical reactors, and it was found that : (1) The convergence of AR-parameters and AR model PSD is governed by the ''zero nearest to the unit circle in the complex plane'' (μ -1 ,|μ| M . (3) The AR model of the neutron noise of subcritical reactors needs a large model order because of an ARMA-zero very close to unity corresponding to the decay constant of the 6-th group of delayed neutron precursors. (4) In applying AR model for system identification, much attention has to be paid to a priori unknown error as an approximate representation of the ARMA model in addition to the statistical errors. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakurai, H.; Seno, T.; Tanabe, Y. (Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
1991-06-10
Concerning the second harmonic generation(SHG) of diode laser pumped solid state laser using a nonlinear optical material, the researches are carried out to pracitically apply to the optical pickup. Therefore, the reduction of output optical noise has become the important researching subject. The theoretical and experimental analyses of noise generating mechanism were carried out for the system in which Nd;YAG as the laser diode and KTP (KTiOPO {sub 4}) as the nonlinear optical crystal were used. The following findings for the noise generating mechanism could be obtained: The competitive interaction between the polarization modes was dominant noise mechanism in the high frequency range from 1 to 20MHz and the noise could be removed sufficiently by using the QWP(quarter wave plate). On the other hand, the noise observed in the low frequency range from 100 to 200kHz depended on the resonance length, agreed qualitatively with the theoretical analysis of the noise to the competitive longitudinal modes and agreed quantitatively with the noise generating frequency range. 10 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.
Identification of multivariate models for noise analysis of nuclear plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zwingelstein, G.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.
1979-01-01
During the normal operation of a pressurized water reactor, neutron noise analysis with multivariate autoregressive procedures in a valuable diagnostic tool to extract dynamic characteristics for incipient failure detection. The first part of the paper will describe in details the equations for estimating the multivariate autoregressive model matrices and the structure of various matrices. The matrices are estimated by solving a set of matrix operations, called Yule-Walker equations. The selection of optimal model order will also be discussed. Once the optimal parameter set is obtained, simple and fast calculations are used to determine the auto power spectral density, cross spectra, coherence function, phase. In addition the spectra may be decomposed into components being contributed from different noise sources. An application using neutron flux data collected on a nuclear plant will illustrate the efficiency of the method
Identifying functions for ex-core neutron noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avila, J.M.; Oliveira, J.C.
1987-01-01
A method of performing the phase analysis of signals arising from neutron detectors placed in the periphery of a pressurized water reactor is proposed. It consists in the definition of several identifying functions, based on the phases of cross power spectral densities corresponding to four ex-core neutron detectors. Each of these functions enhances the appearance of different sources of noise. The method, applied to the ex-core neutron fluctuation analysis of a French PWR, proved to be very useful as it allows quick recognition of various patterns in the power spectral densities. (orig.) [de
Measurements and analysis of neutron and gamma noise in BWR's
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, H. van; Kleiss, E.B.J.
1985-01-01
Neutron and gamma sensitive collectrons (self-powered detectors) have been designed for incore noise measurements in BWRs. A so-called twin-type has been developed for measurements of two-phase flow characteristics and detailed axial velocity distributions. Construction aspects of the twin detectors are discussed. An analysis is presented of the response of both detector types to incore parametric fluctuations. This analysis is based on detector response functions which provide an insight into the 'field of view' of the two types. The results are supported by experimental verifications; it is shown that incore gamma detectors provide useful additional information about two-phase flow in a BWR. (author)
State of the art on reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernard, P.; Fry, D.; Stegemann, D.; Van Dam, H.
1986-01-01
This report is the result of the work of a task force sponsored by the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics (NEACRP) and is divided into six chapters: 1. Loose-Parts Detection and Acoustic Monitoring, 2. Thermal Hydraulics Surveillance, 3. Flow Measurements, 4. Vibration Monitoring, 5. Surveillance Systems and Evaluation Methods, and 6. System Dynamic Analysis. Each chapter summarizes the current situation in noise analysis techniques with emphasis on the following aspects: . physical quantities considered, . possible anomalies involved, . sensors used for the detection, and . conditions of applications. The remainder of each chapter discusses future trends and recommendations
Noise analysis role in reactor safety, Spectral analysis (PSD)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jovanovic, S.; Velickovic, Lj.
1967-11-01
Spectral power density of a zero power reactor is frequency dependent and related to transfer function of the reactor and to spectral density of the input disturbance. Measurement of spectral power density of a critical system is used to obtain the ratio (β/l), β is the effective yield of delayed neutrons, and l is the effective mean neutron lifetime. When reactor is subcritical, if the effective yie ald of delayed neutrons, the effective mean neutron lifetime are known, the shutdown margin can be determined by relation α = (1 - k (1- β0)/l, k is the effective multiplication factor. Output neutron spectrum at the RB reactor in Vinca was measured for a few reactor core configurations and for a few levels of heavy water at subcritical state. Measured values were satisfactory when the reactor was critical, but the reactor noise of subcritical system was covered by the white noise of the detector and electronic equipment. The Ra-Be source was under the reactor vessel when measurements of subcritical system were done. More efficient detector or external random stimulus for increasing the intensity of neutron fluctuations would be needed to obtain results for subcritical system
A hybrid source-driven method to compute fast neutron fluence in reactor pressure vessel - 017
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren-Tai, Chiang
2010-01-01
A hybrid source-driven method is developed to compute fast neutron fluence with neutron energy greater than 1 MeV in nuclear reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The method determines neutron flux by solving a steady-state neutron transport equation with hybrid neutron sources composed of peripheral fixed fission neutron sources and interior chain-reacted fission neutron sources. The relative rod-by-rod power distribution of the peripheral assemblies in a nuclear reactor obtained from reactor core depletion calculations and subsequent rod-by-rod power reconstruction is employed as the relative rod-by-rod fixed fission neutron source distribution. All fissionable nuclides other than U-238 (such as U-234, U-235, U-236, Pu-239 etc) are replaced with U-238 to avoid counting the fission contribution twice and to preserve fast neutron attenuation for heavy nuclides in the peripheral assemblies. An example is provided to show the feasibility of the method. Since the interior fuels only have a marginal impact on RPV fluence results due to rapid attenuation of interior fast fission neutrons, a generic set or one of several generic sets of interior fuels can be used as the driver and only the neutron sources in the peripheral assemblies will be changed in subsequent hybrid source-driven fluence calculations. Consequently, this hybrid source-driven method can simplify and reduce cost for fast neutron fluence computations. This newly developed hybrid source-driven method should be a useful and simplified tool for computing fast neutron fluence at selected locations of interest in RPV of contemporary nuclear power reactors. (authors)
Identification of nuclear reactor characteristics by the reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yashima, Hideyuki
1980-01-01
Reactor noise analysis method was applied to TRIGA II Research Reactor (Atomic Research Laboratory, Musashi Institute of Technology) and computed power spectral density (PSD) from the CIC current record. PSD has provided many valuable informations regarding to the reactor kinetics, including the effect of control rods vibration. Another information of neutron physics parameters were obtained and this result was compared with the parameter which was formerly measured by the Feynman-α experiment. Through these experiments we could find overall frequency characteristics of TRIGA II Reactor. (author)
The noise analysis and the BWR operation map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blazquez, J.; Ballestrin, J.
1996-01-01
An analytical expression for the Decay Ratio is obtained: DR = exp(-bW / P 1/2 ). The physics behind is also explained. It applies to a commercial BWR Operation Map, on the vicinity of the power instability. This functional form seems fitting to the structure of the Operation map. The power P and the coolant flow are measured straightforward; the Decay Ratio is obtained by neutron noise analysis techniques. The parameter b, depending on the void reactivity coefficient, is then calculated on line during the Reactor Operation. New DR value is now predicted for each new displacement on the Map, so unexpected instability events are more likely avoided. (authors)
Noise suppression and crosstalk analysis of on-chip magnetic film-type noise suppressor
Ma, Jingyan; Muroga, Sho; Endo, Yasushi; Hashi, Shuichiro; Naoe, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Ishiyama, Kazushi
2018-05-01
This paper discusses near field, conduction and crosstalk noise suppression of magnetic films with uniaxial anisotropy on transmission lines for a film-type noise suppressor in the GHz frequency range. The electromagnetic noise suppressions of magnetic films with different permeability and resistivity were measured and simulated with simple microstrip lines. The experimental and simulated results of Co-Zr-Nb and CoPd-CaF2 films agreed with each other. The results indicate that the higher permeability leads to a better near field shielding, and in the frequency range of 2-7 GHz, a higher conduction noise suppression. It also suggests that the higher resistivity results in a better crosstalk suppression in the frequency range below 2 GHz. These results can support the design guidelines of the magnetic film-type noise suppressor used in the next generation IC chip.
Lifetime measurement of prompt neutrons using the neutronic noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortiz Servin, J.J.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this work is to estimate the life of the prompt neutrons, i, of a nuclear reactor utilizing the neutron noise analysis. This technique carry to development of mathematical model that is valid for lower powers reactor. The equation resulting convey to the observation about power spectrum behaviour respect to the frecquency. In this case, the reactor in study is the Triga Mark III of Nuclear Center of Mexico that it was provided of fission chambers for register the neutron fluxes. These fluxes was digitized and storage in computer disc as signals dependents of time, for later apply the Fourier Transformation and obtain the spectras. The spectras measured to different reactor powers were adjusted to the development equation before, using the method of square minimum and so estimate the parameter i. The analysis of results throw a value of 22.73 +/- 0.92 μs. On the other hand, the calculate value to the resolve the kinetic equation of reactor defer in lower than 4 % about the estimate. Of this, it concludes that the model utilized is trusty with a good mistake margin, moreover of that the technique of Neutron Noise analysis demonstrate be competitive (Author)
Diagnosis methods based on noise analysis at Cernavoda NPP, Romania
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banica, Constantin; Dobrea, Dumitru
1999-01-01
This paper describes a recent noise analysis of the neutronic signals provided by in-core flux detectors (ICFD) and ion chambers (IC). This analysis is part of on-going program developed for Unit 1 of the Cernavoda NPP, Romania, with the following main objectives: - prediction of detector failures based on pattern recognition; - determination of fast excursions from steady states; - detection of abnormal mechanical vibrations in the reactor core. The introduction presents briefly the reactor, the location of ICFD's and IC's. The second section presents the data acquisition systems and their capabilities. The paper continues with a brief presentation of the numerical methods used for analysis (section 3). The most significant results can be found in section 4, while section 5 concludes about useful information that can be obtained from the neutronic signals at high power steady-state operation. (authors)
Utility experience in reactor noise analysis in German LWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuette, A.; Weingarten, J.; Wach, D.
1988-01-01
Reactor noise analysis has a long history in Fed. Rep. of Germany. Since the early 60ies it was directed to early fault, malfunction and anomaly detection in nuclear power plants. When successful diagnoses showed the high potential and benefits including economic and safety aspects, also the utilities began to have a vivid concern in application of the developed methods and systems. The know-how transfer from specialized teams to the onsite personnel as well as the development of more ''intelligent'' online systems are important present and future tasks for further improvement of their efficiency. The diagnostic group of GRS is active in both fields and has close cooperation with several utilities to achieve these objectives. Modern signal processing equipment and access to a comprehensive knowledge base stored in data banks are provided by the data analysis center of GRS. The available capabilities are described and examples of analysis results within the cooperation utilities/GRS are given. (author)
Noise analysis and performance of a selfscanned linear InSb detector array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finger, G.; Meyer, M.; Moorwood, A.F.M.
1987-01-01
A noise model for detectors operated in the capacitive discharge mode is presented. It is used to analyze the noise performance of the ESO nested timing readout technique applied to a linear 32-element InSb array which is multiplexed by a silicon switched-FET shift register. Analysis shows that KTC noise of the videoline is the major noise contribution; it can be eliminated by weighted double-correlated sampling. Best noise performance of this array is achieved at the smallest possible reverse bias voltage (not more than 20 mV) whereas excess noise is observed at higher reverse bias voltages. 5 references
Applications of aero-acoustic analysis to wind turbine noise control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowson, M.V.
1992-01-01
Wind turbine noise generation mechanisms are essentially equivalent to the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. Basic sources for the wind turbine noise radiation process are defined, and their significance assessed. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. (author)
Applications of aero-acoustic analysis to wind turbine noise control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowson, M.
1993-01-01
Wind turbine noise generation mechanisms are essentially equivalent to the aero-acoustic mechanisms of other rotors, which have been studied in depth for many years. Basic sources for the wind turbine noise radiation process are defined, and their significance assessed. From the analysis, areas of potential improvement in wind turbine noise prediction are defined. Suggestions are made for approaches to wind turbine noise control which separate the noise problems at cut-in from those at rated power. Some of these offer the possibility of noise reduction without unfavourable effects on performance. (author)
Analysis of modeling aircraft noise with the Nord2000 noise model
2012-10-31
This report provides comparisons between AEDT/INM and the Nord 2000 Noise Models for the following parameters: ground type, simple terrain (downward slope, upward slope, hill), temperature and humidity, temperature gradients (positive and negative), ...
Rotary Compressor Noise Analysis Using Mechanisms and Electromagnetics Coupled Approach
Chung, Jinah; Lee, Uiyoon; Lee, Jeongbae; Lee, Unseop; Han, Eunsil; Yoon, Jinhwan
2016-01-01
This research is conducted to investigate noise source and design low noise compressors. For improving energy efficiency, the rotary compressor with variable speed brushless DC motor is increasingly adopted for appliances.Â However brushless DC motor makes more compressor vibration than constant speed motor compressor at high speed operating condition. Therefore it is necessary to reduce noise and vibration for improving air conditioner quality. In this study, compressorâ€™s noise and vibrat...
Fermeuse wind power project Newfoundland : noise and visual analysis studies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, P.; Turgeon, J.; Heraud, P.; Belanger, S.; Dakousian, S.; Lamontagne, C.; Soares, D. [Helimax Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Basil, C.; Boulianne, S.; Salacup, S.; Thompson, C. [Skypower, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2008-03-15
This paper discussed the noise and visual analyses used to assess the potential impacts of a wind energy project on the east coast of the Avalon Peninsula near St. John's, Newfoundland. The proposed farm will be located approximately 1 km away from the town of Fermeuse, and will have an installed capacity of 27 MW from 9 turbines. The paper provided details of the consultation process conducted to determine acceptable distance and site locations for the wind turbines from the community. Stakeholders were identified during meetings, events, and discussions with local authorities. Consultations were also held with government agencies and municipal councils. A baseline acoustic environment study was conducted, and details of anticipated environmental impacts during the project's construction, operation, and decommissioning phases were presented. The visual analysis study was divided into the following landscape units: town, shoreline, forest, open land and lacustrine landscapes. The effect of the turbines on the landscapes were assessed from different viewpoints using visual simulation programs. The study showed that the visual effects of the project are not considered as significant because of the low number of turbines. It was concluded that the effect of construction on ambient noise levels is of low concern as all permanent dwellings are located at least 1 km away from the turbines. 2 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.
Noise Source Identification of a Ring-Plate Cycloid Reducer Based on Coherence Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bing Yang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available A ring-plate-type cycloid speed reducer is one of the most important reducers owing to its low volume, compactness, smooth and high performance, and high reliability. The vibration and noise tests of the reducer prototype are completed using the HEAD acoustics multichannel noise test and analysis system. The characteristics of the vibration and noise are obtained based on coherence analysis and the noise sources are identified. The conclusions provide the bases for further noise research and control of the ring-plate-type cycloid reducer.
Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.
1976-01-01
A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system
Reactor noise analysis by statistical pattern recognition methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howington, L.C.; Gonzalez, R.C.
1976-01-01
A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis is presented. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, updating, and data compacting capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. Its abilities to learn normal patterns, to recognize deviations from these patterns, and to reduce the dimensionality of data with minimum error were evaluated by experiments at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Flux Isotope Reactor. Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the pattern recognition system
Multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, R.C.; Howington, L.C.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Kryter, R.C.
1975-01-01
A multivariate statistical pattern recognition system for reactor noise analysis was developed. The basis of the system is a transformation for decoupling correlated variables and algorithms for inferring probability density functions. The system is adaptable to a variety of statistical properties of the data, and it has learning, tracking, and updating capabilities. System design emphasizes control of the false-alarm rate. The ability of the system to learn normal patterns of reactor behavior and to recognize deviations from these patterns was evaluated by experiments at the ORNL High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Power perturbations of less than 0.1 percent of the mean value in selected frequency ranges were detected by the system. 19 references
PC analysis of stochastic differential equations driven by Wiener noise
Le Maitre, Olivier
2015-03-01
A polynomial chaos (PC) analysis with stochastic expansion coefficients is proposed for stochastic differential equations driven by additive or multiplicative Wiener noise. It is shown that for this setting, a Galerkin formalism naturally leads to the definition of a hierarchy of stochastic differential equations governing the evolution of the PC modes. Under the mild assumption that the Wiener and uncertain parameters can be treated as independent random variables, it is also shown that the Galerkin formalism naturally separates parametric uncertainty and stochastic forcing dependences. This enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the process variance, and consequently identify contributions arising from the uncertainty in parameters, the stochastic forcing, and a coupled term. Insight gained from this decomposition is illustrated in light of implementation to simplified linear and non-linear problems; the case of a stochastic bifurcation is also considered.
A simple white noise analysis of neuronal light responses.
Chichilnisky, E J
2001-05-01
A white noise technique is presented for estimating the response properties of spiking visual system neurons. The technique is simple, robust, efficient and well suited to simultaneous recordings from multiple neurons. It provides a complete and easily interpretable model of light responses even for neurons that display a common form of response nonlinearity that precludes classical linear systems analysis. A theoretical justification of the technique is presented that relies only on elementary linear algebra and statistics. Implementation is described with examples. The technique and the underlying model of neural responses are validated using recordings from retinal ganglion cells, and in principle are applicable to other neurons. Advantages and disadvantages of the technique relative to classical approaches are discussed.
A Comparison of seismic instrument noise coherence analysis techniques
Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Evans, J.R.; Sandoval, L.D.
2011-01-01
The self-noise of a seismic instrument is a fundamental characteristic used to evaluate the quality of the instrument. It is important to be able to measure this self-noise robustly, to understand how differences among test configurations affect the tests, and to understand how different processing techniques and isolation methods (from nonseismic sources) can contribute to differences in results. We compare two popular coherence methods used for calculating incoherent noise, which is widely used as an estimate of instrument self-noise (incoherent noise and self-noise are not strictly identical but in observatory practice are approximately equivalent; Holcomb, 1989; Sleeman et al., 2006). Beyond directly comparing these two coherence methods on similar models of seismometers, we compare how small changes in test conditions can contribute to incoherent-noise estimates. These conditions include timing errors, signal-to-noise ratio changes (ratios between background noise and instrument incoherent noise), relative sensor locations, misalignment errors, processing techniques, and different configurations of sensor types.
Seismic Background Noise Analysis of BRTR (PS-43) Array
Ezgi Bakir, Mahmure; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Umut Semin, Korhan
2015-04-01
The seismic background noise variation of BRTR array, composed of two sub arrays located in Ankara and in Ankara-Keskin, has been investigated by calculating Power Spectral Density and Probability Density Functions for seasonal and diurnal noise variations between 2005 and 2011. PSDs were computed within the frequency range of 100 s - 10 Hz. The results show us a little change in noise conditions in terms of time and location. Especially, noise level changes were observed at 3-5 Hz in diurnal variations at Keskin array and there is a 5-7 dB difference in day and night time in cultural noise band (1-10 Hz). On the other hand, noise levels of medium period array is high in 1-2 Hz frequency rather than short period array. High noise levels were observed in daily working times when we compare it to night-time in cultural noise band. The seasonal background noise variation at both sites also shows very similar properties to each other. Since these stations are borehole instruments and away from the coasts, we saw a small change in noise levels caused by microseism. Comparison between Keskin short period array and Ankara medium period array show us Keskin array is quiter than Ankara array.
Multi-scale analysis of teleconnection indices: climate noise and nonlinear trend analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Franzke
2009-02-01
Full Text Available The multi-scale nature and climate noise properties of teleconnection indices are examined by using the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD procedure. The EMD procedure allows for the analysis of non-stationary time series to extract physically meaningful intrinsic mode functions (IMF and nonlinear trends. The climatologically relevant monthly mean teleconnection indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the North Pacific index (NP and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM are analyzed.
The significance of IMFs and trends are tested against the null hypothesis of climate noise. The analysis of surrogate monthly mean time series from a red noise process shows that the EMD procedure is effectively a dyadic filter bank and the IMFs (except the first IMF are nearly Gaussian distributed. The distribution of the variance contained in IMFs of an ensemble of AR(1 simulations is nearly χ^{2} distributed. To test the statistical significance of the IMFs of the teleconnection indices and their nonlinear trends we utilize an ensemble of corresponding monthly averaged AR(1 processes, which we refer to as climate noise. Our results indicate that most of the interannual and decadal variability of the analysed teleconnection indices cannot be distinguished from climate noise. The NP and SAM indices have significant nonlinear trends, while the NAO has no significant trend when tested against a climate noise hypothesis.
Road Traffic Noise Pollution Analysis for Cernavoda City
Manea, L.; Manea, A.; Florea, D.; Tarulescu, S.
2017-10-01
In the present paper was studied the noise pollution in Cernavodă city. The noise measurements were made for nine intersections from different city areas. Noise measurements were taken for three chosen routes with high population density, heavy traffic, commercial and residential buildings. Average, maximum and minimum values were collected and compared with standards. The impact of road traffic noise on the community depends on various factors such as road location and design, land use planning measures, building design, traffic composition, driver behaviour and the relief. In the study area 9 locations are identified to measure noise level. By using sound level meter noise levels are measured at different peak sessions i.e. morning, afternoon and evening. The presented values were collected for evening rush hour.
Measurement and analysis of self-noise in hybrid-driven underwater gliders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LIU Lu
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The Hybrid-driven Underwater Glider (HUG is a new type of submersible vehicle which combines the functions of traditional Autonomous Underwater Vehicles(AUVand Autonomous Underwater Gliders(AUG. In order to study its noise source distribution and basic self-noise characteristics, a self-noise acquisition system based on the HUG was designed and developed, and a noise analysis test carried out in a free-field pool. In August 2016, the sea trial of the Petrel II glider was conducted in the South China Sea, with observation data at a depth range of 1 000 m as the research object. The self-noise data of the glider platform under different working conditions was obtained through the step-by-step operation method. The experimental analysis and results show that the self-noise acquisition system is stable. The contribution of mechanical noise to self-noise is greatest when the glider works in the gliding mode, while the self-noise band above 500 Hz is closely related to the work of the buoyancy adjustment unit, and peaks at 1 kHz. According to the analysis of the basic characteristics of self-noise, this provides some guidance for the implementation of vibration and noise reduction.
Analysis of the Noise Characteristics of CMOS Current Conveyors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Erik
1997-01-01
The definition of the current conveyor is reviewed and a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII) is shown to combine the different generations of current conveyors presently existing. Next, noise sources are introduced, and a general noise model for the current conveyor is descr......The definition of the current conveyor is reviewed and a multiple-output second generation current conveyor (CCII) is shown to combine the different generations of current conveyors presently existing. Next, noise sources are introduced, and a general noise model for the current conveyor...
Noise analysis of the Dodewaard boiling water reactor: characteristics and time history
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veer, J.H.C. v.d.; Kema, N.V.
1982-01-01
Reactor noise measurements have been performed in the Dodewaard BWR since the eighth fuel cycle (1978). Analysis of the noise characteristics of the ex-core neutron detectors are reported. As a result characteristics of the global component of the boiling noise and the influence of oscillatory effects in reactor pressure control and steam flow rate are described. The influence of power feedback effects on the detection of global noise at low frequencies is given using point kinetic reactor theory. Results are reported on the behaviour of the neutron noise characteristics during one fuel cycle and on the behaviour from fuel cycle 8 to 11. (author)
Principal component analysis of 1/fα noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, J.B.; Cao Yinhe; Lee, J.-M.
2003-01-01
Principal component analysis (PCA) is a popular data analysis method. One of the motivations for using PCA in practice is to reduce the dimension of the original data by projecting the raw data onto a few dominant eigenvectors with large variance (energy). Due to the ubiquity of 1/f α noise in science and engineering, in this Letter we study the prototypical stochastic model for 1/f α processes--the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) processes using PCA, and find that the eigenvalues from PCA of fBm processes follow a power-law, with the exponent being the key parameter defining the fBm processes. We also study random-walk-type processes constructed from DNA sequences, and find that the eigenvalue spectrum from PCA of those random-walk processes also follow power-law relations, with the exponent characterizing the correlation structures of the DNA sequence. In fact, it is observed that PCA can automatically remove linear trends induced by patchiness in the DNA sequence, hence, PCA has a similar capability to the detrended fluctuation analysis. Implications of the power-law distributed eigenvalue spectrum are discussed
Numerical noise analysis for insulator of overhead transmission line
Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Yuwen; Huang, Yu
2018-04-01
As an important and complex issue in aero acoustic field, a lot of explorations have been devoted to the wind-induced noise. However, there is still lack of intensive investigations for aerodynamic noise in high-voltage transmission. The overhead transmission line system leads to serious occupational noise exposure in high wind-speed environment, and the noise can even injure the electricians in charge of insulator. By using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) which combined with computational aero acoustics (CAA), this paper predicts the noise generated by insulator of high voltage electricity transmission line which explores in wind environment. The simulation results indicate that the wind velocity, the assembly angle of the insulator and its ribs' distribution are the main contributory factors for the aerodynamic noise. Specifically, when wind velocity is greater than 15m/s, the alteration of noise is not sensitive to the wind velocity; furthermore, when the assembly angle increases from 0°to 60°, the noise decreases gradually, however, if the angle is happening to be 75°or 90°, it would be even greater than that at 0°. In order to inhibit the aerodynamic noise, it is necessary to control the flow blowing across the boundary of the insulator. Consequently, the result indicates that if the outermost rib is shorter than the second one, the noise reduced evidently. This information expects to provide useful help for the extremely suppression of aerodynamic noise, and also supply practical reference material for the design and application of overhead transmission line system.
Analysis and removing noise from speech using wavelet transform
Tomala, Karel; Voznak, Miroslav; Partila, Pavol; Rezac, Filip; Safarik, Jakub
2013-05-01
The paper discusses the use of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) wavelet in removing noise from voice samples and evaluation of its impact on speech quality. One significant part of Quality of Service (QoS) in communication technology is the speech quality assessment. However, this part is seriously overlooked as telecommunication providers often focus on increasing network capacity, expansion of services offered and their enforcement in the market. Among the fundamental factors affecting the transmission properties of the communication chain is noise, either at the transmitter or the receiver side. A wavelet transform (WT) is a modern tool for signal processing. One of the most significant areas in which wavelet transforms are used is applications designed to suppress noise in signals. To remove noise from the voice sample in our experiment, we used the reference segment of the voice which was distorted by Gaussian white noise. An evaluation of the impact on speech quality was carried out by an intrusive objective algorithm Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). DWT and SWT transformation was applied to voice samples that were devalued by Gaussian white noise. Afterwards, we determined the effectiveness of DWT and SWT by means of objective algorithm PESQ. The decisive criterion for determining the quality of a voice sample once the noise had been removed was Mean Opinion Score (MOS) which we obtained in PESQ. The contribution of this work lies in the evaluation of efficiency of wavelet transformation to suppress noise in voice samples.
Analysis of Individual Preferences for Tuning Noise-Reduction Algorithms
Houben, Rolph; Dijkstra, Tjeerd M. H.; Dreschler, Wouter A.
2012-01-01
There is little research on user preference for different settings of noise reduction, especially for individual users. We therefore measured individual preferences for pairs of audio streams differing in the trade-off between noise reduction and speech distortion. A logistic probability model was
Temporal Noise Analysis of Charge-Domain Sampling Readout Circuits for CMOS Image Sensors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoliang Ge
2018-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a temporal noise analysis of charge-domain sampling readout circuits for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS image sensors. In order to address the trade-off between the low input-referred noise and high dynamic range, a Gm-cell-based pixel together with a charge-domain correlated-double sampling (CDS technique has been proposed to provide a way to efficiently embed a tunable conversion gain along the read-out path. Such readout topology, however, operates in a non-stationery large-signal behavior, and the statistical properties of its temporal noise are a function of time. Conventional noise analysis methods for CMOS image sensors are based on steady-state signal models, and therefore cannot be readily applied for Gm-cell-based pixels. In this paper, we develop analysis models for both thermal noise and flicker noise in Gm-cell-based pixels by employing the time-domain linear analysis approach and the non-stationary noise analysis theory, which help to quantitatively evaluate the temporal noise characteristic of Gm-cell-based pixels. Both models were numerically computed in MATLAB using design parameters of a prototype chip, and compared with both simulation and experimental results. The good agreement between the theoretical and measurement results verifies the effectiveness of the proposed noise analysis models.
Review of noise in neonatal intensive care units - regional analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez Abril, A [National Technological University, Regional Bioengineering Institute, Mendoza (Argentina); Terron, A; Boschi, C [National Technological University, Regional Bioengineering Institute, Mendoza (Argentina); Gomez, M [National Technological University, La Rioja (Argentina)
2007-11-15
This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed.
Review of noise in neonatal intensive care units - regional analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez Abril, A; Terron, A; Boschi, C; Gomez, M
2007-01-01
This work is about the problem of noise in neonatal incubators and in the environment in the neonatal intensive care units. Its main objective is to analyse the impact of noise in hospitals of Mendoza and La Rioja. Methodology: The measures were taken in different moments in front of higher or lower severity level in the working environment. It is shown that noise produces severe damages and changes in the behaviour and the psychological status of the new born babies. Results: The noise recorded inside the incubators and the neonatal intensive care units together have many components but the noise of motors, opening and closing of access gates have been considered the most important ones. Values above 60 db and and up to 120 db in some cases were recorded, so the need to train the health staff in order to manage the new born babies, the equipment and the instruments associated with them very carefully is revealed
Morisaki, Soichiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi; Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke
2016-01-01
We introduce a new analysis method to deal with stationary non-Gaussian noises in gravitational wave detectors in terms of the independent component analysis. First, we consider the simplest case where the detector outputs are linear combinations of the inputs, consisting of signals and various noises, and show that this method may be helpful to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Next, we take into account the time delay between the inputs and the outputs. Finally, we extend our method to nonlinearly correlated noises and show that our method can identify the coupling coefficients and remove non-Gaussian noises. Although we focus on gravitational wave data analysis, our methods are applicable to the detection of any signals under non-Gaussian noises.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Espada, L.; Sanjurjo, M.; Urrejola, S.; Bouzada, F.; Rey, G.; Sanchez, A.
2003-01-01
Given its simplicity and low cost compared to other types of methodologies, the measurement and interpretation of Electrochemical Noise, is consolidating itself as one of the analysis methods most frequently used for the interpretation of corrosion. As the technique is still evolving, standard treatment methodologies for data retrieved in experiments do not exist yet. To date, statistical analysis and the Fourier analysis are commonly used in order to establish the parameters that may characterize the recording of potential and current electrochemical noise. This study introduces a new methodology based on wavelet analysis and presents its advantages with regards to the Fourier analysis in distinguishes periodical and non-periodical variations in the signal power in time and frequency, as opposed to the Fourier analysis that only considers the frequency. (Author) 15 refs
Gille, Laure-Anne; Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Lam, Kin-Che
2017-01-01
Structural equation modeling was used to analyze partial and total in situ annoyance in combined transportation noise situations. A psychophysical total annoyance model and a perceptual total annoyance model were proposed. Results show a high contribution of Noise exposure and Noise sensitivity to Noise annoyance, as well as a causal relationship between noise annoyance and lower Dwelling satisfaction. Moreover, the Visibility of noise source may increase noise annoyance, even when the visibl...
An analysis of low frequency noise from large wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Møller, Henrik
2010-01-01
As wind turbines get larger, worries have emerged, that the noise emitted by the turbines would move down in frequency, and that the contents of low-frequency noise would be enough to cause significant annoyance for the neighbors. The sound emission from 48 wind turbines with nominal electric power......-third-octave-band spectra shows that the relative noise emission is higher in the 63-250 Hz frequency range from turbines above 2 MW than from smaller turbines. The observations confirm a downward shift of the spectrum....
Noise characteristics analysis of short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays
Yu, Chunlei; Li, Xue; Yang, Bo; Huang, Songlei; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yaguang; Gong, Haimei
2017-09-01
The increasing application of InGaAs short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) in low light level imaging requires ultra-low noise FPAs. This paper presents the theoretical analysis of FPA noise, and point out that both dark current and detector capacitance strongly affect the FPA noise. The impact of dark current and detector capacitance on FPA noise is compared in different situations. In order to obtain low noise performance FPAs, the demand for reducing detector capacitance is higher especially when pixel pitch is smaller, integration time is shorter, and integration capacitance is larger. Several InGaAs FPAs were measured and analyzed, the experiments' results could be well fitted to the calculated results. The study found that the major contributor of FPA noise is coupled noise with shorter integration time. The influence of detector capacitance on FPA noise is more significant than that of dark current. To investigate the effect of detector performance on FPA noise, two kinds of photodiodes with different concentration of the absorption layer were fabricated. The detectors' performance and noise characteristics were measured and analyzed, the results are consistent with that of theoretical analysis.
Realistic Noise Assessment and Strain Analysis of Iranian Permanent GPS Stations
Razeghi, S. M.; Amiri Simkooei, A. A.; Sharifi, M. A.
2012-04-01
To assess noise characteristics of Iranian Permanent GPS Stations (IPGS), northwestern part of this network namely Azerbaijan Continuous GPS Station (ACGS), was selected. For a realistic noise assessment it is required to model all deterministic signals of the GPS time series by means of least squares harmonic estimation (LS-HE) and derive all periodic behavior of the series. After taking all deterministic signals into account, the least squares variance component estimation (LS-VCE) is used to obtain a realistic noise model (white noise plus flicker noise) of the ACGS. For this purpose, one needs simultaneous GPS time series for which a multivariate noise assessment is applied. Having determined realistic noise model, a realistic strain analysis of the network is obtained for which one relies on the finite element methods. Finite element is now considered to be a new functional model and the new stochastic model is given based on the multivariate noise assessment using LS-VCE. The deformation rates of the components along with their full covariance matries are input to the strain analysis. Further, the results are also provided using a pure white noise model. The normalized strains for these two models show that the strain parameters derived from a realistic noise model are less significant than those derived from the white model. This could be either due to the short time span of the time series used or due to the intrinsic behavior of the strain parameters in the ACGS. Longer time series are required to further elaborate this issue.
Edge enhancement and noise suppression for infrared image based on feature analysis
Jiang, Meng
2018-06-01
Infrared images are often suffering from background noise, blurred edges, few details and low signal-to-noise ratios. To improve infrared image quality, it is essential to suppress noise and enhance edges simultaneously. To realize it in this paper, we propose a novel algorithm based on feature analysis in shearlet domain. Firstly, as one of multi-scale geometric analysis (MGA), we introduce the theory and superiority of shearlet transform. Secondly, after analyzing the defects of traditional thresholding technique to suppress noise, we propose a novel feature extraction distinguishing image structures from noise well and use it to improve the traditional thresholding technique. Thirdly, with computing the correlations between neighboring shearlet coefficients, the feature attribute maps identifying the weak detail and strong edges are completed to improve the generalized unsharped masking (GUM). At last, experiment results with infrared images captured in different scenes demonstrate that the proposed algorithm suppresses noise efficiently and enhances image edges adaptively.
Automatic physiological waveform processing for FMRI noise correction and analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel J Kelley
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Functional MRI resting state and connectivity studies of brain focus on neural fluctuations at low frequencies which share power with physiological fluctuations originating from lung and heart. Due to the lack of automated software to process physiological signals collected at high magnetic fields, a gap exists in the processing pathway between the acquisition of physiological data and its use in fMRI software for both physiological noise correction and functional analyses of brain activation and connectivity. To fill this gap, we developed an open source, physiological signal processing program, called PhysioNoise, in the python language. We tested its automated processing algorithms and dynamic signal visualization on resting monkey cardiac and respiratory waveforms. PhysioNoise consistently identifies physiological fluctuations for fMRI noise correction and also generates covariates for subsequent analyses of brain activation and connectivity.
Noise Analysis of Single-Ended Input Differential Amplifier using Stochastic Differential Equation
Tarun Kumar Rawat; Abhirup Lahiri; Ashish Gupta
2008-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the effect of noise in a single- ended input differential amplifier working at high frequencies. Both extrinsic and intrinsic noise are analyzed using time domain method employing techniques from stochastic calculus. Stochastic differential equations are used to obtain autocorrelation functions of the output noise voltage and other solution statistics like mean and variance. The analysis leads to important design implications and suggests changes in the device parame...
Yesterday's noise - today's signal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serdula, K.J.
1978-01-01
Plant performance can be improved by noise analysis. This paper describes noise characteristics, imposed noise and response functions, a case history of cost benefits derived from application of noise analysis techniques, areas for application of noise analysis techniques with special reference to the Gentilly-1 nuclear generating station, and the validity of noise measurement results. (E.C.B.)
Intensity of noise in the classroom and analysis of acoustic emissions in schoolchildren
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Almeida Filho, Nelson de
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss is a sensorineural hearing loss, usually bilateral, irreversible and progressive with time of exposure. As the noise made by children in school may be considered detrimental, the study looks of their occurrence in Taubaté's schools. Objective: To determine if students are exposed to noise intensity affecting the cochlea, define the profile of these schoolchildren, demonstrating the occurrence of changes in cochlear activity following exposure to noise in a day of class. Method: Study's way prospective transversal cross sectional cut with 28 elementary school students in the first half of 2009. Questionnaires for assessing preexisting cochlear damage . Evaluation of cochlear function by analysis of acoustic emissions evoked distortion product, made before the students come into class and immediately after the end of these. Measurement of noise inside the classrooms and recreation areas during the interval. Results: 57.1% accused some hearing loss in the examinations before class. By day's end, 04 girls and 03 boys had worsened in relation of the first examination. The noise reached levels higher than recommended at the three class rooms. The largest number of students with worsening, belong to the class room with higher noise level. The noise during the intervals is also excessive. Conclusions: The noise in this school is above the limit. 42.85% of students who had experienced worsening had school performance inadequate. 25% had worse after noise exposure in a school day.
The effects of observational correlated noises on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis
Gulich, Damián; Zunino, Luciano
2012-08-01
We have numerically investigated the effects that observational correlated noises have on the generalized Hurst exponents, h(q), estimated by using the multifractal generalization of detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA). More precisely, artificially generated stochastic binomial multifractals with increased amount of colored noises were analyzed via MF-DFA. It has been recently shown that for moderate additions of white noise, the generalized Hurst exponents are significantly underestimated for qeffects of additive noise, short- term memory and periodic trends, Physica A 390 (2011) 2480-2490]. In this paper, we have found that h(q) with q≥2 are also affected when correlated noises are considered. This is due to the fact that the spurious correlations influence the scaling behaviors associated to large fluctuations. The results obtained are significant for practical situations, where noises with different correlations are inherently present.
Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chie-In Lee
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laude, Vincent
2002-01-01
The problem of noise analysis in measuring the group delay introduced by a dispersive optical element by use of white-light interferometric cross correlation is investigated. Two noise types, detection noise and position noise, are specifically analyzed. Detection noise is shown to be highly sensitive to the spectral content of the white-light source at the frequency considered and to the temporal acquisition window. Position noise, which arises from the finite accuracy of the measurement of the scanning mirror's position, can severely damage the estimation of the group delay. Such is shown to be the case for fast Fourier transform-based estimation algorithms. A new algorithm that is insensitive to scanning delay errors is proposed, and subfemtosecond accuracy is obtained without any postprocessing
Xu, Shaoping; Zeng, Xiaoxia; Jiang, Yinnan; Tang, Yiling
2018-01-01
We proposed a noniterative principal component analysis (PCA)-based noise level estimation (NLE) algorithm that addresses the problem of estimating the noise level with a two-step scheme. First, we randomly extracted a number of raw patches from a given noisy image and took the smallest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of the raw patches as the preliminary estimation of the noise level. Next, the final estimation was directly obtained with a nonlinear mapping (rectification) function that was trained on some representative noisy images corrupted with different known noise levels. Compared with the state-of-art NLE algorithms, the experiment results show that the proposed NLE algorithm can reliably infer the noise level and has robust performance over a wide range of image contents and noise levels, showing a good compromise between speed and accuracy in general.
On-line analysis of reactor noise using time-series analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGevna, V.G.
1981-10-01
A method to allow use of time series analysis for on-line noise analysis has been developed. On-line analysis of noise in nuclear power reactors has been limited primarily to spectral analysis and related frequency domain techniques. Time series analysis has many distinct advantages over spectral analysis in the automated processing of reactor noise. However, fitting an autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) model to time series data involves non-linear least squares estimation. Unless a high speed, general purpose computer is available, the calculations become too time consuming for on-line applications. To eliminate this problem, a special purpose algorithm was developed for fitting ARMA models. While it is based on a combination of steepest descent and Taylor series linearization, properties of the ARMA model are used so that the auto- and cross-correlation functions can be used to eliminate the need for estimating derivatives. The number of calculations, per iteration varies lineegardless of the mee 0.2% yield strength displayed anisotropy, with axial and circumferential values being greater than radial. For CF8-CPF8 and CF8M-CPF8M castings to meet current ASME Code S acid fuel cells
Market Analysis of Soundproof and Noise Reduction Plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Heyu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Since the reform and opening up, China has a booming economy development, transportation industry as an important part of the economic processes has made a considerable progress, and continue to promote the rapid economic development. At the end of 2012, China's highway mileage has reached 4.238 million km and highway mileage ranks first in the world. Transportation in promoting rapid economic development, but also brings the traffic noise which has a tremendous influence on residents’ daily life, and this influence has gradually deepening and widening, in this situation the production of noise reduction panel gradually emerged. In this paper, a noise barriers manufacturer’ business model in Beijing Daxing District and analyze existing data will be analyzed, it will give much guidance and reference for a new noise reduction factory. The study has shown that plant will target all levels of government departments in charge of roads and the property of management department of residence as our customer groups, increasing technological innovation and improving product quality to establish a more extensive business relationships, and gradually formed noise barriers market competitiveness.
Simulation on a car interior aerodynamic noise control based on statistical energy analysis
Chen, Xin; Wang, Dengfeng; Ma, Zhengdong
2012-09-01
How to simulate interior aerodynamic noise accurately is an important question of a car interior noise reduction. The unsteady aerodynamic pressure on body surfaces is proved to be the key effect factor of car interior aerodynamic noise control in high frequency on high speed. In this paper, a detail statistical energy analysis (SEA) model is built. And the vibra-acoustic power inputs are loaded on the model for the valid result of car interior noise analysis. The model is the solid foundation for further optimization on car interior noise control. After the most sensitive subsystems for the power contribution to car interior noise are pointed by SEA comprehensive analysis, the sound pressure level of car interior aerodynamic noise can be reduced by improving their sound and damping characteristics. The further vehicle testing results show that it is available to improve the interior acoustic performance by using detailed SEA model, which comprised by more than 80 subsystems, with the unsteady aerodynamic pressure calculation on body surfaces and the materials improvement of sound/damping properties. It is able to acquire more than 2 dB reduction on the central frequency in the spectrum over 800 Hz. The proposed optimization method can be looked as a reference of car interior aerodynamic noise control by the detail SEA model integrated unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and sensitivity analysis of acoustic contribution.
Cascaded analysis of signal and noise propagation through a heterogeneous breast model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.
2010-01-01
Purpose: The detectability of lesions in radiographic images can be impaired by patterns caused by the surrounding anatomic structures. The presence of such patterns is often referred to as anatomic noise. Others have previously extended signal and noise propagation theory to include variable background structure as an additional noise term and used in simulations for analysis by human and ideal observers. Here, the analytic forms of the signal and noise transfer are derived to obtain an exact expression for any input random distribution and the ''power law'' filter used to generate the texture of the tissue distribution. Methods: A cascaded analysis of propagation through a heterogeneous model is derived for x-ray projection through simulated heterogeneous backgrounds. This is achieved by considering transmission through the breast as a correlated amplification point process. The analytic forms of the cascaded analysis were compared to monoenergetic Monte Carlo simulations of x-ray propagation through power law structured backgrounds. Results: As expected, it was found that although the quantum noise power component scales linearly with the x-ray signal, the anatomic noise will scale with the square of the x-ray signal. There was a good agreement between results obtained using analytic expressions for the noise power and those from Monte Carlo simulations for different background textures, random input functions, and x-ray fluence. Conclusions: Analytic equations for the signal and noise properties of heterogeneous backgrounds were derived. These may be used in direct analysis or as a tool to validate simulations in evaluating detectability.
An Analysis of FM Jamming and Noise Quality Measures
1993-12-01
equipment setup is shown in figure 6. For reasons of practicality and manageability , all equipment was chosen to be commercially available and of a fairly...bins based on the size of the parameter F. It computes a smoothed "Turner Noise Qaulity " similar to the noise quality measure employed by Daly in his...recý.orate for :nf-,aton Doe,A-,ým5 1o- A c-t•s. )2 15 efferso Oarts H,9gPay, Srte 1204. ArtOngton, VA 222024302 and to the Of"ce of Management and aucige
Novel Signal Noise Reduction Method through Cluster Analysis, Applied to Photoplethysmography.
Waugh, William; Allen, John; Wightman, James; Sims, Andrew J; Beale, Thomas A W
2018-01-01
Physiological signals can often become contaminated by noise from a variety of origins. In this paper, an algorithm is described for the reduction of sporadic noise from a continuous periodic signal. The design can be used where a sample of a periodic signal is required, for example, when an average pulse is needed for pulse wave analysis and characterization. The algorithm is based on cluster analysis for selecting similar repetitions or pulses from a periodic single. This method selects individual pulses without noise, returns a clean pulse signal, and terminates when a sufficiently clean and representative signal is received. The algorithm is designed to be sufficiently compact to be implemented on a microcontroller embedded within a medical device. It has been validated through the removal of noise from an exemplar photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, showing increasing benefit as the noise contamination of the signal increases. The algorithm design is generalised to be applicable for a wide range of physiological (physical) signals.
Advances in noise analysis for nuclear plant surveillance and diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, N.; Clapp, N.E. Jr.; Sides, W.H. Jr.; Mihalczo, J.T.; King, W.T.
1980-01-01
An automated surveillance and baseline noise signature acquisition system is being demonstrated at Sequoyah-1. A nonperturbing method is also being developed for monitoring the subcritical reactivity during initial core loading in LWRs, in fuel storage and processing facilities, and during postaccident recovery operations such as Three Mile Island-2
Coolant flow monitoring in a PWR core using noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostic, Lj.
1992-01-01
Experimental investigations of the neutron and temperature noise field have been performed in the 1350 MW PWR nuclear power plant. Evaluation in the low frequency range, where both feedback effects and different thermohydraulics phenomena are dominant, succeeded in measuring the coolant velocity. This is important for determination and localization of essential deviations and possible anomalies. (author)
SMORN-III benchmark test on reactor noise analysis methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Hirota, Jitsuya
1984-02-01
A computational benchmark test was performed in conjunction with the Third Specialists Meeting on Reactor Noise (SMORN-III) which was held in Tokyo, Japan in October 1981. This report summarizes the results of the test as well as the works made for preparation of the test. (author)
Analysis of Femtosecond Timing Noise and Stability in Microwave Components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2011-01-01
To probe chemical dynamics, X-ray pump-probe experiments trigger a change in a sample with an optical laser pulse, followed by an X-ray probe. At the Linac Coherent Light Source, LCLS, timing differences between the optical pulse and x-ray probe have been observed with an accuracy as low as 50 femtoseconds. This sets a lower bound on the number of frames one can arrange over a time scale to recreate a 'movie' of the chemical reaction. The timing system is based on phase measurements from signals corresponding to the two laser pulses; these measurements are done by using a double-balanced mixer for detection. To increase the accuracy of the system, this paper studies parameters affecting phase detection systems based on mixers, such as signal input power, noise levels, temperature drift, and the effect these parameters have on components such as the mixers, splitters, amplifiers, and phase shifters. Noise data taken with a spectrum analyzer show that splitters based on ferrite cores perform with less noise than strip-line splitters. The data also shows that noise in specific mixers does not correspond with the changes in sensitivity per input power level. Temperature drift is seen to exist on a scale between 1 and 27 fs/ o C for all of the components tested. Results show that any components using more metallic conductor tend to exhibit more noise as well as more temperature drift. The scale of these effects is large enough that specific care should be given when choosing components and designing the housing of high precision microwave mixing systems for use in detection systems such as the LCLS. With these improvements, the timing accuracy can be improved to lower than currently possible.
Analysis and suppression of passive noise in surface microseismic data
Forghani-Arani, Farnoush
Surface microseismic surveys are gaining popularity in monitoring the hydraulic fracturing process. The effectiveness of these surveys, however, is strongly dependent on the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired data. Cultural and industrial noise generated during hydraulic fracturing operations usually dominate the data, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of using these data in identifying and locating microseismic events. Hence, noise suppression is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. In this thesis, I focus on two important aspects in using surface-recorded microseismic seismic data: first, I take advantage of the unwanted surface noise to understand the characteristics of these noise and extract information about the propagation medium from the noise; second, I propose effective techniques to suppress the surface noise while preserving the waveforms that contain information about the source of microseisms. Automated event identification on passive seismic data using only a few receivers is challenging especially when the record lengths span over long durations of time. I introduce an automatic event identification algorithm that is designed specifically for detecting events in passive data acquired with a small number of receivers. I demonstrate that the conventional STA/LTA (Short-term Average/Long-term Average) algorithm is not sufficiently effective in event detection in the common case of low signal-to-noise ratio. With a cross-correlation based method as an extension of the STA/LTA algorithm, even low signal-to-noise events (that were not detectable with conventional STA/LTA) were revealed. Surface microseismic data contains surface-waves (generated primarily from hydraulic fracturing activities) and body-waves in the form of microseismic events. It is challenging to analyze the surface-waves on the recorded data directly because of the randomness of their source and their unknown source signatures. I use seismic interferometry to extract
Development and applications of reactor noise analysis at Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gloeckler, O.; Tulett, M.V.
1995-01-01
In 1992 a program was initiated to establish reactor noise analysis as a practical tool for plant performance monitoring and system diagnostics in Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Since then, various CANDU-specific noise analysis applications have been developed and validated. The noise-based statistical techniques are being successfully applied as powerful troubleshooting and diagnostic tools to a wide variety of actual operational I and C problems. The dynamic characteristics of critical plant components, instrumentation and processes are monitored on a regular basis. Recent applications of noise analysis include (1) validating the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDS) and ion chambers, (2) estimating the prompt fraction ICFDs in noise measurements at full power and in power rundown tests, (3) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (4) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals, (5) detecting and monitoring mechanical vibrations of detector tubes induced by moderator flow, (6) estimating the dynamics and response time of RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) temperature signals, (7) isolating the cause of RTD signal anomalies, (8) investigating the source of abnormal flow signal behaviour, (9) estimating the overall response time of flow and pressure signals, (10) detecting coolant boiling in fully instrumented fuel channels, (11) monitoring moderator circulation via temperature noise, and (12) predicting the performance of shut-off rods. Some of these applications are performed on an as-needed basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the regulator (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the use of noise analysis technology. (author
Development and applications of reactor noise analysis at Ontario Hydro`s CANDU reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gloeckler, O [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tulett, M V [Ontario Hydro, Pickering, ON (Canada). Pickering Generating Station
1996-12-31
In 1992 a program was initiated to establish reactor noise analysis as a practical tool for plant performance monitoring and system diagnostics in Ontario Hydro`s CANDU reactors. Since then, various CANDU-specific noise analysis applications have been developed and validated. The noise-based statistical techniques are being successfully applied as powerful troubleshooting and diagnostic tools to a wide variety of actual operational I and C problems. The dynamic characteristics of critical plant components, instrumentation and processes are monitored on a regular basis. Recent applications of noise analysis include (1) validating the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDS) and ion chambers, (2) estimating the prompt fraction ICFDs in noise measurements at full power and in power rundown tests, (3) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (4) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals, (5) detecting and monitoring mechanical vibrations of detector tubes induced by moderator flow, (6) estimating the dynamics and response time of RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector) temperature signals, (7) isolating the cause of RTD signal anomalies, (8) investigating the source of abnormal flow signal behaviour, (9) estimating the overall response time of flow and pressure signals, (10) detecting coolant boiling in fully instrumented fuel channels, (11) monitoring moderator circulation via temperature noise, and (12) predicting the performance of shut-off rods. Some of these applications are performed on an as-needed basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the regulator (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the use of noise analysis technology. (author
Recent progress in safety-related applications of reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirota, Jitsuya; Shinohara, Yoshikuni; Saito, Keiichi
1982-01-01
Recent progress in safety-related applications of reactor noise analysis is reviewed, mainly referring to various papers presented at the Third Specialists' Meeting on Reactor Noise (SMORN-III) held in Tokyo in 1981. Advances in application of autoregressive model, coherence analysis and pattern recognition technique are significant since SMORN-II in 1977. Development of reactor diagnosis systems based on noise analysis is in progress. Practical experiences in the safety-related applications to power plants are being accumulated. Advances in quantitative monitoring of vibration of internal structures in PWR and diagnosis of core stability and control system characteristics in BWR are notable. Acoustic methods are also improved to detect sodium boiling in LMFBR. The Reactor Noise Analysis Benchmark Test performed by Japan in connection with SMORN-III is successful so that it is possible to proceed to the second stage of the benchmark test. (author)
Possibilities to employ noise analysis techniques in controlling nuclear power stations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfonso Pallares, C.; Iglesias Ferrer, R.; Sarabia Molina, I.
1998-01-01
This work shows basic requirements the authors think must be complied with by monitoring systems for operational surveillance based on noise analysis techniques that in turn can be employed in the regulatory control
The nonlinear treatment in noise analysis and its influence into quality programs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montesino, Maria Elena; Piedra, Margarita; Rolo, Alberto
2002-01-01
Analysis by noise technique have been utilized in fact for early detection reactor's anomalies, constituting one of the fundamental tools in maintenance condition. There is an international tendency to use this technique in order to guarantee the quality of maintenance control at present. Essentially this technique is an approach from lineal dynamic and insufficient for limit cycle illustrations, which take place after bifurcation point. As non-lineal dynamic (chaos theory) descriptors consider the dynamic characteristics of studied system, their uses guarantee the quality in predictive maintenance by noise. In this paper was analysed the necessity of theory's use as a tool to supplement the analysis by noise technique. (author)
Application of noise analysis to investigate core degradation process during PHEBUS-FPT1 test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oguma, Ritsuo
1997-01-01
Noise analysis has been performed for measurement data obtained during PHEBUS-FPT1 test. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the applicability of the noise analysis to the following problems: To get more knowledge about the physical processes going on during severe core conditions; To better understand the core melting process; To establish appropriate on-line shut-down data. Results of the study indicate that the noise analysis is quite promising as a tool for investigating physical processes during the experiment. Compared with conventional approach of evaluating the signal's mean value behaviour, the noise analysis can provide additional, more detailed information: It was found that the neutron flux signal is subjected to additional reactivity perturbations in conjunction with fuel melting and relocation. This can easily be detected by applying noise analysis for the neutron flux signal. It has been demonstrated that the method developed in the present study can provide more accurate estimates of the onset of fuel relocation than using temperature signals from thermocouples in the thermal shroud. Moreover, the result suggests a potential of the present method for tracking the whole process of relocation. The result of the data analysis suggests a possibility of sensor diagnostics which may be important for confirming the quality and reliability of the recorded data. Based on the results achieved it is believed that the combined use of noise analysis and thermocouple signals will provide reliable shut-down criteria for the experiment. 8 refs
Monitoring and diagnosis in situ: noise analysis; Vigilancia y diagnostico in situ analisis de ruido
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Montalvo, C.; Garcia-Berrocal, A.
2014-04-01
Predictive maintenance based on surveillance and breakdowns diagnostics can be achieved through the analysis of the noise hidden in the signals. At the beginning noise analysis was development to monitor the power signals coming from neutron detectors. Nowadays its applications are very diverse. For instance: process sensors surveillance such us Resistance Temperature detectors, thermocouples and pressure transmitters, internals vibration monitoring, abnormal vibrations detection, etc. In this work some examples from the literature and from the authors experience are presented. (Author)
Experience with a PC-based system for noise and DC signal analysis in PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashemian, H.M.
1996-01-01
A data acquisition system that was originally developed for noise diagnostics in PWRs was expanded to include DC signal analysis in addition to noise analysis. The system has been used in PWRs for reactor diagnostics, determination of root cause of process anomalies, instrument calibration verification, measurement of drop time of control and shutdown rods, testing of timing and sequencing of control rod drive mechanisms, emergency diesel generator monitoring, etc. These applications are reviewed in this paper. (author)
Theoretical analysis of quantum dot amplifiers with high saturation power and low noise figure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper
2002-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers.......Semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers are predicted to exhibit superior characteristics such as high gain, and output power and low noise. The analysis provides criteria and design guidelines for the realization of high quality amplifiers....
On minimizing the influence of the noise tail of correlation functions in operational modal analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tarpø, Marius; Olsen, Peter; Amador, Sandro
2017-01-01
on the identification results (random errors) when the noise tail is included in the identification. On the other hand, if the correlation function is truncated too much, then important information is lost. In other to minimize this error, a suitable truncation based on manual inspection of the correlation function......In operational modal analysis (OMA) correlation functions are used by all classical time-domain modal identification techniques that uses the impulse response function (free decays) as primary data. However, the main difference between the impulse response and the correlation functions estimated...... from the operational responses is that the latter present a higher noise level. This is due to statistical errors in the estimation of the correlation function and it causes random noise in the end of the function and this is called the noise tail. This noise might have significant influence...
Analysis and Extension of the PCA Method, Estimating a Noise Curve from a Single Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Colom
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In the article 'Image Noise Level Estimation by Principal Component Analysis', S. Pyatykh, J. Hesser, and L. Zheng propose a new method to estimate the variance of the noise in an image from the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of the overlapping blocks of the noisy image. Instead of using all the patches of the noisy image, the authors propose an iterative strategy to adaptively choose the optimal set containing the patches with lowest variance. Although the method measures uniform Gaussian noise, it can be easily adapted to deal with signal-dependent noise, which is realistic with the Poisson noise model obtained by a CMOS or CCD device in a digital camera.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenjing Zhao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available SGK (sequential generalization of K-means dictionary learning denoising algorithm has the characteristics of fast denoising speed and excellent denoising performance. However, the noise standard deviation must be known in advance when using SGK algorithm to process the image. This paper presents a denoising algorithm combined with SGK dictionary learning and the principal component analysis (PCA noise estimation. At first, the noise standard deviation of the image is estimated by using the PCA noise estimation algorithm. And then it is used for SGK dictionary learning algorithm. Experimental results show the following: (1 The SGK algorithm has the best denoising performance compared with the other three dictionary learning algorithms. (2 The SGK algorithm combined with PCA is superior to the SGK algorithm combined with other noise estimation algorithms. (3 Compared with the original SGK algorithm, the proposed algorithm has higher PSNR and better denoising performance.
Investigation on Aerodynamic Noise Evaluation and Attenuation In a Globe Valve using CFD Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S K Sreekala
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Noise pollution will soon become the third greatest menace to the human environment after air and water pollution. Since noise is a by-product of energy conversion, there will be increasing noise as the demand for energy for transportation, power, food, and chemicals increases. In the field of control equipment, noise produced by valves has become a focal point of attention .In this paper aerodynamic noise evaluation of a globe valve was carried out using a three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic technique(CFD. The results obtained from numerical analysis are compared with the experimental measurements and are found to be in good agreement. Reduction in sound pressure level was achieved by doubling the number of flow passages in the cage at full open condition and at the same operating conditions. Hence sound attenuation is established by changing the cage configuration with no change in total area of flow passage in the cage
Research on neutron noise analysis stochastic simulation method for α calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong Bin; Shen Huayun; She Ruogu; Zhu Shengdong; Xiao Gang
2014-01-01
The prompt decay constant α has significant application on the physical design and safety analysis in nuclear facilities. To overcome the difficulty of a value calculation with Monte-Carlo method, and improve the precision, a new method based on the neutron noise analysis technology was presented. This method employs the stochastic simulation and the theory of neutron noise analysis technology. Firstly, the evolution of stochastic neutron was simulated by discrete-events Monte-Carlo method based on the theory of generalized Semi-Markov process, then the neutron noise in detectors was solved from neutron signal. Secondly, the neutron noise analysis methods such as Rossia method, Feynman-α method, zero-probability method, and cross-correlation method were used to calculate a value. All of the parameters used in neutron noise analysis method were calculated based on auto-adaptive arithmetic. The a value from these methods accords with each other, the largest relative deviation is 7.9%, which proves the feasibility of a calculation method based on neutron noise analysis stochastic simulation. (authors)
Report of the first United States conference on utility experience with neutron noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, D.N.; Horne, G.P.; Mayo, C.W.
1984-01-01
An informal meeting was held in Washington, D.C. on April 3 and 4, 1984, to discuss the current state of the art and experiences with neutron noise analysis in US pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The meeting was attended by 33 persons representing 11 utilities and 3 PWR reactor vendors as well as consultants, universities, and research laboratories. Presentations at the meeting covered several applications of neutron noise for diagnosing such things as vibrations induced by baffle jetting, detection of mechanical degradation of thermal shield supports, and electrical degradation of nuclear instrumentation channels. Twenty-one responses were obtained from a questionnaire circulated to all participants requesting their viewpoints and experiences regarding neutron noise analysis. The meeting participants concluded that a working group on neutron noise analysis should be formed to (1) establish a baseline library of neutron noise data, (2) provide a forum for communicating experiences with neutron noise surveillance, and (3) develop good practices and quality assurance procedures for neutron noise measurement and interpretation
Experiment and Simulation Analysis on Noise Attenuation of Al/MF Cylindrical Shells
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Bin Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the issue concerning internal noise reduction of Al-made cylindrical shell structure, the noise control method of laying melamine foam (MF layer is adopted for in-shell noise attenuation experiments of Al and Al/MF cylindrical shells and corresponding internal noise response spectrograms are obtained. Based on the Virtual.Lab acoustics software, a finite element model is established for the analysis of noise in the Al/MF cylinder shell and numerical simulation computation is conducted for the acoustic mode and in-shell acoustic response; the correctness of the finite element model is verified via comparison with measured data. On this basis, influence rules of different MF laying rate and different laying thickness on acoustic cavity resonance response within the low and medium frequency range of 100–400 Hz are studied. It is indicated that noise reduction increases with MF laying rate, but the amplification decreases along with the rising of MF laying rate; noise reduction per unit thickness decreases with the increase of laying thickness, while noise reduction per unit area increases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fabio Scatolini
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. METHODS Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL. Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. RESULTS Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. CONCLUSIONS All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures.
Analysis of community response to transportation noise a quarter century after Schultz (1978)
Fidell, Sanford
2003-10-01
Transportation noise is a vexing and intrinsically controversial problem that has plagued societies since the beginnings of urban civilization. A function relating cumulative noise exposure to the prevalence of noise-induced annoyance [T. J. Schultz, ``Synthesis of social surveys on noise annoyance,'' J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 64, 377-405 (1978)] is the foundation for contemporary analyses of transportation noise effects on communities. The expenditures of billions of dollars in airplane ticket and fuel taxes for the construction of an airport infrastructure and for the mitigation of noise impacts in the United States are governed by policies ostensibly supported by a successor to Schultz's original ``synthesis'' curve. Many have grown so comfortable with the last quarter century's paradigm for transportation noise assessment and regulation, however, that they have lost sight of its underpinnings and limitations. A review of the historical and modern states of the art identifies persistent unresolved problems in the prediction and explanation of community response to transportation noise that are not fully addressed by descriptive dosage-effect analysis.
An Application of the Acoustic Similarity Law to the Numerical Analysis of Centrifugal Fan Noise
Jeon, Wan-Ho; Lee, Duck-Joo; Rhee, Huinam
Centrifugal fans, which are frequently used in our daily lives and various industries, usually make severe noise problems. Generally, the centrifugal fan noise consists of tones at the blade passing frequency and its higher harmonics. These tonal sounds come from the interaction between the flow discharged from the impeller and the cutoff in the casing. Prediction of the noise from a centrifugal fan becomes more necessary to optimize the design to meet both the performance and noise criteria. However, only some limited studies on noise prediction method exist because there are difficulties in obtaining detailed information about the flow field and casing effect on noise radiation. This paper aims to investigate the noise generation mechanism of a centrifugal fan and to develop a prediction method for the unsteady flow and acoustic pressure fields. In order to do this, a numerical analysis method using acoustic similarity law is proposed, and it is verified that the method can predict the noise generation mechanism very well by comparing the predicted results with available experimental results.
Signal Processing for MoC brake rattle noise of moving vehicles using prony analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jae Cheol; Kwak, Yun Sang; Park, Jun Hong [Dept. of Mechanical Convergence Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
To verify the possibility of generating rattling noise from a motor on caliper brake system, a test was conducted using a caliper excited with vibrations similar to that in a vehicle running on actual roads; this test was conducted using a quiet shaker installed in an anechoic room. After several hours of external excitation, the test assembly was loosened, and the frequency of rattling noise generation increased. A microphone was used to record the generated noise. The measured signals were analyzed by conventional spectrum analysis. Since the noise is generated as an impact response, the advantages of employing Prony analysis was discussed, and the results were compared to those obtained using conventional fast Fourier transforms. The accuracy of Prony analysis was through endurance tests on different brake systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouwman, R; Broeders, M; Van Engen, R; Young, K; Lazzari, B; Ravaglia, V
2009-01-01
According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.
Evaluation and Analysis of Road Traffic Noise in Asansol: An Industrial Town of Eastern India
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Gangopadhyay
2008-09-01
Full Text Available The objectives of the study were to monitor and assess the road traffic noise in its spatial-temporal aspect in an urban area. The paper discusses the observations, results and their interpretation based on the study. Noise recordings from site, collected from April 2006 to March 2006, were used for statistical analysis and generation of various noise indices. Noise maps were also created for impact analysis and formulation of Noise Risk Zones. Mean Ldn value ranged between 55.1 and 87.3 dB (A. Day time Leq level ranged between 51.2 and 89.0 dB (A, where it ranged between 43.5 and 81.9 dB (A during night. The study reveals that present noise level in all the locations exceeds the limit prescribed by CPCB. Based on the finding it can be said that the population in this industrial town are exposed to significantly high noise level, which is caused mostly due to road traffic.
Exact-to-precision generalized perturbation theory for source-driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Congjian; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.
2011-01-01
Highlights: ► We present a new development in higher order generalized perturbation theory. ► The method addresses the explosion in the flux phase space, input parameters, and responses. ► The method hybridizes first-order GPT and proper orthogonal decomposition snapshots method. ► A simplified 1D and realistic 2D assembly models demonstrate applicability of the method. ► The accuracy of the method is compared to exact direct perturbations and first-order GPT. - Abstract: Presented in this manuscript are new developments to perturbation theory which are intended to extend its applicability to estimate, with quantifiable accuracy, the exact variations in all responses calculated by the model with respect to all possible perturbations in the model's input parameters. The new developments place high premium on reducing the associated computational overhead in order to enable the use of perturbation theory in routine reactor design calculations. By way of examples, these developments could be employed in core simulation to accurately estimate the few-group cross-sections variations resulting from perturbations in neutronics and thermal-hydraulics core conditions. These variations are currently being described using a look-up table approach, where thousands of assembly calculations are performed to capture few-group cross-sections variations for the downstream core calculations. Other applications include the efficient evaluation of surrogates for applications that require repeated model runs such as design optimization, inverse studies, uncertainty quantification, and online core monitoring. The theoretical background of these developments applied to source-driven systems and supporting numerical experiments are presented in this manuscript. Extension to eigenvalue problems will be presented in a future article.
Annual modulation of the galactic binary confusion noise background and LISA data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seto, Naoki
2004-01-01
We study the anisotropies of the galactic confusion noise background and its effects on LISA data analysis. LISA has two data streams of gravitational wave signals relevant for the low frequency regime. Because of the anisotropies of the background, the matrix for their confusion noises has off-diagonal components and depends strongly on the orientation of the detector plane. We find that the sky-averaged confusion noise level √(S(f)) could change by a factor of 2 in 3 months and would be minimum when the orbital position of LISA is around either the spring or autumn equinox
Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Liu, Bo
This paper investigates optimization design of the thickness of the sound package performed on a passenger automobile. The major characteristics indexes for performance selected to evaluate the processes are the SPL of the exterior noise and the weight of the sound package, and the corresponding parameters of the sound package are the thickness of the glass wool with aluminum foil for the first layer, the thickness of the glass fiber for the second layer, and the thickness of the PE foam for the third layer. In this paper, the process is fundamentally with multiple performances, thus, the grey relational analysis that utilizes grey relational grade as performance index is especially employed to determine the optimal combination of the thickness of the different layers for the designed sound package. Additionally, in order to evaluate the weighting values corresponding to various performance characteristics, the principal component analysis is used to show their relative importance properly and objectively. The results of the confirmation experiments uncover that grey relational analysis coupled with principal analysis methods can successfully be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness for each layer of the sound package material. Therefore, the presented method can be an effective tool to improve the vehicle exterior noise and lower the weight of the sound package. In addition, it will also be helpful for other applications in the automotive industry, such as the First Automobile Works in China, Changan Automobile in China, etc.
Noise analysis of fluid-valve system in a linear compressor using CAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jun Ho; Jeong, Weui Bong; Kim, Dang Ju
2009-01-01
A linear compressor in a refrigerator uses piston motion to transfer refrigerant so its efficiency is higher than a previous reciprocal compressor. Because of interaction between refrigerant and valves system in the linear compressor, however, noise has been a main issue. In spite of doing many experimental researches, there is no way to rightly predict the noise. In order to solve this limitation, the CAE analysis is applied. For giving credit to these computational data, all of the data are experimentally validated.
Dupé , François-Xavier; Fadili , Jalal M.; Starck , Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
International audience; In this paper, we propose a Bayesian MAP estimator for solving the deconvolution problems when the observations are corrupted by Poisson noise. Towards this goal, a proper data fidelity term (log-likelihood) is introduced to reflect the Poisson statistics of the noise. On the other hand, as a prior, the images to restore are assumed to be positive and sparsely represented in a dictionary of waveforms such as wavelets or curvelets. Both analysis and synthesis-type spars...
Temperature noise analysis and sodium boiling detection in the fuel failure mockup
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sides, W.H. Jr.; Fry, D.N.; Leavell, W.H.; Mathis, M.V.; Saxe, R.F.
1976-01-01
Sodium temperature noise was measured at the exit of simulated, fast-reactor fuel subassemblies in the Fuel Failure Mockup (FFM) to determine the feasibility of using temperature noise monitors to detect flow blockages in fast reactors. Also, acoustic noise was measured to determine whether sodium boiling in the FFM could be detected acoustically and whether noncondensable gas entrained in the sodium coolant would affect the sensitivity of the acoustic noise detection system. Information from these studies would be applied to the design of safety systems for operating liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). It was determined that the statistical properties of temperature noise are dependent on the shape of temperature profiles across the subassemblies, and that a blockage upstream of a thermocouple that increases the gradient of the profile near the blockage will also increase the temperature noise at the thermocouple. Amplitude probability analysis of temperature noise shows a skewed amplitude density function about the mean temperature that varies with the location of the thermocouple with respect to the blockage location. It was concluded that sodium boiling in the FFM could be detected acoustically. However, entrained noncondensable gas in the sodium coolant at void fractions greater than 0.4 percent attenuated the acoustic signals sufficiently that boiling was not detected. At a void fraction of 0.1 percent, boiling was indicated only by the two acoustic detectors closest to the boiling site
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Won; Kwon, Dong Il
1999-01-01
Barkhausen noise method as a magnetic nondestructive test has the advantages for evaluating the properties of magnetic material more precisely and high-sensitively compared to other magnetic NDT methods. For a long time Barkhausen noise method was applied to measure the bulk magnetic properties of magnetic materials and recently to evaluate microstructure, stress analysis, fatigue, creep, and fracture characteristics as a NDT method. But so far Barkhausen noise method has been used as evaluating orientation of material properties rather qualitatively. For this reason, many NDT testing methods have seldom been applied to industrial plants and laboratories. In this study we make experiments on the variation of Barkhausen noise as microstructure, and quantify Barkhausen noise(rms voltage) via formula of velocity of magnetic domain walls using coercive force as retarding force of domain wall movement. As a result, we could evaluate the microstructure of magnetic materials and trends of fracture toughness quantitatively by measuring Barkhausen noise, therefore directly evaluate microstructure and fracture toughness by Barkhausen noise method as accurate in-situ nondestructive testing method.
Experience gained with capacitive pressure sensor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballestrin, J.; Blazquez, J.
1996-01-01
Due to safety requirements, pressure sensors in a nuclear power plant must be kept under surveillance. The dynamics of the capacitive type Rosemount sensors is known. Sensor response time to a pressure ramp is the usual quantity required and it can be calculated. The noise signals contain the sensor dynamics, but in this case other irrelevant information from the plant is held, which disturbs the results. So, the signals must be conditioned previously. Also, it is necessary to do a process in order to separate the pressure sensor dynamics and to get a stationary signal. This can be done by using the autocorrelation function and filtering. Deterministic steps have been made and a relationship between the sensor response time, and the static pressure has been found. (author)
Tracing of border trap behavior by noise analysis in microelectronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharshar, K.A.A.; Shaalan, A.A.M.; Gomaa, E.I.
2008-01-01
The present state of art of this work is to study the electrical defects of the silicon- silicon dioxide interface created by gamma rays (Co 60 ) in submicron MOS devices used in telecommunication systems. We focus our investigation on a particular class of trapped charge located near the interface characterized as the border traps. The expected physical location and chemical structure of the traps were discussed. The low frequency 1/f noise measurement is used in the estimation of border trap densities before and after irradiation; the results are reported for n-MOS transistor exposed to doses (0.3, 0.5, 1 and 10 Mrad). The border trap population in the irradiated samples increased from 7.6*10 10 up to 1.03*10 11 eV -1 Cm -2
Analysis of impact noise induced by hitting of titanium head golf driver.
Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Young Chul; Lee, Jun Hee; An, Yong-Hwi; Park, Kyung Tae; Kang, Kyung Min; Kang, Yeon June
2014-11-01
The hitting of titanium head golf driver against golf ball creates a short duration, high frequency impact noise. We analyzed the spectra of these impact noises and evaluated the auditory hazards from exposure to the noises. Noises made by 10 titanium head golf drivers with five maximum hits were collected, and the spectra of the pure impact sounds were studied using a noise analysis program. The noise was measured at 1.7 m (position A) and 3.4 m (position B) from the hitting point in front of the hitter and at 3.4 m (position C) behind the hitting point. Average time duration was measured and auditory risk units (ARUs) at position A were calculated using the Auditory Hazard Assessment Algorithm for Humans. The average peak levels at position A were 119.9 dBA at the sound pressure level (SPL) peak and 100.0 dBA at the overall octave level. The average peak levels (SPL and overall octave level) at position B were 111.6 and 96.5 dBA, respectively, and at position C were 111.5 and 96.7 dBA, respectively. The average time duration and ARUs measured at position A were 120.6 ms and 194.9 units, respectively. Although impact noises made by titanium head golf drivers showed relatively low ARUs, individuals enjoying golf frequently may be susceptible to hearing loss due to the repeated exposure of this intense impact noise with short duration and high frequency. Unprotected exposure to impact noises should be limited to prevent cochleovestibular disorders.
An Analysis of Sawtooth Noise in the Timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuriy S. SHMALIY
2007-05-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses a probabilistic analysis of sawtooth noise in the one pulse per second (1PPS output of the timing SynPaQ III GPS Sensor. We show that sawtooth noise is uniformly distributed within the bounds caused by period of the Local Time Clock of the sensor and that the probability density function (pdf of this noise is formed with 1ns sampling interval used in the sensor to calculate the negative sawtooth. We also show that the pdf has at zero a spike of 1ns width caused by roll-off. It is demonstrated that an unbiased finite impulse response filter is an excellent suppresser of such a noise in the estimates of the time interval errors of local clocks.
Comparison of occupational noise legislation in the Americas: An overview and analysis
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Jorge P Arenas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The workplace contributes significantly to the total dose of daily noise to which a person is subjected. Therefore, millions of people around the world are exposed to potentially dangerous noise levels and consequently, there is an urgent, global need for legislation to adequately protect the auditory health of workers. Occupational noise legislation has been adopted in many of the countries with different degrees of comprehensiveness and varying levels of sophistication. This paper presents a global view of current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas, that is, Latin America, Canada, and the United States. Upon analysis of the legislation, there are notable differences among countries in the defined values for permissible exposure limit (PEL and exchange rate. Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange rate are currently used by 32% of the nations in the Americas. Most nations limit impulsive noise exposure to a peak unweighted sound pressure level of 140 dB (or dBC, while a few use slightly lower limits. However, 27% of the countries in the region still have not established regulations with respect to permissible noise levels and exchange rates. This fact is leaving millions of workers in the Americas unprotected against occupational noise. Provide an overview and analysis of the current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas. The information on legislation, regulations, and standards discussed in this paper were obtained directly from official government sources in each country, the International Labour Organization database, or through various colleagues in each country. (1 There are notable differences among countries in the defined values for PEL and exchange rate. (2 Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange
Summary of the fourth conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, D.N.
1987-01-01
The fourth informal conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis and loose-part monitoring was held at the Northeast Utilities Service Company offices in Hartford, Connecticut, May 12-14, 1987. Host and general chairman for the meeting was J.V. Persio of Northeast Utilities. This conference provided a forum where utilities could share information on reactor noise analysis on an informal basis. There were about 60 attendees at the meeting representing 10 utilities, 3 reactor vendors, 8 consulting organizations, and 4 universities and research laboratories. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference, dealing with various aspects of loose-part monitoring, neutron noise analysis, and standards activities
The importance of stimulus noise analysis for self-motion studies.
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Alessandro Nesti
Full Text Available Motion simulators are widely employed in basic and applied research to study the neural mechanisms of perception and action during inertial stimulation. In these studies, uncontrolled simulator-introduced noise inevitably leads to a disparity between the reproduced motion and the trajectories meticulously designed by the experimenter, possibly resulting in undesired motion cues to the investigated system. Understanding actual simulator responses to different motion commands is therefore a crucial yet often underestimated step towards the interpretation of experimental results. In this work, we developed analysis methods based on signal processing techniques to quantify the noise in the actual motion, and its deterministic and stochastic components. Our methods allow comparisons between commanded and actual motion as well as between different actual motion profiles. A specific practical example from one of our studies is used to illustrate the methodologies and their relevance, but this does not detract from its general applicability. Analyses of the simulator's inertial recordings show direction-dependent noise and nonlinearity related to the command amplitude. The Signal-to-Noise Ratio is one order of magnitude higher for the larger motion amplitudes we tested, compared to the smaller motion amplitudes. Simulator-introduced noise is found to be primarily of deterministic nature, particularly for the stronger motion intensities. The effect of simulator noise on quantification of animal/human motion sensitivity is discussed. We conclude that accurate recording and characterization of executed simulator motion are a crucial prerequisite for the investigation of uncertainty in self-motion perception.
Analysis of jet-airfoil interaction noise sources by using a microphone array technique
Fleury, Vincent; Davy, Renaud
2016-03-01
The paper is concerned with the characterization of jet noise sources and jet-airfoil interaction sources by using microphone array data. The measurements were carried-out in the anechoic open test section wind tunnel of Onera, Cepra19. The microphone array technique relies on the convected, Lighthill's and Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings' acoustic analogy equation. The cross-spectrum of the source term of the analogy equation is sought. It is defined as the optimal solution to a minimal error equation using the measured microphone cross-spectra as reference. This inverse problem is ill-posed yet. A penalty term based on a localization operator is therefore added to improve the recovery of jet noise sources. The analysis of isolated jet noise data in subsonic regime shows the contribution of the conventional mixing noise source in the low frequency range, as expected, and of uniformly distributed, uncorrelated noise sources in the jet flow at higher frequencies. In underexpanded supersonic regime, a shock-associated noise source is clearly identified, too. An additional source is detected in the vicinity of the nozzle exit both in supersonic and subsonic regimes. In the presence of the airfoil, the distribution of the noise sources is deeply modified. In particular, a strong noise source is localized on the flap. For high Strouhal numbers, higher than about 2 (based on the jet mixing velocity and diameter), a significant contribution from the shear-layer near the flap is observed, too. Indications of acoustic reflections on the airfoil are also discerned.
Identification of noise in linear data sets by factor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roscoe, B.A.; Hopke, Ph.K.
1982-01-01
A technique which has the ability to identify bad data points, after the data has been generated, is classical factor analysis. The ability of classical factor analysis to identify two different types of data errors make it ideally suited for scanning large data sets. Since the results yielded by factor analysis indicate correlations between parameters, one must know something about the nature of the data set and the analytical techniques used to obtain it to confidentially isolate errors. (author)
Diffraction efficiency and noise analysis of hidden image holograms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Andrulevičius, Mindaugas; Puodžiukynas, Linas
2017-01-01
recorded in a photoresist layer spin-coated on glass substrates applying laser interference lithography technique. Both analogue and digital analysis approaches showed the similar results thus confirming the appropriateness of the used analysis methods. It was found that holograms recorded at higher laser...
Noise removal using factor analysis of dynamic structures: application to cardiac gated studies.
Bruyant, P P; Sau, J; Mallet, J J
1999-10-01
Factor analysis of dynamic structures (FADS) facilitates the extraction of relevant data, usually with physiologic meaning, from a dynamic set of images. The result of this process is a set of factor images and curves plus some residual activity. The set of factor images and curves can be used to retrieve the original data with reduced noise using an inverse factor analysis process (iFADS). This improvement in image quality is expected because the inverse process does not use the residual activity, assumed to be made of noise. The goal of this work is to quantitate and assess the efficiency of this method on gated cardiac images. A computer simulation of a planar cardiac gated study was performed. The simulated images were added with noise and processed by the FADS-iFADS program. The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were compared between original and processed data. Planar gated cardiac studies from 10 patients were tested. The data processed by FADS-iFADS were subtracted to the original data. The result of the substraction was studied to evaluate its noisy nature. The SNR is about five times greater after the FADS-iFADS process. The difference between original and processed data is noise only, i.e., processed data equals original data minus some white noise. The FADS-iFADS process is successful in the removal of an important part of the noise and therefore is a tool to improve the image quality of cardiac images. This tool does not decrease the spatial resolution (compared with smoothing filters) and does not lose details (compared with frequential filters). Once the number of factors is chosen, this method is not operator dependent.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva Junior, Silverio Ferreira da; Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Cruz, Julio Ricardo Barreto
2007-01-01
The knowledge about the stress state acting in structural elements has significant importance in the structural integrity evaluation of a specific component. The magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis can be used for this purpose. As a nondestructive testing method, it presents the advantage of not promote any changes in the tested component. In this paper, a study about the use of this new nondestructive test method for stress measurements is presented. The test system configuration and the reference standards used for this purpose, as well as the optimum test parameters determination are discussed. The experiments were carried out in ASTM A-36 steel, used for structural components manufacturing. A structure of this material was loaded and the resulting stresses were determined from strain gage measurements and Barkhausen noise analysis. The results obtained have showed a good sensitivity of the magnetic Barkhausen noise to stress changes occurred in the material. The main advantages and limitations of this test method for stress measurements are presented. (author)
Application of neutron noise analysis to a swimming pool research reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behringer, K.; Lescano, V.H.; Meier, F.; Phildius, J.; Winkler, H.
1982-01-01
This work is part of a programme of establishing practical applications of neutron noise techniques to a swimming pool research reactor and deals with two different items: (1) The identification of local boiling caused e.g. by a partial blockage of the coolant flow in a fuel element. Local boiling can easily lead to a burn-out situation. The onset of boiling can be detected by neutron noise analysis and a boiling detection system is presently under development. (2) The measurement of the time evolution of the reactivity induced by xenon after reactor shut-down by an on-line reactivity meter based on neutron noise analysis. From the data, the prompt neutron decay constant at delayed critical, the equilibrium xenon reactivity worth, and an estimate of the average steady-state power flux in the core before reactor shut-down were obtained. (author)
Phase noise analysis of clock recovery based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo
2007-01-01
A detailed theoretical analysis of a clock-recovery (CR) scheme based on an optoelectronic phase-locked loop is presented. The analysis emphasizes the phase noise performance, taking into account the noise of the input data signal, the local voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), and the laser....... It is shown that a large loop length results in a higher timing jitter of the recovered clock signal. The impact of the loop length on the clock signal jitter can be reduced by using a low-noise VCO and a low loop filter bandwidth. Using the model, the timing jitter of the recovered optical and electrical...... clock signal can be evaluated. We numerically investigate the timing jitter requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators, in order for the recovered clock signal to have less jitter than that of the input signal. The timing jitter requirements for the free-running laser and the VCO...
Determination of fuel assembly vibrational modes through analysis of incore detector noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.S.
1986-01-01
In order to better characterize fuel assembly vibration at Duke Power Company's Oconee Nuclear Station, incore noise data were acquired an analyzed from prompt responding detectors incorporated in the Oconee 2, Cycle 7 core. Duke Power Company began actively pursuing an inhouse Neutron Noise Analysis program for routine surveillance of reactor internals vibration in 1979. Noise data has since been acquired and analyzed for twelve cycles of operation for the three Oconee units. Duke Power's Oconee Unit 2 is a Babcock and Wilcoxs pressurized water reactor with a rate thermal power of 2568MW. For Oconee 2, Cycle 7 operation, two test assemblies, each employing a string of seven axially-spaced, prompt responding hafnium detectors, were included in the final core design. Incore detector noise data were obtained during Cycle 7 at approximately 281 and 430 effective full power days (EFPD). In addition to the incore test detector signals, noise signals from the upper and lower chambers of the four excore power range detectors were recorded to aid in the analysis. The comparison of RMS signal levels for each incore detector and the phase relationships between detector locations within two test assemblies identified the first four fuel assembly bending modes associated with fixed end conditions
Rekapalli, Rajesh; Tiwari, R. K.; Sen, Mrinal K.; Vedanti, Nimisha
2017-05-01
Noises and data gaps complicate the seismic data processing and subsequently cause difficulties in the geological interpretation. We discuss a recent development and application of the Multi-channel Time Slice Singular Spectrum Analysis (MTSSSA) for 3D seismic data de-noising in time domain. In addition, L1 norm based simultaneous data gap filling of 3D seismic data using MTSSSA also discussed. We discriminated the noises from single individual time slices of 3D volumes by analyzing Eigen triplets of the trajectory matrix. We first tested the efficacy of the method on 3D synthetic seismic data contaminated with noise and then applied to the post stack seismic reflection data acquired from the Sleipner CO2 storage site (pre and post CO2 injection) from Norway. Our analysis suggests that the MTSSSA algorithm is efficient to enhance the S/N for better identification of amplitude anomalies along with simultaneous data gap filling. The bright spots identified in the de-noised data indicate upward migration of CO2 towards the top of the Utsira formation. The reflections identified applying MTSSSA to pre and post injection data correlate well with the geology of the Southern Viking Graben (SVG).
Boundary layer noise subtraction in hydrodynamic tunnel using robust principal component analysis.
Amailland, Sylvain; Thomas, Jean-Hugh; Pézerat, Charles; Boucheron, Romuald
2018-04-01
The acoustic study of propellers in a hydrodynamic tunnel is of paramount importance during the design process, but can involve significant difficulties due to the boundary layer noise (BLN). Indeed, advanced denoising methods are needed to recover the acoustic signal in case of poor signal-to-noise ratio. The technique proposed in this paper is based on the decomposition of the wall-pressure cross-spectral matrix (CSM) by taking advantage of both the low-rank property of the acoustic CSM and the sparse property of the BLN CSM. Thus, the algorithm belongs to the class of robust principal component analysis (RPCA), which derives from the widely used principal component analysis. If the BLN is spatially decorrelated, the proposed RPCA algorithm can blindly recover the acoustical signals even for negative signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, in a realistic case, acoustic signals recorded in a hydrodynamic tunnel show that the noise may be partially correlated. A prewhitening strategy is then considered in order to take into account the spatially coherent background noise. Numerical simulations and experimental results show an improvement in terms of BLN reduction in the large hydrodynamic tunnel. The effectiveness of the denoising method is also investigated in the context of acoustic source localization.
Poisson–Gaussian Noise Analysis and Estimation for Low-Dose X-ray Images in the NSCT Domain
Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Min Seok; Kang, Moon Gi
2018-01-01
The noise distribution of images obtained by X-ray sensors in low-dosage situations can be analyzed using the Poisson and Gaussian mixture model. Multiscale conversion is one of the most popular noise reduction methods used in recent years. Estimation of the noise distribution of each subband in the multiscale domain is the most important factor in performing noise reduction, with non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) representing an effective method for scale and direction decomposition. In this study, we use artificially generated noise to analyze and estimate the Poisson–Gaussian noise of low-dose X-ray images in the NSCT domain. The noise distribution of the subband coefficients is analyzed using the noiseless low-band coefficients and the variance of the noisy subband coefficients. The noise-after-transform also follows a Poisson–Gaussian distribution, and the relationship between the noise parameters of the subband and the full-band image is identified. We then analyze noise of actual images to validate the theoretical analysis. Comparison of the proposed noise estimation method with an existing noise reduction method confirms that the proposed method outperforms traditional methods. PMID:29596335
Poisson-Gaussian Noise Analysis and Estimation for Low-Dose X-ray Images in the NSCT Domain.
Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Min Seok; Kang, Moon Gi
2018-03-29
The noise distribution of images obtained by X-ray sensors in low-dosage situations can be analyzed using the Poisson and Gaussian mixture model. Multiscale conversion is one of the most popular noise reduction methods used in recent years. Estimation of the noise distribution of each subband in the multiscale domain is the most important factor in performing noise reduction, with non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) representing an effective method for scale and direction decomposition. In this study, we use artificially generated noise to analyze and estimate the Poisson-Gaussian noise of low-dose X-ray images in the NSCT domain. The noise distribution of the subband coefficients is analyzed using the noiseless low-band coefficients and the variance of the noisy subband coefficients. The noise-after-transform also follows a Poisson-Gaussian distribution, and the relationship between the noise parameters of the subband and the full-band image is identified. We then analyze noise of actual images to validate the theoretical analysis. Comparison of the proposed noise estimation method with an existing noise reduction method confirms that the proposed method outperforms traditional methods.
Noise analysis of genome-scale protein synthesis using a discrete computational model of translation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Racle, Julien; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily, E-mail: vassily.hatzimanikatis@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Stefaniuk, Adam Jan [Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-28
Noise in genetic networks has been the subject of extensive experimental and computational studies. However, very few of these studies have considered noise properties using mechanistic models that account for the discrete movement of ribosomes and RNA polymerases along their corresponding templates (messenger RNA (mRNA) and DNA). The large size of these systems, which scales with the number of genes, mRNA copies, codons per mRNA, and ribosomes, is responsible for some of the challenges. Additionally, one should be able to describe the dynamics of ribosome exchange between the free ribosome pool and those bound to mRNAs, as well as how mRNA species compete for ribosomes. We developed an efficient algorithm for stochastic simulations that addresses these issues and used it to study the contribution and trade-offs of noise to translation properties (rates, time delays, and rate-limiting steps). The algorithm scales linearly with the number of mRNA copies, which allowed us to study the importance of genome-scale competition between mRNAs for the same ribosomes. We determined that noise is minimized under conditions maximizing the specific synthesis rate. Moreover, sensitivity analysis of the stochastic system revealed the importance of the elongation rate in the resultant noise, whereas the translation initiation rate constant was more closely related to the average protein synthesis rate. We observed significant differences between our results and the noise properties of the most commonly used translation models. Overall, our studies demonstrate that the use of full mechanistic models is essential for the study of noise in translation and transcription.
Current development in data acquision and processing system for reactor noise analysis in PUSPATI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohamad Amin Sharifuldin Salleh.
1986-11-01
A data acquisition and processing system for reactor noise analysis is described. It consists of four-channel isolation amplifier, a seven-channel DC amplifier, a four-channel analog to digital converter, analog filters, a microcomputer system and a plotter. This system is being applied to investigate the reactor dynamics of the PUSPATI TRIGA MK II reactor. (author)
Noise and ac impedance analysis of ion transfer kinetics at the micro liquid/liquid interface
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Josypčuk, Oksana; Holub, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír
2015-01-01
Roč. 56, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 43-45 ISSN 1388-2481 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-04630S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : noise analysis * liquid/liquid interface * ion transfer kinetics Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.569, year: 2015
Mechanical surveillance of the internal structures on the French PWRs by noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puyal, C.
1983-01-01
In service observation of structures, materials and systems in PWRs is one of the major preoccupations of EDF. Methods and means have been developed and put into service in order to achieve this goal. This paper deals with the surveillance of primary systems, using the technique of noise analysis [fr
A study of power fluctuations in a flip fuel reactor using the technique of noise analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Randall, J D; Wood, G C; Edwards, M A [Texas A and M University (United States)
1974-07-01
The Nuclear Science Center Reactor at Texas A and M University has experienced minor power fluctuations when operating at or near 1 megawatt. A noise analysis system was developed to investigate these fluctuations assuming that void formation, primarily due to nucleate boiling, was the cause. Experiments were carried out to correlate boiling noise with power level, fission product poisoning, and pool temperature. Results show that void formation in the core is the probable cause of the fluctuations with the onset of boiling occurring at 400 Kw. Data was also obtained that indicated the presence of boiling in a standard TRIGA core. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramos Pacho, J. A.; Montes Fuentes, C.; Verde Velasco, J. M.; Delgado Aparicio, J. M.; Perez Alvarez, M. e.; Gomez Gonzalez, N.; Cons Perez, N.; Garcia Repiso, S.; Saez Beltran, M.; Gomez Llorente, P. L.
2013-01-01
Noise is one of the characteristics main of the images obtained in Nuclear Medicine, so using mechanisms that reduce the presence of this we would, with the same number of accounts and therefore with the same activity, harnessing the power of the computer resolution and extract more image information. With this objective, this study describes the acquisition and processing of uniform images using that analysed the spectral components of the noise, and is a filter that allows to attenuate it. (Author)
The analysis of transient noise of PCB P/G network based on PI/SI co-simulation
Haohang, Su
2018-02-01
With the frequency of the space camera become higher than before, the power noise of the imaging electronic system become the important factor. Much more power noise would disturb the transmissions signal, and even influence the image sharpness and system noise. "Target impedance method" is one of the traditional design method of P/G network (power and ground network), which is shorted of transient power noise analysis and often made "over design". In this paper, a new design method of P/G network is provided which simulated by PI/SI co-simulation. The transient power noise can be simulated and then applied in the design of noise reduction, thus effectively controlling the change of the noise in the P/G network. The method can efficiently control the number of adding decoupling capacitor, and is very efficient and feasible to keep the power integrity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusmano, G.; Montesperelli, G.; De Grandis, A.
1998-01-01
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the electrochemical noise analysis to detect the onset of corrosion phenomena in a very high resistivity medium. Tests were carried out on carbon steel electrodes immersed in a water/mineral oil two phases environment with high concentration of CO 2 , different aqueous/organic phase ratio, sulphide content between 0 and 0.5 g/l and pH between 1 and 5. The evolution of corrosion phenomena were followed by collecting current and potential noise between three nominally identical electrodes. The noise data were analysed in the time and in the frequency domain. In spite of a great loss of sensitivity of the method with respect to tests performed in aqueous solution, the data indicate a good agreement between the standard deviations and the power level of power spectra density (PSD) of current and potential noise signals and corrosion rates by means of weight loss. The values of the PSD slope, indicate the form of corrosion. The effect of water/oil ratio, sulphide concentration and pH on the corrosion rate was determined. Finally two methods to increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical noise are proposed. (orig.)
A noise reduction technique based on nonlinear kernel function for heart sound analysis.
Mondal, Ashok; Saxena, Ishan; Tang, Hong; Banerjee, Poulami
2017-02-13
The main difficulty encountered in interpretation of cardiac sound is interference of noise. The contaminated noise obscures the relevant information which are useful for recognition of heart diseases. The unwanted signals are produced mainly by lungs and surrounding environment. In this paper, a novel heart sound de-noising technique has been introduced based on a combined framework of wavelet packet transform (WPT) and singular value decomposition (SVD). The most informative node of wavelet tree is selected on the criteria of mutual information measurement. Next, the coefficient corresponding to the selected node is processed by SVD technique to suppress noisy component from heart sound signal. To justify the efficacy of the proposed technique, several experiments have been conducted with heart sound dataset, including normal and pathological cases at different signal to noise ratios. The significance of the method is validated by statistical analysis of the results. The biological information preserved in de-noised heart sound (HS) signal is evaluated by k-means clustering algorithm and Fit Factor calculation. The overall results show that proposed method is superior than the baseline methods.
Process sensors characterization based on noise analysis technique and artificial intelligence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mesquita, Roberto N. de; Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Santos, Roberto C. dos
2005-01-01
The time response of pressure and temperature sensors from the Reactor Protection System (RPS) is a requirement that must be satisfied in nuclear power plants, furthermore is an indicative of its degradation and its remaining life. The nuclear power industry and others have been eager to implement smart sensor technologies and digital instrumentation concepts to reduce manpower and effort currently spent on testing and calibration. Process parameters fluctuations during normal operation of a reactor are caused by random variations in neutron flux, heat transfer and other sources. The output sensor noise can be considered as the response of the system to an input representing the statistical nature of the underlying process which can be modeled using a time series model. Since the noise signal measurements are influenced by many factors, such as location of sensors, extraneous noise interference, and randomness in temperature and pressure fluctuation - the quantitative estimate of the time response using autoregressive noise modeling is subject to error. This technique has been used as means of sensor monitoring. In this work a set of pressure sensors installed in one experimental loop adapted from a flow calibration setup is used to test and analyze signals in a new approach using artificial intelligence techniques. A set of measurements of dynamic signals in different experimental conditions is used to distinguish and identify underlying process sources. A methodology that uses Blind Separation of Sources with a neural networks scheme is being developed to improve time response estimate reliability in noise analysis. (author)
Process sensors characterization based on noise analysis technique and artificial intelligence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mesquita, Roberto N. de; Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Santos, Roberto C. dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br; sperillo@ipen.br; rcsantos@ipen.br
2005-07-01
The time response of pressure and temperature sensors from the Reactor Protection System (RPS) is a requirement that must be satisfied in nuclear power plants, furthermore is an indicative of its degradation and its remaining life. The nuclear power industry and others have been eager to implement smart sensor technologies and digital instrumentation concepts to reduce manpower and effort currently spent on testing and calibration. Process parameters fluctuations during normal operation of a reactor are caused by random variations in neutron flux, heat transfer and other sources. The output sensor noise can be considered as the response of the system to an input representing the statistical nature of the underlying process which can be modeled using a time series model. Since the noise signal measurements are influenced by many factors, such as location of sensors, extraneous noise interference, and randomness in temperature and pressure fluctuation - the quantitative estimate of the time response using autoregressive noise modeling is subject to error. This technique has been used as means of sensor monitoring. In this work a set of pressure sensors installed in one experimental loop adapted from a flow calibration setup is used to test and analyze signals in a new approach using artificial intelligence techniques. A set of measurements of dynamic signals in different experimental conditions is used to distinguish and identify underlying process sources. A methodology that uses Blind Separation of Sources with a neural networks scheme is being developed to improve time response estimate reliability in noise analysis. (author)
Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS
Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem
2016-09-05
In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these \\'shaped like\\' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.
Spectral data de-noising using semi-classical signal analysis: application to localized MRS
Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Zhang, Jiayu; Achten, Eric; Serrai, Hacene
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a new post-processing technique called semi-classical signal analysis (SCSA) for MRS data de-noising. Similar to Fourier transformation, SCSA decomposes the input real positive MR spectrum into a set of linear combinations of squared eigenfunctions equivalently represented by localized functions with shape derived from the potential function of the Schrodinger operator. In this manner, the MRS spectral peaks represented as a sum of these 'shaped like' functions are efficiently separated from noise and accurately analyzed. The performance of the method is tested by analyzing simulated and real MRS data. The results obtained demonstrate that the SCSA method is highly efficient in localized MRS data de-noising and allows for an accurate data quantification.
Comparative analysis of chosen transforms in the context of de-noising harmonic signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artur Zacniewski
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the article, comparison of popular transforms used i.a. in denoising harmonical signals was presented. The division of signals submitted to mathematical analysis was shown and chosen transforms such as Short Time Fourier Transform, Wigner-Ville Distribution, Wavelet Transform and Discrete Cosine Transform were presented. Harmonic signal with white noise added was submitted for research. During research, the parameters of noise were changed to analyze the effects of using particular transform on noised signal. The importance of right choice for transform and its parameters (different for particular kind of transform was shown. Small changes in parameters or different functions used in transform can lead to considerably different results.[b]Keywords[/b]: denoising of harmonical signals, wavelet transform, discrete cosine transform, DCT
Analysis of noise in energy-dispersive spectrometers using time-domain methods
Goulding, F S
2002-01-01
This paper presents an integrated time domain approach to the optimization of the signal-to-noise ratio in all spectrometer systems that contain a detector that converts incoming quanta of radiation into electrical pulse signals that are amplified and shaped by an electronic pulse shaper. It allows analysis of normal passive pulse shapers as well as time-variant systems where switching of shaping elements occurs in synchronism with the signal. It also deals comfortably with microcalorimeters (sometimes referred to as bolometers), where noise-determining elements, such as the temperature-sensing element's resistance and temperature, change with time in the presence of a signal. As part of the purely time-domain approach, a new method of calculating the Johnson noise in resistors using only the statistics of electron motion is presented. The result is a time-domain analog of the Nyquist formula.
Room acoustic analysis of blower unit and noise control plan in the typical steel industry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Introduction: In the steel industry,air blowers used to supply compressed air are considered as sources of annoying noise. This study aims to acoustics analysis of theairblower workroomand sound source characteristics in order to present noise controlmeasuresinthe steel industry. .Material and Method: Measurement of noiselevel and its frequency analysis was performed usingsound levelmetermodelof CASELLA-Cell.450. Distribution of noise level in the investigated workroom in form of noise map was provided using Surfer software. In addition, acoustic analysis of workroom and control room was performed in view point of soundabsorption andinsulation. Redesignofdoor and window of controlroom and installation of soundabsorbing materialson theceiling of the workroom were proposed and the efficiency of these interventionswasestimated. .Result: The totalsound pressurelevelin the blower workroom was 95.4 dB(L and the dominant frequency was 2000Hz. Sound pressure level inside the room control was 80.1dB(A. The average absorption coefficient and reverberation time in the blower workroom was estimated equal to 0.082 Sab.m2 and 3.9 seconds respectively. These value in control room was 0.04 Sab.m2 and 3/4 seconds respectively. In control room, sound transmission loss between the two parts of the wall dividing was 13.7 dB(A. The average of noise dose in blower operators was 230%. With the installation of sound absorber on ceiling of workroom, average of absorption coefficient can increase to 0.33 Sab.m2 and sound transmission loss of the new designed door and window was estimated equal to 20dB. . Conclusion: The main cause of noise leakage in the control room was insufficient insulation properties of door and windows. By replacing the door and window and installation of sound absorbing on ceiling of workroom, the noise dose can reduce to 49.6%. New Improved door and window of control room can reduce noise dose to 69.65% solely.
Application of noise analysis for the study of core local instability at Forsmark 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oguma, Ritsuo
1997-10-01
Core local instability was recently experienced at Forsmark 1 BWR. The event has been studied by applying noise analysis to data collected in January 1997 for the stability test. The result indicated that there was a region in the left corner of the core which was subject to instability due to neutronic and thermal-hydraulic coupling. The result of the noise analysis suggested two types of disturbance source, one in the vicinity of the detector string LPRM10 having resonant oscillation at 0.5 Hz and another relatively wide band noise in the neighbourhood of LPRM18. Three hypotheses have been examined as the possible cause, operational factor, abnormal fuel assembly, and wide band low frequency disturbance. Although the real cause has not been made clear from the noise analysis, it is likely that the operational factor played an important role as the cause. Further investigations are expected to be performed in the future. In order to detect the local instability it is important to have a stability monitor with a capability of monitoring a sufficient number of LPRMs so as to cover the whole core. This is important since local instability is a type of anomaly which should not occur during reactor operation
Dynamic analysis of the Nova Target Chamber to assess alignment errors due to ambient noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCallen, D.B.; Murray, R.C.
1984-01-01
We performed a study to determine the dynamic behavior of the Nova Target Chamber. We conducted a free vibration analysis to determine the natural frequencies of vibration and the corresponding modeshapes of the target chamber. Utilizing the free vibration results, we performed forced vibration analysis to predict the displacements of the chamber due to ambient vibration. The input support motion for the forced vibration analysis was defined by a white noise acceleration spectrum which was based on previous measurements of ground noise near the Nova site. A special purpose computer program was prepared to process the results of the forced vibration analysis. The program yields distances by which the lines of sight of the various laser beams miss the target as a result of ambient vibrations. We also performed additional estimates of miss distance to provide bounds on the results. A description of the finite element model of the chamber, the input spectrum, and the results of the analyses are included
Aspect-dependent radiated noise analysis of an underway autonomous underwater vehicle.
Gebbie, John; Siderius, Martin; Allen, John S
2012-11-01
This paper presents an analysis of the acoustic emissions emitted by an underway REMUS-100 autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) that were obtained near Honolulu Harbor, HI using a fixed, bottom-mounted horizontal line array (HLA). Spectral analysis, beamforming, and cross-correlation facilitate identification of independent sources of noise originating from the AUV. Fusion of navigational records from the AUV with acoustic data from the HLA allows for an aspect-dependent presentation of calculated source levels of the strongest propulsion tone.
Corrected Statistical Energy Analysis Model for Car Interior Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Putra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Statistical energy analysis (SEA is a well-known method to analyze the flow of acoustic and vibration energy in a complex structure. For an acoustic space where significant absorptive materials are present, direct field component from the sound source dominates the total sound field rather than a reverberant field, where the latter becomes the basis in constructing the conventional SEA model. Such environment can be found in a car interior and thus a corrected SEA model is proposed here to counter this situation. The model is developed by eliminating the direct field component from the total sound field and only the power after the first reflection is considered. A test car cabin was divided into two subsystems and by using a loudspeaker as a sound source, the power injection method in SEA was employed to obtain the corrected coupling loss factor and the damping loss factor from the corrected SEA model. These parameters were then used to predict the sound pressure level in the interior cabin using the injected input power from the engine. The results show satisfactory agreement with the directly measured SPL.
Noise source analysis of nuclear ship Mutsu plant using multivariate autoregressive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayashi, K.; Shimazaki, J.; Shinohara, Y.
1996-01-01
The present study is concerned with the noise sources in N.S. Mutsu reactor plant. The noise experiments on the Mutsu plant were performed in order to investigate the plant dynamics and the effect of sea condition and and ship motion on the plant. The reactor noise signals as well as the ship motion signals were analyzed by a multivariable autoregressive (MAR) modeling method to clarify the noise sources in the reactor plant. It was confirmed from the analysis results that most of the plant variables were affected mainly by a horizontal component of the ship motion, that is the sway, through vibrations of the plant structures. Furthermore, the effect of ship motion on the reactor power was evaluated through the analysis of wave components extracted by a geometrical transform method. It was concluded that the amplitude of the reactor power oscillation was about 0.15% in normal sea condition, which was small enough for safe operation of the reactor plant. (authors)
BAYESIAN ANALYSIS OF WHITE NOISE LEVELS IN THE FIVE-YEAR WMAP DATA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groeneboom, N. E.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gorski, K.; Huey, G.; Jewell, J.; Wandelt, B.
2009-01-01
We develop a new Bayesian method for estimating white noise levels in CMB sky maps, and apply this algorithm to the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We assume that the amplitude of the noise rms is scaled by a constant value, α, relative to a pre-specified noise level. We then derive the corresponding conditional density, P(α | s, C l , d), which is subsequently integrated into a general CMB Gibbs sampler. We first verify our code by analyzing simulated data sets, and then apply the framework to the WMAP data. For the foreground-reduced five-year WMAP sky maps and the nominal noise levels initially provided in the five-year data release, we find that the posterior means typically range between α = 1.005 ± 0.001 and α = 1.010 ± 0.001 depending on differencing assembly, indicating that the noise level of these maps are biased low by 0.5%-1.0%. The same problem is not observed for the uncorrected WMAP sky maps. After the preprint version of this letter appeared on astro-ph., the WMAP team has corrected the values presented on their web page, noting that the initially provided values were in fact estimates from the three-year data release, not from the five-year estimates. However, internally in their five-year analysis the correct noise values were used, and no cosmological results are therefore compromised by this error. Thus, our method has already been demonstrated in practice to be both useful and accurate.
Vilar, J. M. G. (José M. G.), 1972-; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel
2001-01-01
We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.
The signal-to-noise analysis of the Little-Hopfield model revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolle, D; Blanco, J Busquets; Verbeiren, T
2004-01-01
Using the generating functional analysis an exact recursion relation is derived for the time evolution of the effective local field of the fully connected Little-Hopfield model. It is shown that, by leaving out the feedback correlations arising from earlier times in this effective dynamics, one precisely finds the recursion relations usually employed in the signal-to-noise approach. The consequences of this approximation as well as the physics behind it are discussed. In particular, it is pointed out why it is hard to notice the effects, especially for model parameters corresponding to retrieval. Numerical simulations confirm these findings. The signal-to-noise analysis is then extended to include all correlations, making it a full theory for dynamics at the level of the generating functional analysis. The results are applied to the frequently employed extremely diluted (a)symmetric architectures and to sequence processing networks
Development of electronic system for reactivity measurement and reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strohl, Claude Emile; Soares, Adalberto Jose
1996-01-01
In nuclear power reactors, the neutron detector signal is dependent of the number of fissions and the reactor power level. The detector signal can be divided into two components; a DC component, proportional to the average value and an AC component, which is the fluctuating part superimposed to the DC component. The analysis of the fluctuating part of the signal is called noise analysis and allow us to investigate phenomena occurring within the reactor vessel, such as vibration of fuels elements and coolant density, temperature, pressure and flow changes. On the other hand, the measure of the static DC part allow us to measure the local power density. This paper describes the development of a personal computer based signal conditioning card that, together with a personal computer commercial data acquisition card, can be used for noise analysis measurements and reactivity measurements of signals coming from ionization chambers or SPD's. (author)
Development of an electrometer/amplifier and filter set for analysis of reactor noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strohl, Claude Emile
1996-01-01
In nuclear power reactors, the neutron detector signal is dependent on the number of fissions and the reactor power level. The detector signal can be divided into two components: a D C component, proportional to the average value and an A C component, which is the fluctuating part superimposed to the D C component. The analysis of the fluctuating part of the signal is called noise analysis and allow us to investigate phenomena occurring within the reactor vessel, such as vibrational of fuel elements and coolant density, temperature, pressure and flow changes. On the other hand, the measure of the static D C part allows us to measure the local power density. This work describes the development of a personal computer based signal conditioning card that, together with a personal computer commercial data acquisition card, can be used for noise analysis and reactivity measurements of signals coming from ionization chambers or SPD's. (author)
Damping layout optimization for ship's cabin noise reduction based on statistical energy analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WU Weiguo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available An optimization analysis study concerning the damping control of ship's cabin noise was carried out in order to improve the effect and reduce the weight of damping. Based on the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA method, a theoretical deduction and numerical analysis of the first-order sensitivity analysis of the A-weighted sound pressure level concerning the damping loss factor of the subsystem were carried out. On this basis, a mathematical optimization model was proposed and an optimization program developed. Next, the secondary development of VA One software was implemented through the use of MATLAB, while the cabin noise damping control layout optimization system was established. Finally, the optimization model of the ship was constructed and numerical experiments of damping control optimization conducted. The damping installation region was divided into five parts with different damping thicknesses. The total weight of damping was set as an objective function and the A-weighted sound pressure level of the target cabin was set as a constraint condition. The best damping thickness was obtained through the optimization program, and the total damping weight was reduced by 60.4%. The results show that the damping noise reduction effect of unit weight is significantly improved through the optimization method. This research successfully solves the installation position and thickness selection problems in the acoustic design of damping control, providing a reliable analysis method and guidance for the design.
Reactor noise analysis based on nonlinear dynamic theory - application to power oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzudo, Tomoaki
1993-01-01
The information dimension is one of the simplest quantities that can be used to determine the asymptotic motion of the time evolution of a nonlinear system. The application of this quantity to reactor noise analysis is proposed, and the possibility of its application to power oscillation analysis is examined. The information dimension of this regime is equal to the number of independent oscillating modes, which is an intuitive physical variable. Time series data from computer experiments and experiments with an actual physical system are used for the analysis. The results indicate that the method is useful for a detailed analysis of reactor power oscillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk
1994-08-01
The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author)
Jamshidi, Kambiz; Salehi, Jawad A.
2005-05-01
This paper describes a study of the performance of various configurations for placing multiple optical amplifiers in a typical coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access (CULP-CDMA) communication system using the additive noise model. For this study, a comprehensive performance analysis was developed that takes into account multiple-access noise, noise due to optical amplifiers, and thermal noise using the saddle-point approximation technique. Prior to obtaining the overall system performance, the input/output statistical models for different elements of the system such as encoders/decoders,star coupler, and optical amplifiers were obtained. Performance comparisons between an ideal and lossless quantum-limited case and a typical CULP-CDMA with various losses exhibit more than 30 dB more power requirement to obtain the same bit-error rate (BER). Considering the saturation effect of optical amplifiers, this paper discusses an algorithm for amplifiers' gain setting in various stages of the network in order to overcome the nonlinear effects on signal modulation in optical amplifiers. Finally, using this algorithm,various configurations of multiple optical amplifiers in CULP-CDMA are discussed and the rules for the required optimum number of amplifiers are shown with their corresponding optimum locations to be implemented along the CULP-CDMA system.
Measurement and analysis of the noise radiated by low Mach numbers centrifugal blowers
Yeager, D. M.; Lauchle, G. C.
1987-11-01
The broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices is investigated. An interdisciplinary approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller which was placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. New frequency-domain expressions for the correlation area and dipole source strength per unit area on a surface immersed in turbulence were developed which can be used to characterize the noise generation process over a rigid surface immersed in turbulence. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil (impeller blade) was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques.
Noise-shaping all-digital phase-locked loops modeling, simulation, analysis and design
Brandonisio, Francesco
2014-01-01
This book presents a novel approach to the analysis and design of all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs), technology widely used in wireless communication devices. The authors provide an overview of ADPLL architectures, time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and noise shaping. Realistic examples illustrate how to analyze and simulate phase noise in the presence of sigma-delta modulation and time-to-digital conversion. Readers will gain a deep understanding of ADPLLs and the central role played by noise-shaping. A range of ADPLL and TDC architectures are presented in unified manner. Analytical and simulation tools are discussed in detail. Matlab code is included that can be reused to design, simulate and analyze the ADPLL architectures that are presented in the book. • Discusses in detail a wide range of all-digital phase-locked loops architectures; • Presents a unified framework in which to model time-to-digital converters for ADPLLs; • Explains a procedure to predict and simulate phase noise in oscil...
Analysis of regularized inversion of data corrupted by white Gaussian noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kekkonen, Hanne; Lassas, Matti; Siltanen, Samuli
2014-01-01
Tikhonov regularization is studied in the case of linear pseudodifferential operator as the forward map and additive white Gaussian noise as the measurement error. The measurement model for an unknown function u(x) is m(x) = Au(x) + δ ε (x), where δ > 0 is the noise magnitude. If ε was an L 2 -function, Tikhonov regularization gives an estimate T α (m) = u∈H r arg min { ||Au-m|| L 2 2 + α||u|| H r 2 } for u where α = α(δ) is the regularization parameter. Here penalization of the Sobolev norm ||u|| H r covers the cases of standard Tikhonov regularization (r = 0) and first derivative penalty (r = 1). Realizations of white Gaussian noise are almost never in L 2 , but do belong to H s with probability one if s < 0 is small enough. A modification of Tikhonov regularization theory is presented, covering the case of white Gaussian measurement noise. Furthermore, the convergence of regularized reconstructions to the correct solution as δ → 0 is proven in appropriate function spaces using microlocal analysis. The convergence of the related finite-dimensional problems to the infinite-dimensional problem is also analysed. (paper)
Analysis of noise on construction sites of high-rise buildings.
Barkokébas, Béda; Vasconcelos, Bianca M; Lago, Eliane Maria G; Alcoforador, Aline Fabiana P
2012-01-01
In the civil construction industry sector, it has been observed that the increasing use of machines has made tasks noisier and consequently caused hearing loss and had other adverse effects on workers. The objective of this study was to identify and assess the physical risks of noise present in activities undertaken in a construction company in order to propose control measures which will contribute to the management of health and safety within the company's organization. The methodology applied was based on verifying the characteristics of exposure to noise on construction sites, from an observation of sources which generated noise and making measurements of sound pressure levels emitted by these sources. The data was then analyzed and compared with the recommended performance levels established in control measures. As a result, it was found that some machines and equipment used in civil construction often generate noise above the acceptable levels and as such, in these cases, various control measures have been proposed. It is believed that the use of management techniques is the most effective way to assess risk and to implement the preventive and corrective actions proposed, and allows for the analysis of sound pressure levels on an ongoing basis.
Measures of the zero power nuclear reactor's kinetic parameters with application of noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, F.R.
1992-01-01
The purpose of this work was to establish an experimental technique based on noise analysis for measuring the ratio of kinetic parameters β/ Λ and the power of the Zero Power Nuclear Reactor IPEN-MB 01. A through study of the microscopic and macroscopic noise analysis techniques has been carried out. The Langevin technique and the point kinetic model were chosen to describe the stochastic phenomena that occur in the zero power reactor. Measurements have been made using two compensated ionization chambers localized in the water reflector at symmetric positions in order to minimize spatial effects on the neutron flux fluctuation. Power calibrations based on the low frequency plateau of the cross-power spectral density has also been carried out. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozma, R.; van Dam, H.; Hoogenboom, J.E.
1992-01-01
The primary objective of this paper is to introduce results of coolant boiling experiments in a simulated materials test reactor-type fuel assembly with plate fuel in an actual reactor environment. The experiments have been performed in the Hoger Onderwijs Reactor (HOR) research reactor at the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft, The Netherlands. In the analysis, noise signals of self-powered neutron detectors located in the neighborhood of the boiling region and thermocouple in the channel wall and in the coolant are used. Flow patterns in the boiling coolant have been identified by means of analysis of probability density functions and power spectral densities of neutron noise. It is shown that boiling has an oscillating character due to partial channel blockage caused by steam slugs generated periodically between the plates. The observed phenomenon can serve as a basis for a boiling detection method in reactors with plate-type fuels
A time-variant analysis of the 1/f^(2) phase noise in CMOS parallel LC-Tank quadrature oscillators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreani, Pietro
2006-01-01
This paper presents a study of 1/f2 phase noise in quadrature oscillators built by connecting two differential LC-tank oscillators in a parallel fashion. The analysis clearly demonstrates the necessity of adopting a time-variant theory of phase noise, where a more simplistic, time...
Reactor noise analysis applications and systems in WWER-440 and WWER-1000 type PWRs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Por, G.
1998-01-01
This paper presents an introduction on different types of well selected noise diagnostic methods with their occurrence in WWER reactors with an analysis of their impact on operational safety and aging which affects the installations safety as well. The main objective is to attract the attention of NPP management staff dealing with safety, safety culture, maintenance, operation and quality assurance proving that such methods can give benefit not only to economy but impact safety of nuclear installations
Noise analysis and mimic experiments for loose part accident in the primary coolant loop of PWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xiuzhou; Cheng Tingxiang; Zhang Bin
1994-01-01
The basic principle of loose part monitoring is to detect and measure the structure transfer sound generated by impacting of metal loose part with accelerators and to identify and diagnose by the micro-processor. This paper introduces the theoretical base of loose part monitoring, the location and mass estimation of loose part, and three mimic experiment applying noise analysis techniques. It provides some useful preparations for the development of loose part monitoring system
Application of the neutron noise analysis technique in nuclear power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lescano, Victor H.; Wentzeis, Luis M.
1999-01-01
Using the neutron noise analysis in nuclear power plants, and without producing any perturbation in the normal operation of the plant, information of the vibration state of the reactor internals and the behavior of the operating conditions of the reactor primary circuit can be obtained. In Argentina, the neutron noise analysis technique is applied in customary way in the nuclear power plants Atucha I and Embalse. A database was constructed and vibration frequencies corresponding to different reactor internals were characterized. Reactor internals with particular mechanical vibrations have been detected and localized. In the framing of a cooperation project between Argentina and Germany, we participated in the measurements, analysis and modelisation, using the neutron noise technique, in the Obrigheim and Gundremmingen nuclear power plants. In the nuclear power plant Obrigheim (PWR, 350 M We), correlations between the signals measured from self-power neutron detectors and accelerometers located inside the reactor core, were made. In the nuclear power plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 1200 M We) we participated in the study of a particular mechanical vibration detected in one of the instrumentation tube. (author)
Analysis of annual exposure of private farmers to noise and whole body vibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leszek Solecki
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Based on a literature review for the period of 1982– 2011, an analysis was performed of studies by various researchers concerning the exposure of private farmers to noise and vibration of the whole body with particular consideration of the annual exposure to these factors. The main sources of noise occurring in agriculture are: agricultural tractors mounted with a set of farm machinery, self-propelled machines, machinery for the production of fodder and workshop equipment. The review of literature showed that the highest values of equivalent exposure to noise (EA, T or noise doses (d were noted during the summer-autumn season and in spring. Mean noise levels for the entire year (of over 90 dB-A, considerably exceeded permissible values.The primary sources of the whole body vibration are agricultural vehicles including agricultural tractors of various types and self-propelled agricultural vehicles. In these vehicles vibration transmitted from the seat to the whole body is of basic importance. The measurements of vibration acceleration indicated that mechanical vibration on seats was produced while performing following activities: hay tedding and raking, sowing of fertilizers, aggregation of soil, grass mowing and cultivation. All of them may create a considerable health risk. These work activities are performed at elevated working speeds of tractors, most often along with hardened or uneven surfaces. In relation to the standard values (A(840.8 m/s2, the mean daily vibration acceleration values remain below the permissible levels during all months of the year. However, considering the occurrence of mechanical shocks of high values (above the Maximum Acceptable Intensity on agricultural vehicles there is a high risk for the spine problems among operators of agricultural vehicles.
Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N Keramat Siavash
2015-09-01
, capacitor microphone with a unidirectional pattern whose size, sensitivity and frequency range are 1/2", 50 mV Pa-1 and 10 Hz to 20 kHz with a flat extrusion, respectively. Choosing the combination of fuel was carried out according to experiments that have been done before determining engine operation parameters. Results and Discussion: Fuel type has a direct effect on the quality of the IC engine's combustion phenomenon. One of the most important quality parameters that can be fluctuated by fuel type is engine noise. The fuel type has a direct effect on internal fuel ignition engines and affects the quality of fuel ignition. One of the effects of ignition quality is the sound of the engine that is very important in terms of both the health and evaluation of engine performance. Two-wheel tractors are of the most important tools used in agriculture. In addition to agricultural work, they have applications in rural areas as power generators. No research has been carried out so far in Iran on the sound of two-wheel tractors fuelled with diesel and biodiesel fuels. Therefore, the sound of the ignition of biodiesel and diesel mixtures in four stroke, single cylinder, two wheel diesel tractors manufactured by Ashtad Company was studied. The purpose of this study is to analyze the noise parameters of a diesel engine using B0, B5, B10, B15, B20, B25 and B30 biodiesel–diesel blends. Biodiesel was produced from waste oil and blended with net diesel fuel to evaluate the Power tiller's engine noise parameters. This study was carried out at a stationary position and at three positions such as driver's left ear position (DLEP, 1.5 meter (1.5 MAFE and 7.5 meters (7.5 MAFE away from the exhaust at 6 engine speeds (1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000 & 2200 rpm. Statistical analysis and frequency analysis were used to analyze sound of the engine. The results showed that the sound pressure levels of the engine for B10 fuel have the least amount of noise level of the sound pressure. However, this
Yusufzai, Mohd Zaheer Khan; Vashista, M.
2018-04-01
Barkhausen Noise analysis is a popular and preferred technique for micro-structural characterization. The root mean square value and peak value of Barkhausen Noise burst are important parameters to assess the micro-hardness and residual stress. Barkhausen Noise burst can be enveloped using a curve known as Barkhausen Noise profile. Peak position of profile changes with change in micro-structure. In the present work, raw signal of Barkhausen Noise burst was obtained from Ni based sample at various magnetic field intensity to observe the effect of variation in field intensity on Barkhausen Noise burst. Raw signal was opened using MATLAB to further process for microstructure analysis. Barkhausen Noise analysis parameters such as magnetizing frequency, number of burst, high pass and low pass filter frequency were kept constant and magnetizing field was varied in wide range between 200 Oe to 1200 Oe. The processed profiles of Barkhausen Noise burst obtained at various magnetizing field intensity clearly reveals requirement of optimum magnetic field strength for better characterization of micro-structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Soyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Case and Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Yan, Guanghua; Bassett, Philip; Samant, Sanjiv, E-mail: samant@ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida 32608 (United States); Gopal, Arun [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (United States)
2016-09-15
Purpose: To investigate the use of local noise power spectrum (NPS) to characterize image noise and wavelet analysis to isolate defective pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts for quantitative quality assurance (QA) of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Methods: A total of 93 image sets including custom-made bar-pattern images and open exposure images were collected from four iViewGT a-Si EPID systems over three years. Global quantitative metrics such as modulation transform function (MTF), NPS, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were computed for each image set. Local NPS was also calculated for individual subpanels by sampling region of interests within each subpanel of the EPID. The 1D NPS, obtained by radially averaging the 2D NPS, was fitted to a power-law function. The r-square value of the linear regression analysis was used as a singular metric to characterize the noise properties of individual subpanels of the EPID. The sensitivity of the local NPS was first compared with the global quantitative metrics using historical image sets. It was then compared with two commonly used commercial QA systems with images collected after applying two different EPID calibration methods (single-level gain and multilevel gain). To detect isolated defective pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts, Haar wavelet transform was applied on the images. Results: Global quantitative metrics including MTF, NPS, and DQE showed little change over the period of data collection. On the contrary, a strong correlation between the local NPS (r-square values) and the variation of the EPID noise condition was observed. The local NPS analysis indicated image quality improvement with the r-square values increased from 0.80 ± 0.03 (before calibration) to 0.85 ± 0.03 (after single-level gain calibration) and to 0.96 ± 0.03 (after multilevel gain calibration), while the commercial QA systems failed to distinguish the image quality improvement between the two
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)
1998-11-01
In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.
Simulation and stability analysis of supersonic impinging jet noise with microjet control
Hildebrand, Nathaniel; Nichols, Joseph W.
2014-11-01
A model for an ideally expanded 1.5 Mach turbulent jet impinging on a flat plate using unstructured high-fidelity large eddy simulations (LES) and hydrodynamic stability analysis is presented. Note the LES configuration conforms exactly to experiments performed at the STOVL supersonic jet facility of the Florida Center for Advanced Aero-Propulsion allowing validation against experimental measurements. The LES are repeated for different nozzle-wall separation distances as well as with and without the addition of sixteen microjets positioned uniformly around the nozzle lip. For some nozzle-wall distances, but not all, the microjets result in substantial noise reduction. Observations of substantial noise reduction are associated with a relative absence of large-scale coherent vortices in the jet shear layer. To better understand and predict the effectiveness of microjet noise control, the application of global stability analysis about LES mean fields is used to extract axisymmetric and helical instability modes connected to the complex interplay between the coherent vortices, shocks, and acoustic feedback. We gratefully acknowledge computational resources provided by the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carassiti, F.; Cigna, R.; Goolamallee, R.; Gusmano, G.
1989-01-01
The analysis of the electrochemical noise, i.e. of the spontaneous fluctuations of potential of a freely corroding electrode, probably represent one of the most interesting novelty of the last years in the field of corrosion monitoring. Although this technique is still at an early stage, it could lead to interesting developments, especially for identifying localized forms of corrosion. The experiments which have been reported in the literature generally agree that in absence of active corrosion a slight variation of the potential is observed accompanied by non gaussian fluctuations; in presence of the onset of pitting a series of sharp variation is observed followed by relatively slow exponential recovery. In the domain of frequency the slope of the noise frequency curve is less than that noticed in the absence of active corrosion. In the domain of time generally the standard deviation of noise is proportional to the corrosion rate. Moreover it has been noticed that small variation in the experimental condition could cause modification in the shape of the spontaneous potential fluctuation and introduce some confusion in the analysis of data. Digital filtering of disturbs could allow a better reproducibility to be achieved. (author) 4 refs., 9 figs
Bizzarri, Anna Rita; Cannistraro, Salvatore
2014-08-22
Atomic force spectroscopy is able to extract kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of biomolecular complexes provided that the registered unbinding force curves could be reliably attributed to the rupture of the specific complex interactions. To this aim, a commonly used strategy is based on the analysis of the stretching features of polymeric linkers which are suitably introduced in the biomolecule-substrate immobilization procedure. Alternatively, we present a method to select force curves corresponding to specific biorecognition events, which relies on a careful analysis of the force fluctuations of the biomolecule-functionalized cantilever tip during its approach to the partner molecules immobilized on a substrate. In the low frequency region, a characteristic 1/f (α) noise with α equal to one (flickering noise) is found to replace white noise in the cantilever fluctuation power spectrum when, and only when, a specific biorecognition process between the partners occurs. The method, which has been validated on a well-characterized antigen-antibody complex, represents a fast, yet reliable alternative to the use of linkers which may involve additional surface chemistry and reproducibility concerns.
A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model
Jacobson, I. D.
1977-01-01
A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.
Design and analysis of a BLPC vocoder-based adaptive feedback cancellation with probe noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anand, Ankita; Kar, Asutosh; Swamy, M.N.S.
2017-01-01
a BLPC vocoderbased adaptive feedback canceller with probe noise with an objective of reducing the low-frequency bias in digital hearing-aids. A step-wise mathematical analysis of the proposed feedback canceller is presented employing the recursive least square and normalized least mean square adaptive......The band-limited linear predictive coding (BLPC) vocoder-based adaptive feedback cancellation (AFC) removes the high-frequency bias, while the low frequency bias persists between the desired input signal and the loudspeaker signal in the estimate of the feedback path. In this paper, we present...... algorithms. It is observed that the optimal solution of the feedback path is unbiased for an unshaped probe noise, but is biased for a shaped probe signal; the bias term does not consist of correlation between the desired input and the loudspeaker output. The identifiability conditions are analysed...
Comparison of JADE and canonical correlation analysis for ECG de-noising.
Kuzilek, Jakub; Kremen, Vaclav; Lhotska, Lenka
2014-01-01
This paper explores differences between two methods for blind source separation within frame of ECG de-noising. First method is joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices, which is based on estimation of fourth order cross-cummulant tensor and its diagonalization. Second one is the statistical method known as canonical correlation analysis, which is based on estimation of correlation matrices between two multidimensional variables. Both methods were used within method, which combines the blind source separation algorithm with decision tree. The evaluation was made on large database of 382 long-term ECG signals and the results were examined. Biggest difference was found in results of 50 Hz power line interference where the CCA algorithm completely failed. Thus main power of CCA lies in estimation of unstructured noise within ECG. JADE algorithm has larger computational complexity thus the CCA perfomed faster when estimating the components.
Signal-to-noise ratio application to seismic marker analysis and fracture detection
Xu, Hui-Qun; Gui, Zhi-Xian
2014-03-01
Seismic data with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are useful in reservoir exploration. To obtain high SNR seismic data, significant effort is required to achieve noise attenuation in seismic data processing, which is costly in materials, and human and financial resources. We introduce a method for improving the SNR of seismic data. The SNR is calculated by using the frequency domain method. Furthermore, we optimize and discuss the critical parameters and calculation procedure. We applied the proposed method on real data and found that the SNR is high in the seismic marker and low in the fracture zone. Consequently, this can be used to extract detailed information about fracture zones that are inferred by structural analysis but not observed in conventional seismic data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glockler, O.; Cooke, D.F.; Tulett, M.V.
1995-01-01
In 1992, a program was initiated to establish reactor noise analysis as a practical tool for plant performance monitoring and system diagnostics in Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors. Since then, various CANDU-specific noise analysis applications have been developed and validated. The noise-based statistical techniques are being successfully applied as powerful troubleshooting and diagnostic tools to a wide variety of actual operational I and C problems. Critical plant components, instrumentation and processes are monitored on a regular basis, and their dynamic characteristics are verified on-power. Recent applications of noise analysis include (1) validating the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDS) and ion chambers, (2) estimating the prompt fraction ICFDs in noise measurements at full power and in power rundown tests, (3) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (4) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals, (5) detecting and monitoring mechanical vibrations of detector tubes, reactivity devices and fuel channels induced by moderator/coolant flow, (6) estimating the dynamics and response time of RTD temperature signals, (7) isolating the cause of RTD signal anomalies, (8) investigating the source of abnormal flow signal behaviour, (9) estimating the overall response time of flow and pressure signals, (1 0) detecting coolant boiling in fully instrumented fuel channels, (1 1) monitoring moderator circulation via temperature noise, and (12) predicting the performance of shut-off rods. Some of these applications are performed on an as needed basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the regulator (Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada) with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the
Assessment and analysis of noise levels in and around Ib river coalfield, Orissa, India.
Mohapatra, Haraprasad; Goswami, Shreerup
2012-05-01
Heavy earth moving machineries, different capacities of dumpers and loaders, blasting and drilling make the mining environment noisy. A study was carried out to assess the noise level in different opencast projects in and around Belpahar and Brajarajnagar areas of Ib river coalfield. Noise assessment was carried out in various residential, commercial and industrial places. The noise levels, especially L(eq) values of different wheel loaders, dumpers, shovel and crusher units were also assessed and were more than permissible limit (90dB) in some of their operating conditions. Sound ressure level measurements while drilling into coal and overburden at Lakhanpur opencast project yielded noise levels (L(eq)) of 81.33 to 96.2 dB. Thus, these L(eq) values of drilling machines in most of the operating conditions were above permissible limit. The average noise intensities (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 51.6-60.875dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 42.6-49.8dB) and L(eq) values (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 50.9-67.0dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 40.8-53.3dB) during both day and night time of the residential areas around the Ib river coalfield were in close proximity or beyond the permissible limit. The L(eq) values at some of the commercial and industrial places were beyond (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 61.6-88.3 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 55.4-64.8dB) permissible limit. However, in most of the cases, the L(max) noise values were more (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 68.5-91.4 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 69.3-76.4dB) than the permissible limit. Analysis of variance was also computed for heavy earth moving machineries in different operating conditions and also for different residential, commercial and industrial places to infer the level of significance. The difference of noise intensity produced by different wheel loaders at Lakhanpur and Lilari opencast projects, drilling machines at Lakhanpur opencast project, 50 tons capacity dumpers at various conditions of Ib river coalfield within the same operating condition was significant at both 5% and 1% levels
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Number Centrifugal Blowers.
Yeager, David Marvin
An investigation was performed of the broad band, aerodynamically generated noise in low tip-speed Mach number, centrifugal air moving devices. An interdisciplinary experimental approach was taken which involved investigation of the aerodynamic and acoustic fields, and their mutual relationship. The noise generation process was studied using two experimental vehicles: (1) a scale model of a homologous family of centrifugal blowers typical of those used to cool computer and business equipment, and (2) a single blade from a centrifugal blower impeller placed in a known, controllable flow field. The radiation characteristics of the model blower were investigated by measuring the acoustic intensity distribution near the blower inlet and comparing it with the intensity near the inlet to an axial flow fan. Results showed that the centrifugal blower is a distributed, random noise source, unlike an axial fan which exhibited the effects of a coherent, interacting source distribution. Aerodynamic studies of the flow field in the inlet and at the discharge to the rotating impeller were used to assess the mean flow distribution through the impeller blade channels and to identify regions of excessive turbulence near the rotating blade row. Both circumferential and spanwise mean flow nonuniformities were identified along with a region of increased turbulence just downstream of the scroll cutoff. The fluid incidence angle, normally taken as an indicator of blower performance, was estimated from mean flow data as deviating considerably from an ideal impeller design. An investigation of the noise radiated from the single, isolated airfoil was performed using modern correlation and spectral analysis techniques. Radiation from the single blade in flow was characterized using newly developed expressions for the correlation area and the dipole source strength per unit area, and from the relationship between the blade surface pressure and the incident turbulent flow field. Results
High order statistical signatures from source-driven measurements of subcritical fissile systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattingly, J.K.
1998-01-01
This research focuses on the development and application of high order statistical analyses applied to measurements performed with subcritical fissile systems driven by an introduced neutron source. The signatures presented are derived from counting statistics of the introduced source and radiation detectors that observe the response of the fissile system. It is demonstrated that successively higher order counting statistics possess progressively higher sensitivity to reactivity. Consequently, these signatures are more sensitive to changes in the composition, fissile mass, and configuration of the fissile assembly. Furthermore, it is shown that these techniques are capable of distinguishing the response of the fissile system to the introduced source from its response to any internal or inherent sources. This ability combined with the enhanced sensitivity of higher order signatures indicates that these techniques will be of significant utility in a variety of applications. Potential applications include enhanced radiation signature identification of weapons components for nuclear disarmament and safeguards applications and augmented nondestructive analysis of spent nuclear fuel. In general, these techniques expand present capabilities in the analysis of subcritical measurements
A CAMAC based real-time noise analysis system for nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftcioglu, O.
1987-01-01
A CAMAC based real-time noise analysis system was designed for the TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor at the Institute for Nuclear Energy, Istanbul. The input analog signals obtained from the radiation detectors are introduced to the system through CAMAC interface. The signals coverted into digital form are processed by a PDP-11 computer. The fast data processing based on auto/cross power spectral density computations is carried out by means of assembly written FFT algorithms in real-time and the spectra obtained are displayed on a CAMAC driven display system as an additional monitoring device. The system has the advantage of being software programmable and controlled by a CAMAC system so that it is operated under porgram control for reactor surveillance, anomaly detection and diagnosis. The system can also be used for the identification of nonstationary operational characteristics of the reactor in long term by comparing the noise power spectra with the corresponding reference noise patterns prepared in advance. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stekelenburg, A.J.C.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der
1996-01-01
In this paper, the state of the art of the measurement of two-phase flow variables in a boiling water reactor (BWR) by analysis of in-core neutron detector noise signals is given. It is concluded that the neutronic processes involved in neutron noise are quite well understood, but that little is known about the density fluctuations in two-phase flow which are the main cause of the neutron noise. For this reason, the neutron noise measurements, like the well known two-detector velocity measurements, are still difficult to interpret. By analyzing neutron noise measurements in a natural circulation cooled BWR, it is illustrated that, once a theory on the density fluctuations is developed, two-phase flow can be monitored with a single in-core detector. (author). 70 refs, 4 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Saito
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Electromagnetic phenomena associated with crustal activities have been reported in a wide frequency range (DC-HF. In particular, ULF electromagnetic phenomena are the most promising among them because of the deeper skin depth. However, ULF geoelctromagnetic data are a superposition of signals of different origins. They originated from interactions between the geomagnetic field and the solar wind, leak current by a DC-driven train (train noise, precipitation, and so on. In general, the intensity of electromagnetic signals associated with crustal activity is smaller than the above variations. Therefore, in order to detect a smaller signal, signal discrimination such as noise reduction or identification of noises is very important. In this paper, the singular spectrum analysis (SSA has been performed to detect the DC-driven train noise in geoelectric potential difference data. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective algorithm for the DC-driven train noise detection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diani Fernanda Silva
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The analysis of neighborhood impact associated to noise is very important to the living and working environments independently of our activity. The legislative Brazilian norm NBR 10151 imposes limits of noise produced by business establishments. The maximum values of acoustic comfort on the surrounding community are 60 dB at daytime and 55 dB at nighttime. Environments as gym, perform music at high intensity as an incentive to practice physical exercises, however, excessive continuous noise produced by sound equipment may cause annoyance for adjacent environments, as a hairdresser analyzed in this study. Among the complaints of the professionals are digestive disorders, headaches, increase disturbances of concentration, dizziness, sleeping disturbs, anxiety, fatigue and stress. Inevitably, noise is a result of almost all our activities. We could improve our quality of life by avoiding the hazardous noise.
Variation and stability in Dutch noise policy: an analysis of dominant advocacy coalitions
Weber, M.; Driessen, P.P.J.; Schueler, B.J.; Runhaar, H.A.C.
2013-01-01
Noise exposure has harmful effects on human health. Despite policy on the prevention and reduction of noise, the environmental burden is increasing, specifically due to road traffic noise. Noise policy in the Netherlands is organised in a rather complex way, with different legal frameworks for the
Quantitative analysis of the anti-noise performance of an m-sequence in an electromagnetic method
Yuan, Zhe; Zhang, Yiming; Zheng, Qijia
2018-02-01
An electromagnetic method with a transmitted waveform coded by an m-sequence achieved better anti-noise performance compared to the conventional manner with a square-wave. The anti-noise performance of the m-sequence varied with multiple coding parameters; hence, a quantitative analysis of the anti-noise performance for m-sequences with different coding parameters was required to optimize them. This paper proposes the concept of an identification system, with the identified Earth impulse response obtained by measuring the system output with the input of the voltage response. A quantitative analysis of the anti-noise performance of the m-sequence was achieved by analyzing the amplitude-frequency response of the corresponding identification system. The effects of the coding parameters on the anti-noise performance are summarized by numerical simulation, and their optimization is further discussed in our conclusions; the validity of the conclusions is further verified by field experiment. The quantitative analysis method proposed in this paper provides a new insight into the anti-noise mechanism of the m-sequence, and could be used to evaluate the anti-noise performance of artificial sources in other time-domain exploration methods, such as the seismic method.
Han, S. M.; Hahm, I.
2015-12-01
We evaluated the background noise level of seismic stations in order to collect the observation data of high quality and produce accurate seismic information. Determining of the background noise level was used PSD (Power Spectral Density) method by McNamara and Buland (2004) in this study. This method that used long-term data is influenced by not only innate electronic noise of sensor and a pulse wave resulting from stabilizing but also missing data and controlled by the specified frequency which is affected by the irregular signals without site characteristics. It is hard and inefficient to implement process that filters out the abnormal signal within the automated system. To solve these problems, we devised a method for extracting the data which normally distributed with 90 to 99% confidence intervals at each period. The availability of the method was verified using 62-seismic stations with broadband and short-period sensors operated by the KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). Evaluation standards were NHNM (New High Noise Model) and NLNM (New Low Noise Model) published by the USGS (United States Geological Survey). It was designed based on the western United States. However, Korean Peninsula surrounded by the ocean on three sides has a complicated geological structure and a high population density. So, we re-designed an appropriate model in Korean peninsula by statistically combined result. The important feature is that secondary-microseism peak appeared at a higher frequency band. Acknowledgements: This research was carried out as a part of "Research for the Meteorological and Earthquake Observation Technology and Its Application" supported by the 2015 National Institute of Meteorological Research (NIMR) in the Korea Meteorological Administration.
Lopes Fagundes, Ana Luisa; Hewison, Lynn; McPeake, Kevin J; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel Simon
2018-01-01
Noise sensitivity is a common behaviour problem in dogs. In humans, there is a well-established relationship between painful conditions and the development of fear-related avoidance responses. Whilst it is likely that a relationship exists between noise sensitivity and pain in dogs, this does not appear to have been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the signs of noise sensitivity in dogs with and without musculoskeletal pain by comparing case histories using qualitative content analysis. Data were extracted from the clinical records of 20 cases of dogs presenting with noise sensitivity seen by clinical animal behaviourists at the University of Lincoln, composed of 2 groups-10 "clinical cases" with pain and 10 "control cases" without pain. Loud noises as a trigger of noise sensitivity were a common theme in both groups but ubiquitous among "clinical cases." In "clinical cases" (i.e., those where pain was identified), the age of onset of the noise sensitivity was on average nearly 4 years later than "control cases." In addition, strong themes emerged relating to widespread generalisation to associated environments and avoidance of other dogs in the "clinical cases," which did not appear in the "control cases." "Clinical cases" responded well to treatment once the involvement of pain had been identified. Veterinarians and behaviourists should carefully assess dogs with noise sensitivities for pain-related problems especially if presenting with these characteristics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, H.
1975-01-01
The 'not-linear' or '2nd-class-nonlinear' characteristics in nuclear reactor kinetics with the feedback effect in the high-power operation and induce the increase in the amplitude of the neutron flux noise, specially in the very low frequency region. The fundamental behaviour of 'not-linear' characteristics and its effect for the reactor noise was investigated. Application of the reactor noise analysis technique to power reactors has not been successful because of unknown large disagreement between the result of the conventional theoretical analysis and the experimental facts. When the cause of this discrepancy is clear, reactor noise analysis techniques can be effectively applied to instrumentation, control, monitoring and diagnosis of power reactors. (author)
Scatolini, Fabio; Alves, Cláudio Jorge Pinto
2016-12-22
To perform a quantitative analysis of the background noise at Congonhas Airport surroundings based on large sampling and measurements with no interruption. Measuring sites were chosen from 62 and 72 DNL (day-night-level) noise contours, in urban sites compatible with residential use. Fifteen sites were monitored for at least 168 hours without interruption or seven consecutive days. Data compilation was based on cross-reference between noise measurements and air traffic control records, and results were validated by airport meteorological reports. Preliminary diagnoses were established using the standard NBR-13368. Background noise values were calculated based on the Sound Exposure Level (SEL). Statistic parameters were calculated in one-hour intervals. Only four of the fifteen sites assessed presented aircraft operations as a clear cause for the noise annoyance. Even so, it is possible to detect background noise levels above regulation limits during periods of low airport activity or when it closes at night. All the sites monitored showed background noise levels above regulation limits between 7:00 and 21:00. In the intervals between 6:00-6:59 and 21:00-22:59 the noise data, when analyzed with the current airport operational characteristics, still allow the development of additional mitigating measures. Avaliar quantitativamente o ruído de fundo no entorno do aeroporto de Congonhas, com base em ampla amostragem e medições sem interrupção. Locais de medição escolhidos a partir de curvas de ruído de 62 e 72 LDN (day-night level), em equipamentos urbanos de uso compatível com o residencial. Quinze locais foram avaliados por mais de 168 horas consecutivas cada um (sete dias). A compilação baseou-se em cruzamentos de dados do controle de tráfego aéreo e os resultados foram validados por meio de relatórios meteorológicos do aeroporto. Diagnósticos preliminares foram estabelecidos utilizando a NBR-13368. O ruído de fundo foi calculado com base no Sound
Investigation of power oscillation mechanisms based on noise analysis at Forsmark-1 BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oguma, Ritsuo
1996-01-01
Noise analysis has been performed for stability test data collected during reactor start-up in January 1989 at the boiling water reactor (BWR) Forsmark unit 1. A unique instrumentation to measure local coolant flow in this reactor allowed investigation of dynamic interactions between neutron flux and coolant flow noise signals at different radial positions in the core. The causal relationship for these signals was evaluated based on a method called signal transmission path (STP) analysis with the aim of identifying the principal mechanism of power oscillations in this reactor. The results of the present study indicated that large amplitude power oscillations were induced by two instability mechanisms concurrent in the core. The first is the global void reactivity feedback effect which played the most significant role to power oscillations at a resonant frequency of about 0.53 Hz. The second is the thermal-hydraulics coupling with neutron kinetics, inducing resonant oscillations at about 0.45 Hz. The latter was found to be active only in a certain core region. A peculiar phenomenon of amplitude modulations observed in some local power range monitor (LPRM) signals was also examined. It was interpreted to occur as the consequence of these two resonant power oscillations, the frequencies of which lie close to each other. The noise analysis technique applied in the present study is expected to be useful to get a deeper understanding of the power oscillation mechanism which is active in the reactor under evaluation. The technique may be applicable to BWRs with instruments to measure local channel flow together with in-core neutron detectors. (Author)
Finite element analysis for friction noise of simplified hip joint and its experimental validation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nam, Jae Hyun; Choi, Hoil; Kang, Jae Young [Div. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, College of Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-08-15
In a hip joint system, squeak noise often occurs due to friction between the ball and hemispherical cup. To analyze the dynamic instability induced by friction in the hip joint system, the dynamic ball joint model was constructed by using the finite element method. The results from stability analysis revealed that the mode-coupling type instability occurred for one bending mode and its adjacent composite mode with the axial and transverse displacements with the increase of friction coefficient. The vitro squeak test and vibration modal tests confirmed that squeak arose near the frequency of the mode pair.
Sound the alarm: A meta-analysis on the effect of aquatic noise on fish behavior and physiology.
Cox, Kieran; Brennan, Lawrence P; Gerwing, Travis G; Dudas, Sarah E; Juanes, Francis
2018-07-01
The aquatic environment is increasingly bombarded by a wide variety of noise pollutants whose range and intensity are increasing with each passing decade. Yet, little is known about how aquatic noise affects marine communities. To determine the implications that changes to the soundscape may have on fishes, a meta-analysis was conducted focusing on the ramifications of noise on fish behavior and physiology. Our meta-analysis identified 42 studies that produced 2,354 data points, which in turn indicated that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish behavior and physiology. The most predominate responses occurred within foraging ability, predation risk, and reproductive success. Additionally, anthropogenic noise was shown to increase the hearing thresholds and cortisol levels of numerous species while tones, biological, and environmental noise were most likely to affect complex movements and swimming abilities. These findings suggest that the majority of fish species are sensitive to changes in the aquatic soundscape, and depending on the noise source, species responses may have extreme and negative fitness consequences. As such, this global synthesis should serve as a warning of the potentially dire consequences facing marine ecosystems if alterations to aquatic soundscapes continue on their current trajectory. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouchon, Amelie
2016-01-01
Neutron noise analysis addresses the description of small time-dependent flux fluctuations induced by small global or local perturbations of the macroscopic cross-sections. These fluctuations may occur in nuclear reactors due to density fluctuations of the coolant, to vibrations of fuel elements, control rods, or any other structures in the core. In power reactors, ex-core and in-core detectors can be used to monitor neutron noise with the aim of detecting possible anomalies and taking the necessary measures for continuous safe power production. The objective of this thesis is to develop techniques for neutron noise analysis and especially to implement a neutron noise solver in the deterministic transport code APOLLO3 developed at CEA. A new Monte Carlo algorithm that solves the transport equations for the neutron noise has been also developed. In addition, a new vibration model has been developed. Moreover, a method based on the determination of a new steady state has been proposed for the linear and the nonlinear full theory so as to improve the traditional neutron noise theory. In order to test these new developments we have performed neutron noise simulations in one-dimensional systems and in a large pressurized water reactor with heavy baffle in two and three dimensions with APOLLO3 in diffusion and transport theories. (author) [fr
Modification of computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) for noise-robust acoustic feature
Kwon, Minseok
While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system
Distributed system for acquisition and analysis of NPP systems noise data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oprea, F.; Gruia, L.
2001-01-01
Since years '90 the noise analysis for nuclear stations is more frequently used because: - the data can be acquired by making use of the NPP instrumentation; - acquisition may be performed in a steady-state regime, at rated capacity; - reactor dynamical regime data are obtainable although steady-state regime data are used. The signal noise analysis is based on the dynamical information about the reactor operation obtained from instrumentation signal fluctuations as determined in steady-system regime. The small fluctuations are due to the stochastic effects inherent to physical processes such as heat transfer, boiling, turbulences in coolant flow, moderator collective motions, fission process, structural vibrations and pressure oscillations. Specifically, for CANDU type reactors, the results may be applied for: - surveillance of the functioning characteristics of detectors and transducers; - signaling or predicting misfunctioning of detectors and transducers, what implies establishment of optimal time rate for macro-sampling; - signaling or prediction of misfunctioning of reactor core components, what implies setting up methods and procedures for detecting vibrations inside the fuel channels, based mainly on the signals from the ROPT adjacent detectors and on the flow rate transducers. The system of signal acquisition is a distributed, fixed-data acquisition system provided with a limited number of inputs, based on a number of modules of local analog signal processing and conversion to digital representation. The signal, local processing implies noise removal out of signal through continuous current component elimination, an amplification of the signal, low-pass filtering for alias frequency removal, 16 bit analog-to-digital conversion and digital value serial way transmission. The local processing is based on the characteristics of the acquired signal (noise), namely: - the frequency band, 0.01 Hz - 200 Hz; - the signal amplitude level, 16 - 32 MeV superimposed
Audible Noise Measurement and Analysis of the Main Power Apparatus in UHV GIS Substations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Nian Guang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Investigation of audible noise characteristics of the main power apparatus in UHV GIS substations provides essential statistics for the noise prediction and control. Noise pressure level, spectrum and attenuation characteristics of the main transformers and high voltage (HV reactors are measured and analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the main transformer and HV reactor have identical A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level. The medium- and low-frequency noises are the primary components in the spectral. More attention should be paid to the low-frequency bands in the noise control process. The noise of cooling fan has a large influence on that of the main transformer. Without the consideration of corona noise, the average A-weighted sound pressure level shows an overall decreasing trend with the increase of the propagation distance. Obvious interference phenomenon of the noises at 100 and 200Hz exists in the noise propagation process.
An analysis of background noise in selected canyons of Los Alamos County
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huchton, K.; Koch, S.W.; Robinson, R.
1997-10-01
The authors recorded background noise levels in six canyons within Los Alamos County in order to establish a baseline for future comparisons and to discover what noises animals are exposed to. Noise level measurements were taken within each canyon, beginning at an established starting point and at one-mile intervals up to four miles. The primary source of noise above 55 dBA was vehicular traffic. One clap of thunder provided the highest recorded noise level (76 dBA). In general, the level of noise, once away from highways and parking lots, was well below 60 dBA.
Application of noise analysis on the operation of the RSG-GAS reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Surian P, Tukiran S
1999-01-01
The RSG-GAS reactor has been operating for radioisotope production and experiments so that it is necessary to perform analysis of the reactor operation. analysis was done based on reactor noise experiment. Neutron noise at low and high power of the RSG-GAS has been analyzed using time and frequency domain with aim to determine the safety of reactor operation. The safety of reactor operation based on two parameters as, prompt neutron decay constant and decay ratio. The parameters are useful for reactor operation, so it is necessary to determine accurately. For determining prompt neutron decay constant, neutron density in the core of reactor which operated at 10 k W, was collected by using Fission Chamber detectors (FC). Based on power spectral density (PSD) was achieved break frequency about 23 Hz, so that the prompt neutron decay constant is about 151 sec -1 . While at at high power 20 MW, neutron density was collected by using Compensated Ionization Chamber (CIC) detector. The result at high power showed that there is reactivity effect in the core because of fluctuation in temperature and density of the coolant, and the decay ratio of 0.20, showed that the reactor is still operation in stable
Zheng, Xu; Hao, Zhiyong; Wang, Xu; Mao, Jie
2016-06-01
High-speed-railway-train interior noise at low, medium, and high frequencies could be simulated by finite element analysis (FEA) or boundary element analysis (BEA), hybrid finite element analysis-statistical energy analysis (FEA-SEA) and statistical energy analysis (SEA), respectively. First, a new method named statistical acoustic energy flow (SAEF) is proposed, which can be applied to the full-spectrum HST interior noise simulation (including low, medium, and high frequencies) with only one model. In an SAEF model, the corresponding multi-physical-field coupling excitations are firstly fully considered and coupled to excite the interior noise. The interior noise attenuated by sound insulation panels of carriage is simulated through modeling the inflow acoustic energy from the exterior excitations into the interior acoustic cavities. Rigid multi-body dynamics, fast multi-pole BEA, and large-eddy simulation with indirect boundary element analysis are first employed to extract the multi-physical-field excitations, which include the wheel-rail interaction forces/secondary suspension forces, the wheel-rail rolling noise, and aerodynamic noise, respectively. All the peak values and their frequency bands of the simulated acoustic excitations are validated with those from the noise source identification test. Besides, the measured equipment noise inside equipment compartment is used as one of the excitation sources which contribute to the interior noise. Second, a full-trimmed FE carriage model is firstly constructed, and the simulated modal shapes and frequencies agree well with the measured ones, which has validated the global FE carriage model as well as the local FE models of the aluminum alloy-trim composite panel. Thus, the sound transmission loss model of any composite panel has indirectly been validated. Finally, the SAEF model of the carriage is constructed based on the accurate FE model and stimulated by the multi-physical-field excitations. The results show
analysis of the environmental and socio-economic impact of noise
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Dr Obe
Interest in noise control studies is only recent in Nigeria. ... standards for environmental pollution by the Federal ... heaters, gas flare system, reactors, water injection plants, pumps ..... review of health effects of aircraft noise. Aust. NZ J. Public ...
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Michalowicz, Joseph V; Nichols, Jonathan M; Bucholtz, Frank
2008-01-01
Understanding the limitations to detecting deterministic signals in the presence of noise, especially additive, white Gaussian noise, is of importance for the design of LPI systems and anti-LPI signal defense...
The forgotten effect of the finite measurement time on various noise analysis techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E
1998-06-01
The conventional noise analysis expressions for functions like the auto- and cross-correlation function, the variance to mean ratio, and the Rossi-{alpha} formula, diverge when the reactor is critical. This problem arises because one pole of the zero-power reactor transfer function is zero. However, in a finite measurement time, a zero frequency cannot be measured and the divergence will not be found experimentally. New expressions for the expectation values of the experimental quantities of various pulse counting techniques are derived which also take into account the dead time of the detector. These expressions do not suffer from divergence at critical. A Feynman-{alpha} experiment is simulated in two, neutronically different systems. The use of the conventional equations for the analysis of the experiments is seen to lead to a bias in the inferred reactivity value.
Nuclear reactor pump diagnostics via noise analysis/artificial neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keyvan, S.; Rabelo, L.C.
1991-01-01
A feasibility study is performed on the utilization of artificial neural networks as a tool for reactor diagnostics. Reactor pump signals utilized in a wear-out monitoring system developed for early detection of degradation of pump shaft are analyzed as a semi-benchmark test to study the feasibility of neural networks for pattern recognition. The Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART 2) paradigm of artificial neural networks is applied in this study. The signals are collected signals as well as generated signals simulating the wear progress. The wear-out monitoring system applies noise analysis techniques, and is capable of distinguishing between these signals and providing a measure of the progress of the degradation. This paper presents the results of the analysis of these data via the ART 2 paradigm
A temporal and spatial analysis of anthropogenic noise sources affecting SNMR
Dalgaard, E.; Christiansen, P.; Larsen, J. J.; Auken, E.
2014-11-01
One of the biggest challenges when using the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method in urban areas is a relatively low signal level compared to a high level of background noise. To understand the temporal and spatial behavior of anthropogenic noise sources like powerlines and electric fences, we have developed a multichannel instrument, noiseCollector (nC), which measures the full noise spectrum up to 10 kHz. Combined with advanced signal processing we can interpret the noise as seen by a SNMR instrument and also obtain insight into the more fundamental behavior of the noise. To obtain a specified acceptable noise level for a SNMR sounding the stack size can be determined by quantifying the different noise sources. Two common noise sources, electromagnetic fields stemming from powerlines and fences are analyzed and show a 1/r2 dependency in agreement with theoretical relations. A typical noise map, obtained with the nC instrument prior to a SNMR field campaign, clearly shows the location of noise sources, and thus we can efficiently determine the optimal location for the SNMR sounding from a noise perspective.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fard, A.; Andreani, Pietro
2007-01-01
This work presents an analysis of phase noise in the $1/f^{2}$ region displayed by both single-ended and differential bipolar Colpitts oscillators. Very accurate and rigorous symbolic phase noise expressions are derived, enabling a deeper insight into the major mechanisms of phase noise generatio......, and providing new tools for design optimization. Phase noise expressions for the cross-coupled differential-pair LC-tank oscillator are derived as well....
Grosveld, Ferdinand W.
1990-01-01
The feasibility of predicting interior noise due to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation was investigated in experiments in which a statistical energy analysis model (VAPEPS) was used to analyze measurements of the acceleration response and sound transmission of flat aluminum, lucite, and graphite/epoxy plates exposed to random acoustic or turbulent boundary layer excitation. The noise reduction of the plate, when backed by a shallow cavity and excited by a turbulent boundary layer, was predicted using a simplified theory based on the assumption of adiabatic compression of the fluid in the cavity. The predicted plate acceleration response was used as input in the noise reduction prediction. Reasonable agreement was found between the predictions and the measured noise reduction in the frequency range 315-1000 Hz.
Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kipnis, I.
1996-08-01
The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm
An analysis of error patterns in children′s backward digit recall in noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Homira Osman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order. Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction, it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children′s working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise.
An analysis of error patterns in children's backward digit recall in noise
Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R.
2015-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine whether perceptual masking or cognitive processing accounts for a decline in working memory performance in the presence of competing speech. The types and patterns of errors made on the backward digit span in quiet and multitalker babble at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were analyzed. The errors were classified into two categories: item (if digits that were not presented in a list were repeated) and order (if correct digits were repeated but in an incorrect order). Fifty five children with normal hearing were included. All the children were aged between 7 years and 10 years. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA) revealed the main effects for error type and digit span length. In terms of listening condition interaction it was found that the order errors occurred more frequently than item errors in the degraded listening condition compared to quiet. In addition, children had more difficulty recalling the correct order of intermediate items, supporting strong primacy and recency effects. Decline in children's working memory performance was not primarily related to perceptual difficulties alone. The majority of errors was related to the maintenance of sequential order information, which suggests that reduced performance in competing speech may result from increased cognitive processing demands in noise. PMID:26168949
Wind turbine airfoil design method with low noise and experimental analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Quan; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao
2015-01-01
In order to study the noise characteristic of wind turbine airfoils, the airfoil optimal design mathematic model was built based on airfoil functional integrated theory and noise calculated model. The new optimized objective function of maximizing lift/drag to noise was developed on the design......, though there is a certain difference between the theory results and experiment data. Compared with NACA-64-618 airfoil, the CQU-DTU-B18 airfoil exhibits lower noise, which validates the feasibility of this design method. It is a guide to design wind turbine airfoil with lower noise and to reduce airfoil...
Kraft, R. E.
1996-01-01
The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chatterji, Shourov; Lazzarini, Albert; Stein, Leo; Sutton, Patrick J.; Searle, Antony; Tinto, Massimo
2006-01-01
The sensitivity of current searches for gravitational-wave bursts is limited by non-Gaussian, nonstationary noise transients which are common in real detectors. Existing techniques for detecting gravitational-wave bursts assume the output of the detector network to be the sum of a stationary Gaussian noise process and a gravitational-wave signal. These techniques often fail in the presence of noise nonstationarities by incorrectly identifying such transients as possible gravitational-wave bursts. Furthermore, consistency tests currently used to try to eliminate these noise transients are not applicable to general networks of detectors with different orientations and noise spectra. In order to address this problem we introduce a fully coherent consistency test that is robust against noise nonstationarities and allows one to distinguish between gravitational-wave bursts and noise transients in general detector networks. This technique does not require any a priori knowledge of the putative burst waveform
Higgins, N.; Lapusta, N.
2016-12-01
What physical mechanism drives the occurrence of foreshocks? Many studies have suggested that slow slip from the mainshock nucleation is a necessary ingredient for explaining foreshock observations. We explore this view, investigating asperity-type foreshock sources driven by nucleation-induced creep using rate-and-state fault models, and numerically simulatie their behavior over many rupture cycles. Inspired by the unique laboratory experiments of earthquake nucleation and rupture conducted on a meter-scale slab of granite by McLaskey and colleagues, we model potential foreshock sources as "bumps" on the fault interface by assigning a significantly higher normal compression and, in some cases, increased smoothness (lower characteristic slip) over small patches within a seismogenic fault. In order to study the mechanics of isolated patch-induced seismic events preceding the mainshock, we separate these patches sufficiently in space. The simulation results show that our rate-and-state fault model with patches of locally different properties driven by the slow nucleation of the mainshock is indeed able to produce isolated microseismicity before the mainshock. Remarkably, the stress drops of these precursory events are compatible with observations and approximately independent of the patch compression, despite the wide range of the elevated patch compression used in different simulations. We find that this unexpected property of stress drops for this type of model is due to two factors. Firstly, failure of stronger patches results in rupture further into the surrounding fault, keeping the average stress drop down. Secondly, patches close to their local nucleation size relieve a significant amount of stress via aseismic pre-slip, which also helps to keep the stress drop down. Our current work is directed towards investigating the seismic signature of such events and the potential differences with other types of microseismicity.
Ding, Lu; Liu, Jing; Shen, Huan-Xi; Pan, Li-Ping; Liu, Qing-Dong; Zhang, Heng-Dong; Han, Lei; Shuai, Li-Guo; Ding, En-Min; Zhao, Qiu-Ni; Wang, Bo-Shen; Zhu, Bao-Li
2016-03-01
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions, which may be applied in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, no epidemiology studies have yet examined the potential effects of NIHL or noise exposure on miRNA expression profiles. We sought to identify permanent NIHL-related miRNAs and to predict the biological functions of the putative genes encoding the indicated miRNAs. In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles between pooled plasma samples from 10 noise-exposed individuals with normal hearing and 10 NIHL patients. In addition, we conducted a preliminary validation of six candidate miRNAs in the same 20 workers. Subsequently, three miRNAs were selected for expanded validation in 23 non-exposed individuals with normal hearing and 46 noise-exposed textile workers which including 23 noise-exposed workers with normal hearing and 23 NIHL patients. Moreover, we predicted the biological functions of the putative target genes using a Gene Ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis. In the discovery stage, compared with the noise exposures with normal hearing, 73 miRNAs demonstrated at least a 1.5-fold differential expression in the NIHL patients. In the preliminary validation, compared with the noise exposures, the plasma levels of miR-16-5p, miR-24-3p, miR-185-5p and miR-451a were all upregulated (P < 0.001) in the NIHL patients. In the expanded validation stage, compared with the non-exposures, the plasma levels of miR-24, miR-185-5p and miR-451a were all significantly downregulated (P < 0.001) in the exposures. And compared with the noise exposures, the plasma levels of miR-185-5p and miR-451a were slightly elevated (P < 0.001) in the NIHL patients, which were consistent with the results of preliminary validation and microarray analysis. The two indicated plasma miRNAs may be biomarkers of indicating responses to noise exposure
Fu, Wenning; Wang, Chao; Zou, Li; Liu, Qiaoyan; Gan, Yong; Yan, Shijiao; Song, Fujian; Wang, Zhihong; Lu, Zuxun; Cao, Shiyi
2017-12-01
An increasing amount of original studies suggested that exposure to noise could be associated with the risk of hypertension, but the results remain inconsistent and inconclusive. We aimed to synthesize available epidemiological evidence about the relationship between various types of noise and hypertension, and to explore the potential dose-response relationship between them in an up-to-date meta-analysis. We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Embase from these databases' inception through December 2016 to identify observational epidemiological studies examining the association between noise and risk of hypertension. A random effects model was used to combine the results of included studies. Dose-response meta-analysis was conducted to examine the potential dose-response relationship. In total, 32 studies (five cohort studies, one case-control study, and 26 cross-section studies) involving 264 678 participants were eligible for inclusion. Pooled result showed that living or working in environment with noise exposure was significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-1.88). We found no evidence of a curve linear association between noise and risk of hypertension. A dose-response analysis suggested that, for an increment of per 10 dB(A) of noise, the combined odds ratio of hypertension was 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.04-1.08). Integrated epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that exposure to noise may be a risk factor of hypertension, and there is a positive dose-response association between them.
Variability of signal-to-noise ratio and the network analysis of gravitational wave burst signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohanty, S D; Rakhmanov, M; Klimenko, S; Mitselmakher, G
2006-01-01
The detection and estimation of gravitational wave burst signals, with a priori unknown polarization waveforms, requires the use of data from a network of detectors. Maximizing the network likelihood functional over all waveforms and sky positions yields point estimates for them as well as a detection statistic. However, the transformation from the data to estimates can become ill-conditioned over parts of the sky, resulting in significant errors in estimation. We modify the likelihood procedure by introducing a penalty functional which suppresses candidate solutions that display large signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variability as the source is displaced on the sky. Simulations show that the resulting network analysis method performs significantly better in estimating the sky position of a source. Further, this method can be applied to any network, irrespective of the number or mutual alignment of detectors
Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karel Kreuter
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.
Input-output analysis of high-speed axisymmetric isothermal jet noise
Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.; Jovanović, Mihailo R.
2016-04-01
We use input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with jet Mach numbers 0.6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of sub-optimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why the PSE do not fully capture the far-field sound in this case. Furthermore, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of sub-optimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES source term data onto input modes and the LES acoustic far-field onto output modes, we demonstrate that sub-optimal modes of both types are physically relevant.
Input-output analysis of high-speed turbulent jet noise
Jeun, Jinah; Nichols, Joseph W.
2015-11-01
We apply input-output analysis to predict and understand the aeroacoustics of high-speed isothermal turbulent jets. We consider axisymmetric linear perturbations about Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions of ideally expanded turbulent jets with Mach numbers 0 . 6 parabolized stability equations (PSE), and this mode dominates the response. For subsonic jets, however, the singular values indicate that the contributions of suboptimal modes to noise generation are nearly equal to that of the optimal mode, explaining why PSE misses some of the farfield sound in this case. Finally, high-fidelity large eddy simulation (LES) is used to assess the prevalence of suboptimal modes in the unsteady data. By projecting LES data onto the corresponding input modes, the weighted gain of each mode is examined.
Xu, Chang
2017-04-01
The intrinsic random variability of an astronomical source hampers the detection of possible periodicities that we are interested in. We find that a simple first-order autoregressive [AR(1)] process gives a poor fit to the power decay in the observed spectrum for astrophysical sources and geodetic observations. Thus, appropriate background noise models have to be chosen for significance tests to distinguish real features from the intrinsic variability of the source. Here we recall the wavelet analysis with significance and confidence testing but extend it with the generalized Gauss Markov stochastic model as the null hypothesis, which includes AR(1) and a power law as special cases. We exemplify this discussion with real data, such as sunspot number data, geomagnetic indices, X-ray observations, as well as a Global Positioning System (GPS) position time series.
Graph theory applied to noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis models.
Guasch, Oriol; Cortés, Lluís
2009-06-01
A fundamental aspect of noise and vibration control in statistical energy analysis (SEA) models consists in first identifying and then reducing the energy flow paths between subsystems. In this work, it is proposed to make use of some results from graph theory to address both issues. On the one hand, linear and path algebras applied to adjacency matrices of SEA graphs are used to determine the existence of any order paths between subsystems, counting and labeling them, finding extremal paths, or determining the power flow contributions from groups of paths. On the other hand, a strategy is presented that makes use of graph cut algorithms to reduce the energy flow from a source subsystem to a receiver one, modifying as few internal and coupling loss factors as possible.
Analysis of piezoelectric energy harvester under modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise
Quaranta, Giuseppe; Trentadue, Francesco; Maruccio, Claudio; Marano, Giuseppe C.
2018-05-01
This paper proposes a comprehensive method for the electromechanical probabilistic analysis of piezoelectric energy harvesters subjected to modulated and filtered white Gaussian noise (WGN) at the base. Specifically, the dynamic excitation is simulated by means of an amplitude-modulated WGN, which is filtered through the Clough-Penzien filter. The considered piezoelectric harvester is a cantilever bimorph modeled as Euler-Bernoulli beam with a concentrated mass at the free-end, and its global behavior is approximated by the fundamental vibration mode (which is tuned with the dominant frequency of the dynamic input). A resistive electrical load is considered in the circuit. Once the Lyapunov equation of the coupled electromechanical problem has been formulated, an original and efficient semi-analytical procedure is proposed to estimate mean and standard deviation of the electrical energy extracted from the piezoelectric layers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hochel, R C; Hayes, D W [Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, S.C. (USA). Savannah River Lab.
1975-12-01
A pulse-shape analysis (PSA) unit of commercial design has been incorporated into a proportional counting system to determine the effectiveness of pulse-shape discrimination in increasing the sensitivity of tritium counting. It was found that a quantitative determination of tritium could be obtained directly from the PSA time spectrum eliminating the need for beta-ray energy selection used in the pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique. The performance of the proportional counting system was tested using the PSA unit and anticoincidence shielding, both singly and combined, under several types of background. A background reduction factor of 169 was obtained from the combined PSA-anticoincidence system with only a 2% loss in tritium counting efficiency. The PSA method was also found to offer significant reductions in noise background.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hochel, R.C.; Hayes, D.W.
1975-01-01
A pulse-shape analysis (PSA) unit of commercial design has been incorporated into a proportional counting system to determine the effectiveness of pulse-shape discrimination in increasing the sensitivity of tritium counting. It was found that a quantitative determination of tritium could be obtained directly from the PSA time spectrum eliminating the need for beta-ray energy selection used in the pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) technique. The performance of the proportional counting system was tested using the PSA unit and anticoincidence shielding, both singly and combined, under several types of background. A background reduction factor of 169 was obtained from the combined PSA-anticoincidence system with only a 2% loss in tritium counting efficiency. The PSA method was also found to offer significant reductions in noise background. (Auth.)
Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metaxas, V; Delis, H; Panayiotakis, G; Kalogeropoulou, C; Zampakis, P
2015-01-01
The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters. (paper)
Application of a coupled kinetics-thermalhydraulic computer model to noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miguel Cecenas Falcon; Rina M Campos-Gonzalez; Edmundo del Valle Gallegos
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Noise analysis is a common tool to evaluate dynamic properties of a Boiling Water Reactor using the power measurements provided by the nuclear instrumentation, such as LPRMs. Stability monitors use noise analysis to evaluate the system decay ratio, and they require a large amount of data in order to test and validate the algorithms and produce reliable monitoring. Because a nuclear reactor normally operates at or near nominal conditions, the amount of interesting stationary data at relatively low power is limited. There are very important stability benchmarks that recorded power for a number of cases involving operation close to the stability boundary, and even during a fully developed limit cycle, but in general there is a limited amount of data at points of interest in the power and flow map, to be used for stability studies. Under this limitation, a model that can generate all the required information for any point in the power and flow map is useful. Particular importance has the capacity to generate time series equivalent to noisy LPRM signals close to the natural circulation line, and test the early detection of still incipient out of phase oscillations in the core. In order to generate these signals, a model of 36 parallel boiling channels is prepared to reproduce the benchmark conditions of the Ringhals core at test point 9 during cycle 14. Each channel considers one phase region, subcooled boiling and bulk boiling. The power, flow and average void fraction at each of the 36 channel were reproduced to define a stationary model which is perturbed with additive white noise in order to generate void fraction fluctuations. The cross sections are a function of void fractions, hence the fluctuations are transmitted to the neutronics and finally to the power. The power fluctuations are analog to those produced by bubble generation and collapsing during the boiling process. The neutronics is modeled with a two-dimensional nodal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yun Hee; Im, Hee Jung; Song, Byung ChoI; Park, Yong Joon; Kim, Won Ho; Cho, Jung Hwan
2005-01-01
This work demonstrates a developed program to reduce noises of a prompt gamma-ray spectrum measured by irradiating neutrons into baggage. The noises refer to random variations mainly caused by electrical fluctuations and also by a measurement time. Especially, since the short measurement time yields such a noisy spectrum in which its special peak can not be observed, it is necessary to extract its characteristic signals from the spectrum to identify an explosive hidden in luggage. Principal component analysis(PCA) that is a multivariate statistical technique is closely related to singular value decomposition(SVD). The SVD-based PCA decreases the noise by reconstructing the spectrum after determining the number of principal components corresponding important signals based on the history data that sufficiently describe its population. In this study, we present a visualized program of the above procedure using the MATLAB 7.04 programming language. When our program is started, it requires an arbitrary measured spectrum to be reduced and history spectra as input files. If user selects the files with menu, our program automatically carries out the PCA procedure and provides its noise-reduced spectrum plot as well as the original spectrum plot into an output window. In addition, user can obtain signal-to-noise ratio of an interesting peak by defining the peak and noise ranges with menu
DeForest, Craig; Seaton, Daniel B.; Darnell, John A.
2017-08-01
I present and demonstrate a new, general purpose post-processing technique, "3D noise gating", that can reduce image noise by an order of magnitude or more without effective loss of spatial or temporal resolution in typical solar applications.Nearly all scientific images are, ultimately, limited by noise. Noise can be direct Poisson "shot noise" from photon counting effects, or introduced by other means such as detector read noise. Noise is typically represented as a random variable (perhaps with location- or image-dependent characteristics) that is sampled once per pixel or once per resolution element of an image sequence. Noise limits many aspects of image analysis, including photometry, spatiotemporal resolution, feature identification, morphology extraction, and background modeling and separation.Identifying and separating noise from image signal is difficult. The common practice of blurring in space and/or time works because most image "signal" is concentrated in the low Fourier components of an image, while noise is evenly distributed. Blurring in space and/or time attenuates the high spatial and temporal frequencies, reducing noise at the expense of also attenuating image detail. Noise-gating exploits the same property -- "coherence" -- that we use to identify features in images, to separate image features from noise.Processing image sequences through 3-D noise gating results in spectacular (more than 10x) improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, while not blurring bright, resolved features in either space or time. This improves most types of image analysis, including feature identification, time sequence extraction, absolute and relative photometry (including differential emission measure analysis), feature tracking, computer vision, correlation tracking, background modeling, cross-scale analysis, visual display/presentation, and image compression.I will introduce noise gating, describe the method, and show examples from several instruments (including SDO
Analysis of noise pollution level in a University campus in South India
Thattai, D.; Sudarsan, J. S.; Sathyanathan, R.; Ramasamy, Visalatchi
2017-07-01
Noise comprises those sounds occurring around us that are not part of the environment under consideration. Noise is also a type of pollution and impacts on our health and wellness. The prevalence of noise is increasing in magnitude and severity because of growing population and urbanization. Noise pollution leads to many chronic and socially significant impacts. This study analyzes the level of noise at different points in SRM University. As the University encompasses a hospital also, it is more important to identify the sources of high noise levels and control them. As per Indian standards the desirable noise pollution for educational institutions and hospitals in daytime is 50 dbA. Noise levels were measured with a sound level meter at 19 points within the campus at three different timings (8-10 am, 12-2 pm, and 3-5 pm) over two cycles of measurements. The preliminary results show higher noise levels during morning and evening. Noise during Cycle 2 (latter half of semester) was 20% more compared to that of Cycle 1 (beginning of semester).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana Luisa Lopes Fagundes
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Noise sensitivity is a common behaviour problem in dogs. In humans, there is a well-established relationship between painful conditions and the development of fear-related avoidance responses. Whilst it is likely that a relationship exists between noise sensitivity and pain in dogs, this does not appear to have been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the signs of noise sensitivity in dogs with and without musculoskeletal pain by comparing case histories using qualitative content analysis. Data were extracted from the clinical records of 20 cases of dogs presenting with noise sensitivity seen by clinical animal behaviourists at the University of Lincoln, composed of 2 groups—10 “clinical cases” with pain and 10 “control cases” without pain. Loud noises as a trigger of noise sensitivity were a common theme in both groups but ubiquitous among “clinical cases.” In “clinical cases” (i.e., those where pain was identified, the age of onset of the noise sensitivity was on average nearly 4 years later than “control cases.” In addition, strong themes emerged relating to widespread generalisation to associated environments and avoidance of other dogs in the “clinical cases,” which did not appear in the “control cases.” “Clinical cases” responded well to treatment once the involvement of pain had been identified. Veterinarians and behaviourists should carefully assess dogs with noise sensitivities for pain-related problems especially if presenting with these characteristics.
Noise analysis of Forsmark 1 data to investigate BWR core local instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oguma, R.
1998-04-01
BWR core local instability was experienced at Forsmark 1 (F1) during reactor operation in cycle 16. The event has been studied by applying noise analysis and stability calculations to get insight into the event as well as to identify the cause of local instability. The present report is concerned with noise analysis of data collected during start-up in cycle 17. The results of the current study indicates: The F1 core is quite stable in cycle 17. The max. decay ratio (DR) value of 0.37 was obtained from the stability evaluation of an APRM (average power range monitor) and LPRM (local power range monitor) signals measured at 66% (APRM) of reactor power and 4252 Kg/s (SA-HC) of core flow. Compared with the power profile in cycle 17 (as well as in reactor F2), the core in cycle 16 had an extreme power profile with high power and bottom-shifted axial peak in the core periphery esp. at the four quadrant corners. Such a profile decreases the stability margin in the region. It is a common observation that the DR obtained from APRM tends to be higher than that from LPRM if the global instability mechanism is dominant in the core, and vice versa. The comparison of global and local DR values should be an effective method for detecting local instability during the reactor operation. In order to detect the local instability it is important to evaluate the core stability with sufficient number of LPRMs so as to cover the whole core cross section together with APRMs
Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper
2013-09-01
The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas
2017-01-01
In this paper, semi-empirical engineering models for the three main wind turbine aerodynamic noise sources, namely, turbulent inflow, trailing edge and stall noise, are introduced. They are implemented into the in-house aeroelastic code HAWC2 commonly used for wind turbine load calculations...... and design. The results of the combined aeroelastic and aeroacoustic model are compared with field noise measurements of a 500kW wind turbine. Model and experimental data are in fairly good agreement in terms of noise levels and directivity. The combined model allows separating the various noise sources...... and highlights a number of mechanisms that are difficult to differentiate when only the overall noise from a wind turbine is measured....
Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillermo Rey Gozalo
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.
Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.
Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel
2016-05-11
Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glockler, O.; Cooke, D.F.; Czuppon, G.J.; Kapoor, K.K.
2000-01-01
Vibrations of core internals are regularly monitored in the CANDU nuclear generating stations of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) via the noise analysis of in-core flux detectors (ICFDs). Voltage signals of standard station instrumentation are recorded by portable multi-channel high-speed high-resolution data acquisition systems, then statistical parameters are derived from the multi-channel time series measurements. Reactor noise analysis is a non-intrusive statistical technique regularly used in system surveillance, diagnostics and in actual operational I and C problems. It utilizes the dynamic information carried by the small fluctuations (noise) of station signals measured around their mean values during steady-state operation. The present paper discusses specific results related to the flow-induced mechanical vibrations of detector tubes and fuel channels. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, J.R. Jr.; Adams, J.T.
1994-01-01
A neural network was trained with data for the frequency response function between in-core neutron noise and core-exit thermocouple noise in a pressurized water reactor, with the moderator temperature coefficient (MTC) as target. The trained network was subsequently used to predict the MTC at other points in the same fuel cycle. Results support use of the method for operating pressurized water reactors provided noise data can be accumulated for several fuel cycles to provide a training base
Assessment, analysis and appraisal of road traffic noise pollution in Rourkela city, India.
Goswami, Shreerup; Swain, Bijay Kumar; Panda, Santosh Kumar
2013-09-01
The problem of road traffic noise pollution has become a concern for both the public and the policy makers. Noise level was assessed in 12 different squares of Rourkela city during different specified times (7-10 a.m., 11 a.m.-2 p.m., 3-6 p.m., 7-10 p.m., 10 p.m.-12 midnight and 4-6 a.m.). Noise descriptors such as L,eq, traffic noise index, noise pollution level, noise climate, Lday, Levening, Lnight and Lden were assessed to reveal the extent of noise pollution due to heavy traffic in this city. The equivalent noise levels of all the 12 squares were found to be much beyond the permissible limit (70dB during day time and 55dB during night time). Appallingly, even the minimum L eq and NPL values were more than 82 dB and 96 dB during day time and 69 dB and 91 dB during night time respectively. Lden values of investigated squares ranged from 83.4 to 86.1 dB and were even more than the day time permissible limit of traffic noise. The prediction model was used in the present study to predict noise pollution level instead of Leq. Comparison of predicted with that of the actual measured data demonstrated that the model used for the prediction has the ability to calibrate the multicomponent traffic noise and yield reliable results close to that by direct measurement. Lastly, it is inferred that the dimension of the traffic generated noise pollution in Rourkela is critical.
Analysis of power tiller noise using diesel-biodiesel fuel blends
N Keramat Siavash; Gh Najafi; S. R Hassan Beigi Bidgoli; B Ghobadian
2015-01-01
Introduction: There are several sources of noise in an industrial and agriculture environment. Machines with rotating or reciprocating engines are sound-producing sources. Also, the audio signal can be analyzed to discover how well a machine operates. Diesel engines complex noise SPL and sound frequency content both strongly depend on fuel combustion, which produces the so-called combustion noise. Actually, the unpleasant sound signature of diesel engines is due to the harsh and irregular sel...
Source localization analysis using seismic noise data acquired in exploration geophysics
Roux, P.; Corciulo, M.; Campillo, M.; Dubuq, D.
2011-12-01
Passive monitoring using seismic noise data shows a growing interest at exploration scale. Recent studies demonstrated source localization capability using seismic noise cross-correlation at observation scales ranging from hundreds of kilometers to meters. In the context of exploration geophysics, classical localization methods using travel-time picking fail when no evident first arrivals can be detected. Likewise, methods based on the intensity decrease as a function of distance to the source also fail when the noise intensity decay gets more complicated than the power-law expected from geometrical spreading. We propose here an automatic procedure developed in ocean acoustics that permits to iteratively locate the dominant and secondary noise sources. The Matched-Field Processing (MFP) technique is based on the spatial coherence of raw noise signals acquired on a dense array of receivers in order to produce high-resolution source localizations. Standard MFP algorithms permits to locate the dominant noise source by matching the seismic noise Cross-Spectral Density Matrix (CSDM) with the equivalent CSDM calculated from a model and a surrogate source position that scans each position of a 3D grid below the array of seismic sensors. However, at exploration scale, the background noise is mostly dominated by surface noise sources related to human activities (roads, industrial platforms,..), which localization is of no interest for the monitoring of the hydrocarbon reservoir. In other words, the dominant noise sources mask lower-amplitude noise sources associated to the extraction process (in the volume). Their location is therefore difficult through standard MFP technique. The Multi-Rate Adaptative Beamforming (MRABF) is a further improvement of the MFP technique that permits to locate low-amplitude secondary noise sources using a projector matrix calculated from the eigen-value decomposition of the CSDM matrix. The MRABF approach aims at cancelling the contributions of
Sensitivity analysis of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in Higgins model of glycolysis
Ryashko, Lev
2018-03-01
A phenomenon of the noise-induced oscillatory multistability in glycolysis is studied. As a basic deterministic skeleton, we consider the two-dimensional Higgins model. The noise-induced generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is studied in various parametric zones. Probabilistic mechanisms of the stochastic excitability of equilibria and noise-induced splitting of randomly forced cycles are analysed by the stochastic sensitivity function technique. A parametric zone of supersensitive Canard-type cycles is localized and studied in detail. It is shown that the generation of mixed-mode stochastic oscillations is accompanied by the noise-induced transitions from order to chaos.
Analysis of Beamformer Directed Single-Channel Noise Reduction System for Hearing Aid Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael Syskind
2015-01-01
We study multi-microphone noise reduction systems consisting of a beamformer and a single-channel (SC) noise reduction stage. In particular, we present and analyse a maximum likelihood (ML) method for jointly estimating the target and noise power spectral densities (psd's) entering the SC filter....... We show that the estimators are minimum variance and unbiased, and provide closed-form expressions for their mean-square error (MSE). Furthermore, we show that the MSE of the noise psd estimator is particularly simple: it is independent of target signal characteristics, frequency, and microphone...
A genome-wide analysis of promoter-mediated phenotypic noise in Escherichia coli.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olin K Silander
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Gene expression is subject to random perturbations that lead to fluctuations in the rate of protein production. As a consequence, for any given protein, genetically identical organisms living in a constant environment will contain different amounts of that particular protein, resulting in different phenotypes. This phenomenon is known as "phenotypic noise." In bacterial systems, previous studies have shown that, for specific genes, both transcriptional and translational processes affect phenotypic noise. Here, we focus on how the promoter regions of genes affect noise and ask whether levels of promoter-mediated noise are correlated with genes' functional attributes, using data for over 60% of all promoters in Escherichia coli. We find that essential genes and genes with a high degree of evolutionary conservation have promoters that confer low levels of noise. We also find that the level of noise cannot be attributed to the evolutionary time that different genes have spent in the genome of E. coli. In contrast to previous results in eukaryotes, we find no association between promoter-mediated noise and gene expression plasticity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, in bacteria, natural selection can act to reduce gene expression noise and that some of this noise is controlled through the sequence of the promoter region alone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jian; Sun Feng-Qi; Pan Ze-Shi; Nie Jin-Rui; Chen Yan-Hua; Yuan Kai-Guo
2015-01-01
To analyze the security of two-step quantum direct communication protocol (QDCP) by using Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair proposed by Deng et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317] in collective-rotation noise channel, an excellent model of noise analysis is proposed. In the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and is compared with QDCP, an error rate point Q 0 (M : (Q 0 , 1.0)) is given. In different noise levels, if Eve wants to obtain the same amount of information, the error rate Q is distinguishable. The larger the noise level ϵ is, the larger the error rate Q is. When the noise level ϵ is lower than 11%, the high error rate is 0.153 without eavesdropping. Lastly, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. It turns out that the quantum channel will be safe when Q < 0.153. Similarly, if error rate Q > 0.153 = Q 0 , eavesdropping information I > 1, which means that there exist eavesdroppers in the quantum channel, and the quantum channel will not be safe anymore. (paper)
Bakir, M. E.; Ozel, N. M.; Semin, K. U.
2011-12-01
Bogazici University, Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) is currently operating the Keskin seismic array (BRTR-PS 43) located in town Keskin, providing real-time data to IDC. The instrumentaion of seismic array includes six short period borehole seismometers and one broadband borehole seismometer. The seismic background noise variation of Keskin array are studied in order to estimate the local and regional event detection capability in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. The Power density spectrum and also probability density function of Keskin array data were computed for seasonal and diurnal noise variations between 2008 and 2010. The computation will be extended to cover the period between 2005 and 2008. We attempt to determine the precise frequency characteristics of the background noise, which will help us to assess the station sensitivity. Minimum detectable magnitude versus distance for Keskin seismic array will be analyzed based on the seismic noise analysis. Detailed analysis results of seismic background noise and detection capability will be presented by this research.
Doskocz, Joanna; Drabik, Dominik; Chodaczek, Grzegorz; Przybyło, Magdalena; Langner, Marek
2018-06-01
Bending rigidity coefficient describes propensity of a lipid bilayer to deform. In order to measure the parameter experimentally using flickering noise spectroscopy, the microscopic imaging is required, which necessitates the application of giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) lipid bilayer model. The major difficulty associated with the application of the model is the statistical character of GUV population with respect to their size and the homogeneity of lipid bilayer composition, if a mixture of lipids is used. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was measured using the fluorescence-enhanced flicker-noise spectroscopy. In the paper, the bending rigidity coefficient was determined for large populations of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine vesicles. The quantity of obtained experimental data allows to perform statistical analysis aiming at the identification of the distribution, which is the most appropriate for the calculation of the value of the membrane bending rigidity coefficient. It has been demonstrated that the bending rigidity coefficient is characterized by an asymmetrical distribution, which is well approximated with the gamma distribution. Since there are no biophysical reasons for that we propose to use the difference between normal and gamma fits as a measure of the homogeneity of vesicle population. In addition, the effect of a fluorescent label and types of instrumental setups on determined values has been tested. Obtained results show that the value of the bending rigidity coefficient does not depend on the type of a fluorescent label nor on the type of microscope used.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciftcioglu, O.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Dam, H. van
1988-01-01
Studies on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) analysis are carried out for the choice of the parameters for modelling the data obtained from various sensors optimally. Accordingly, the roles of the parameters on the analysis results are identified and the related ambiguities are reduced. Experimental investigations are carried out by means of synthesized reactor noise-like data obtained from a digital simulator providing simulated stochastic signals of an operating nuclear reactor so that the simulator constitutes a favourable tool for the present studies aimed. As the system is well defined with its known structure, precise comparison of the MAR analysis results with the true values is performed. With the help of the information gained through the studies carried out, conditions to be taken care of for optimal signal processing in MAR modelling are determined. Although the parameters involved are related among themselves and they have to be given different values suitable for the particular application in hand, some criteria, namely memory-time and sample length-time play an essential role in AR modelling and they are found to be applicable to each individual case commonly, for the establishment of the optimality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciftcioglu, O.
1988-01-01
Studies on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) analysis are carried out for the choice of the parameters for modelling the data obtained from various sensors optimally. Accordingly, the roles of the parameters on the analysis results are identified and the related ambiguities are reduced. Experimental investigations are carried out by means of synthesized reactor noise-like data obtained from a digital simulator providing simulated stochastic signals of an operating nuclear reactor so that the simulator constitutes a favourable tool for the present studies aimed. As the system is well defined with its known structure, precise comparison of the MAR analysis results with the true values is performed. With the help of the information gained through the studies carried out, conditions to be taken care of for optimal signal processing in MAR modelling are determined. Although the parameters involved are related among themselves and they have to be given different values suitable for the particular application in hand, some criteria, namely memory-time and sample length-time play an essential role in AR modelling and they are found to be applicable to each individual case commonly, for the establishment of the optimality. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Yong Min; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik; Lee, Young Joo; Sohn, Chul Ho; Woo, Seung Koo; Suh, Kyung Jin
2005-01-01
We wished to analyze, qualitatively and quantitatively, the noise performance of fractional anisotropy brain images along with the different diffusion gradient numbers by using the histogram method. Diffusion tensor images were acquired using a 3.0 T MR scanner from ten normal volunteers who had no neurological symptoms. The single-shot spin-echo EPI with a Stejskal-Tanner type diffusion gradient scheme was employed for the diffusion tensor measurement. With a b-valuee of 1000 s/mm 2 , the diffusion tensor images were obtained for 6, 11, 23, 35 and 47 diffusion gradient directions. FA images were generated for each DTI scheme. The histograms were then obtained at selected ROIs for the anatomical structures on the FA image. At the same ROI location, the mean FA value and the standard deviation of the mean FA value were calculated. The quality of the FA image was improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased by showing better contrast between the WM and GM. The histogram showed that the variance of FA values was reduced as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. This histogram analysis was in good agreement with the result obtained using quantitative analysis. The image quality of the FA map was significantly improved as the number of diffusion gradient directions increased. The histogram analysis well demonstrated that the improvement in the FA images resulted from the reduction in the variance of the FA values included in the ROI
Analysis of pumping tests: Significance of well diameter, partial penetration, and noise
Heidari, M.; Ghiassi, K.; Mehnert, E.
1999-01-01
The nonlinear least squares (NLS) method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in confined and unconfined aquifers with finite diameter and partially penetrating pumping wells, and with partially penetrating piezometers or observation wells. It was demonstrated that noiseless and moderately noisy drawdown data from observation points located less than two saturated thicknesses of the aquifer from the pumping well produced an exact or acceptable set of parameters when the diameter of the pumping well was included in the analysis. The accuracy of the estimated parameters, particularly that of specific storage, decreased with increases in the noise level in the observed drawdown data. With consideration of the well radii, the noiseless drawdown data from the pumping well in an unconfined aquifer produced good estimates of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities and specific yield, but the estimated specific storage was unacceptable. When noisy data from the pumping well were used, an acceptable set of parameters was not obtained. Further experiments with noisy drawdown data in an unconfined aquifer revealed that when the well diameter was included in the analysis, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield and vertical hydraulic conductivity may be estimated rather effectively from piezometers located over a range of distances from the pumping well. Estimation of specific storage became less reliable for piezemeters located at distances greater than the initial saturated thickness of the aquifer. Application of the NLS to field pumping and recovery data from a confined aquifer showed that the estimated parameters from the two tests were in good agreement only when the well diameter was included in the analysis. Without consideration of well radii, the estimated values of hydraulic conductivity from the pumping and recovery tests were off by a factor of four.The nonlinear least squares method was applied to pumping and recovery aquifer test data in
Analysis of log rate noise in Ontario's CANDU reactors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hinds, H.W. [Dynamic Simulation and Analysis Corp., Deep River, Ontario (Canada); Banica, C.; Arguner, D. [Ontario Power Generation, Ajax, Ontario (Canada); Scharfenberg, R. [Bruce Power, Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)
2007-07-01
In the fall of 2003, the operators noticed that in the recently-refurbished Bruce A Shutdown System no. 1 (SDS1) the noise level in Log Rate signals were much larger than before. At the request of the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), all Canadian CANDU reactors took action to characterize their Log Rate noise. Staff of the Inspection and Maintenance Services division of Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has collected high-speed high-accuracy noise data from nearly all 16 Ontario reactors, either as part of routine measurements before planned outages or as a dedicated noise recording. This paper gives the results of examining a suitable subset of this data, with respect to the characteristics and possible causes of Log Rate noise. The reactor and instrumentation design is different at each station: the locations of the moderator injection nozzles, the location of the ion chambers for each system, and the design of the Log Rate amplifiers. It was found that the Log noise (source of Log Rate noise) was much larger for those ion chambers in the path of the moderator injection nozzles, compared to those which were not in the path. This 'extra' Log noise would then be either attenuated or amplified depending on the transfer function (time constants) of the Log Rate amplifier. It was also observed that most of the Log and Log Rate noise is independent of any other signal measured. Although all CANDU reactors in Ontario have Log and Log Rate noise, the Bruce A SDS1 system has the largest amount of Log Rate noise, because (a) its SDS1 (and RRS) ion chambers are at the top of the reactor in the path of the moderator injection nozzles, and (b) its SDS1 Log Rate amplifiers have the smallest time constants. (author)
Hu, Yong; Jin, Richu; Li, Guangsheng; Luk, Keith Dk; Wu, Ed X
2018-04-16
Physiological noise reduction plays a critical role in spinal cord (SC) resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI). To reduce physiological noise and increase the robustness of SC rsfMRI by using an independent component analysis (ICA)-based nuisance regression (ICANR) method. Retrospective. Ten healthy subjects (female/male = 4/6, age = 27 ± 3 years, range 24-34 years). 3T/gradient-echo echo planar imaging (EPI). We used three alternative methods (no regression [Nil], conventional region of interest [ROI]-based noise reduction method without ICA [ROI-based], and correction of structured noise using spatial independent component analysis [CORSICA]) to compare with the performance of ICANR. Reduction of the influence of physiological noise on the SC and the reproducibility of rsfMRI analysis after noise reduction were examined. The correlation coefficient (CC) was calculated to assess the influence of physiological noise. Reproducibility was calculated by intraclass correlation (ICC). Results from different methods were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc analysis. No significant difference in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsation influence or tissue motion influence were found (P = 0.223 in CSF, P = 0.2461 in tissue motion) in the ROI-based (CSF: 0.122 ± 0.020; tissue motion: 0.112 ± 0.015), and Nil (CSF: 0.134 ± 0.026; tissue motion: 0.124 ± 0.019). CORSICA showed a significantly stronger influence of CSF pulsation and tissue motion (CSF: 0.166 ± 0.045, P = 0.048; tissue motion: 0.160 ± 0.032, P = 0.048) than Nil. ICANR showed a significantly weaker influence of CSF pulsation and tissue motion (CSF: 0.076 ± 0.007, P = 0.0003; tissue motion: 0.081 ± 0.014, P = 0.0182) than Nil. The ICC values in the Nil, ROI-based, CORSICA, and ICANR were 0.669, 0.645, 0.561, and 0.766, respectively. ICANR more effectively reduced physiological noise from both tissue motion and CSF pulsation than three alternative methods. ICANR increases the robustness of SC rsf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jördis Wothge
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The Noise Related Annoyance Cognition and Health (NORAH research initiative is one of the most extensive studies on the physiological and psychological long-term effects of transportation noise in Europe. It includes research on the quality of life and annoyance as well as cardiovascular effects, sleep disturbance, breast cancer, blood pressure, depression and the cognitive development of children. Within the realm of the annoyance module of the study approximately 10,000 residents of the Rhine-Main district were surveyed on the combined effects of transportation noise. This included combined noise from aircraft and road traffic noise (N = 4905, or aircraft and railway noise (N = 4777. Results show that judgment of the total noise annoyance of participants was strongly determined by the sound source which was judged as more annoying (in this case aircraft noise. To a lesser extent, the average sound pressure level of the two present sources was also of relevance.
Bouwman, R.; Young, K.; Lazzari, B.; Ravaglia, V.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Engen, R. van
2009-01-01
According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does
Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji
2014-01-01
Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.
Panou, Areti; Paulssen, Hanneke; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis
2015-01-01
In this study we present phase velocity maps that were obtained from the cross-correlation analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded in the region of Greece.We used one year (2013) of ambient seismic data obtained from the vertical component of 64 broadband permanent seismological stations that are
Analysis of in-band interference in noise-based frequency offset modulation
Bilal, Ibrahim; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan
2014-01-01
A noise-based frequency offset modulation (N-FOM) system is considered, employing a wideband noise carrier, transmit reference modulation and a self-correlation receiver. The performance of such a system in the presence of in-band interference is studied by modeling the interference as a Gaussian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.
1993-06-01
The paper considers the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site ground motion measurements as well as data from accelerators worldwide about noises that worsen beam performance. Unacceptably fast emittance growth due to these noises is predicted for the SSC. A transverse feedback system was found to be the only satisfactory alternative to prevent emittance decay. Optimization of the primary feedback parameters was done
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzfuss, J.
1996-01-01
Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Aude Lenders; Nancy Da Silva; Walter Hecq; Baumgartner Thomas
2001-01-01
The STAIRRS project (2000-2002) is a follow-up of EURANO [1] and a Swiss study [2], in which the authors evaluated the efficiency of noise reduction measures in two European freight corridors. STAIRRS includes a cost-benefit analysis based on about 10,000 km of track modelled in seven countries. The benefits are defined in terms of the dB(A) experienced by those living in the rail corridors modelled. They are to be weighted by the number of persons benefiting each year from a noise reduction ...
An analysis of roadway noise at residential estates in close proximity to expressways in Singapore
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indraneel Bhanap
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Singapore is a city-state of 5 million people. The entire urban population has expanded from 4.4 million to 5 million in a matter of 5 years. Because of the scarcity of land available, more major roads and expressways are being run close to residential developments, exposing the residents to expressway noise. Recognizing the problems of noise in a high-density urban society such as Singapore, the National Environmental Agency of Singapore (NEA has set prescribed noise limits for residential areas. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the noise level in one such development that is adjacent to an expressway, examine the effect of building height on noise and to compare the results with the NEA standards. The paper concludes with the implications of the results and a discussion on the solution to the problem.
Verification test for on-line diagnosis algorithm based on noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaoki, T.; Naito, N.; Tsunoda, T.; Sato, M.; Kameda, A.
1980-01-01
An on-line diagnosis algorithm was developed and its verification test was performed using a minicomputer. This algorithm identifies the plant state by analyzing various system noise patterns, such as power spectral densities, coherence functions etc., in three procedure steps. Each obtained noise pattern is examined by using the distances from its reference patterns prepared for various plant states. Then, the plant state is identified by synthesizing each result with an evaluation weight. This weight is determined automatically from the reference noise patterns prior to on-line diagnosis. The test was performed with 50 MW (th) Steam Generator noise data recorded under various controller parameter values. The algorithm performance was evaluated based on a newly devised index. The results obtained with one kind of weight showed the algorithm efficiency under the proper selection of noise patterns. Results for another kind of weight showed the robustness of the algorithm to this selection. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. B. Alam, M. Jobair Bin Alam, M. M. Rahman, A. K. Dikshit, S. K. Khan
Full Text Available The study reports the level of traffic-induced noise pollution in Sylhet City. For this purpose noise levels have been measured at thirty-seven major locations of the city from 7 am to 11 pm during the working days. It was observed that at all the locations the level of noise remains far above the acceptable limit for all the time. The noise level on the main road near residential area, hospital area and educational area were above the recommended level (65dBA. It was found that the predictive equations are in 60-70% correlated with the measured noise level. The study suggests that vulnerable institutions like school and hospital should be located about 60m away from the roadside unless any special arrangement to alleviate sound is used.
Noise analysis of gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agarwala, Ajita; Chaujar, Rishu
2012-01-01
This paper discusses the noise assessment, using ATLAS device simulation software, of a gate electrode work function engineered recessed channel (GEWE-RC) MOSFET involving an RC and GEWE design integrated onto a conventional MOSFET. Furthermore, the behaviour of GEWE-RC MOSFET is compared with that of a conventional MOSFET having the same device parameters. This paper thus optimizes and predicts the feasibility of a novel design, i.e., GEWE-RC MOSFET for high-performance applications where device and noise reduction is a major concern. The noise metrics taken into consideration are: minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance. The statistical tools auto correlation and cross correlation are also analysed owing to the random nature of noise.
Photoacoustic signal and noise analysis for Si thin plate: signal correction in frequency domain.
Markushev, D D; Rabasović, M D; Todorović, D M; Galović, S; Bialkowski, S E
2015-03-01
Methods for photoacoustic signal measurement, rectification, and analysis for 85 μm thin Si samples in the 20-20 000 Hz modulation frequency range are presented. Methods for frequency-dependent amplitude and phase signal rectification in the presence of coherent and incoherent noise as well as distortion due to microphone characteristics are presented. Signal correction is accomplished using inverse system response functions deduced by comparing real to ideal signals for a sample with well-known bulk parameters and dimensions. The system response is a piece-wise construction, each component being due to a particular effect of the measurement system. Heat transfer and elastic effects are modeled using standard Rosencweig-Gersho and elastic-bending theories. Thermal diffusion, thermoelastic, and plasmaelastic signal components are calculated and compared to measurements. The differences between theory and experiment are used to detect and correct signal distortion and to determine detector and sound-card characteristics. Corrected signal analysis is found to faithfully reflect known sample parameters.
Xu, Fan; Wang, Jiaxing; Zhu, Daiyin; Tu, Qi
2018-04-01
Speckle noise has always been a particularly tricky problem in improving the ranging capability and accuracy of Lidar system especially in harsh environment. Currently, effective speckle de-noising techniques are extremely scarce and should be further developed. In this study, a speckle noise reduction technique has been proposed based on independent component analysis (ICA). Since normally few changes happen in the shape of laser pulse itself, the authors employed the laser source as a reference pulse and executed the ICA decomposition to find the optimal matching position. In order to achieve the self-adaptability of algorithm, local Mean Square Error (MSE) has been defined as an appropriate criterion for investigating the iteration results. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that the self-adaptive pulse-matching ICA (PM-ICA) method could effectively decrease the speckle noise and recover the useful Lidar echo signal component with high quality. Especially, the proposed method achieves 4 dB more improvement of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than a traditional homomorphic wavelet method.
Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M
2016-01-01
Concurrent complex sounds (e.g., two voices speaking at once) are perceptually disentangled into separate "auditory objects". This neural processing often occurs in the presence of acoustic-signal distortions from noise and reverberation (e.g., in a busy restaurant). A difference in periodicity between sounds is a strong segregation cue under quiet, anechoic conditions. However, noise and reverberation exert differential effects on speech intelligibility under "cocktail-party" listening conditions. Previous neurophysiological studies have concentrated on understanding auditory scene analysis under ideal listening conditions. Here, we examine the effects of noise and reverberation on periodicity-based neural segregation of concurrent vowels /a/ and /i/, in the responses of single units in the guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN): the first processing station of the auditory brain stem. In line with human psychoacoustic data, we find reverberation significantly impairs segregation when vowels have an intonated pitch contour, but not when they are spoken on a monotone. In contrast, noise impairs segregation independent of intonation pattern. These results are informative for models of speech processing under ecologically valid listening conditions, where noise and reverberation abound.
Vegh, János; Kiss, Sándor; Lipcsei, Sándor; Horvath, Csaba; Pos, István; Kiss, Gábor
2010-10-01
The paper deals with two recently developed, high-precision nuclear measurement systems installed at the VVER-440 units of the Hungarian Paks NPP. Both developments were motivated by the reactor power increase to 108%, and by the planned plant service time extension. The first part describes the RMR start-up reactivity measurement system with advanced services. High-precision picoampere meters were installed at each reactor unit and measured ionization chamber current signals are handled by a portable computer providing data acquisition and online reactivity calculation service. Detailed offline evaluation and analysis of reactor start-up measurements can be performed on the portable unit, too. The second part of the paper describes a new reactor noise diagnostics system using state-of-the-art data acquisition hardware and signal processing methods. Details of the new reactor noise measurement evaluation software are also outlined. Noise diagnostics at Paks NPP is a standard tool for core anomaly detection and for long-term noise trend monitoring. Regular application of these systems is illustrated by real plant data, e.g., results of standard reactivity measurements during a reactor startup session are given. Noise applications are also illustrated by real plant measurements; results of core anomaly detection are presented.
Landing Gear Noise Prediction and Analysis for Tube-and-Wing and Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft
Guo, Yueping; Burley, Casey L.; Thomas, Russell H.
2016-01-01
Improvements and extensions to landing gear noise prediction methods are developed. New features include installation effects such as reflection from the aircraft, gear truck angle effect, local flow calculation at the landing gear locations, gear size effect, and directivity for various gear designs. These new features have not only significantly improved the accuracy and robustness of the prediction tools, but also have enabled applications to unconventional aircraft designs and installations. Systematic validations of the improved prediction capability are then presented, including parametric validations in functional trends as well as validations in absolute amplitudes, covering a wide variety of landing gear designs, sizes, and testing conditions. The new method is then applied to selected concept aircraft configurations in the portfolio of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project envisioned for the timeframe of 2025. The landing gear noise levels are on the order of 2 to 4 dB higher than previously reported predictions due to increased fidelity in accounting for installation effects and gear design details. With the new method, it is now possible to reveal and assess the unique noise characteristics of landing gear systems for each type of aircraft. To address the inevitable uncertainties in predictions of landing gear noise models for future aircraft, an uncertainty analysis is given, using the method of Monte Carlo simulation. The standard deviation of the uncertainty in predicting the absolute level of landing gear noise is quantified and determined to be 1.4 EPNL dB.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shieh, D.J.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Sweeney, F.J.
1987-01-01
A new technique, based on the noise analysis of neutron detector and core-exit coolant temperature signals, is developed for monitoring the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). A detailed multinodal model is developed and evaluated for the reactor core subsystem of the loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) reactor. This model is used to study the effect of changing the sign of the moderator temperature coefficient of reactivity on the low-frequency phase angle relationship between the neutron detector and the core-exit temperature noise signals. Results show that the phase angle near zero frequency approaches - 180 deg for negative coefficients and 0 deg for positive coefficients when the perturbation source for the noise signals is core coolant flow, inlet coolant temperature, or random heat transfer
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-08-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao
2016-01-01
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Yongge; Xu, Wei, E-mail: weixu@nwpu.edu.cn; Yang, Guidong; Jia, Wantao [Department of Applied Mathematics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)
2016-08-15
The Poisson white noise, as a typical non-Gaussian excitation, has attracted much attention recently. However, little work was referred to the study of stochastic systems with fractional derivative under Poisson white noise excitation. This paper investigates the stationary response of a class of quasi-linear systems with fractional derivative excited by Poisson white noise. The equivalent stochastic system of the original stochastic system is obtained. Then, approximate stationary solutions are obtained with the help of the perturbation method. Finally, two typical examples are discussed in detail to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The analysis also shows that the fractional order and the fractional coefficient significantly affect the responses of the stochastic systems with fractional derivative.
Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.
2014-02-01
GJ667C is the least massive component of a triple star system which lies at a distance of about 6.8 pc (22.1 light-year) from the Earth. GJ667C has received much attention recently due to the claims that it hosts up to seven planets including three super-Earths inside the habitable zone. We present a Bayesian technique for the analysis of radial velocity (RV) data sets in the presence of correlated noise component (`red noise'), with unknown parameters. We also introduce hyper-parameters in our model in order to deal statistically with under- or overestimated error bars on measured RVs as well as inconsistencies between different data sets. By applying this method to the RV data set of GJ667C, we show that this data set contains a significant correlated (red) noise component with correlation time-scale for HARPS data of the order of 9 d. Our analysis shows that the data only provide strong evidence for the presence of two planets: GJ667Cb and c with periods 7.19 and 28.13 d, respectively, with some hints towards the presence of a third signal with period 91 d. The planetary nature of this third signal is not clear and additional RV observations are required for its confirmation. Previous claims of the detection of additional planets in this system are due the erroneous assumption of white noise. Using the standard white noise assumption, our method leads to the detection of up to five signals in this system. We also find that with the red noise model, the measurement uncertainties from HARPS for this system are underestimated at the level of ˜50 per cent.
Analysis of the noise of the jet pumps of the Unit 2 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo D, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Ruiz E, J.A.; Calleros M, G.
2004-01-01
The use of the analysis of noise for the detection of badly functioning of the components of a BWR it is a powerful tool in the determination of abnormal conditions of operation, during the life of a nuclear plant of power. From the eighties, some nuclear reactors have presented problems related with the jet pumps and the knots of the recirculation. The Regulatory Commission of the United States, in the I E bulletin 80-07, recommended to carry out a periodic supervision of the pressure drop of the jet pumps, to prevent structural failures. In this work, methods of analysis of noise are used for the detection of abnormal conditions of operation of the jet pumps of a BWR. Signals are analysed to low and high frequency of pressure drop with the NOISE software that is in development. The obtained results show the behavior of the jet pumps of jet 6 and 11 before and after a partial blockade in their throats where the pump 6 return to their condition of previous operation and the pump 11 present a new fall of pressure, inside the limit them permissible of operation. The methodology of the analysis of noise demonstrated to be an useful tool for the badly functioning detection, and you could apply to create a database to supervise the dynamic behavior of the jet pumps of an BWR. (Author)
Analysis and Extension of the Percentile Method, Estimating a Noise Curve from a Single Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Colom
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Given a white Gaussian noise signal on a sampling grid, its variance can be estimated from a small block sample. However, in natural images we observe the combination of the geometry of the scene being photographed and the added noise. In this case, estimating directly the standard deviation of the noise from block samples is not reliable since the measured standard deviation is not explained just by the noise but also by the geometry of the image. The Percentile method tries to estimate the standard deviation of the noise from blocks of a high-passed version of the image and a small p-percentile of these standard deviations. The idea behind is that edges and textures in a block of the image increase the observed standard deviation but they never make it decrease. Therefore, a small percentile (0.5%, for example in the list of standard deviations of the blocks is less likely to be affected by the edges and textures than a higher percentile (50%, for example. The 0.5%-percentile is empirically proven to be adequate for most natural, medical and microscopy images. The Percentile method is adapted to signal-dependent noise, which is realistic with the Poisson noise model obtained by a CCD device in a digital camera.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bataillon, Christian
1987-01-01
The objective of this research is to decode (at least partially) the nature of the information contained in the electrochemical noise associated with the pitting corrosion phenomenon in aluminium alloys. After a general presentation of aluminium and its alloys and a report of a bibliographical study on the electrochemical noise, the author gives an overview of a theoretical approach of stochastic phenomena, and of an experimental approach. Then, the experimental investigation of the electrochemical noise in the case of pitting corrosion leads to a noise control law, to a study of the structure of pitting growth, and to the elaboration of a procedure of assessment of spectral characteristics of this noise. The author reports a systematic study of the electrochemical noise with respect to the parameters of the control law. Results allow a quantitative characterization of pitting corrosion resistance of the studied alloys, notably by using the kinetic aspect of pitting growth and the structure of pitting corrosion. The author discusses the physicochemical nature of random fluctuations which build up the noise. He proposes a more precise explanation of phenomena related to initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion on aluminium alloys in marine environment [fr
Signal and noise analysis in TRION-Time-Resolved Integrative Optical Fast Neutron detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vartsky, D; Feldman, G; Mor, I; Goldberg, M B; Bar, D; Dangendorf, V
2009-01-01
TRION is a sub-mm spatial resolution fast neutron imaging detector, which employs an integrative optical time-of-flight technique. The detector was developed for fast neutron resonance radiography, a method capable of detecting a broad range of conventional and improvised explosives. In this study we have analyzed in detail, using Monte-Carlo calculations and experimentally determined parameters, all the processes that influence the signal and noise in the TRION detector. In contrast to event-counting detectors where the signal-to-noise ratio is dependent only on the number of detected events (quantum noise), in an energy-integrating detector additional factors, such as the fluctuations in imparted energy, number of photoelectrons, system gain and other factors will contribute to the noise. The excess noise factor (over the quantum noise) due to these processes was 4.3, 2.7, 2.1, 1.9 and 1.9 for incident neutron energies of 2, 4, 7.5, 10 and 14 MeV, respectively. It is shown that, even under ideal light collection conditions, a fast neutron detection system operating in an integrative mode cannot be quantum-noise-limited due to the relatively large variance in the imparted proton energy and the resulting scintillation light distributions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori
2001-01-01
Reactor noise analysis methods using Monte Carlo technique have been proposed and developed in the field of nuclear criticality safety. The Monte Carlo simulation for noise analysis can be made by simulating physical phenomena in the course of neutron transport in a nuclear fuel as practically as possible. MCNP-DSP was developed by T. Valentine of ORNL for this purpose and it is a modified version of MCNP-4A. The authors applied this code to frequency analysis measurements performed in light-water critical assembly TCA. Prompt neutron generation times for critical and subcritical cores were measured by doing the frequency analysis of detector signals. The Monte Carlo simulations for these experiments were carried out using MCNP-DSP, and prompt neutron generation times were calculated. (author)
Allan Deviation Plot as a Tool for Quartz-Enhanced Photoacoustic Sensors Noise Analysis.
Giglio, Marilena; Patimisco, Pietro; Sampaolo, Angelo; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Tittel, Frank K; Spagnolo, Vincenzo
2016-04-01
We report here on the use of the Allan deviation plot to analyze the long-term stability of a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic (QEPAS) gas sensor. The Allan plot provides information about the optimum averaging time for the QEPAS signal and allows the prediction of its ultimate detection limit. The Allan deviation can also be used to determine the main sources of noise coming from the individual components of the sensor. Quartz tuning fork thermal noise dominates for integration times up to 275 s, whereas at longer averaging times, the main contribution to the sensor noise originates from laser power instabilities.
Measurement and analysis of noise power spectrum of computerized tomography in images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro Tejero, P.; Garayoa Roca, J.
2013-01-01
This paper examines the implementation of the spectrum of powers of the noise, NPS, as metric to characterize the noise, both in magnitude and in texture, for CT scans. The NPS found show that you for convolution filters that assume a greater softening in the reconstructed image, spectrum is concentrated in the low frequencies, while for filters sharp, the spectrum extends to high frequencies. In the analyzed cases, there is a low frequency component, largely due to the structure-borne noise, which can be a potential negative effect on the detectability of injuries. (Author)
Prediction of noise in ships by the application of “statistical energy analysis.”
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, John Ødegaard
1979-01-01
If it will be possible effectively to reduce the noise level in the accomodation on board ships, by introducing appropriate noise abatement measures already at an early design stage, it is quite essential that sufficiently accurate prediction methods are available for the naval architects...... or for a special noise abatement measure, e.g., increased structural damping. The paper discusses whether it might be possible to derive an alternative calculation model based on the “statistical energy analysis” approach (SEA). By considering the hull of a ship to be constructed from plate elements connected...
Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors
Dutton, Neale A. W.; Gyongy, Istvan; Parmesan, Luca; Henderson, Robert K.
2016-01-01
SPAD-based solid state CMOS image sensors utilising analogue integrators have attained deep sub-electron read noise (DSERN) permitting single photon counting (SPC) imaging. A new method is proposed to determine the read noise in DSERN image sensors by evaluating the peak separation and width (PSW) of single photon peaks in a photon counting histogram (PCH). The technique is used to identify and analyse cumulative noise in analogue integrating SPC SPAD-based pixels. The DSERN of our SPAD image sensor is exploited to confirm recent multi-photon threshold quanta image sensor (QIS) theory. Finally, various single and multiple photon spatio-temporal oversampling techniques are reviewed. PMID:27447643
Analysis of a sub-shot-noise power recycled Michelson interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKenzie, K; Buchler, B C; Shaddock, D A; Lam, P K; McClelland, D E
2004-01-01
The sensitivity of interferometric gravitational wave detectors is ultimately limited by the 'quantum noise' of light. In this paper we compare results from a bench-top experiment and a theoretical model which show how squeezed states of light may be used to modify the quantum noise behaviour of a power recycled Michelson interferometer. We develop a simple theoretical model of the experiment and find close agreement of theoretical and experimental results. We measure quantum noise suppression of 2.3 dB and demonstrate the lock stability of the experiment for long periods
Passive Noise Analysis for Advanced Tamper Indication. End of Year Report 2015
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sanders, Jeff [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); West, James [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Svoboda, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-09-01
Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is part of a multi-lab project assessing front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) being developed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) unattended systems. The FEUM development activity provides an opportunity to address tampering detection between FEUM and the detector, signal integrity from FEUM to the data acquisition systems, and data validity – long-standing challenges for the IAEA. This report summarizes the INL activities in Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 to characterize and test passive noise analysis as a potential tamper-indicating approach for implementation into FEUM or as a stand-alone method. The project’s primary objectives in FY-15 were to (1) determine detectable tamper scenarios using four pre-amplifier/detector systems, (2) perform tests of tampering scenarios with three common cable types used by the IAEA, (3) separate radio-frequency-induced events from inherent effect by means of an anechoic chamber, and (4) perform tests at an industrial facility. General conclusions were reached in several areas.
Root locus analysis and design of the adaptation process in active noise control.
Tabatabaei Ardekani, Iman; Abdulla, Waleed H
2012-10-01
This paper applies root locus theory to develop a graphical tool for the analysis and design of adaptive active noise control systems. It is shown that the poles of the adaptation process performed in these systems move on typical trajectories in the z-plane as the adaptation step-size varies. Based on this finding, the dominant root of the adaptation process and its trajectory can be determined. The first contribution of this paper is formulating parameters of the adaptation process root locus. The next contribution is introducing a mechanism for modifying the trajectory of the dominant root in the root locus. This mechanism creates a single open loop zero in the original root locus. It is shown that appropriate localization of this zero can cause the dominant root of the locus to be pushed toward the origin, and thereby the adaptation process becomes faster. The validity of the theoretical findings is confirmed in an experimental setup which is implemented using real-time multi-threading and multi-core processing techniques.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Kai; Huang, Shih-Ying; Packard, Nathan J.; Boone, John M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100 Ellison Building, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, 4860 Y Street, Suite 3100 Ellison Building, Sacramento, California 95817 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, 95616 (United States)
2010-07-15
Purpose: A simplified linear model approach was proposed to accurately model the response of a flat panel detector used for breast CT (bCT). Methods: Individual detector pixel mean and variance were measured from bCT projection images acquired both in air and with a polyethylene cylinder, with the detector operating in both fixed low gain and dynamic gain mode. Once the coefficients of the linear model are determined, the fractional additive noise can be used as a quantitative metric to evaluate the system's efficiency in utilizing x-ray photons, including the performance of different gain modes of the detector. Results: Fractional additive noise increases as the object thickness increases or as the radiation dose to the detector decreases. For bCT scan techniques on the UC Davis prototype scanner (80 kVp, 500 views total, 30 frames/s), in the low gain mode, additive noise contributes 21% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 44% for a 17 cm object. With the dynamic gain mode, additive noise only represents approximately 2.6% of the total pixel noise variance for a 10 cm object and 7.3% for a 17 cm object. Conclusions: The existence of the signal-independent additive noise is the primary cause for a quadratic relationship between bCT noise variance and the inverse of radiation dose at the detector. With the knowledge of the additive noise contribution to experimentally acquired images, system modifications can be made to reduce the impact of additive noise and improve the quantum noise efficiency of the bCT system.
High-order noise analysis for low dose iterative image reconstruction methods: ASIR, IRIS, and MBAI
Do, Synho; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Karl, W. Clem; Brady, Thomas J.; Pien, Homer
2011-03-01
Iterative reconstruction techniques (IRTs) has been shown to suppress noise significantly in low dose CT imaging. However, medical doctors hesitate to accept this new technology because visual impression of IRT images are different from full-dose filtered back-projection (FBP) images. Most common noise measurements such as the mean and standard deviation of homogeneous region in the image that do not provide sufficient characterization of noise statistics when probability density function becomes non-Gaussian. In this study, we measure L-moments of intensity values of images acquired at 10% of normal dose and reconstructed by IRT methods of two state-of-art clinical scanners (i.e., GE HDCT and Siemens DSCT flash) by keeping dosage level identical to each other. The high- and low-dose scans (i.e., 10% of high dose) were acquired from each scanner and L-moments of noise patches were calculated for the comparison.
Soury, Hamza
2016-06-29
The Gaussian distribution is typically used to model the additive noise affecting communication systems. However, in many cases the noise cannot be modeled by a Gaussian distribution. In this thesis, we investigate the performance of different communication systems perturbed by non-Gaussian noise. Three families of noise are considered in this work, namely the generalized Gaussian noise, the Laplace noise/interference, and the impulsive noise that is modeled by an α-stable distribution. More specifically, in the first part of this thesis, the impact of an additive generalized Gaussian noise is studied by computing the average symbol error rate (SER) of one dimensional and two dimensional constellations in fading environment. We begin by the simple case of two symbols, i.e. binary phase shift keying (BPSK) constellation. From the results of this constellation, we extended the work to the average SER of an M pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). The first 2 − D constellation is the M quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) (studied for two geometric shapes, namely square and rectangular), which is the combination of two orthogonal PAM signals (in-phase and quadrature phase PAM). In the second part, the system performance of a circular constellation, namely M phase shift keying (MPSK) is studied in conjunction with a Laplace noise with independent noise components. A closed form and an asymptotic expansion of the SER are derived for two detectors, maximum likelihood and minimum distance detectors. Next, we look at the intra cell interference of a full duplex cellular network which is shown to follow a Laplacian distribution with dependent, but uncorrelated, complex components. The densities of that interference are expressed in a closed form in order to obtain the SER of several communication systems (BPSK, PAM, QAM, and MPSK). Finally, we study the statistics of the α-stable distribution. Those statistics are expressed in closed form in terms of the Fox H function and
Qualitative and quantitative analysis of reconstructed images using projections with noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopes, R.T.; Assis, J.T. de
1988-01-01
The reconstruction of a two-dimencional image from one-dimensional projections in an analytic algorithm ''convolution method'' is simulated on a microcomputer. In this work it was analysed the effects caused in the reconstructed image in function of the number of projections and noise level added to the projection data. Qualitative and quantitative (distortion and image noise) comparison were done with the original image and the reconstructed images. (author) [pt
Stimulation of the inner hair cell stereocilia: A sensitivity and noise analysis
Sasmal, Aritra; Grosh, Karl
2018-05-01
The inner hair cell (IHC) hair bundles (HBs) of the mammalian cochlea are located in a 2-6 µm wide fluid filled gap of the sub-tectorial space (STS) between the tectorial membrane (TM) and the reticular lamina (RL) and are excited by the radial flow of the viscous endolymphatic fluid. According to the fluctuation dissipation theorem, the viscosity of the STS fluid that couples the HBs to the radial motion of the TM also gives rise to mechanical fluctuations which are transduced into current noise by the mechano-electric transduction (MET) channels at the tip of the HBs. Conversely, the inherent stochasticity of the MET channels leads to fluctuations in the resting tension of the tip links and induce dissipation. In this study, we quantified the viscous and channel noise in the gerbil cochlea through an analytic model. The channel noise was found to be the dominant noise at the characteristic frequency (CF) of the apex while viscous noise was the dominant noise source at the CF of the base. The net root mean square (RMS) fluctuation of the HB motion was predicted to be at least 1.18 nm at the base and 2.72 nm at the apex, while the narrowband threshold TM radial motion was estimated to be 5 pm at the base and 0.1 nm at the apex. We studied the trade-off between sensitivity and noise on the HBs by varying the height of the HBs and predicted that the taller HBs have a lower TM shear displacement threshold in spite of experiencing higher viscous noise force.
Simulation and Noise Analysis of Multimedia Transmission in Optical CDMA Computer Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasaruddin Nasaruddin
2013-09-01
Full Text Available This paper simulates and analyzes noise of multimedia transmission in a flexible optical code division multiple access (OCDMA computer network with different quality of service (QoS requirements. To achieve multimedia transmission in OCDMA, we have proposed strict variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (VW-OOCs, which can guarantee the smallest correlation value of one by the optimal design. In developing multimedia transmission for computer network, a simulation tool is essential in analyzing the effectiveness of various transmissions of services. In this paper, implementation models are proposed to analyze the multimedia transmission in the representative of OCDMA computer networks by using MATLAB simulink tools. Simulation results of the models are discussed including spectrums outputs of transmitted signals, superimposed signals, received signals, and eye diagrams with and without noise. Using the proposed models, multimedia OCDMA computer network using the strict VW-OOC is practically evaluated. Furthermore, system performance is also evaluated by considering avalanche photodiode (APD noise and thermal noise. The results show that the system performance depends on code weight, received laser power, APD noise, and thermal noise which should be considered as important parameters to design and implement multimedia transmission in OCDMA computer networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Cheng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A new method of wireless data telemetry used by oil industry uses compressional acoustic waves to transmit downhole information from the bottom hole to the surface. Unfortunately, acoustic echoes and drilling vibration noises in periodic drillstring are a major issue in transmission performance. A combined acoustic echo and noise suppression method based on wave motion characteristic in drillstring is adopted to enhance an upward-going transmitted acoustic signal. The presented scheme consists of a primary acoustic echo canceller using an array of two accelerometers for dealing with the downward-going noises and a secondary acoustic insulation structure for restraining the upward-going vibration noises. Furthermore, the secondary acoustic insulation structure exhibits a banded and dispersive spectral structure because of periodic groove configuration. By using a finite-differential algorithm for the one-dimensional propagation of longitudinal waves, acoustic receiving characteristics of transmitted signals are simulated with additive Gaussian noise in a periodic pipe structure of limited length to investigate the effects on transmission performance optimization. The results reveal that the proposed scheme can achieve a much lower error bit ratio over a specified acoustic isolation frequency range with a 30–40 dB reduction in the average noise level compared to traditional single-receiver scheme.
Simulation and Noise Analysis of Multimedia Transmission in Optical CDMA Computer Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasaruddin
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper simulates and analyzes noise of multimedia transmission in a flexible optical code division multiple access (OCDMA computer network with different quality of service (QoS requirements. To achieve multimedia transmission in OCDMA, we have proposed strict variable-weight optical orthogonal codes (VW-OOCs, which can guarantee the smallest correlation value of one by the optimal design. In developing multimedia transmission for computer network, a simulation tool is essential in analyzing the effectiveness of various transmissions of services. In this paper, implementation models are proposed to analyze the multimedia transmission in the representative of OCDMA computer networks by using MATLAB simulink tools. Simulation results of the models are discussed including spectrums outputs of transmitted signals, superimposed signals, received signals, and eye diagrams with and without noise. Using the proposed models, multimedia OCDMA computer network using the strict VW-OOC is practically evaluated. Furthermore, system performance is also evaluated by considering avalanche photodiode (APD noise and thermal noise. The results show that the system performance depends on code weight, received laser power, APD noise, and thermal noise which should be considered as important parameters to design and implement multimedia transmission in OCDMA computer networks.
Variance analysis of x-ray CT sinograms in the presence of electronic noise background.
Ma, Jianhua; Liang, Zhengrong; Fan, Yi; Liu, Yan; Huang, Jing; Chen, Wufan; Lu, Hongbing
2012-07-01
Low-dose x-ray computed tomography (CT) is clinically desired. Accurate noise modeling is a fundamental issue for low-dose CT image reconstruction via statistics-based sinogram restoration or statistical iterative image reconstruction. In this paper, the authors analyzed the statistical moments of low-dose CT data in the presence of electronic noise background. The authors first studied the statistical moment properties of detected signals in CT transmission domain, where the noise of detected signals is considered as quanta fluctuation upon electronic noise background. Then the authors derived, via the Taylor expansion, a new formula for the mean-variance relationship of the detected signals in CT sinogram domain, wherein the image formation becomes a linear operation between the sinogram data and the unknown image, rather than a nonlinear operation in the CT transmission domain. To get insight into the derived new formula by experiments, an anthropomorphic torso phantom was scanned repeatedly by a commercial CT scanner at five different mAs levels from 100 down to 17. The results demonstrated that the electronic noise background is significant when low-mAs (or low-dose) scan is performed. The influence of the electronic noise background should be considered in low-dose CT imaging.
The Analysis and Suppression of the spike noise in vibrator record
Jia, H.; Jiang, T.; Xu, X.; Ge, L.; Lin, J.; Yang, Z.
2013-12-01
During the seismic exploration with vibrator, seismic recording systems have often been affected by random spike noise in the background, which leads to strong data distortions as a result of the cross-correlation processing of the vibrator method. Partial or total loss of the desired seismic information is possible if no automatic spike reduction is available in the field prior to correlation of the field record. Generally speaking, original record of vibrator is uncorrelated data, in which the signal is non-wavelet form. In order to obtain the seismic record similar to explosive source, the signal of uncorrelated data needs to use the correlation algorithm to compress into wavelet form. The correlation process results in that the interference of spike in correlated data is not only being suppressed, but also being expanded. So the spike noise suppression of vibrator is indispensable. According to numerical simulation results, the effect of spike in the vibrator record is mainly affected by the amplitude and proportional points in the uncorrelated record. When the spike noise ratio in uncorrelated record reaches 1.5% and the average amplitude exceeds 200, it will make the SNR(signal-to-noise ratio) of the correlated record lower than 0dB, so that it is difficult to separate the signal. While the amplitude and ratio is determined by the intensity of background noise. Therefore, when the noise level is strong, in order to improve SNR of the seismic data, the uncorrelated record of vibrator need to take necessary steps to suppress spike noise. For the sake of reducing the influence of the spike noise, we need to make the detection and suppression of spike noise process for the uncorrelated record. Because vibrator works by inputting sweep signal into the underground long time, ideally, the peak and valley values of each trace have little change. On the basis of the peak and valley values, we can get a reference amplitude value. Then the spike can be detected and
Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Gyuseong.
1992-03-01
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was ∼400 MHz and the noise charge ∼1000 electrons at a 1 μsec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB
Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Gyuseong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1992-03-01
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was ~400 MHz and the noise charge ~1000 electrons at a 1 μsec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of ~0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.
Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Gyuseong.
1992-03-01
Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.
Schmelzbach, C.; Sollberger, D.; Greenhalgh, S.; Van Renterghem, C.; Robertsson, J. O. A.
2017-12-01
Polarization analysis of standard three-component (3C) seismic data is an established tool to determine the propagation directions of seismic waves recorded by a single station. A major limitation of seismic direction finding methods using 3C recordings, however, is that a correct propagation-direction determination is only possible if the wave mode is known. Furthermore, 3C polarization analysis techniques break down in the presence of coherent noise (i.e., when more than one event is present in the analysis time window). Recent advances in sensor technology (e.g., fibre-optical, magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors, and ring laser gyroscopes) have made it possible to accurately measure all three components of rotational ground motion exhibited by seismic waves, in addition to the conventionally recorded three components of translational motion. Here, we present an extension of the theory of single station 3C polarization analysis to six-component (6C) recordings of collocated translational and rotational ground motions. We demonstrate that the information contained in rotation measurements can help to overcome some of the main limitations of standard 3C seismic direction finding, such as handling multiple arrivals simultaneously. We show that the 6C polarisation of elastic waves measured at the Earth's free surface does not only depend on the seismic wave type and propagation direction, but also on the local P- and S-wave velocities just beneath the recording station. Using an adaptation of the multiple signal classification algorithm (MUSIC), we demonstrate how seismic events can univocally be identified and characterized in terms of their wave type. Furthermore, we show how the local velocities can be inferred from single-station 6C data, in addition to the direction angles (inclination and azimuth) of seismic arrivals. A major benefit of our proposed 6C method is that it also allows the accurate recovery of the wave type, propagation directions, and phase
Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Mansoorizadeh, Muharram
2014-03-01
It is highly important to analyze the acoustic properties of workrooms in order to identify best noise control measures from the standpoint of noise exposure limits. Due to the fact that sound pressure is dependent upon environments, it cannot be a suitable parameter for determining the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise pollution. This paper aims to empirically analyze noise source characteristics and acoustic properties of noisy embroidery workrooms based on special parameters. In this regard, reverberation time as the special room acoustic parameter in 30 workrooms was measured based on ISO 3382-2. Sound power quantity of embroidery machines was also determined based on ISO 9614-3. Multiple linear regression was employed for predicting reverberation time based on acoustic features of the workrooms using MATLAB software. The results showed that the measured reverberation times in most of the workrooms were approximately within the ranges recommended by ISO 11690-1. Similarity between reverberation time values calculated by the Sabine formula and measured values was relatively poor (R (2) = 0.39). This can be due to the inaccurate estimation of the acoustic influence of furniture and formula preconditions. Therefore, this value cannot be considered representative of an actual acoustic room. However, the prediction performance of the regression method with root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.23 s and R (2) = 0.69 is relatively acceptable. Because the sound power of the embroidery machines was relatively high, these sources get the highest priority when it comes to applying noise controls. Finally, an objective approach for the determination of the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise could facilitate the identification of cost-effective noise controls.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dermody James J
2004-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal of cancer research is to identify discrete biomarkers that specifically characterize a given malignancy. These markers are useful in diagnosis, may identify potential targets for drug development, and can aid in evaluating treatment efficacy and predicting patient outcome. Microarray technology has enabled marker discovery from human cells by permitting measurement of steady-state mRNA levels derived from thousands of genes. However many challenging and unresolved issues regarding the acquisition and analysis of microarray data remain, such as accounting for both experimental and biological noise, transcripts whose expression profiles are not normally distributed, guidelines for statistical assessment of false positive/negative rates and comparing data derived from different research groups. This study addresses these issues using Affymetrix HG-U95A and HG-U133 GeneChip data derived from different research groups. Results We present here a simple non parametric approach coupled with noise filtering to identify sets of genes differentially expressed between the normal and cancer states in oral, breast, lung, prostate and ovarian tumors. An important feature of this study is the ability to integrate data from different laboratories, improving the analytical power of the individual results. One of the most interesting findings is the down regulation of genes involved in tissue differentiation. Conclusions This study presents the development and application of a noise model that suppresses noise, limits false positives in the results, and allows integration of results from individual studies derived from different research groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holden, J.E.; Halama, J.R.; Hasegawa, B.H.
1986-01-01
The use of Fourier analysis in nuclear medicine gated blood ventriculography provides a useful example of the application of Fourier methods to digital medical imaging. In particular, the nuclear medicine experience demonstrates that there is diagnostic significance not only in the pixel averages of temporal Fourier magnitude and phase computed in various image regions, but also in the distributions of the individual pixel values about those averages. However, a region containing pixels that are perfectly synchronous on average would still yield a finite distribution of calculated Fourier coefficients due to the propagation of stochastic pixel noise into the calculated values. The authors have studied this noise component of both the magnitude and phase distributions using phantom studies and computer simulation. In both approaches, several thousand one-pixel 'ventriculograms' were generated, all identical to each other except for stochastic noise. Fourier magnitudes and phases at several frequencies were calculated and histograms generated. A theoretical prediction of the distributions was developed and shown to fit the experimental results well. The authors' formalism can be used to estimate study count requirements or, for fixed study counts, to assess the stochastic noise contribution in the interpretation of measured phase and magnitude distributions. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mokem Fokou, I.S.; Nono Dueyou Buckjohn, C.; Siewe Siewe, M.; Tchawoua, C.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a sandwiched buckled beam with axial compressive force under Gaussian white noise is considered as a piezoelectric energy harvester. A stochastic averaging method is proposed to analytically predict the system’s response, the stability and the estimation of system’s reliability. By using the generalized harmonic transformation, the Itô differential equations with respect to the mechanical and electrical amplitude are derived through this technique. From these differential equations, we construct the Fokker–Plank–Kolmogorov equation for the electrical and mechanical subsystem where the solution of each equation in the stationary state is a probability density. The mean first passage time (MFPT) is numerically provided in order to study the attractor stability(stable equilibrium point observed in the effective potential) which give rise to the noise-enhanced stability(NES) phenomenon. The mean square response and voltage are obtained for different white noise intensities and others system parameters. The effects of linear damping and noise intensity on the mean square voltage are investigated. We notice that harvested energy can be enhanced by suitable choice of noise intensity and others system parameters. In additional, by combining the random signal with harmonic excitation, the stochastic resonance(SR) phenomenon is observed via the mean residence time(TMR) which give rise to the large amplitude of vibrations and consequently, an optimization of harvested energy. The agreements between the analytical method and those obtained numerically validate the effectiveness of analytical investigations.
Analysis of seismic noise to check the mechanical isolation of a medical device
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sara Rombetto
2011-07-01
Full Text Available We have investigated the mechanical response of a magnetically shielded room that hosts a magnetoencephalography system that is subject to external vibrations. This is a superconducting quantum interference device, which are the most sensitive sensors for magnetic flux variations. When the magnetoencephalography operates with people inside the room, the spectrum of the flux of the magnetic field shows anomalous peaks at several frequencies between 1 Hz and 20 Hz, independent of the experiment that is being run. As the variations in the flux of the magnetic field through the sensors might not only be related to the electrical currents circulating inside the brain, but also to non-damped mechanical oscillations of the room, we installed seismic instrumentation to measure the effective motion inside the room and to compare it to the external motion. For this analysis, we recorded the ambient seismic noise at two very close stations, one inside the magnetically shielded room, the other one outside in the room in which the magnetically shielded room is itself located. Data were collected over four days, including a week-end, to study the response of the magnetically shielded room subjected to different energy levels of external vibrations. The root mean square, Fourier spectra and power spectral density show significant differences between the signal recorded inside and outside the magnetically shielded room, with several anomalous peaks in the frequency band of 1 Hz to 20 Hz. The normalized spectral quantities (horizontal to vertical spectral ratio, and ratio between the internal and external spectra show large amplification at several frequencies, reaching in some cases one order of magnitude. We concluded that the magnetically shielded room does not dampen the external vibrations, but it instead appears to amplify these across a broad frequency range.
A framework for noise-power spectrum analysis of multidimensional images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siewerdsen, J.H.; Cunningham, I.A.; Jaffray, D.A.
2002-01-01
A methodological framework for experimental analysis of the noise-power spectrum (NPS) of multidimensional images is presented that employs well-known properties of the n-dimensional (nD) Fourier transform. The approach is generalized to n dimensions, reducing to familiar cases for n=1 (e.g., time series) and n=2 (e.g., projection radiography) and demonstrated experimentally for two cases in which n=3 (viz., using an active matrix flat-panel imager for x-ray fluoroscopy and cone-beam CT to form three-dimensional (3D) images in spatiotemporal and volumetric domains, respectively). The relationship between fully nD NPS analysis and various techniques for analyzing a 'central slice' of the NPS is formulated in a manner that is directly applicable to measured nD data, highlights the effects of correlation, and renders issues of NPS normalization transparent. The spatiotemporal NPS of fluoroscopic images is analyzed under varying conditions of temporal correlation (image lag) to investigate the degree to which the NPS is reduced by such correlation. For first-frame image lag of ∼5-8 %, the NPS is reduced by ∼20% compared to the lag-free case. A simple model is presented that results in an approximate rule of thumb for computing the effect of image lag on NPS under conditions of spatiotemporal separability. The volumetric NPS of cone-beam CT images is analyzed under varying conditions of spatial correlation, controlled by adjustment of the reconstruction filter. The volumetric NPS is found to be highly asymmetric, exhibiting a ramp characteristic in transverse planes (typical of filtered back-projection) and a band-limited characteristic in the longitudinal direction (resulting from low-pass characteristics of the imager). Such asymmetry could have implications regarding the detectability of structures visualized in transverse versus sagittal or coronal planes. In all cases, appreciation of the full dimensionality of the image data is essential to obtaining
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Farokhi, S.; Shamsuddin, S. M.; Flusser, Jan; Sheikh, U. U.; Khansari, M.; Jafari-Khouzani, K.
2013-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 1 (2013), s. 1-11 ISSN 1017-9909 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Keywords : face recognition * infrared imaging * image moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.850, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/flusser-rotation and noise invariant near-infrared face recognition by means of zernike moments and spectral regression discriminant analysis.pdf
Measuring multielectron beam imaging fidelity with a signal-to-noise ratio analysis
Mukhtar, Maseeh; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Quoi, Kathy; Malloy, Matt; Thiel, Brad
2016-07-01
Java Monte Carlo Simulator for Secondary Electrons (JMONSEL) simulations are used to generate expected imaging responses of chosen test cases of patterns and defects with the ability to vary parameters for beam energy, spot size, pixel size, and/or defect material and form factor. The patterns are representative of the design rules for an aggressively scaled FinFET-type design. With these simulated images and resulting shot noise, a signal-to-noise framework is developed, which relates to defect detection probabilities. Additionally, with this infrastructure, the effect of detection chain noise and frequency-dependent system response can be made, allowing for targeting of best recipe parameters for multielectron beam inspection validation experiments. Ultimately, these results should lead to insights into how such parameters will impact tool design, including necessary doses for defect detection and estimations of scanning speeds for achieving high throughput for high-volume manufacturing.
Assessment and analysis of noise pollution in Biskra public gardens (Algeria)
Bouzir, Tallal Abdel Karim; Zemmouri, Noureddine; Berkouk, Djihed
2018-05-01
A quantitative evaluation of noise pollution in the public gardens of Biskra, Algeria, was carried out in this research. The equivalent sound level (leq1min) was measured in 27 points distributed over the seven main gardens of the city. The results of the measurements show that the measured level of sound intensity varies from 56.38 dB in the Landon garden to 62.55 dB in the Larbi Ben Mhidi garden. By comparing, the measured values with the noise limit values recommended by the national legislation, the standards of the World Health Organization and the United States Environmental Protection Agency; it is clear that the sound environment in these public gardens do not comply with the recognized standards of acoustic comfort. The gardens' spaces are heavily over-exposed to traffic noise resulting in high levels acoustic pollution.
A Comparative Analysis of Pitch Detection Methods Under the Influence of Different Noise Conditions.
Sukhostat, Lyudmila; Imamverdiyev, Yadigar
2015-07-01
Pitch is one of the most important components in various speech processing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate different pitch detection methods in terms of various noise conditions. Prospective study. For evaluation of pitch detection algorithms, time-domain, frequency-domain, and hybrid methods were considered by using Keele and CSTR speech databases. Each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages. Experiments have shown that BaNa method achieves the highest pitch detection accuracy. The development of methods for pitch detection, which are robust to additive noise at different signal-to-noise ratio, is an important field of research with many opportunities for enhancement the modern methods. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Inference of physical phenomena from FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thie, J.A.; Damiano, B.; Campbell, L.R.
1989-01-01
The source of features observed in noise spectra collected by an automated data collection system operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) can be identified using a methodology based on careful data observation and intuition. When a large collection of data is available, as in this case, automatic pattern recognition and parameter storage and retrieval using a data base can be used to extract useful information. However, results can be limited to empirical signature comparison monitoring unless an effort is made to determine the noise sources. This paper describes the identification of several FFTF noise data phenomena and suggests how this understanding may lead to new or enhanced monitoring. 13 refs., 4 figs
Finite element analysis using NASTRAN applied to helicopter transmission vibration/noise reduction
Howells, R. W.; Sciarra, J. J.
1975-01-01
A finite element NASTRAN model of the complete forward rotor transmission housing for the Boeing Vertol CH-47 helicopter was developed and applied to reduce transmission vibration/noise at its source. In addition to a description of the model, a technique for vibration/noise prediction and reduction is outlined. Also included are the dynamic response as predicted by NASTRAN, test data, the use of strain energy methods to optimize the housing for minimum vibration/noise, and determination of design modifications which will be manufactured and tested. The techniques presented are not restricted to helicopters but are applicable to any power transmission system. The transmission housing model developed can be used further to evaluate static and dynamic stresses, thermal distortions, deflections and load paths, fail-safety/vulnerability, and composite materials.
On the determination of boiling water reactor characteristics by noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kleiss, J.
1983-01-01
In boiling water reactors the main noise source is the boiling process in the core and the most important variable is the neutron flux, thus the effect of the steam bubbles on the neutron flux is studied in detail. An experiment has been performed in a small subcritical reactor to measure the response of a neutron detector to the passage of a single air bubble. A mathematical model for the description of the response was tested and the results agree very well with the experiment. Noise measurements in the Dodewaard boiling water reactor are discussed. The construction of a twin self-powered neutron detector, developed to perform steam velocity measurements in the core is described. The low-frequency part of the neutron noise characteristics is considered. The transfer functions exhibit a good agreement with ones obtained by independent means: control rod step experiments and model calculations. (Auth.)
Juretzek, Carina; Hadziioannou, Céline
2014-05-01
Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves observed in the microseism band of the ambient seismic noise field is still limited, including the understanding of source locations and source mechanisms. Multi-component array methods are suitable to address this issue. In this work we use a 3-component beamforming algorithm to obtain source directions and polarization states of the ambient seismic noise field within the primary and secondary microseism bands recorded at the Gräfenberg array in southern Germany. The method allows to distinguish between different polarized waves present in the seismic noise field and estimates Love and Rayleigh wave source directions and their seasonal variations using one year of array data. We find mainly coinciding directions for the strongest acting sources of both wave types at the primary microseism and different source directions at the secondary microseism.
Analysis of the direct x-ray absorption noise in phosphor-coupled CMOS detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Jong Chul; Yun, Seung Man; Kim, Ho Kyung; Cunningham, Ian; Achterkirchen, Thorsten
2009-01-01
It is known that the indirect conversion detectors have an NPS (noise power spectrum), which decreases with the spatial frequency, and the direct conversion detector have a nearly constant NPS with the spatial frequency (or white NPS). This explains that when a significant amount of x rays are not absorbed in the phosphor layer, then the additional absorption of x-rays in the semiconductor layers (or the photodiodes) with their white noise contributions degrades the total NPS performance. From the fact, we investigated how the direct x-ray affects CMOS detectors in terms of NPS and DQE (detective quantum efficiency)
Residual stress measurements with barkhausen noise in power plant creep failure analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karvonen, I. [CoMoTest Oy, Maentsaelae (Finland)] Suominen, L. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
1998-12-31
Continuously developing power and process industry needs predictive maintenance inspection methods in order to prevent failures with correctly timed and properly specified measures. Materials` monitoring has traditionally been non-destructive inspection to detect growing cracks or other deficiencies. Recently, after the development of portable stress measurement systems, some advances has been reached. Based on stress anomalies due to creep, fatigue or corrosion, new applications have been found in the use of Barkhausen noise inspection. When the Barkhausen noise findings have been simultaneously confirmed with other stress measuring methods, a wider acceptance of the application of the method can be proposed. (orig.) 7 refs.
How accurate is the phenotype? – An analysis of developmental noise in a cotton aphid clone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Babbitt Gregory A
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy by which phenotype can be reproduced by genotype potentially is important in determining the stability, environmental sensitivity, and evolvability of morphology and other phenotypic traits. Because two sides of an individual represent independent development of the phenotype under identical genetic and environmental conditions, average body asymmetry (or "fluctuating asymmetry" can estimate the developmental instability of the population. The component of developmental instability not explained by intrapopulational differences in gene or environment (or their interaction can be further defined as internal developmental noise. Surprisingly, developmental noise remains largely unexplored despite its potential influence on our interpretations of developmental stability, canalization, and evolvability. Proponents of fluctuating asymmetry as a bioindicator of environmental or genetic stress, often make the assumption that developmental noise is minimal and, therefore, that phenotype can respond sensitively to the environment. However, biologists still have not measured whether developmental noise actually comprises a significant fraction of the overall environmental response of fluctuating asymmetry observed within a population. Results In a morphometric study designed to partition developmental noise from fluctuating asymmetry in the wing morphology of a monoclonal culture of cotton aphid, Aphis gossipyii, it was discovered that fluctuating asymmetry in the aphid wing was nearly four times higher than in other insect species. Also, developmental noise comprised a surprisingly large fraction (≈ 50% of the overall response of fluctuating asymmetry to a controlled graded temperature environment. Fluctuating asymmetry also correlated negatively with temperature, indicating that environmentally-stimulated changes in developmental instability are mediated mostly by changes in the development time of individuals
Residual stress measurements with barkhausen noise in power plant creep failure analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karvonen, I. [CoMoTest Oy, Maentsaelae (Finland)] Suominen, L. [Stresstech Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)
1997-12-31
Continuously developing power and process industry needs predictive maintenance inspection methods in order to prevent failures with correctly timed and properly specified measures. Materials` monitoring has traditionally been non-destructive inspection to detect growing cracks or other deficiencies. Recently, after the development of portable stress measurement systems, some advances has been reached. Based on stress anomalies due to creep, fatigue or corrosion, new applications have been found in the use of Barkhausen noise inspection. When the Barkhausen noise findings have been simultaneously confirmed with other stress measuring methods, a wider acceptance of the application of the method can be proposed. (orig.) 7 refs.
Analysis of white noise excited elasto-plastic oscillator of several degrees of freedom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Randrup-Thomsen, Søren
1997-01-01
The response of the white noise excited multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) oscillator has been analyzed in order to describe the plastic displacements of the relative response. Three different types of structural systems have been considered. The first type is a shear-wall frame having elastic......-ideal plastic stiffness properties of the columns connecting the two top-most floors. The second type is a shear-wall frame having elastic-ideal plastic stiffness properties of all columns, while the third type is a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator excited by horizontal and vertical white noise ground...
... Regulated by EPA EPA or a designated Federal agency regulates noise sources, such as rail and motor carriers, low noise emission products, construction equipment, transport equipment, trucks, motorcycles, and the labeling of hearing ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer
2005-01-01
Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...
Bragdon, C. R.
Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.
Noise and Synchronization Analysis of the Cold-Receptor Neuronal Network Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Du
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of the cold receptor neural network model. First, it examines noise effects on neuronal stimulus in the model. From ISI plots, it is shown that there are considerable differences between purely deterministic simulations and noisy ones. The ISI-distance is used to measure the noise effects on spike trains quantitatively. It is found that spike trains observed in neural models can be more strongly affected by noise for different temperatures in some aspects; meanwhile, spike train has greater variability with the noise intensity increasing. The synchronization of neuronal network with different connectivity patterns is also studied. It is shown that chaotic and high period patterns are more difficult to get complete synchronization than the situation in single spike and low period patterns. The neuronal network will exhibit various patterns of firing synchronization by varying some key parameters such as the coupling strength. Different types of firing synchronization are diagnosed by a correlation coefficient and the ISI-distance method. The simulations show that the synchronization status of neurons is related to the network connectivity patterns.
Dekkers, J.E.C.; van der Straaten, J.W.
2009-01-01
In densely-populated countries and in particular in large metropolitan areas, the presence of so much human activity causes all sorts of negative externalities, for example traffic noise disturbance. These externalities call for corrective measures by the government. Economists have developed a
Signal-to-noise ratio analysis and evaluation of the Hadamard imaging technique
Jobson, D. J.; Katzberg, S. J.; Spiers, R. B., Jr.
1977-01-01
The signal-to-noise ratio performance of the Hadamard imaging technique is analyzed and an experimental evaluation of a laboratory Hadamard imager is presented. A comparison between the performances of Hadamard and conventional imaging techniques shows that the Hadamard technique is superior only when the imaging objective lens is required to have an effective F (focus) number of about 2 or slower.
Analysis and evaluation of soundscapes in public parks through interviews and measurement of noise.
Szeremeta, Bani; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta
2009-12-01
The purpose of this work was to investigate the sound environment of public parks using a soundscape study model that analyzes not only noise but also all the types of sound of a given area, as well as other environmental factors. To this end, acoustic measurements were made in the parks under study and interviews were held with their frequent visitors. Noise measurements were conducted in 55 points, and a total of 335 people were interviewed in the 4 parks studied. The parks selected for this study are located in areas very close to streets with intense vehicle flow, raising the hypothesis that this proximity impairs the acoustic comfort of their visitors. The findings confirm the strong influence of traffic noise on the soundscapes of the parks. Noise measurements showed that in all parks, between 50 and 100% of the points evaluated displayed sound levels above 55dB(A), the level established by Curitiba's Municipal Law 10625 as the limit permitted for green areas during daytime. Other conditions in the parks' environments were also identified, which interfere jointly in the soundscape and in its perception, such as spatial factors of each park, the urban setting of its surroundings, and the sounds originating inside the parks.
BER analysis for MPAM signal constellations in the presence of fading and ADC quantization noise
Rizvi, U.H.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Weber, J.H.
2009-01-01
In this letter, closed-form expressions for the bit error rate of M-ary pulse amplitude modulated signal constellations as a function of the analog-to-digital converter word length, the signal-to-noise ratio and the fading distribution, are derived. These results allow for a rapid and accurate
Measurement and analysis of the neutron noise of the pool research reactor at IPEN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simoes, Graciete Pedro
1979-01-01
Variations in the neutron density or power of a nuclear reactor (the neutron noise) operating at nominally constant power are generally random and can only be described in terms of statistical parameters. Random variations in the power of a power reactor are produced by one or more driving functions. In this work the neutron noise of the pool reactor IEAR-1 (2 MW nominal power) has been studied using two compensated ionization chambers ( Westinghouse VJL6377) and related to three possible-driving functions, namely vibration of the control bar and reactor support bridge and the temperature of the water entering the core. The CIC detectors were located in rigid tubes in turn positively located in the reactor lattice plate. Conventional accelerometers were used. Temperature measurements were made with a NiCr/Ni thermocouple (wire diam ∼ 0.2mm) located 10 mm above the top of a fuel element. Although the correlation between the measured neutron signals was high ( > 0,4) for frequencies in the range 0 to 10 Hz no resonances were identified in the neutron noise. A significant correlation (> 0,4) between the control bar acceleration and the neutron flux was obtained in the frequency range 0 to 10 Hz. The measured correlation between the neutron noise and both the bridge vibration and the reactor water inlet temperature was insignificant. (author)
A retrospective analysis of noise-induced hearing loss in the Dutch construction industry
Leensen, M. C. J.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.; Dreschler, W. A.
2011-01-01
Purpose Noise exposure is an important and highly prevalent occupational hazard in the construction industry. This study examines hearing threshold levels of a large population of Dutch construction workers and compares their hearing thresholds to those predicted by ISO-1999. Methods In this
Analysis of Signal-to-Noise Ratio of the Laser Doppler Velocimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lading, Lars
1973-01-01
The signal-to-shot-noise ratio of the photocurrent of a laser Doppler anemometer is calculated as a function of the parameters which describe the system. It is found that the S/N is generally a growing function of receiver area, that few large particles are better than many small ones, and that g...
Liu, Q C; Duo, C H; Wang, Z; Yan, K; Zhang, J; Xiong, W; Zhu, M
2017-11-20
Objective: To investigate hearing loss status of blasters, drillers mechanics and so on in underground mining, and put forward suggestion diagnosis of occupational explosive deafness and occupational deafness. Methods: Underground excavation workers in a metal mine were recruited in this study, those with a history of ear disease and non-occupational deafness were all excluded. Finally, the features of pure tone audiometry of 459 noise-exposed workers were analyzed. Results: High-frequency hearing loss occurred on 351workers and the positive detection rate was 74.29%, workers who had both high-frequency and linguistic frequency hearing loss were 51 and the positive detection rate was 11.11%. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss in right ear (χ(2)=9.427 and P = 0.024) and in left ear (χ(2)=14.375, P =0.002) was significantly different between different exposure age groups. The positive detection of high-frequency hearing loss of driving group was the highest, followed by blasting group, mining group and machine repair group. The characteristics of the hearing loss caused by drilling noise of the blasting workers with no accident occurred were in line with that of noise-induced hearing loss. Conclusion: The diagnosis grading should be carried out according to the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise-induced deafness for the employees who engaged in the blasting operation with no record of blast accident.
Analysis of Traffic Noise along Oyemekun - Oba-Adesida Road Akure Ondo State Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. J Oyedepo
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The primary aim of the research is to quantify and analyze the traffic noise emissions along Oba-Adesida –Oyemekun Road. Measurements of noise were recorded in decibel (dBA using digital sound level meters (IEC651 Type 2. While, the traffic volume and spot speed were obtained using cine –camera at six selected locations namely Alagbaka(L1, Biological Garden(L2, Adegbola(L3, Ondo Bye Pass(L4, Ilesha Garage(L5 and FUTA junction(L6 along ObaAdesida- Oyemekun road during the peak period(7:30am -8:30 am & 4:00pm-5:00pm and off peak period(11:30pm- 12:30pm, repeated 3-5 times to account for time-fluctuation of these variables. All measurements were taken on a weighting frequency network, at a height of about 1.5m from the ground level. The vehicles were divided into five categories namely Cars, buses, motorcycles,2-axle load, and 3-axle loads; and were converted into “Passenger Car Units” (PCU by multiplying with recommended factors in accordance with Nigerian Federal Highway Capacity Manual 2006.The average L10(dBA are 72.8, 73.8, 73.4, 74.4, 73.9, and 75.0dBA ; while average combine sound pressure level(SPL in dBA are 76, 77, 78, 78, 77, and 78dBA for L1, L2, L3, L4, L5,and L6 respectively. Findings indicated that traffic generated noise pollution is at or above, the standard outdoor limits in most locations and area can adversely affect the welfare activities. The present study revealed that the study area is getting noisier due to high traffic density and lack of traffic management, practical action to limit and control the exposure to environmental noise are essential. However, road traffic noise by treatments at source (such as to reduce engine noise, exhaust pipe noise etc. is to be encouraged as the principal method of control. The techniques include road design, the management of traffic flow and the use of screens and barriers.
Basic study on relationship between estimated rate constants and noise in FDG kinetic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Yuichi; Toyama, Hinako; Senda, Michio.
1996-01-01
For accurate estimation of the rate constants in 18 F-FDG dynamic study, the shape of the estimation function (Φ) is crucial. In this investigation, the relationship between the noise level in tissue time activity curve and the shape of the least squared estimation function which is the sum of squared error between a function of model parameters and a measured data is calculated in 3 parameter model of 18 F-FDG. In the first simulation, by using actual plasma time activity curve, the true tissue curve was generated from known sets of rate constants ranging 0.05≤k 1 ≤0.15, 0.1≤k 2 ≤0.2 and 0.01≤k 3 ≤0.1 in 0.01 step. This procedure was repeated under various noise levels in the tissue time activity curve from 1 to 8% of the maximum value in the tissue activity. In the second simulation, plasma and tissue time activity curves from clinical 18 F-FDG dynamic study were used to calculate the Φ. In the noise-free case, because the global minima is separated from neighboring local minimums, it was easy to find out the optimum point. However, with increasing noise level, the optimum point was buried in many neighboring local minima. Making it difficult to find out the optimum point. The optimum point was found within 20% of the convergence point by standard non-linear optimization method. The shape of Φ for the clinical data was similar to that with the noise level of 3 or 5% in the first simulation. Therefore direct search within the area extending 20% from the result of usual non-linear curve fitting procedure is recommended for accurate estimation of the constants. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pan, X.; Metz, C.E.
1995-01-01
A general approach that the authors proposed elsewhere reveals the intrinsic relationship among methods for inversion of the 2-D exponential Radon transform described by Bellini et al., by Tretiak and Metz, by Hawkins et al., and by Inouye et al. Moreover, the approach provides an infinite class of linear methods for inverting the 2-D exponential Radon transform. In the work reported here, they systematically investigated the noise characteristics of the methods in this class, obtaining analytical forms for the autocovariance and the variance of the images reconstructed by use of various methods. The noise properties of a new quasi-optimal method were then compared theoretically to those of other methods of the class. The analysis demonstrates that the quasi-optimal method achieves smaller global variance in the reconstructed images than do the other methods of the class. Extensive numerical simulation studies confirm this prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue Xiao-Le; Xu Wei; Zhang Ying; Wang Liang
2015-01-01
The piezomagnetoelastic energy harvester system subjected to harmonic and Poisson white noise excitations is studied by using the generalized cell mapping method. The transient and stationary probability density functions (PDFs) of response based on the global viewpoint are obtained by the matrix analysis method. Monte Carlo simulation results verify the accuracy of this method. It can be observed that evolutionary direction of transient and stationary PDFs is in accordance with the unstable manifold for this system, and a stochastic P-bifurcation occurs as the intensity of Poisson white noise increases. This study presents an efficient numerical tool to solve the stochastic response of a three-dimensional dynamical system and provides a new idea to analyze the energy harvester system. (paper)
Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka
2017-11-10
Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Blasche, P. R.
1980-01-01
Specific configurations of first and second order all digital phase locked loops are analyzed for both ideal and additive white gaussian noise inputs. In addition, a design for a hardware digital phase locked loop capable of either first or second order operation is presented along with appropriate experimental data obtained from testing of the hardware loop. All parameters chosen for the analysis and the design of the digital phase locked loop are consistent with an application to an Omega navigation receiver although neither the analysis nor the design are limited to this application.
A record/replay system for the harmonic analysis of nuclear reactor flux noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawrence, L.A.J.; Corran, E.R.
1960-02-01
The design of a record/replay system for the determination of neutron flux spectra is discussed and circuit details and performance figures are given. Frequency modulation is used with a carrier frequency of 1,000 cycles per second, the complete system having an overall bandwidth of 100 cycles per second. The noise is recorded on magnetic tape and when replayed is analysed into a spectrum by means of a selective amplifier used in conjunction with an infinitely variable speed control on the tape. It is shown that if the lowest spectral frequency is .01 cycles per second a recording time of many hours is necessary. The DIDO noise spectrum is analysed and shown to be contained in a bandwidth of a few cycles per second. (author)
Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Giordano, Gerardo; Harms, Jan; Mandic, Vuk; Sajeva, Angelo; Trancynger, Thomas; Barone, Fabrizio
2010-04-01
In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded along one month of data taking of two mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in a blind-ended (side) tunnel 2000 ft deep in the Homestake (South Dakota, USA) mine chosen to host the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The two mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is to characterize the Homestake site in the frequency band 10-4 - 30Hz and to estimate the level of Newtonian noise in a deep underegropund laboratory. The horizontal semidiurnal Earth tide and the Peterson's New Low Noise Model have been measured.
A comparative study of time series modeling methods for reactor noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kitamura, Masaharu; Shigeno, Kei; Sugiyama, Kazusuke
1978-01-01
Two modeling algorithms were developed to study at-power reactor noise as a multi-input, multi-output process. A class of linear, discrete time description named autoregressive-moving average model was used as a compact mathematical expression of the objective process. One of the model estimation (modeling) algorithms is based on the theory of Kalman filtering, and the other on a conjugate gradient method. By introducing some modifications in the formulation of the problem, realization of the practically usable algorithms was made feasible. Through the testing with several simulation models, reliability and effectiveness of these algorithms were confirmed. By applying these algorithms to experimental data obtained from a nuclear power plant, interesting knowledge about the at-power reactor noise was found out. (author)
White noise analysis for the correlation-type elementary motion detectors with half-wave rectifiers.
Ikeda, Hideaki; Aonishi, Toru
2018-06-01
The motion detection mechanism of insects has been attracted attention of many researchers. Several motion-detection models have been proposed on the basis of insect visual system studies. Here, we examine two models, the Hassenstein-Reichardt (HR) model and the two-detector (2D) model. We analytically obtain the mean and variance of the stationary responses of the HR and the 2D models to white noise, and we derive the signal-to-fluctuation-noise ratio (SFNR) to evaluate encoding abilities of the two models. Especially when analyzing the 2D model, we calculate higher-order cumulants of a rectified Gaussian. The results show that the 2D model robustly works almost as well as the HR model in several sets of parameters estimated on the basis of experimental data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Comprehensive Study of Solar Cell Structure Defects by Means of Noise and Light Emission Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Macku
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of silicon solar cells localized defects from metrological and physical points of view. Structure imperfections represent the real problem because of solar cells long-term degradation and conversion efficiency decreasing. To this aim we pay our attention to research relating to the defect light emission and correlation with rectangular microplasma fluctuation. A sensitive CCD camera has been used for mapping of surface photon emission. The operation point of the samples has been set to reverse bias mode, and different electric field intensity was applied. We managed to get interesting information using a combination of optical investigation and electrical noise measurement in time and spectral domain. It will be revealed that a direct correlation between noise and photon emission exists and the results related to several defect spots are presented in detail in this paper.
Noise and analyzer-crystal angular position analysis for analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging
Majidi, Keivan; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol; Brankov, Jovan G.
2014-04-01
The analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the angular intensity profile of the x-ray beam passed through the object at different angular positions of the analyzer crystal. The noise in the estimated ABI parametric images depends upon imaging conditions like the source intensity (flux), measurements angular positions, object properties, and the estimation method. In this paper, we use the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) to quantify the noise properties in parametric images and to investigate the effect of source intensity, different analyzer-crystal angular positions and object properties on this bound, assuming a fixed radiation dose delivered to an object. The CRLB is the minimum bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator and defines the best noise performance that one can obtain regardless of which estimation method is used to estimate ABI parametric images. The main result of this paper is that the variance (hence the noise) in parametric images is directly proportional to the source intensity and only a limited number of analyzer-crystal angular measurements (eleven for uniform and three for optimal non-uniform) are required to get the best parametric images. The following angular measurements only spread the total dose to the measurements without improving or worsening CRLB, but the added measurements may improve parametric images by reducing estimation bias. Next, using CRLB we evaluate the multiple-image radiography, diffraction enhanced imaging and scatter diffraction enhanced imaging estimation techniques
Noise and analyzer-crystal angular position analysis for analyzer-based phase-contrast imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, Keivan; Brankov, Jovan G; Li, Jun; Muehleman, Carol
2014-01-01
The analyzer-based phase-contrast x-ray imaging (ABI) method is emerging as a potential alternative to conventional radiography. Like many of the modern imaging techniques, ABI is a computed imaging method (meaning that images are calculated from raw data). ABI can simultaneously generate a number of planar parametric images containing information about absorption, refraction, and scattering properties of an object. These images are estimated from raw data acquired by measuring (sampling) the angular intensity profile of the x-ray beam passed through the object at different angular positions of the analyzer crystal. The noise in the estimated ABI parametric images depends upon imaging conditions like the source intensity (flux), measurements angular positions, object properties, and the estimation method. In this paper, we use the Cramér–Rao lower bound (CRLB) to quantify the noise properties in parametric images and to investigate the effect of source intensity, different analyzer-crystal angular positions and object properties on this bound, assuming a fixed radiation dose delivered to an object. The CRLB is the minimum bound for the variance of an unbiased estimator and defines the best noise performance that one can obtain regardless of which estimation method is used to estimate ABI parametric images. The main result of this paper is that the variance (hence the noise) in parametric images is directly proportional to the source intensity and only a limited number of analyzer-crystal angular measurements (eleven for uniform and three for optimal non-uniform) are required to get the best parametric images. The following angular measurements only spread the total dose to the measurements without improving or worsening CRLB, but the added measurements may improve parametric images by reducing estimation bias. Next, using CRLB we evaluate the multiple-image radiography, diffraction enhanced imaging and scatter diffraction enhanced imaging estimation techniques
Enhancement of TEM Data and Noise Characterization by Principal Component Analysis
2010-05-01
include simply thresholding a noise level and ignoring any signal below the chosen value ( Pasion and Oldenburg, 2001b), stacking, and median filters...to de-trend the data ( Pasion and Oldenburg, 2001a). To date, there has not been a concentrated research effort focused on separating the various...Negative values not displayed) 27 Magnetic soil at Kaho’olawe (and in general) exhibits a t−1 decay in TEM surveys ( Pasion et al., 2002). This signal
Moursy , Yasser; Zou , Hao; Khalil , Raouf; Iskander , Ramy; Tisserand , Pierre; Ton , Dieu-My; Pasetti , Giuseppe; Louërat , Marie-Minerve
2016-01-01
International audience; This paper presents a methodology to analyze the substrate noise coupling and reduce their effects in smart power integrated circuits. This methodology considers the propagation of minority carriers in the substrate. Hence, it models the lateral bipolar junction transistors that are layout dependent and are not modeled in conventional substrate extraction tools. It allows the designer to simulate substrate currents and check their effects on circuits functionality. The...
Measurement and Analysis of the Noise Radiated by Low Mach Numbers Centrifugal Blowers
1987-11-01
Lang, V Manager of the IBM Poughkeepsie Acoustics Laboratory, for his understanding and support. I would also like to express my gratitude to the IBM...ficl.l. Knowlede p of these quantities provides important information on the relative strength of thL :cro- a dynamic noise sources on the blade... manageability . The model blower design was thus determined by scaling all of the linear dimensions of the reference device by 2.0 and by maintaining • all of
Spectral Noise Logging for well integrity analysis in the mineral water well in Asselian aquifer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.R. Kantyukov
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a mineral water well with decreasing salinity level according to lab tests. A well integrity package including Spectral Noise Logging (SNL, High-Precision Temperature (HPT logging and electromagnetic defectoscopy (EmPulse was performed in the well which allowed finding casing leaks and fresh water source. In the paper all logging data were thoroughly analyzed and recommendation for workover was mentioned. The SNL-HPT-EmPulse survey allowed avoiding well abandonment.
Zele, Andrew J; Feigl, Beatrix; Kambhampati, Pradeep K; Aher, Avinash; McKeefry, Declan; Parry, Neil; Maguire, John; Murray, Ian; Kremers, Jan
2017-11-01
We introduce a method for determining the impulse response function (IRF) of the ERG derived from responses to temporal white noise (TWN) stimuli. This white noise ERG (wnERG) was recorded in participants with normal trichromatic vision to full-field (Ganzfeld) and 39.3° diameter focal stimuli at mesopic and photopic mean luminances and at different TWN contrasts. The IRF was obtained by cross-correlating the TWN stimulus with the wnERG. We show that wnERG recordings are highly repeatable, with good signal-to-noise ratio, and do not lead to blink artifacts. The wnERG resembles a flash ERG waveform with an initial negativity (N1) followed by a positivity (P1), with amplitudes that are linearly related to stimulus contrast. These N1 and N1-P1 components showed commonalties in implicit times with the a- and b-waves of flash ERGs. There was a clear transition from rod- to cone-driven wnERGs at ∼1 photopic cd.m -2 . We infer that oscillatory potentials found with the flash ERG, but not the wnERG, may reflect retinal nonlinearities due to the compression of energy into a short time period during a stimulus flash. The wnERG provides a new approach to study the physiology of the retina using a stimulation method with adaptation and contrast conditions similar to natural scenes to allow for independent variation of stimulus strength and mean luminance, which is not possible with the conventional flash ERG. The white noise ERG methodology will be of benefit for clinical studies and animal models in the evaluation of hypotheses related to cellular redundancy to understand the effects of disease on specific visual pathways.
A Kramers-Moyal approach to the analysis of third-order noise with applications in option valuation.
Popescu, Dan M; Lipan, Ovidiu
2015-01-01
We propose the use of the Kramers-Moyal expansion in the analysis of third-order noise. In particular, we show how the approach can be applied in the theoretical study of option valuation. Despite Pawula's theorem, which states that a truncated model may exhibit poor statistical properties, we show that for a third-order Kramers-Moyal truncation model of an option's and its underlier's price, important properties emerge: (i) the option price can be written in a closed analytical form that involves the Airy function, (ii) the price is a positive function for positive skewness in the distribution, (iii) for negative skewness, the price becomes negative only for price values that are close to zero. Moreover, using third-order noise in option valuation reveals additional properties: (iv) the inconsistencies between two popular option pricing approaches (using a "delta-hedged" portfolio and using an option replicating portfolio) that are otherwise equivalent up to the second moment, (v) the ability to develop a measure R of how accurately an option can be replicated by a mixture of the underlying stocks and cash, (vi) further limitations of second-order models revealed by introducing third-order noise.
Chen, Po-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen
2011-08-01
Naturally, a cellular network consisted of a large amount of interacting cells is complex. These cells have to be synchronized in order to emerge their phenomena for some biological purposes. However, the inherently stochastic intra and intercellular interactions are noisy and delayed from biochemical processes. In this study, a robust synchronization scheme is proposed for a nonlinear stochastic time-delay coupled cellular network (TdCCN) in spite of the time-varying process delay and intracellular parameter perturbations. Furthermore, a nonlinear stochastic noise filtering ability is also investigated for this synchronized TdCCN against stochastic intercellular and environmental disturbances. Since it is very difficult to solve a robust synchronization problem with the Hamilton-Jacobi inequality (HJI) matrix, a linear matrix inequality (LMI) is employed to solve this problem via the help of a global linearization method. Through this robust synchronization analysis, we can gain a more systemic insight into not only the robust synchronizability but also the noise filtering ability of TdCCN under time-varying process delays, intracellular perturbations and intercellular disturbances. The measures of robustness and noise filtering ability of a synchronized TdCCN have potential application to the designs of neuron transmitters, on-time mass production of biochemical molecules, and synthetic biology. Finally, a benchmark of robust synchronization design in Escherichia coli repressilators is given to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lescano, V.H.; Wentzeis, L.M.; Guevara, M.; Moreno, C.; Pineyro, J.
1996-01-01
In Argentine, comprehensive noise measurements have been performed with the reactor instrumentation of the PHWR power plant Atucha I and Embalse. The Embalse reactor is a CANDU-600 (600 Mwe) type pressurized heavy water reactor. It's a heavy water moderator and heavy water cooled natural uranium fueled pressure tube system. Signal of vanadium and platinum type in core-self power neutron detectors of ex-core ion chambers and of a moderator pressure sensor have been recorded and analysed. The vibration of reactor internals as vertical and horizontal in-core neutron flux detectors units and the coolant channels systems, consisting of calandria and pressure tubes with fuel bundles, have been identified and monitored during normal reactor operation. Atucha I, is a PHWR reactor natural uranium fueled, and heavy water moderated and cooled. Neutron noise techniques using of ex-core ionization chambers and in-core Vanadium SPND's were implemented, among others, in order to produce early detection of anomalous vibrations in the reactor internals. Noise analysis was successfully performed to identify normal and peculiar vibrations in particular reactor internals. (author)
Hao, Hongliang; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Ma, Lan; Pan, Feng
2018-01-01
Heterodyne interferometric vibration metrology is a useful technique for dynamic displacement and velocity measurement as it can provide a synchronous full-field output signal. With the advent of cost effective, high-speed real-time signal processing systems and software, processing of the complex signals encountered in interferometry has become more feasible. However, due to the coherent nature of the laser sources, the sequence of heterodyne interferogram are corrupted by a mixture of coherent speckle and incoherent additive noise, which can severely degrade the accuracy of the demodulated signal and the optical display. In this paper, a new heterodyne interferometric demodulation method by combining auto-correlation analysis and spectral filtering is described leading to an expression for the dynamic displacement and velocity of the object under test that is significantly more accurate in both the amplitude and frequency of the vibrating waveform. We present a mathematical model of the signals obtained from interferograms that contain both vibration information of the measured objects and the noise. A simulation of the signal demodulation process is presented and used to investigate the noise from the system and external factors. The experimental results show excellent agreement with measurements from a commercial Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV).
Full Vehicle Vibration and Noise Analysis Based on Substructure Power Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhien Liu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Combining substructure and power flow theory, in this paper an external program is written to control MSC. Nastran solution process and the substructure frequency response are also formulated accordingly. Based on a simple vehicle model, characteristics of vibration, noise, and power flow are studied, respectively. After being compared with the result of conventional FEM (finite element method, the new method is confirmed to be feasible. When it comes to a vehicle with the problem of low-frequency noise, finite element models of substructures for vehicle body and chassis are established, respectively. In addition, substructure power flow method is also employed to examine the transfer characteristics of multidimensional vibration energy for the whole vehicle system. By virtue of the adjustment stiffness of drive shaft support and bushes at rear suspension lower arm, the vehicle interior noise is decreased by about 3 dB when the engine speed is near 1050 rpm and 1650 rpm in experiment. At the same time, this method can increase the computation efficiency by 78%, 38%, and 98% when it comes to the optimization of chassis structure, body structure, and vibration isolation components, respectively.
Deterministic analysis of extrinsic and intrinsic noise in an epidemiological model.
Bayati, Basil S
2016-05-01
We couple a stochastic collocation method with an analytical expansion of the canonical epidemiological master equation to analyze the effects of both extrinsic and intrinsic noise. It is shown that depending on the distribution of the extrinsic noise, the master equation yields quantitatively different results compared to using the expectation of the distribution for the stochastic parameter. This difference is incident to the nonlinear terms in the master equation, and we show that the deviation away from the expectation of the extrinsic noise scales nonlinearly with the variance of the distribution. The method presented here converges linearly with respect to the number of particles in the system and exponentially with respect to the order of the polynomials used in the stochastic collocation calculation. This makes the method presented here more accurate than standard Monte Carlo methods, which suffer from slow, nonmonotonic convergence. In epidemiological terms, the results show that extrinsic fluctuations should be taken into account since they effect the speed of disease breakouts and that the gamma distribution should be used to model the basic reproductive number.
Numerical analysis of flow induced noise propagation in supercavitating vehicles at subsonic speeds.
Ramesh, Sai Sudha; Lim, Kian Meng; Zheng, Jianguo; Khoo, Boo Cheong
2014-04-01
Flow supercavitation begins when fluid is accelerated over a sharp edge, usually at the nose of an underwater vehicle, where phase change occurs and causes low density gaseous cavity to gradually envelop the whole object (supercavity) and thereby enabling higher speeds of underwater vehicles. The process of supercavity inception/development by means of "natural cavitation" and its sustainment through ventilated cavitation result in turbulence and fluctuations at the water-vapor interface that manifest themselves as major sources of hydrodynamic noise. Therefore in the present context, three main sources are investigated, namely, (1) flow generated noise due to turbulent pressure fluctuations around the supercavity, (2) small scale pressure fluctuations at the vapor-water interface, and (3) pressure fluctuations due to direct impingement of ventilated gas-jets on the supercavity wall. An understanding of their relative contributions toward self-noise is very crucial for the efficient operation of high frequency acoustic sensors that facilitate the vehicle's guidance system. Qualitative comparisons of acoustic pressure distribution resulting from aforementioned sound sources are presented by employing a recently developed boundary integral method. By using flow data from a specially developed unsteady computational fluid dynamics solver for simulating supercavitating flows, the boundary-element method based acoustic solver was developed for computing flow generated sound.
The Traffic Noise Index: A Method of Controlling Noise Nuisance.
Langdon, F. J.; Scholes, W. E.
This building research survey is an analysis of the social nuisance caused by urban motor ways and their noise. The Traffic Noise Index is used to indicate traffic noises and their effects on architectural designs and planning, while suggesting the need for more and better window insulation and acoustical barriers. Overall concern is for--(1)…
Numerical analysis of the impact of permeability on trailing-edge noise
Koh, Seong Ryong; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang
2018-05-01
The impact of porous surfaces on the near-wall turbulent structures and the generated trailing-edge noise is analyzed for several trailing-edge shapes of finite thickness using a high resolution large-eddy simulation (LES)/computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method. The porous surface of the trailing edge is defined by the porosity and the viscous permeability determined by the solution of a turbulent flat plate boundary layer at a Reynolds number 1280 based on the displacement thickness in the inflow cross section. The volume-averaged approach for the homogeneous porous medium shows that the porous impedance scales linearly with the porosity and exponentially with the mean structure size of a porous medium. The drag induced by the porous surface changes the friction velocity and the permeability Reynolds number ReK which determines the porous impedance Rs scaled by ReK-2/3. The trailing-edge noise is analyzed for three solid and three porous trailing edges. The effect of a finite span is investigated by the spanwise correlation model based on the measured coherence distribution. The acoustic prediction shows a good agreement with measurements of the broadband spectrum and the strong tone generated by a finite trailing-edge thickness. The pressure gradient inside the porous media is redistributed by the Darcy drag defined by the viscous permeability and the porosity. The mean pressure increases in the upstream direction inside the porous medium such that the flow acceleration involved in the acoustic generation is reduced inside the porous medium. The noise reduction by a porous medium reaches 11 dB for the trailing-edge shape which possesses a sharp corner for the solid surface. The porous surface applied to a semi-circular trailing edge achieves a 4 dB noise reduction. The directivity pattern for individual components of the acoustic spectrum shows that the massive noise reduction is determined at the tone. Enhanced wave diffraction by the thick flat plate changes
Onakpoya, Igho J; O'Sullivan, Jack; Thompson, Matthew J; Heneghan, Carl J
2015-09-01
Noise generated by wind turbines has been reported to affect sleep and quality of life (QOL), but the relationship is unclear. Our objective was to explore the association between wind turbine noise, sleep disturbance and quality of life, using data from published observational studies. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Google Scholar databases. No language restrictions were imposed. Hand searches of bibliography of retrieved full texts were also conducted. The reporting quality of included studies was assessed using the STROBE guidelines. Two reviewers independently determined the eligibility of studies, assessed the quality of included studies, and extracted the data. We included eight studies with a total of 2433 participants. All studies were cross-sectional, and the overall reporting quality was moderate. Meta-analysis of six studies (n=2364) revealed that the odds of being annoyed is significantly increased by wind turbine noise (OR: 4.08; 95% CI: 2.37 to 7.04; pwind turbine noise (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.98 to 4.37; pwind turbine noise significantly interfered with QOL. Further, visual perception of wind turbine generators was associated with greater frequency of reported negative health effects. In conclusion, there is some evidence that exposure to wind turbine noise is associated with increased odds of annoyance and sleep problems. Individual attitudes could influence the type of response to noise from wind turbines. Experimental and observational studies investigating the relationship between wind turbine noise and health are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laurita, R.; Alviano, F.; Marchionni, C.; Abruzzo, P. M.; Bolotta, A.; Bonsi, L.; Colombo, V.; Gherardi, M.; Liguori, A.; Ricci, F.; Rossi, M.; Stancampiano, A.; Tazzari, P. L.; Marini, M.
2016-09-01
The effect of an atmospheric pressure non-equilibrium plasma on human mesenchymal stem cells was investigated. A dielectric barrier discharge non-equilibrium plasma source driven by two different high-voltage pulsed generators was used and cell survival, senescence, proliferation, and differentiation were evaluated. Cells deprived of the culture medium and treated with nanosecond pulsed plasma showed a higher mortality rate, while higher survival and retention of proliferation were observed in cells treated with microsecond pulsed plasma in the presence of the culture medium. While a few treated cells showed the hallmarks of senescence, unexpected delayed apoptosis ensued in cells exposed to plasma-treated medium. The plasma treatment did not change the expression of OCT4, a marker of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.
Stability Analysis and Application for Delayed Neural Networks Driven by Fractional Brownian Noise.
Zhou, Wuneng; Zhou, Xianghui; Yang, Jun; Zhou, Jun; Tong, Dongbing
2018-05-01
This paper deals with two types of the stability problem for the delayed neural networks driven by fractional Brownian noise (FBN). The existence and the uniqueness of the solution to the main system with respect to FBN are proved via fixed point theory. Based on Hilbert-Schmidt operator theory and analytic semigroup principle, the mild solution of the stochastic neural networks is obtained. By applying the stochastic analytic technique and some well-known inequalities, the asymptotic stability criteria and the exponential stability condition are established. Both numerical example and practical application for synchronization control of multiagent system are provided to illustrate the effectiveness and potential of the proposed techniques.
Electrochemical Noise Chaotic Analysis of NiCoAg Alloy in Hank Solution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Bahena
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The potential and current oscillations during corrosion of NiCoAg alloy in Hank solution were studied. Detailed nonlinear fractal analyses were used to characterize complex time series clearly showing that the irregularity in these time series corresponds to deterministic chaos rather than to random noise. The chaotic oscillations were characterized by power spectral densities, phase space, and Lyapunov exponents. Electrochemical impedance was also applied the fractal dimensions for the corroded surface was obtained, and a corrosion mechanism was proposed.
Afonin, Nikita; Kozlovskaya, Elena
2016-04-01
Understanding inner structure of seismogenic faults and their ability to reactivate is particularly important in investigating the continental intraplate seismicity regime. In our study we address this problem using analysis of ambient seismic noise recorded by the temporary DAFNE array in northern Fennoscandian Shield. The main purpose of the DAFNE/FINLAND passive seismic array experiment was to characterize the present-day seismicity of the Suasselkä post-glacial fault (SPGF) that was proposed as one potential target for the DAFNE (Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe) project. The DAFNE/FINLAND array comprised the area of about 20 to 100 km and consisted of 8 short-period and 4 broad-band 3-component autonomous seismic stations installed in the close vicinity of the fault area. The array recorded continuous seismic data during September, 2011-May, 2013. Recordings of the array have being analyzed in order to identify and locate natural earthquakes from the fault area and to discriminate them from the blasts in the Kittilä Gold Mine. As a result, we found several dozens of natural seismic events originating from the fault area, which proves that the fault is still seismically active. In order to study the inner structure of the SPGF we use cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded by the array. Analysis of azimuthal distribution of noise sources demonstrated that that during the time interval under consideration the distribution of noise sources is close to the uniform one. The continuous data were processed in several steps including single station data analysis, instrument response removal and time-domain stacking. The data were used to estimate empirical Green's functions between pairs of stations in the frequency band of 0.1-1 Hz and to calculate correspondent surface wave dispersion curves. After that S-wave velocity models were obtained as a result of dispersion curves inversion using Geopsy software. The results suggest that the area of
2010-07-01
... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noise. 989.32 Section 989.32 National Defense... ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.32 Noise. Aircraft noise data files used for analysis during EIAP will be... System for Aircraft Noise for military training routes and military operating areas. Guidance on...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Song [College of Electrical Engineering and Control Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211816 (China); School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); Tian, GuiYun, E-mail: tian280@hotmail.com [School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Merz Court, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Dobmann, Gerd; Wang, Ping [School of Automation Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210016 (China)
2017-01-01
Skewness of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) signal is used as a new feature for applied stress determination. After experimental studies, skewness presents its ability for measuring applied tensile stress compared with conventional feature, meanwhile, a non-linear behavior of this new feature and an independence of the excitation conditions under compressive stress are found and discussed. Effective damping during domain wall motion influencing the asymmetric shape of the MBN statistical distribution function is discussed under compressive and tensile stress variation. Domain wall (DW) energy and distance between pinning edges of the DW are considered altering the characteristic relaxation time, which is the reason for the non-linear phenomenon of skewness. - Highlights: • The skewness of magnetic Barkhausen noise profile is proposed as a new feature for applied stress determination. • The skewness is sensitive to applied stress and independent to excitation frequency. • Domain wall energy and pinning distance influence the relaxation time of domain wall, which leads to a non-linear behavior of skewness under compressive stress.
Measurements and analysis of the noise spectral density of YBCO films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taoufik, A.; Bghour, M.; Labrag, A.; Bouaaddi, A.; Abaragh, A.; Ramzi, A.; Senoussi, S.; Tirbiyine, A.
2006-01-01
We studied the voltage noise spectral density S V (f,T,H) dependence on frequency f, temperature T and applied magnetic field H in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films. The voltage noise spectral density S V (f) as a function of frequency exhibits 1/f behavior according to a Lorentzian shape A [(1+πf/f 0 ) B ] C , where A, f 0 , B, C constants which are determined and compared for many values of H. The influence of temperature and magnetic field is clearly observed as a function of temperature, S V (T) is found to vanish at T g , the temperature of vortex glass transition, according to a (T-T g ) x law. We interpreted those results by the formation of a large distribution of glass vortex domains. Approaching T g , these domains grow in size and lifetime, while at T g those parameters diverge. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tibuleac, Ileana [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
2016-06-30
A new, cost effective and non-invasive exploration method using ambient seismic noise has been tested at Soda Lake, NV, with promising results. The material included in this report demonstrates that, with the advantage of initial S-velocity models estimated from ambient noise surface waves, the seismic reflection survey, although with lower resolution, reproduces the results of the active survey when the ambient seismic noise is not contaminated by strong cultural noise. Ambient noise resolution is less at depth (below 1000m) compared to the active survey. In general, the results are promising and useful information can be recovered from ambient seismic noise, including dipping features and fault locations.
Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design
D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca
2014-05-01
The Italian PON MaTeRiA project is focused on the creation of a research infrastructure open to users based on an innovative and evolutionary X-ray source. This source, named STAR (Southern Europe TBS for Applied Research), exploits the Thomson backscattering process of a laser radiation by fast-electron beams (Thomson Back Scattering - TBS). Its main performances are: X-ray photon flux 109-1010 ph/s, Angular divergence variable between 2 and 10 mrad, X-ray energy continuously variable between 8 keV and 150 keV, Bandwidth ΔE/E variable between 1 and 10%, ps time resolved structure. In order to achieve this performances, bunches of electrons produced by a photo-injector are accelerated to relativistic velocities by a linear accelerator section. The electron beam, few hundreds of micrometer wide, is driven by magnetic fields to the interaction point along a 15 m transport line where it is focused in a 10 micrometer-wide area. In the same area, the laser beam is focused after being transported along a 12 m structure. Ground vibrations could greatly affect the collision probability and thus the emittance by deviating the paths of the beams during their travel in the STAR source. Therefore, the study program to measure ground vibrations in the STAR site can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. The environmental and facility noise may affect the X-ray operation especially if the predominant wavelengths in the microtremor wavefield are much smaller than the size of the linear accelerator. For wavelength much greater, all the accelerator parts move in phase, and therefore also large displacements cannot generate any significant effect. On the other hand, for wavelengths equal or less than half the accelerator size several parts could move in phase opposition and therefore small displacements could affect its proper functioning. Thereafter, it is important to characterize the microtremor wavefield in both frequencies and wavelengths domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thie, J.A.
1981-01-01
This book concentrates on the different types of noise present in power reactors and how the analysis of this noise can be used as a tool for reactor monitoring and diagnostics. Noise analysis is a growing field that offers advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and natural multivariable interactions. A major advantage, continuous and undisturbed monitoring, supplies a means of obtaining early warnings of possible reactor malfunctions thus preventing further complications by alerting operators to a problem - and aiding in the diagnosis of that problem - before it demands major repairs. Following an introductory chapter, the theoretical basis for the various methods of noise analysis is explained, and full chapters are devoted to the fundamentals of statistics for time-domain analysis and Fourier series and related topics for frequency-domain analysis. General experimental techniques and associated theoretical considerations are reviewed, leading to discussion of practical applications in the latter half of the book. Besides chapters giving examples of neutron noise and acoustical noise, chapters are also devoted to extensive examples from pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor power plants
WANG, D.; Wang, Y.; Zeng, X.
2017-12-01
Accurate, fast forecasting of hydro-meteorological time series is presently a major challenge in drought and flood mitigation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach, Wavelet De-noising (WD) and Rank-Set Pair Analysis (RSPA), that takes full advantage of a combination of the two approaches to improve forecasts of hydro-meteorological time series. WD allows decomposition and reconstruction of a time series by the wavelet transform, and hence separation of the noise from the original series. RSPA, a more reliable and efficient version of Set Pair Analysis, is integrated with WD to form the hybrid WD-RSPA approach. Two types of hydro-meteorological data sets with different characteristics and different levels of human influences at some representative stations are used to illustrate the WD-RSPA approach. The approach is also compared to three other generic methods: the conventional Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) (BP-error Back Propagation, MLP-Multilayer Perceptron and RBF-Radial Basis Function), and RSPA alone. Nine error metrics are used to evaluate the model performance. The results show that WD-RSPA is accurate, feasible, and effective. In particular, WD-RSPA is found to be the best among the various generic methods compared in this paper, even when the extreme events are included within a time series.
Amiet, R. K.
1991-01-01
A unified theory for aerodynamics and noise of advanced turboprops is presented. The theory and a computer code developed for evaluation at the shielding benefits that might be expected by an aircraft wing in a wing-mounted propeller installation are presented. Several computed directivity patterns are presented to demonstrate the theory. Recently with the advent of the concept of using the wing of an aircraft for noise shielding, the case of diffraction by a surface in a flow has been given attention. The present analysis is based on the case of diffraction of no flow. By combining a Galilean and a Lorentz transform, the wave equation with a mean flow can be reduced to the ordinary equation. Allowance is also made in the analysis for the case of a swept wing. The same combination of Galilean and Lorentz transforms lead to a problem with no flow but a different sweep. The solution procedures for the cases of leading and trailing edges are basically the same. Two normalizations of the solution are given by the computer program. FORTRAN computer programs are presented with detailed documentation. The output from these programs compares favorably with the results of other investigators.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Taxeidis, Konstantinos
2006-01-01
... only, as well as for AWGN plus pulse-noise interference. The implementation of forward error correction coding with soft decision decoding improves the performance compared to uncoded signal if pulse-noise interference is not present...
The Realistic Versus the Spherical Head Model in EEG Dipole Source Analysis in the Presence of Noise
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Vanrumste, Bart
2001-01-01
.... For 27 electrodes, an EEG epoch of one time sample and spatially white Gaussian noise we found that the importance of the realistic head model over the spherical head model reduces by increasing the noise level.
2012-11-30
Noise from highway traffic can be pervasive in areas near roadways. How and to what extent noise travels is strongly influenced by geospatial features such as terrain and elevation. Thus geographic information systems (GIS), which enable users to mor...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanamori, Masashi, E-mail: kanamori.masashi@jaxa.jp; Takahashi, Takashi, E-mail: takahashi.takashi@jaxa.jp; Aoyama, Takashi, E-mail: aoyama.takashi@jaxa.jp [Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 7-44-1, Jindaijihigashi-machi, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan)
2015-10-28
Shown in this paper is an introduction of a prediction tool for the propagation of loud noise with the application to the aeronautics in mind. The tool, named SPnoise, is based on HOWARD approach, which can express almost exact multidimensionality of the diffraction effect at the cost of back scattering. This paper argues, in particular, the prediction of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on sonic boom as one of the important issues in aeronautics. Thanks to the simple and efficient modeling of the atmospheric turbulence, SPnoise successfully re-creates the feature of the effect, which often emerges in the region just behind the front and rear shock waves in the sonic boom signature.
Shuttle bit rate synchronizer. [signal to noise ratios and error analysis
Huey, D. C.; Fultz, G. L.
1974-01-01
A shuttle bit rate synchronizer brassboard unit was designed, fabricated, and tested, which meets or exceeds the contractual specifications. The bit rate synchronizer operates at signal-to-noise ratios (in a bit rate bandwidth) down to -5 dB while exhibiting less than 0.6 dB bit error rate degradation. The mean acquisition time was measured to be less than 2 seconds. The synchronizer is designed around a digital data transition tracking loop whose phase and data detectors are integrate-and-dump filters matched to the Manchester encoded bits specified. It meets the reliability (no adjustments or tweaking) and versatility (multiple bit rates) of the shuttle S-band communication system through an implementation which is all digital after the initial stage of analog AGC and A/D conversion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sang Guk; Chung, Min Hwa; Cho, Yong Sang; Lee, In Cheol
2001-01-01
Boiler high-temperature pipelines such as main steam pipe, header and steam drum in fossil power plants are degraded by creep and thermal fatigue damage due to severe operating conditions such as high temperature and high pressure for an extended period time. Conventional measurement techniques for measuring creep damage have such disadvantages as complex preparation and measurement procedures, too many control parameters. And also these techniques have low practicality and applied only to component surfaces with good accessibility. In this paper, artificial degradation test and ultrasonic measurement for their degraded specimens were carried out for the purpose of evaluation for creep and thermal fatigue damage. Absolute measuring method of quantitative ultrasonic measurement for material degradation was established, and long term creep/thermal fatigue degradation tests using life prediction formula were carried out. As a result of ultrasonic tests for crept and thermal fatigued specimens, we conformed that the ultrasonic noise linearly increased in proportion to the increase of degradation.
Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.
2013-07-01
In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.
CONSTRUCTION THEORY AND NOISE ANALYSIS METHOD OF GLOBAL CGCS2000 COORDINATE FRAME
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Jiang
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The definition, renewal and maintenance of geodetic datum has been international hot issue. In recent years, many countries have been studying and implementing modernization and renewal of local geodetic reference coordinate frame. Based on the precise result of continuous observation for recent 15 years from state CORS (continuously operating reference system network and the mainland GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System network between 1999 and 2007, this paper studies the construction of mathematical model of the Global CGCS2000 frame, mainly analyzes the theory and algorithm of two-step method for Global CGCS2000 Coordinate Frame formulation. Finally, the noise characteristic of the coordinate time series are estimated quantitatively with the criterion of maximum likelihood estimation.
Signal-to-noise analysis of a birefringent spectral zooming imaging spectrometer
Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wu, Haiying; Qi, Chun
2018-05-01
Study of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a novel spectral zooming imaging spectrometer (SZIS) based on two identical Wollaston prisms is conducted. According to the theory of radiometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy, we deduce the theoretical equations of SNR of SZIS in spectral domain with consideration of the incident wavelength and the adjustable spectral resolution. An example calculation of SNR of SZIS is performed over 400-1000 nm. The calculation results indicate that SNR with different spectral resolutions of SZIS can be optionally selected by changing the spacing between the two identical Wollaston prisms. This will provide theoretical basis for the design, development and engineering of the developed imaging spectrometer for broad spectrum and SNR requirements.
Acernese, Fausto; De Rosa, Rosario; De Salvo, Riccardo; Giordano, Gerardo; Harms, Jan; Mandic, Vuk; Sajeva, Angelo; Trancynger, Thomas; Barone, Fabrizio
2009-09-01
In this paper we describe the scientific data recorded along one month of data taking of two mechanical monolithic horizontal sensor prototypes located in a blind-ended (side) tunnel 2000 ft deep in the Homestake (South Dakota, USA) mine chosen to host the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). The two mechanical monolithic sensors, developed at the University of Salerno, are placed, in thermally insulating enclosures, onto concrete slabs connected to the bedrock, and behind a sound-proofing wall. The main goal of this experiment is to characterize the Homestake site in the frequency band 10-4 ÷ 30 H z and to estimate the level of Newtonian noise, providing also the necessary preliminary information to understand the feasibility of underground gravitational-wave interferometers sensitive at 1 H z and below.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Jubori, Ayad; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Bahr Ennil, A.S.; Rahbar, Kiyarash
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Three-dimensional optimization of axial turbine stage is presented. • Six organic fluids suitable for low-temperature heat source are considered. • Three-dimensional optimization has been done for each working fluid. • The results showed highlight the potential of optimization technique. • The performance of optimized turbine has been improved off-design conditions. - Abstract: Advances in optimization techniques can be used to enhance the performance of turbines in various applications. However, limited work has been reported on using such optimization techniques to develop small-scale turbines for organic Rankine cycles. This paper investigates the use of multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the stage geometry of a small-axial subsonic turbine. This optimization is integrated with organic Rankine cycle analysis using wide range of high density organic working fluids like R123, R134a, R141b, R152a, R245fa and isobutane suitable for low temperature heat sources <100 °C such as solar energy to achieve the best turbine design and highest organic Rankine cycle efficiency. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine in most of the reported organic Rankine cycle studies was assumed constant, while the current work allows the turbine isentropic efficiency to change (dynamic value) with both operating conditions and working fluids. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis and multi-objective genetic algorithm optimization were performed using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model in ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX and design exploration for various working fluids. The optimization was carried out using eight design parameters for the turbine stage geometry optimization including stator and rotor number of blades, rotor leading edge beta angle, trailing edge beta angle, stagger angle, throat width, trailing half wedge angle and shroud tip clearance. Results showed that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al Jubori, Ayad; Daabo, Ahmed; Al-Dadah, Raya K.; Mahmoud, Saad; Ennil, Ali Bahr
2016-01-01
Highlights: • One and three-dimensional analysis with real gas properties are integrated. • Micro axial and radial-inflow turbines configurations are investigated. • Five organic working fluids are considered. • The maximum total isentropic efficiency of radial-inflow turbine 83.85%. • The maximum ORC thermal efficiency based on radial-inflow turbine is 10.60%. - Abstract: Most studies on the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) focused on parametric studies and selection working fluids to maximize the performance of organic Rankine cycle but without attention for turbine design features which are crucial to achieving them. The rotational speed, expansion ratio, mass flow rate and turbine size have markedly effect on turbine performance. For this purpose organic Rankine cycle modeling, mean-line design and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis were integrated for both micro axial and radial-inflow turbines with five organic fluids (R141b, R1234yf, R245fa, n-butane and n-pentane) for realistic low-temperature heat source <100 °C like solar and geothermal energy. Three-dimensional simulation is performed using ANSYS"R"1"7-CFX where three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved with k-omega shear stress transport turbulence model. Both configurations of turbines are designed at wide range of mass flow rate (0.1–0.5) kg/s for each working fluid. The results showed that n-pentane has the highest performance at all design conditions where the maximum total-to-total efficiency and power output of radial-inflow turbine are 83.85% and 8.893 kW respectively. The performance of the axial turbine was 83.48% total-to-total efficiency and 8.507 kW power output. The maximum overall size of axial turbine was 64.685 mm compared with 70.97 mm for radial-inflow turbine. R245fa has the lowest overall size for all cases. The organic Rankine cycle thermal efficiency was about 10.60% with radial-inflow turbine and 10.14% with axial turbine
Suganthi, K.; Malarvizhi, S.
2018-03-01
A high gain, low power, low Noise figure (NF) and wide band of milli-meter Wave (mmW) circuits design at 50 GHz are used for Radio Frequency (RF) front end. The fundamental necessity of a receiver front-end includes perfect output and input impedance matching and port-to-port isolation with high gain and low noise over the entire band of interest. In this paper, a design of Cascade-Cascode CMOS LNA circuit at 50 GHz for Q-band application is proposed. The design of Low noise amplifier at 50 GHz using Agilent ADS tool with microstrip lines which provides simplicity in fabrication and less chip area. The low off-leakage current Ioff can be maintained with high K-dielectrics CMOS structure. Nano-scale electronics can be achieved with increased robustness. The design has overall gain of 11.091 dB and noise figure of 2.673 dB for the Q-band of 48.3 GHz to 51.3 GHz. Impedance matching is done by T matching network and the obtained input and output reflection coefficients are S11 = <-10 dB and S22 = <-10 dB. Compared to Silicon (Si) material, Wide Band Gap semiconductor materials used attains higher junction temperatures which is well matched to ceramics used in packaging technology, the protection and reliability also can be achieved with the electronic packaging. The reverse transmission coefficient S21 is less than -21 dB has shown that LNA has better isolation between input and output, Stability factor greater than 1 and Power is also optimized in this design. Layout is designed, power gain of 4.6 dB is achieved and area is optimized which is nearly equal to 502 740 μm2. The observed results show that the proposed Cascade-Cascode LNA design can find its suitability in future milli-meter Wave Radar application.
Global analysis of crisis in twin-well Duffing system under harmonic excitation in presence of noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Wei; He Qun; Fang Tong; Rong Haiwu
2005-01-01
Evolution of a crisis in a twin-well Duffing system under a harmonic excitation in presence of noise is explored in detail by the generalized cell mapping with digraph (GCMD in short) method. System parameters are chosen in the range that there co-exist chaotic attractors and/or chaotic saddles, together with their evolution. Due to noise effects, chaotic attractors and chaotic saddles here are all noisy (random or stochastic) ones, so is the crisis. Thus, noisy crisis happens whenever a noisy chaotic attractor collides with a noisy saddle, whether the latter is chaotic or not. A crisis, which results in sudden appear (or dismissal) of a chaotic attractor, together with its attractive basin, is called a catastrophic one. In addition, a crisis, which just results in sudden change of the size of a chaotic attractor and its attractive basin, is called an explosive one. Our study reveals that noisy catastrophic crisis and noisy explosive crisis often occur alternatively during the evolutionary long run of noisy crisis. Our study also reveals that the generalized cell mapping with digraph method is a powerful tool for global analysis of crisis, capable of providing clear and vivid scenarios of the mechanism of development, occurrence, and evolution of a noisy crisis
Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Calado
2012-06-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.
Li, Cheng; Pan, Xinyi; Ying, Kui; Zhang, Qiang; An, Jing; Weng, Dehe; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng
2009-11-01
The conventional phase difference method for MR thermometry suffers from disturbances caused by the presence of lipid protons, motion-induced error, and field drift. A signal model is presented with multi-echo gradient echo (GRE) sequence using a fat signal as an internal reference to overcome these problems. The internal reference signal model is fit to the water and fat signals by the extended Prony algorithm and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to estimate the chemical shifts between water and fat which contain temperature information. A noise analysis of the signal model was conducted using the Cramer-Rao lower bound to evaluate the noise performance of various algorithms, the effects of imaging parameters, and the influence of the water:fat signal ratio in a sample on the temperature estimate. Comparison of the calculated temperature map and thermocouple temperature measurements shows that the maximum temperature estimation error is 0.614 degrees C, with a standard deviation of 0.06 degrees C, confirming the feasibility of this model-based temperature mapping method. The influence of sample water:fat signal ratio on the accuracy of the temperature estimate is evaluated in a water-fat mixed phantom experiment with an optimal ratio of approximately 0.66:1. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edward Pace
Full Text Available Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes. Thus far, investigations of the interrelationship between tinnitus and auditory and non-auditory impairment have yielded conflicting results. To further address this issue, we noise exposed rats and assessed them for tinnitus using a gap detection behavioral paradigm combined with statistically-driven analysis to diagnose tinnitus in individual rats. We also tested rats for hearing detection, responsivity, and loss using prepulse inhibition and auditory brainstem response, and for spatial cognition and anxiety using Morris water maze and elevated plus maze. We found that our tinnitus diagnosis method reliably separated noise-exposed rats into tinnitus((+ and tinnitus((- groups and detected no evidence of tinnitus in tinnitus((- and control rats. In addition, the tinnitus((+ group demonstrated enhanced startle amplitude, indicating hyperacusis-like behavior. Despite these results, neither tinnitus, hyperacusis nor hearing loss yielded any significant effects on spatial learning and memory or anxiety, though a majority of rats with the highest anxiety levels had tinnitus. These findings showed that we were able to develop a clinically relevant tinnitus((+ group and that our diagnosis method is sound. At the same time, like clinical studies, we found that tinnitus does not always result in cognitive-emotional dysfunction, although tinnitus may predispose subjects to certain impairment like anxiety. Other behavioral assessments may be needed to further define the relationship between tinnitus and anxiety, cognitive deficits, and other impairments.
Kosała, Krzysztof; Stępień, Bartłomiej
2016-01-01
This paper presents the verification of two partial indices proposed for the evaluation of continuous and impulse noise pollution in quarries. These indices, together with the sound power of machines index and the noise hazard index at the workstation, are components of the global index of assessment of noise hazard in the working environment of a quarry. This paper shows the results of acoustic tests carried out in an andesite quarry. Noise generated by machines and from performed blasting works was investigated. On the basis of acoustic measurements carried out in real conditions, the sound power levels of machines and the phenomenon of explosion were determined and, based on the results, three-dimensional models of acoustic noise propagation in the quarry were developed. To assess the degree of noise pollution in the area of the quarry, the continuous and impulse noise indices were used.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gloeckler, O.; Cooke, D.; Tulett, M.V.
1996-01-01
The paper concentrates on some of the recent applications of reactor noise analysis in Ontario Hydro's CANDU stations, related to the dynamics of in-core flux detectors (ICFDs) and ion chambers. These applications include (1) detecting anomalies in the dynamics of ICFDs and ion chambers, (2) estimating the effective prompt fractions of ICFDs in power rundown tests and in noise measurement, (3) detecting the mechanical vibration of ICFD instrument tubes induced by moderator flow, (4) detecting the mechanical vibration of fuel channels induced by coolant flow, (5) identifying the cause of excessive signal fluctuations in certain flux detectors, (6) validating the dynamic coupling between liquid zone control signals. Some of these applications are performed on a regular basis. The noise analysis program, in the Pickering-B station alone, has saved Ontario Hydro millions of dollars during its first three years. The results of the noise analysis program have been also reviewed by the AECB with favorable results. The AECB have expressed interest in Ontario Hydro further exploiting the use of noise analysis technology (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Golbabaei
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Background and aims Overexposure to industrial noise pollution induce hearing loss workers. Occupational hearing loss may cause interference whit oral communication, so it may increase the risk of occupational accidents in workplace as well as affects whit social activities. This study was conducted on Lavan Island, are of oil extracting regions in the south of Iran. The object of this study was to evaluate noise pollution and determining the effect of noise enclosure on noise abatement. Methods The noise sources were recognized and noise pressure level was measured by CEL- 440. Noise dose of the exposed workers in high level noise area were measured by CEL 272. Results Major noise sources were gas turbines, diesel generators, compressors, fans and gas containing pips, noise contour map revealers that noise level were higher than the recommended national exposure limit. The results of workers noise dose show that their noise exposure were higher than the recommended value, (p<0.001. Finally, by using the results of noise frequency analysis of different noise sources, the noise pressure level of each sources was determined in terms of enclosing them. Conclusion By enclosing the noise sources, noise pressure levels can be lowered douse to acceptable levels but limitation of applying enclosure should be regarded.
Fast measurements of the in-core coolant velocity in a BWR by neutron noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der; Hoogenboom, J.E.
1988-01-01
A method to determine in-core coolant velocities from neutron noise within short time intervals has been developed. The accuracy of the method was determined by using a simulation set-up and by using signals of a twin self-powered neutron detector installed in the core of the Dodewaard BWR in the Netherlands. In-core coolant velocities can be estimated within 2.5 s with a standard deviation (due to statistics) less than 2.1%. The method is suitable for velocity monitoring as is shown by the application to a stepwise velocity change of the coolant in a model of a coolant channel of a BWR. The presented technique was applied to determine the variations of the coolant velocity in the Dodewaard core during normal operation and during pressure steps. Only minor variations of the coolant velocity were detected during normal reactor conditions. An increase of those variations with pressure lowering - indicating a lower thermal hydraulic stability - could be detected. A clear velocity response to pressure steps could be determined which was also reflected in the cross-spectrum of the velocity with the vessel pressure and with the in-core neutron flux. (author)
Physical-layer security analysis of PSK quantum-noise randomized cipher in optically amplified links
Jiao, Haisong; Pu, Tao; Xiang, Peng; Zheng, Jilin; Fang, Tao; Zhu, Huatao
2017-08-01
The quantitative security of quantum-noise randomized cipher (QNRC) in optically amplified links is analyzed from the perspective of physical-layer advantage. Establishing the wire-tap channel models for both key and data, we derive the general expressions of secrecy capacities for the key against ciphertext-only attack and known-plaintext attack, and that for the data, which serve as the basic performance metrics. Further, the maximal achievable secrecy rate of the system is proposed, under which secrecy of both the key and data is guaranteed. Based on the same framework, the secrecy capacities of various cases can be assessed and compared. The results indicate perfect secrecy is potentially achievable for data transmission, and an elementary principle of setting proper number of photons and bases is given to ensure the maximal data secrecy capacity. But the key security is asymptotically perfect, which tends to be the main constraint of systemic maximal secrecy rate. Moreover, by adopting cascaded optical amplification, QNRC can realize long-haul transmission with secure rate up to Gb/s, which is orders of magnitude higher than the perfect secrecy rates of other encryption systems.
Experimental investigation of flow-induced control-element movements by noise analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grunwald, G.; Liewers, P.; Schumann, P.; Weiss, F.P.
1978-01-01
The possibility has been reported of separating a single noise component due to flow-induced vibrations of a certain control element from a complex neutron signal which also contained contributions of many other control elements vibrating similarly. One of the basic assumptions for the different methods applied was that the body sound signal originating from touch events with the channel wall is closely correlated with the control-element movement. Some discrepancies between the results of the different methods showed that this assumption may not be entirely fulfilled. This paper investigates this correlation more accurately by measurements of an air flow model of the control-element channel. The pendulum movement of the element, and the body-sound signal due to the touch events with the channel wall, were measured at different flow-rates. The result is that the correlation is not an ideal one. For a constant flow-rate the touch events happen mainly within a small angle region, which means that the touch event marks a certain phase of the movement period and is therefore correlated with the movement. The dispersion of the touch events' angle distribution explains the small discrepancy between the so-called modified averaging method, which uses the sound signal to trigger the averaging procedure, and the partial spectral density method. But not all discrepancies can be explained by these results; they await further investigation. (author)
Beyond Fractals and 1/f Noise: Multifractal Analysis of Complex Physiological Time Series
Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Amaral, Luis A. N.; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Stanley, H. Eugene; Goldberger, Ary L.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Arai, Kuniharu
2001-03-01
We investigate time series with 1/f-like spectra generated by two physiologic control systems --- the human heartbeat and human gait. We show that physiological fluctuations exhibit unexpected ``hidden'' structures often described by scaling laws. In particular, our studies indicate that when analyzed on different time scales the heartbeat fluctuations exhibit cascades of branching patterns with self-similar (fractal) properties, characterized by long-range power-law anticorrelations. We find that these scaling features change during sleep and wake phases, and with pathological perturbations. Further, by means of a new wavelet-based technique, we find evidence of multifractality in the healthy human heartbeat even under resting conditions, and show that the multifractal character and nonlinear properties of the healthy heart are encoded in the Fourier phases. We uncover a loss of multifractality for a life-threatening condition, congestive heart failure. In contrast to the heartbeat, we find that the interstride interval time series of healthy human gait, a voluntary process under neural regulation, is described by a single fractal dimension (such as classical 1/f noise) indicating monofractal behavior. Thus our approach can help distinguish physiological and physical signals with comparable frequency spectra and two-point correlations, and guide modeling of their control mechanisms.
Soury, Hamza
2016-01-01
derived for two detectors, maximum likelihood and minimum distance detectors. Next, we look at the intra cell interference of a full duplex cellular network which is shown to follow a Laplacian distribution with dependent, but uncorrelated, complex components. The densities of that interference are expressed in a closed form in order to obtain the SER of several communication systems (BPSK, PAM, QAM, and MPSK). Finally, we study the statistics of the α-stable distribution. Those statistics are expressed in closed form in terms of the Fox H function and used to get the SER of BPSK, PAM, and QAM constellations. An approximation and an asymptotic expansion for high signal to noise ratio are presented also and their efficiency is proved using Monte Carlo simulations. It is worth mentioning that all the error rates presented in this work are averaged over a generalized flat fading, namely the extended generalized K, which has the ability to capture most of the known fading distribution. Many special cases are treated and simpler closed form expressions of the probability of error are derived and compared to some previous reported results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lorteau, Mathieu, E-mail: mathieu.lorteau@onera.fr; Cléro, Franck, E-mail: franck.clero@onera.fr; Vuillot, François, E-mail: francois.vuillot@onera.fr [Onera–The French Aerospace Lab, F-92322 Châtillon (France)
2015-07-15
In the framework of jet noise computation, a numerical simulation of a subsonic turbulent hot jet is performed using large-eddy simulation. A geometrical tripping is used in order to trigger the turbulence at the nozzle exit. In a first part, the validity of the simulation is assessed by comparison with experimental measurements. The mean and rms velocity fields show good agreement, so do the azimuthal composition of the near pressure field and the far field spectra. Discrepancies remain close to the nozzle exit which lead to a limited overestimation of the pressure levels in both near and far fields, especially near the 90{sup ∘} angular sector. Two point correlation analyses are then applied to the data obtained from the simulation. These enable to link the downstream acoustic radiation, which is the main direction of radiation, to pressure waves developing in the shear layer and propagating toward the potential core end. The intermittency of the downstream acoustic radiation is evidenced and related to the coherent structures developing in the shear layer.
Visual quality analysis for images degraded by different types of noise
Ponomarenko, Nikolay N.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Ieremeyev, Oleg I.; Egiazarian, Karen O.; Astola, Jaakko T.
2013-02-01
Modern visual quality metrics take into account different peculiarities of the Human Visual System (HVS). One of them is described by the Weber-Fechner law and deals with the different sensitivity to distortions in image fragments with different local mean values (intensity, brightness). We analyze how this property can be incorporated into a metric PSNRHVS- M. It is shown that some improvement of its performance can be provided. Then, visual quality of color images corrupted by three types of i.i.d. noise (pure additive, pure multiplicative, and signal dependent, Poisson) is analyzed. Experiments with a group of observers are carried out for distorted color images created on the basis of TID2008 database. Several modern HVS-metrics are considered. It is shown that even the best metrics are unable to assess visual quality of distorted images adequately enough. The reasons for this deal with the observer's attention to certain objects in the test images, i.e., with semantic aspects of vision, which are worth taking into account in design of HVS-metrics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thie, J.A.
1981-01-01
Noise analysis is a growing field that offers advantages such as simplicity, low cost, and natural multivariable interactions. A major advantage, continuous and undisturbed monitoring, supplies a means of obtaining early warnings of possible reactor malfunctions, thus preventing further complications by alerting opeators to a problem - and aiding in the diagnosis of that problem - before it demands major repairs. Dr. Thie hopes to further, through detailed explanations and over 70 illustrations, the acceptance of the use of noise analysis by the nuclear utility industry. Following an introductory chapter, the theoretical basis for the various methods of noise analysis is explained, and full chapters are devoted to the fundamentals of statistics for time-domain analysis and Fourier series and related topics for frequency-domain analysis. General experimental techniques and associated theoretical considerations are reviewed, leading to discussions of practical applications in the latter half of the book. Besides chapters giving examples of neutron noise and acoustical noise, chapters are also devoted to extensive examples from pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor power plants
Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G
2015-09-29
Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.
Soltysik, David A; Thomasson, David; Rajan, Sunder; Biassou, Nadia
2015-02-15
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series are subject to corruption by many noise sources, especially physiological noise and motion. Researchers have developed many methods to reduce physiological noise, including RETROICOR, which retroactively removes cardiac and respiratory waveforms collected during the scan, and CompCor, which applies principal components analysis (PCA) to remove physiological noise components without any physiological monitoring during the scan. We developed four variants of the CompCor method. The optimized CompCor method applies PCA to time series in a noise mask, but orthogonalizes each component to the BOLD response waveform and uses an algorithm to determine a favorable number of components to use as "nuisance regressors." Whole brain component correction (WCompCor) is similar, except that it applies PCA to time-series throughout the whole brain. Low-pass component correction (LCompCor) identifies low-pass filtered components throughout the brain, while high-pass component correction (HCompCor) identifies high-pass filtered components. We compared the new methods with the original CompCor method by examining the resulting functional contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), sensitivity, and specificity. (1) The optimized CompCor method increased the CNR and sensitivity compared to the original CompCor method and (2) the application of WCompCor yielded the best improvement in the CNR and sensitivity. The sensitivity of the optimized CompCor, WCompCor, and LCompCor methods exceeded that of the original CompCor method. However, regressing noise signals showed a paradoxical consequence of reducing specificity for all noise reduction methods attempted. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Wang, Dong; Borthwick, Alistair G; He, Handan; Wang, Yuankun; Zhu, Jieyu; Lu, Yuan; Xu, Pengcheng; Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Lachun; Zou, Xinqing; Liu, Jiufu; Zou, Ying; He, Ruimin
2018-01-01
Accurate, fast forecasting of hydro-meteorological time series is presently a major challenge in drought and flood mitigation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach, wavelet de-noising (WD) and Rank-Set Pair Analysis (RSPA), that takes full advantage of a combination of the two approaches to improve forecasts of hydro-meteorological time series. WD allows decomposition and reconstruction of a time series by the wavelet transform, and hence separation of the noise from the original series. RSPA, a more reliable and efficient version of Set Pair Analysis, is integrated with WD to form the hybrid WD-RSPA approach. Two types of hydro-meteorological data sets with different characteristics and different levels of human influences at some representative stations are used to illustrate the WD-RSPA approach. The approach is also compared to three other generic methods: the conventional Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) method, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) (BP-error Back Propagation, MLP-Multilayer Perceptron and RBF-Radial Basis Function), and RSPA alone. Nine error metrics are used to evaluate the model performance. Compared to three other generic methods, the results generated by WD-REPA model presented invariably smaller error measures which means the forecasting capability of the WD-REPA model is better than other models. The results show that WD-RSPA is accurate, feasible, and effective. In particular, WD-RSPA is found to be the best among the various generic methods compared in this paper, even when the extreme events are included within a time series. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana C Colon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Context: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs may indicate preclinical noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL in adolescents from unsafe personal music player (PMP use. Aims: The objective, therefore, was to observe preclinical signs of NIHL in 9th grade adolescents with clinically normal hearing by comparing DPOAE signals between different levels of A-weighted equivalent PMP exposure. Settings and Design: Subjects were recruited from all secondary-level schools located in the city of Regensburg, Germany during two academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Subjects and Methods: A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs for a 40-hour work week (LAeq,40h were estimated from questionnaire responses on output and duration of PMP use of the previous week. Subjects were then categorized into four levels of exposure: 85 to <90, and ≥90 A-weighted Decibel [dB(A]. DPOAE signals were collected by trained audiological staff, applying a standard optimized protocol, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University Hospital Regensburg. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean DPOAE signals were compared between levels by unpaired t test. Novel linear regression models adjusting for other leisure noise exposures and with outcome variables DPoutcome and 4 kilo Hertz (kHz DPOAEs estimated effects between levels. Results: A total of 1468 subjects (56% female, mostly aged 15 or 16 years were available for analysis. Comparison of DPOAE means by PMP exposure typically showed no greater than 1 dB difference between groups. In fact, comparisons between ≥90 dB(A and <80 dB(A presented the least differences in magnitude. Both DPoutcome and 4 kHz linear regression models presented a weak association with the 4-level PMP exposure variable. An expected dose-response to PMP exposure was not observed in any analyses. Conclusions: DPOAE signal strength alone cannot indicate preclinical NIHL in adolescents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerber, M.S.; Muller, D.W.
1976-01-01
The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)
Zeyen, H. J.; Bereš, J.; Gaffet, S.; Sénéchal, G.; Rousset, D.; Pessel, M.
2011-12-01
Many geological materials exhibit anisotropic behaviour. A limestone massif, especially if cracked with fractures and faults in a predominant orientation is expected to manifest seismic and electric resistivity anisotropy. Seismic velocity within air- or water-filled cracks is smaller than in the rock matrix. Therefore, the velocity parallel to fractures, controlled mainly by the rock matrix, is expected to be faster than perpendicular to the fractures, where waves have to cross fractures and rock matrix. Seismic and resistivity measurements were conducted in three underground galleries of the Low-Noise Underground Gallery (LSBB) in southern France forming a horse-shoe setting. The galleries are located inside a karstic limestone massif. Around 22500 first arrival travel-times were picked and different types of pole-pole and dipole-dipole resistivity measurement were carried out in parallel. Resistivities and velocities vary strongly with direction of observation. The direction of fast velocities is at right angle with the one of slow velocities, a typical sign for anisotropy. Observation of a system of subparallel fractures allows to approximate the actual rock anisotropy by a horizontal transverse isotropy model. The dataset was treated by different approaches, including simple cosine fit, inversion of average anisotropy parameters using a Monte-Carlo approach, isotropic and anisotropic tomography inversion. All of the above confirm the directions of fast and slow velocities (30°N and 120°N respectively) and an anisotropy of about 10%. Common measurements of seismic and resistivity data at different periods of the year will have the potential to determine quantitatively the fracture density and the free water content in this karst massif.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EDGEMON, G.L.
2003-01-01
Electrochemical noise has been used a t the Hanford Site for a number of years to monitor in real time for pitting corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms in high level nuclear waste tanks. Currently the monitoring technique has only been implemented on three of the 177 underground storage tanks on the site. Widespread implementation of the technique has been held back for of a number of reasons, including issues around managing the large volume of data associated with electrochemical noise and the complexity of data analysis. Expert review of raw current and potential measurements is the primary form of data analysis currently used at the Hanford site. This paper demonstrates the application of an on-line data filtering and analysis technique that could allow data from field applications of electrochemical noise to be managed by exception, transforming electrochemical noise data into a process parameter and focusing data analysis efforts on the important data. Results of the analysis demonstrate a data compression rate of 95%; that is, only 5% of the data would require expert analysis if such a technique were implemented. It is also demonstrated that this technique is capable of identifying key periods where localized corrosion activity is apparent
Tinney, Charles; Sirohi, Jayant; University of Texas at Austin Team
2017-11-01
A basic understanding of the noise produced by single and multirotor drones operating at static thrust conditions is presented. This work acts as an extension to previous efforts conducted at The University of Texas at Austin (Tinney et al. 2017, AHS Forum 73). Propeller diameters ranging from 8 inch to 12 inch are examined for configurations comprising an isolated rotor, a quadcopter configuration and a hexacopter configuration, and with a constant drone pitch of 2.25. An azimuthal array of half-inch microphones, placed between 2 and 3 hub-center diameters from the drone center, are used to assess the acoustic near-field. Thrust levels, acquired using a six degree-of-freedom load cell, are then used to correlate acoustic noise levels to aerodynamic performance for each drone configuration. The findings reveal a nearly logarithmic increase in noise with increasing thrust. However, for the same thrust condition, considerable noise reduction is achieved by increasing the number of propeller blades thereby reducing the blade passage frequency and both the thickness and loading noise sources that accompany it.
Fast neutron reactor noise analysis: beginning failure detection and physical parameter estimation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Guillou, G.
1975-01-01
The analysis of the signals fluctuations coming from a power nuclear reactor (a breeder), by correlation methods and spectral analysis has two principal applications: on line estimation of physical parameters (reactivity coefficients); beginning failures (little boiling, abnormal mechanic vibrations). These two applications give important informations to the reactor core control and permit a good diagnosis [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mullens, J.A.; Thie, J.A.
1984-01-01
Pressure noise data from a PWR are interpreted by means of a computer-implemented model. The model's parameters, namely hydraulic impedances and noise sources, are either calculated or deduced from fits to data. Its accuracy is encouraging and raises the possibility of diagnostic assistance for nuclear plant monitoring. A number of specific applications of pressure noise in the primary system of a PWR and in a pressure sensing system are suggested
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klosek, M.M.
2004-01-01
We study effects of noisy and deterministic perturbations on oscillatory solutions to delay differential equations. We develop the multiscale technique and derive amplitude equations for noisy oscillations near a critical delay. We investigate effects of additive and multiplicative noise. We show that if the magnitudes of noise and deterministic perturbations are balanced, then the oscillatory behavior persists for long times being sustained by the noise. We illustrate the technique and its results on linear and logistic delay equations. (author)