WorldWideScience

Sample records for source rupture process

  1. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan, Earthquake Inverted from Strong-Motion Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Zheng, Ao

    2017-04-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84˚ and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60˚ respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72˚ respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  2. Source Rupture Process of the 2016 Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, Earthquake Derived from Near-Source Strong-Motion Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, A.; Zhang, W.

    2016-12-01

    On 15 April, 2016 the great earthquake with magnitude Mw7.1 occurred in Kumamoto prefecture, Japan. The focal mechanism solution released by F-net located the hypocenter at 130.7630°E, 32.7545°N, at a depth of 12.45 km, and the strike, dip, and the rake angle of the fault were N226°E, 84° and -142° respectively. The epicenter distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks implied the mechanism of the mainshock might have changed in the source rupture process, thus a single focal mechanism was not enough to explain the observed data adequately. In this study, based on the inversion result of GNSS and InSAR surface deformation with active structures for reference, we construct a finite fault model with focal mechanism changes, and derive the source rupture process by multi-time-window linear waveform inversion method using the strong-motion data (0.05 1.0Hz) obtained by K-NET and KiK-net of Japan. Our result shows that the Kumamoto earthquake is a right-lateral strike slipping rupture event along the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone, and the seismogenic fault is divided into a northern segment and a southern one. The strike and the dip of the northern segment are N235°E, 60° respectively. And for the southern one, they are N205°E, 72° respectively. The depth range of the fault model is consistent with the depth distribution of aftershocks, and the slip on the fault plane mainly concentrate on the northern segment, in which the maximum slip is about 7.9 meter. The rupture process of the whole fault continues for approximately 18-sec, and the total seismic moment released is 5.47×1019N·m (Mw 7.1). In addition, the essential feature of the distribution of PGV and PGA synthesized by the inversion result is similar to that of observed PGA and seismic intensity.

  3. Earthquake lights and rupture processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Losseva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A physical model of earthquake lights is proposed. It is suggested that the magnetic diffusion from the electric and magnetic fields source region is a dominant process, explaining rather high localization of the light flashes. A 3D numerical code allowing to take into account the arbitrary distribution of currents caused by ground motion, conductivity in the ground and at its surface, including the existence of sea water above the epicenter or (and near the ruptured segments of the fault have been developed. Simulations for the 1995 Kobe earthquake were conducted taking into account the existence of sea water with realistic geometry of shores. The results do not contradict the eyewitness reports and scarce measurements of the electric and magnetic fields at large distances from the epicenter.

  4. Source rupture process of the 2016 Kaikoura, New Zealand earthquake estimated from the kinematic waveform inversion of strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ao; Wang, Mingfeng; Yu, Xiangwei; Zhang, Wenbo

    2018-03-01

    On 2016 November 13, an Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred in the northeast of the South Island of New Zealand near Kaikoura. The earthquake caused severe damages and great impacts on local nature and society. Referring to the tectonic environment and defined active faults, the field investigation and geodetic evidence reveal that at least 12 fault sections ruptured in the earthquake, and the focal mechanism is one of the most complicated in historical earthquakes. On account of the complexity of the source rupture, we propose a multisegment fault model based on the distribution of surface ruptures and active tectonics. We derive the source rupture process of the earthquake using the kinematic waveform inversion method with the multisegment fault model from strong-motion data of 21 stations (0.05-0.35 Hz). The inversion result suggests the rupture initiates in the epicentral area near the Humps fault, and then propagates northeastward along several faults, until the offshore Needles fault. The Mw 7.8 event is a mixture of right-lateral strike and reverse slip, and the maximum slip is approximately 19 m. The synthetic waveforms reproduce the characteristics of the observed ones well. In addition, we synthesize the coseismic offsets distribution of the ruptured region from the slips of upper subfaults in the fault model, which is roughly consistent with the surface breaks observed in the field survey.

  5. Source rupture process of the 12 January 2010 Port-au-Prince (Haiti, Mw7.0) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, José; Caldeira, Bento; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Santos, Rúben

    2010-05-01

    The Haiti earthquake occurred on tuesday, January 12, 2010 at 21:53:10 UTC. Its epicenter was at 18.46 degrees North, 72.53 degrees West, about 25 km WSW of Haiti's capital, Port-au-Prince. The earthquake was relatively shallow (H=13 km, U.S. Geological Survey) and thus had greater intensity and destructiveness. The earthquake occurred along the tectonic boundary between Caribbean and North America plate. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. The moment magnitude was measured to be 7.0 (U.S. Geological Survey) and 7.1 (Harvard Centroid-Moment-Tensor (CMT). More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. Most of these aftershocks have occurred to the West of the mainshock in the Mirogoane Lakes region and its distribution suggests that the length of the rupture was around 70 km. The Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) mechanism solution indicates lefth-lateral strike slip movement with a fault plane trending toward (strike = 251o ; dip = 70o; rake = 28o). In order to obtain the spatiotemporal slip distribution of a finite rupture model we have used teleseismic body wave and the Kikuchi and Kanamori's method [1]. Rupture velocity was constrained by using the directivity effect determined from a set of waveforms well recorded at regional and teleseismic distances [2]. Finally, we compared a map of aftershocks with the Coulomb stress changes caused by the event in the region [3]. [1]- Kikuchi, M., and Kanamori, H., 1982, Inversion of complex body waves: Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., v. 72, p. 491-506. [2] Caldeira B., Bezzeghoud M, Borges JF, 2009; DIRDOP: a directivity approach to determining the seismic rupture velocity vector. J Seismology, DOI 10.1007/s10950-009-9183-x (http://www.springerlink.com/content/xp524g2225628773/) [3] -King, G. C. P

  6. Characterize kinematic rupture history of large earthquakes with Multiple Haskell sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z.; Zhan, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Earthquakes are often regarded as continuous rupture along a single fault, but the occurrence of complex large events involving multiple faults and dynamic triggering challenges this view. Such rupture complexities cause difficulties in existing finite fault inversion algorithms, because they rely on specific parameterizations and regularizations to obtain physically meaningful solutions. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess reliability and uncertainty of obtained rupture models. Here we develop a Multi-Haskell Source (MHS) method to estimate rupture process of large earthquakes as a series of sub-events of varying location, timing and directivity. Each sub-event is characterized by a Haskell rupture model with uniform dislocation and constant unilateral rupture velocity. This flexible yet simple source parameterization allows us to constrain first-order rupture complexity of large earthquakes robustly. Additionally, relatively few parameters in the inverse problem yields improved uncertainty analysis based on Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling in a Bayesian framework. Synthetic tests and application of MHS method on real earthquakes show that our method can capture major features of large earthquake rupture process, and provide information for more detailed rupture history analysis.

  7. Rupture process of the 2013 Okhotsk deep mega earthquake from iterative backprojection and compress sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, W.; Yin, J.; Yao, H.

    2013-12-01

    On May 24th 2013 a Mw 8.3 normal faulting earthquake occurred at a depth of approximately 600 km beneath the sea of Okhotsk, Russia. It is a rare mega earthquake that ever occurred at such a great depth. We use the time-domain iterative backprojection (IBP) method [1] and also the frequency-domain compressive sensing (CS) technique[2] to investigate the rupture process and energy radiation of this mega earthquake. We currently use the teleseismic P-wave data from about 350 stations of USArray. IBP is an improved method of the traditional backprojection method, which more accurately locates subevents (energy burst) during earthquake rupture and determines the rupture speeds. The total rupture duration of this earthquake is about 35 s with a nearly N-S rupture direction. We find that the rupture is bilateral in the beginning 15 seconds with slow rupture speeds: about 2.5km/s for the northward rupture and about 2 km/s for the southward rupture. After that, the northward rupture stopped while the rupture towards south continued. The average southward rupture speed between 20-35 s is approximately 5 km/s, lower than the shear wave speed (about 5.5 km/s) at the hypocenter depth. The total rupture length is about 140km, in a nearly N-S direction, with a southward rupture length about 100 km and a northward rupture length about 40 km. We also use the CS method, a sparse source inversion technique, to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation of this mega earthquake. We observe clear along-strike frequency dependence of the spatial and temporal distribution of seismic radiation and rupture process. The results from both methods are generally similar. In the next step, we'll use data from dense arrays in southwest China and also global stations for further analysis in order to more comprehensively study the rupture process of this deep mega earthquake. Reference [1] Yao H, Shearer P M, Gerstoft P. Subevent location and rupture imaging using iterative backprojection for

  8. Large earthquake rupture process variations on the Middle America megathrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingling; Lay, Thorne; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    The megathrust fault between the underthrusting Cocos plate and overriding Caribbean plate recently experienced three large ruptures: the August 27, 2012 (Mw 7.3) El Salvador; September 5, 2012 (Mw 7.6) Costa Rica; and November 7, 2012 (Mw 7.4) Guatemala earthquakes. All three events involve shallow-dipping thrust faulting on the plate boundary, but they had variable rupture processes. The El Salvador earthquake ruptured from about 4 to 20 km depth, with a relatively large centroid time of ˜19 s, low seismic moment-scaled energy release, and a depleted teleseismic short-period source spectrum similar to that of the September 2, 1992 (Mw 7.6) Nicaragua tsunami earthquake that ruptured the adjacent shallow portion of the plate boundary. The Costa Rica and Guatemala earthquakes had large slip in the depth range 15 to 30 km, and more typical teleseismic source spectra. Regional seismic recordings have higher short-period energy levels for the Costa Rica event relative to the El Salvador event, consistent with the teleseismic observations. A broadband regional waveform template correlation analysis is applied to categorize the focal mechanisms for larger aftershocks of the three events. Modeling of regional wave spectral ratios for clustered events with similar mechanisms indicates that interplate thrust events have corner frequencies, normalized by a reference model, that increase down-dip from anomalously low values near the Middle America trench. Relatively high corner frequencies are found for thrust events near Costa Rica; thus, variations along strike of the trench may also be important. Geodetic observations indicate trench-parallel motion of a forearc sliver extending from Costa Rica to Guatemala, and low seismic coupling on the megathrust has been inferred from a lack of boundary-perpendicular strain accumulation. The slip distributions and seismic radiation from the large regional thrust events indicate relatively strong seismic coupling near Nicoya, Costa

  9. Seismic rupture study using near-source data: application to seismic hazard assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    This work presents seismic source studies using near-field data. In accordance with the quality and the quantity of available data we developed and applied various methods to characterize the seismic source. Macro-seismic data are used to verify if simple and robust methods used on recent instrumental earthquakes may provide a good tool to calibrate historical events in France. These data are often used to characterize earthquakes to be taken into account for seismic hazard assessment in moderate seismicity regions. Geodetic data (SAR, GPS) are used to estimate the slip distribution on the fault during the 1992, Landers, California earthquake. These data are also used to precise the location and the geometry of the main events of the 1997, Colfiorito, central Italy, earthquake sequence. Finally, the strong motions contain the most complete information about rupture process. These data are used to discriminate between two possible fault planes of the 1999, north India, Chamoli earthquake. The strong motions recorded close to the 1999, Mexico, Oaxaca earthquake are used to constrain the rupture history. Strong motions a.re also used in combination with geodetic data to access the rupture history of the Landers earthquake and the main events of the Colfiorito seismic sequence. For the Landers earthquake, the data quality and complementarity offered the possibility to describe the rupture development with accuracy. The large heterogeneities in both slip amplitude and rupture velocity variations suggest that the rupture propagates by breaking successive asperities rather than by propagating like a pulse at constant velocity. The rupture front slows as it encounters barriers and accelerates within main asperities. (author)

  10. Rupture

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    Our Director-General is indifferent to the tradition of concertation foreseen in our statutes and is "culturally" unable to associate the Staff Association with problem-solving in staff matters. He drags his heels as long as possible before entering into negotiations, presents "often misleading" solutions at the last minute which he only accepts to change once a power struggle has been established. Faced with this rupture and despite its commitment to concertation between gentlemen. The results of the poll in which the staff is invited to participate this week. We therefore need your support to state our claims to the Governing Bodies. The Staff Association proposes a new medium of communication and thus hopes to show that it is ready for future negotiations. The pages devoted to the Staff Association are presented in a more informative, reactive and factual manner and in line with the evolution of the social situation at CERN. We want to establish strong and continuous ties between the members of CERN and ou...

  11. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings...... of agency in individuals’ ability to create new meanings of their world in spite of the socio-cultural and political constraints. This study presents narratives as an informing methodological resource that connects identity process with social representations and emphasizes the value of storytelling......This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011...

  12. The 2016-2017 Central Italy Seismic Sequence: Source Complexity Inferred from Rupture Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, L.; Tinti, E.; Casarotti, E.; Pucci, S.; Villani, F.; Cocco, M.; Magnoni, F.; Michelini, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Apennines have been struck by several seismic sequences in recent years, showing evidence of the activation of multiple segments of normal fault systems in a variable and, relatively short, time span, as in the case of the 1980 Irpinia earthquake (three shocks in 40 s), the 1997 Umbria-Marche sequence (four main shocks in 18 days) and the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake having three segments activated within a few weeks. The 2016-2017 central Apennines seismic sequence begin on August 24th with a MW 6.0 earthquake, which strike the region between Amatrice and Accumoli causing 299 fatalities. This earthquake ruptures a nearly 20 km long normal fault and shows a quite heterogeneous slip distribution. On October 26th, another main shock (MW 5.9) occurs near Visso extending the activated seismogenic area toward the NW. It is a double event rupturing contiguous patches on the fault segment of the normal fault system. Four days after the second main shock, on October 30th, a third earthquake (MW 6.5) occurs near Norcia, roughly midway between Accumoli and Visso. In this work we have inverted strong motion waveforms and GPS data to retrieve the source model of the MW 6.5 event with the aim of interpreting the rupture process in the framework of this complex sequence of moderate magnitude earthquakes. We noted that some preliminary attempts to model the slip distribution of the October 30th main shock using a single fault plane oriented along the Apennines did not provide convincing fits to the observed waveforms. In addition, the deformation pattern inferred from satellite observations suggested the activation of a multi-fault structure, that is coherent to the complexity and the extension of the geological surface deformation. We investigated the role of multi-fault ruptures and we found that this event revealed an extraordinary complexity of the rupture geometry and evolution: the coseismic rupture propagated almost simultaneously on a normal fault and on a blind fault

  13. Source properties of dynamic rupture pulses with off-fault plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.

    2013-08-01

    Large dynamic stresses near earthquake rupture fronts may induce an inelastic response of the surrounding materials, leading to increased energy absorption that may affect dynamic rupture. We systematically investigate the effects of off-fault plastic energy dissipation in 2-D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations under velocity-and-state-dependent friction with severe weakening at high slip velocity. We find that plasticity does not alter the nature of the transitions between different rupture styles (decaying versus growing, pulse-like versus crack-like, and subshear versus supershear ruptures) but increases their required background stress and nucleation size. We systematically quantify the effect of amplitude and orientation of background shear stresses on the asymptotic properties of self-similar pulse-like ruptures: peak slip rate, rupture speed, healing front speed, slip gradient, and the relative contribution of plastic strain to seismic moment. Peak slip velocity and rupture speed remain bounded. From fracture mechanics arguments, we derive a nonlinear relation between their limiting values, appropriate also for crack-like and supershear ruptures. At low background stress, plasticity turns self-similar pulses into steady state pulses, for which plastic strain contributes significantly to the seismic moment. We find that the closeness to failure of the background stress state is an adequate predictor of rupture speed for relatively slow events. Our proposed relations between state of stress and earthquake source properties in the presence of off-fault plasticity may contribute to the improved interpretation of earthquake observations and to pseudodynamic source modeling for ground motion prediction.

  14. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.

    2012-08-08

    Reliable ground‐motion prediction for future earthquakes depends on the ability to simulate realistic earthquake source models. Though dynamic rupture calculations have recently become more popular, they are still computationally demanding. An alternative is to invoke the framework of pseudodynamic (PD) source characterizations that use simple relationships between kinematic and dynamic source parameters to build physically self‐consistent kinematic models. Based on the PD approach of Guatteri et al. (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress distributions to generate a suite of source models in the magnitude Mw 6–8. This set of models shows that local supershear rupture speed prevails for all earthquake sizes, and that the local rise‐time distribution is not controlled by the overall fault geometry, but rather by local stress changes on the faults. Based on these findings, we derive a new set of relations for the proposed PD source characterization that accounts for earthquake size, buried and surface ruptures, and includes local rise‐time variations and supershear rupture speed. By applying the proposed PD source characterization to several well‐recorded past earthquakes, we verify that significant improvements in fitting synthetic ground motion to observed ones is achieved when comparing our new approach with the model of Guatteri et al. (2004). The proposed PD methodology can be implemented into ground‐motion simulation tools for more physically reliable prediction of shaking in future earthquakes.

  15. Preliminary analysis of the rupture process of 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J.; Satriano, C.; Dionicio, V.; Lancieri, M.; Bernard, P.

    2011-12-01

    The great 11 March 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.1) ruptured a ~ 200 km wide mega-thrust fault, with average displacement of ~15-20 m. The earthquake triggered a large devastating tsunami as well as strong ground motion along the east Honshu coastline. Seismic activity in this area is characterized by a number of large earthquakes with Mw ~7.2-7.9 along the down-dip portion of the mega-thrust seaward of Miyagi prefecture, with only few events of magnitude greater than 8 in last hundred years. This region was also recognized to have had a large tsunami earthquake in 869 with a source area estimated further offshore. The rupture process of the Tohoku-Oki earthquake is investigated here combining teleseismic short period P-waves back-projection imaging and broadband P-wave finite fault inversions, together with a preliminary broadband analysis of the Kik-net strong motion recordings across Japan. The main features of the Tohoku-Oki rupture process imaged by the short period (1s) back-projection are: an initial 70-80s radiation phase eastward of the epicenter, with a slow (~1-1.5 km/s) along-dip rupture propagation; a short radiation phase northward of the epicenter; and ultimately a southward radiation phase with a relatively faster rupture propagation. These features are robust and consistent using both the North American and European arrays configurations. At lower periods, the back-projection analysis reveals a shift in the radiation centroid seaward toward the trench. In contrast, the broadband (1-200s) P-waves finite fault inversion exhibits a quite complementary image with a first long period radiation phase up-dip of the epicenter followed by down-dip late southwestward radiation phase that remains however poorly constraint. The robustness and the resolution of both the back-projection and the finite fault inversion analysis are carefully assessed through bootstrap analysis, and the analysis of some of the main foreshocks and aftershocks

  16. Development of rupture process analysis method for great earthquakes using Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, M.; Yamanaka, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2010-12-01

    Conventional rupture process analysis methods using teleseismic body waves were based on ray theory. Therefore, these methods have the following problems in applying to great earthquakes such as 2004 Sumatra earthquake: (1) difficulty in computing all later phases such as the PP reflection phase, (2) impossibility of computing called “W phase”, the long period phase arriving before S wave, (3) implausibility of hypothesis that the distance is far enough from the observation points to the hypocenter compared to the fault length. To solve above mentioned problems, we have developed a new method which uses the synthetic seismograms computed by the Direct Solution Method (DSM, e.g. Kawai et al. 2006) as Green’s functions. We used the DSM software (http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/takeuchi/software/) for computing the Green’s functions up to 1 Hz for the IASP91 (Kennett and Engdahl, 1991) model, and determined the final slip distributions using the waveform inversion method (Kikuchi et al. 2003). First we confirmed whether the Green’s functions computed by DSM were accurate in higher frequencies up to 1 Hz. Next we performed the rupture process analysis of this new method for Mw8.0 (GCMT) large Solomon Islands earthquake on April 1, 2007. We found that this earthquake consisted of two asperities and the rupture propagated across the subducting Sinbo ridge. The obtained slip distribution better correlates to the aftershock distributions than existing method. Furthermore, this new method keep same accuracy of existing method (which has the advantage of calculating) with respect to direct P-wave and reflection phases near the source, and also accurately calculate the later phases such a PP-wave.

  17. Seismotectonics of Western Turkey: A Synthesis of Source Parameters and Rupture Histories of Recent Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymaz, T.; Tan, O.; Yolsal, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Aegean region, including western Turkey and Greece, is indeed one of the most seismically active and rapidly deforming continental domains in the Earth. The wide range of deformational processes occurring in this region means that the eastern Mediterranean provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the complex kinematics of continental collision, including strike-slip faulting and crustal extension, as well as associated seismicity and volcanism. The tectonic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region is dominated by effects of subduction along the Hellenic (Aegean) arc and of continental collision in eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus. Northward subduction of the African plate beneath western Anatolia and the Aegean region is causing crustal extension in the overlying Aegean province. The interplay between dynamic effects of the relative motions of adjoining plates thus controls large-scale crustal deformation and the associated earthquake activity in Turkey. The Aegean region has been subject to extension since Miocene time, and this extension has left a pronounced expression in the present-day topography. It is further widely accepted that the rapid extension observed in western Turkey is mainly accommodated by large active normal faults that control the geomorphology which is dominated by a series of E-W trending normal-fault-bounded horst and graben structures; the N-S extension inferred from these structures is consistent with regional earthquake focal mechanisms. The E-W trending Menderes graben, the NE-SW trending Burdur, Acigol and Baklan, and NW-SE trending Dinar and Sultandag-Aksehir basins all bounded by large faults form a system of half-graben whose orientation is evident in both the topography and the tilting of Neogene sediments adjacent to them. We have studied source mechanisms and rupture histories of ˜20 earthquakes using body-waveform modelling, and have compared the shapes and amplitudes of teleseismic long-period P

  18. Earthquake rupture process recreated from a natural fault surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas E.; Minasian, Diane L.

    2015-01-01

    What exactly happens on the rupture surface as an earthquake nucleates, spreads, and stops? We cannot observe this directly, and models depend on assumptions about physical conditions and geometry at depth. We thus measure a natural fault surface and use its 3D coordinates to construct a replica at 0.1 m resolution to obviate geometry uncertainty. We can recreate stick-slip behavior on the resulting finite element model that depends solely on observed fault geometry. We clamp the fault together and apply steady state tectonic stress until seismic slip initiates and terminates. Our recreated M~1 earthquake initiates at contact points where there are steep surface gradients because infinitesimal lateral displacements reduce clamping stress most efficiently there. Unclamping enables accelerating slip to spread across the surface, but the fault soon jams up because its uneven, anisotropic shape begins to juxtapose new high-relief sticking points. These contacts would ultimately need to be sheared off or strongly deformed before another similar earthquake could occur. Our model shows that an important role is played by fault-wall geometry, though we do not include effects of varying fluid pressure or exotic rheologies on the fault surfaces. We extrapolate our results to large fault systems using observed self-similarity properties, and suggest that larger ruptures might begin and end in a similar way, though the scale of geometrical variation in fault shape that can arrest a rupture necessarily scales with magnitude. In other words, fault segmentation may be a magnitude dependent phenomenon and could vary with each subsequent rupture.

  19. Spatiotemporal complexity of 2-D rupture nucleation process observed by direct monitoring during large-scale biaxial rock friction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Tsuchida, Kotoyo; Kawakata, Hironori; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Xu, Shiqing

    2018-05-01

    We were able to successfully capture rupture nucleation processes on a 2-D fault surface during large-scale biaxial friction experiments using metagabbro rock specimens. Several rupture nucleation patterns have been detected by a strain gauge array embedded inside the rock specimens as well as by that installed along the edge walls of the fault. In most cases, the unstable rupture started just after the rupture front touched both ends of the rock specimen (i.e., when rupture front extended to the entire width of the fault). In some cases, rupture initiated at multiple locations and the rupture fronts coalesced to generate unstable ruptures, which could only be detected from the observation inside the rock specimen. Therefore, we need to carefully examine the 2-D nucleation process of the rupture especially when analyzing the data measured only outside the rock specimen. At least the measurements should be done at both sides of the fault to identify the asymmetric rupture propagation on the fault surface, although this is not perfect yet. In the present experiment, we observed three typical types of the 2-D rupture propagation patterns, two of which were initiated at a single location either close to the fault edge or inside the fault. This initiation could be accelerated by the free surface effect at the fault edge. The third one was initiated at multiple locations and had a rupture coalescence at the middle of the fault. These geometrically complicated rupture initiation patterns are important for understanding the earthquake nucleation process in nature.

  20. Ruptured cesium-137 well-logging source at Shelwell Services, Inc., Hebron, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report documents the circumstances surrounding the September 13, 1983, cesium-137 sealed source rupture incident at the Shelwell Services, Inc., facility in Hebron, Ohio. It focuses on the period from approximately 4:00 p.m. (EDT) on September 13, 1983 when the source ruptured, to October 5, 1983, when the radiological emergency response aspects of the event were concluded. Information outside these periods is recounted as necessary. The incident resulted in radiation doses to two licensee employees that exceeded the regulatory limits for whole-body and extremity exposures, and contamination of the licensee's facility, private residences, public buildings, and the personal effects of the licensee's employees, families, and friends. The emergency response required the combined efforts of NRC, US Department of Energy, and state personnel. The report describes the factual information and significant findings associated with the event and, thereby, provides a data base for subsequent detailed analyses and recommendations by various NRC offices. 4 references, 30 figures, 4 tables

  1. Rupture Speed and Dynamic Frictional Processes for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng, Hebei, China, Earthquake Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B.; Shi, B.

    2010-12-01

    An earthquake with ML4.1 occurred at Shacheng, Hebei, China, on July 20, 1995, followed by 28 aftershocks with 0.9≤ML≤4.0 (Chen et al, 2005). According to ZÚÑIGA (1993), for the 1995 ML4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the main shock is corresponding to undershoot, while aftershocks should match overshoot. With the suggestion that the dynamic rupture processes of the overshoot aftershocks could be related to the crack (sub-fault) extension inside the main fault. After main shock, the local stresses concentration inside the fault may play a dominant role in sustain the crack extending. Therefore, the main energy dissipation mechanism should be the aftershocks fracturing process associated with the crack extending. We derived minimum radiation energy criterion (MREC) following variational principle (Kanamori and Rivera, 2004)(ES/M0')min≧[3M0/(ɛπμR3)](v/β)3, where ES and M0' are radiated energy and seismic moment gained from observation, μ is the modulus of fault rigidity, ɛ is the parameter of ɛ=M0'/M0,M0 is seismic moment and R is rupture size on the fault, v and β are rupture speed and S-wave speed. From II and III crack extending model, we attempt to reconcile a uniform expression for calculate seismic radiation efficiency ηG, which can be used to restrict the upper limit efficiency and avoid the non-physics phenomenon that radiation efficiency is larger than 1. In ML 4.1 Shacheng earthquake sequence, the rupture speed of the main shock was about 0.86 of S-wave speed β according to MREC, closing to the Rayleigh wave speed, while the rupture speeds of the remained 28 aftershocks ranged from 0.05β to 0.55β. The rupture speed was 0.9β, and most of the aftershocks are no more than 0.35β using II and III crack extending model. In addition, the seismic radiation efficiencies for this earthquake sequence were: for the most aftershocks, the radiation efficiencies were less than 10%, inferring a low seismic efficiency, whereas the radiation efficiency

  2. Period-dependent source rupture behavior of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake estimated by multi period-band Bayesian waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, H.; Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Aoi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies for the period-dependent source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (e.g., Koper et al., 2011; Lay et al., 2012) were based on the short and long period source models using different method. Kubo et al. (2013) obtained source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake using multi period-bands waveform data by a common inversion method and discussed its period-dependent source characteristics. In this study, to achieve more in detail spatiotemporal source rupture behavior of this event, we introduce a new fault surface model having finer sub-fault size and estimate the source models in multi period-bands using a Bayesian inversion method combined with a multi-time-window method. Three components of velocity waveforms at 25 stations of K-NET, KiK-net, and F-net of NIED are used in this analysis. The target period band is 10-100 s. We divide this period band into three period bands (10-25 s, 25-50 s, and 50-100 s) and estimate a kinematic source model in each period band using a Bayesian inversion method with MCMC sampling (e.g., Fukuda & Johnson, 2008; Minson et al., 2013, 2014). The parameterization of spatiotemporal slip distribution follows the multi-time-window method (Hartzell & Heaton, 1983). The Green's functions are calculated by the 3D FDM (GMS; Aoi & Fujiwara, 1999) using a 3D velocity structure model (JIVSM; Koketsu et al., 2012). The assumed fault surface model is based on the Pacific plate boundary of JIVSM and is divided into 384 subfaults of about 16 * 16 km^2. The estimated source models in multi period-bands show the following source image: (1) First deep rupture off Miyagi at 0-60 s toward down-dip mostly radiating relatively short period (10-25 s) seismic waves. (2) Shallow rupture off Miyagi at 45-90 s toward up-dip with long duration radiating long period (50-100 s) seismic wave. (3) Second deep rupture off Miyagi at 60-105 s toward down-dip radiating longer period seismic waves then that of the first deep rupture. (4) Deep

  3. Pseudodynamic Source Characterization for Strike-Slip Faulting Including Stress Heterogeneity and Super-Shear Ruptures

    KAUST Repository

    Mena, B.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    . (2004), we propose new relationships for PD models for moderate‐to‐large strike‐slip earthquakes that include local supershear rupture speed due to stress heterogeneities. We conduct dynamic rupture simulations using stochastic initial stress

  4. Audit of cases with uterine rupture: A process indicator of quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audit of uterine rupture (UR) used as a process indicator, can identify factors considered avoidable to improve future quality of obstetric care. Records of UR cases at a referral maternity in Luanda were studied retrospectively (n=43) and prospectively (n=67) including basic obstetric information, maternal and foetal outcome, ...

  5. Comparison of Different Approach of Back Projection Method in Retrieving the Rupture Process of Large Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F.; Wang, G.; Chen, C.; Ge, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Back-projection of teleseismic P waves [Ishii et al., 2005] has been widely used to image the rupture of earthquakes. Besides the conventional narrowband beamforming in time domain, approaches in frequency domain such as MUSIC back projection (Meng 2011) and compressive sensing (Yao et al, 2011), are proposed to improve the resolution. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages and should be properly used in different cases. Therefore, a thorough research to compare and test these methods is needed. We write a GUI program, which puts the three methods together so that people can conveniently use different methods to process the same data and compare the results. Then we use all the methods to process several earthquake data, including 2008 Wenchuan Mw7.9 earthquake and 2011 Tohoku-Oki Mw9.0 earthquake, and theoretical seismograms of both simple sources and complex ruptures. Our results show differences in efficiency, accuracy and stability among the methods. Quantitative and qualitative analysis are applied to measure their dependence on data and parameters, such as station number, station distribution, grid size, calculate window length and so on. In general, back projection makes it possible to get a good result in a very short time using less than 20 lines of high-quality data with proper station distribution, but the swimming artifact can be significant. Some ways, for instance, combining global seismic data, could help ameliorate this method. Music back projection needs relatively more data to obtain a better and more stable result, which means it needs a lot more time since its runtime accumulates obviously faster than back projection with the increase of station number. Compressive sensing deals more effectively with multiple sources in a same time window, however, costs the longest time due to repeatedly solving matrix. Resolution of all the methods is complicated and depends on many factors. An important one is the grid size, which in turn influences

  6. Radiation sources and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honious, H.B.; Janzow, E.F.; Malson, H.A.; Moyer, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to radiation sources comprising a substrate having an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface, a layer of a metal radioactive isotope of the scandium group, which in addition to scandium, yttrium, lanthanum and actinium, includes all the lanthanide and actinide series of elements, with the actinide series usually being preferred because of the nature of the radioactive isotopes therein, particularly americium-241, curium-244, plutonium-238, californium-252 and promethium-147, and a non-radioactive bonding metal codeposited on the surface by electroplating the isotope and bonding metal from an electrolytic solution, the isotope being present in the layer in minor amount as compared to the bonding metal, and with or without a non-radioactive protective metal coating covering the isotoype and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating. The invention also relates to a process for providing radiation sources comprising codepositing a layer of the metal radioactive isotope with a non-radioactive bonding metal from an electrolytic solution in which the isotope is present in minor molar amount as compared to the bonding metal such that the codeposited layer contains a minor molar amount of the isotope compared to the bonding metal by electroplating on an electrically-conductive non-radioactive metal surface of a cathode substrate, and with or without depositing a nonradioactive protective metal coating over the isotope and bonding metal on the surface, the coating being sufficiently thin to permit radiation to pass through the coating

  7. Special equipment for processing can-rupture measurements; Equipement specialise de traitement des mesures de rupture de gaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.; Phalippou, J.; Dumont, D.; Viellard, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Recent installations for detecting can-rupture in nuclear reactors use, in the measurement processing section, a digital computer, either completely or partially. The reliability of the system is limited by that of the computer, which represents a common point for the processing of data from the detector. In order to satisfy the demands imposed by safety considerations for the operation of the equipment it is necessary to consider the possibility of installing a second computer in certain cases. The use of a computer involves the presence as interface between the detection equipment and the computer itself, of sealers operating as integrators for the pulses produced by the detector. By adding a certain number of circuits to these sealers, it is possible to carry out the work now demanded of the computer, as far as the calculation is concerned. This reasoning has led us to a so-called 'decentralized' solution involving the construction of specialized equipment in the region of the prospector itself. We believe that this solution, apart from the reliability point of view, has definite economic advantages. In our solution, the common point in the processing of the data is now situated not in the zone of the production of results but further down, in the printing out of these results. Even in the case of an incident at the common point, the results are produced, exposed and compared to the alarm thresholds. In the case of a breakdown of the specialized equipment, the results from this prospector are no longer available but the others continue to operate. It seems that this solution is more reliable than that employing universal computers. By using an interchangeable drawer system (MULTIBLOC) it is possible to replace rapidly any of the specialized equipment which breaks down. The systematic use of integrated circuits (TTL) ensures an increased reliability of the equipment. (author) [French] Les installations recentes de detection de rupture de gaines

  8. Investigation of the cold process pipe rupture mechanism

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic process pipelines are part of the basic subsystem used in installations for fundamental research in physics, as well as in industrial plants which use LNG or liquid nitrogen. The significant increase in importance of cryogenics entails the need to explore phenomena which have direct impact in the design process of cryogenic systems and their safety systems. These aspects are of high priority due to high investment costs, mainly because of safety issues and reliability. One of the issues which requires thorough investigation is the fracture mechanics of gas pipelines in cryogenic conditions. For this subject, importance is placed not only in when the cracks begin to appear, but also in how they form and how quickly they propagate. Currently, there is a lack of reliable research in the available literature in this area. This is often raised as a significant problem for designers, because knowledge in this topic should be reflected e.g., in the sizing calculations of safety valves for the vacuum syste...

  9. Rupture process of the 2016 Mw 7.8 Ecuador earthquake from joint inversion of InSAR data and teleseismic P waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lei; Xu, Caijun; Wen, Yangmao; Zhang, Xu; Jiang, Guoyan

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 Ecuador earthquake ruptured the Ecuador-Colombia subduction interface where several historic megathrust earthquakes had occurred. In order to determine a detailed rupture model, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) images and teleseismic data sets were objectively weighted by using a modified Akaika's Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) method to jointly invert for the rupture process of the earthquake. In modeling the rupture process, a constrained waveform length method, unlike the traditional subjective selected waveform length method, was used since the lengths of inverted waveforms were strictly constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time (the slip duration time). The optimal rupture velocity and rise time of the earthquake were estimated from grid search, which were determined to be 2.0 km/s and 20 s, respectively. The inverted model shows that the event is dominated by thrust movement and the released moment is 5.75 × 1020 Nm (Mw 7.77). The slip distribution extends southward along the Ecuador coast line in an elongated stripe at a depth between 10 and 25 km. The slip model is composed of two asperities and slipped over 4 m. The source time function is approximate 80 s that separated into two segments corresponding to the two asperities. The small magnitude of the slip occurred in the updip section of the fault plane resulted in small tsunami waves that were verified by observations near the coast. We suggest a possible situation that the rupture zone of the 2016 earthquake is likely not overlapped with that of the 1942 earthquake.

  10. The Identity Process in Times of Rupture: Narratives From the Egyptian Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hassan Awad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011 revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contexts and how they create alternative social relations as they engage in prefigurative politics. The findings shed light on how ruptures trigger a process of reflexivity, adaptive learning, and sense-making that facilitates coping and the reconstruction of a positive identity after ruptures. It also suggests that the narration of the experience of rupture through storytelling creates a heightened sense of agency in individuals’ ability to create new meanings of their world in spite of the socio-cultural and political constraints. This study presents narratives as an informing methodological resource that connects identity process with social representations and emphasizes the value of storytelling as an integral part of the adaptation process.

  11. Dynamic rupture scenarios from Sumatra to Iceland - High-resolution earthquake source physics on natural fault systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Wollherr, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Capturing the observed complexity of earthquake sources in dynamic rupture simulations may require: non-linear fault friction, thermal and fluid effects, heterogeneous fault stress and fault strength initial conditions, fault curvature and roughness, on- and off-fault non-elastic failure. All of these factors have been independently shown to alter dynamic rupture behavior and thus possibly influence the degree of realism attainable via simulated ground motions. In this presentation we will show examples of high-resolution earthquake scenarios, e.g. based on the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, the 1994 Northridge earthquake and a potential rupture of the Husavik-Flatey fault system in Northern Iceland. The simulations combine a multitude of representations of source complexity at the necessary spatio-temporal resolution enabled by excellent scalability on modern HPC systems. Such simulations allow an analysis of the dominant factors impacting earthquake source physics and ground motions given distinct tectonic settings or distinct focuses of seismic hazard assessment. Across all simulations, we find that fault geometry concurrently with the regional background stress state provide a first order influence on source dynamics and the emanated seismic wave field. The dynamic rupture models are performed with SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-Discontinuous Galerkin scheme for solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high-order accuracy in space and time. Use of unstructured tetrahedral meshes allows for a realistic representation of the non-planar fault geometry, subsurface structure and bathymetry. The results presented highlight the fact that modern numerical methods are essential to further our understanding of earthquake source physics and complement both physic-based ground motion research and empirical approaches in seismic hazard analysis.

  12. Source properties of dynamic rupture pulses with off-fault plasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    styles (decaying versus growing, pulse-like versus crack-like, and subshear versus supershear ruptures) but increases their required background stress and nucleation size. We systematically quantify the effect of amplitude and orientation of background

  13. Computational simulation of the creep-rupture process in filamentary composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Kerry T.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    A computational simulation of the internal damage accumulation which causes the creep-rupture phenomenon in filamentary composite materials is developed. The creep-rupture process involves complex interactions between several damage mechanisms. A statistically-based computational simulation using a time-differencing approach is employed to model these progressive interactions. The finite element method is used to calculate the internal stresses. The fibers are modeled as a series of bar elements which are connected transversely by matrix elements. Flaws are distributed randomly throughout the elements in the model. Load is applied, and the properties of the individual elements are updated at the end of each time step as a function of the stress history. The simulation is continued until failure occurs. Several cases, with different initial flaw dispersions, are run to establish a statistical distribution of the time-to-failure. The calculations are performed on a supercomputer. The simulation results compare favorably with the results of creep-rupture experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  14. Hemodynamic study for the healing process of ruptured achilles tendon by dynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Hamanishi, Hiroji; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Mizuno, Kosaku

    2000-01-01

    Dynamic MR imaging with a combination of fast MR imaging technique and intravenous bolus administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful method to evaluate the vascularity of the soft tissue. By using this technique, we evaluated the healing processes of ruptured Achilles tendon. Eighteen patients who underwent percutaneous suture of the ruptured Achilles tendon were examined monthly by dynamic MRI in their course of healing. We evaluated time intensity curve obtained from each data of dynamic MRI. Time intensity curve showed slow fill in-slow wash out pattern 4 weeks after operation. Eight weeks after operation, the time course of the fill in-wash out changed to be shorter. Rapid fill in-rapid wash out pattern was observed about 12 weeks after surgery. After that period, time intensity curve tended to change into non-fitting pattern. (normal pattern) Eight functional parameters were obtained from time-intensity curve. We analyzed which parameters are useful for evaluation of tendon healing. In addition, we studied the healing processes of rabbit Achilles tendon following surgical incision. Twelve rabbits underwent tenotomy of Achilles tendon. The tendons excised at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks after operation were examined using microangiography and a light microscope. Four weeks after tenotomy, many capillary vessels filled with Gd-DTPA were observed in the ruptured area. About 10 weeks after operation, the capillary vessels decreased and collageneous fibers were arranged along the long axis of the tendon. This term would be thought to correspond to the condition about 12-14 weeks after surgery in clinical cases. From this study, dynamic MRI is thought to be useful method to know the hemodynamic conditions of the healing tendons. Especially, four parameters-Mean Transit Time, Corrected Transit Time, Time to Peak, Inflection Width, -seemed to have absolute value and be useful for the quantitative evaluation of the healing processes in human Achilles tendon. (author)

  15. Hemodynamic study for the healing process of ruptured achilles tendon by dynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki [Hyogo Rehabilitation Center (Japan); Hamanishi, Hiroji; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Mizuno, Kosaku

    2000-12-01

    Dynamic MR imaging with a combination of fast MR imaging technique and intravenous bolus administration of Gd-DTPA is a useful method to evaluate the vascularity of the soft tissue. By using this technique, we evaluated the healing processes of ruptured Achilles tendon. Eighteen patients who underwent percutaneous suture of the ruptured Achilles tendon were examined monthly by dynamic MRI in their course of healing. We evaluated time intensity curve obtained from each data of dynamic MRI. Time intensity curve showed slow fill in-slow wash out pattern 4 weeks after operation. Eight weeks after operation, the time course of the fill in-wash out changed to be shorter. Rapid fill in-rapid wash out pattern was observed about 12 weeks after surgery. After that period, time intensity curve tended to change into non-fitting pattern. (normal pattern) Eight functional parameters were obtained from time-intensity curve. We analyzed which parameters are useful for evaluation of tendon healing. In addition, we studied the healing processes of rabbit Achilles tendon following surgical incision. Twelve rabbits underwent tenotomy of Achilles tendon. The tendons excised at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 weeks after operation were examined using microangiography and a light microscope. Four weeks after tenotomy, many capillary vessels filled with Gd-DTPA were observed in the ruptured area. About 10 weeks after operation, the capillary vessels decreased and collageneous fibers were arranged along the long axis of the tendon. This term would be thought to correspond to the condition about 12-14 weeks after surgery in clinical cases. From this study, dynamic MRI is thought to be useful method to know the hemodynamic conditions of the healing tendons. Especially, four parameters-Mean Transit Time, Corrected Transit Time, Time to Peak, Inflection Width, -seemed to have absolute value and be useful for the quantitative evaluation of the healing processes in human Achilles tendon. (author)

  16. Rupture preparation process controlled by surface roughness on meter-scale laboratory fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Mizoguchi, Kazuo; Kawakata, Hironori; Takizawa, Shigeru

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effect of fault surface roughness on rupture preparation characteristics using meter-scale metagabbro specimens. We repeatedly conducted the experiments with the same pair of rock specimens to make the fault surface rough. We obtained three experimental results under the same experimental conditions (6.7 MPa of normal stress and 0.01 mm/s of loading rate) but at different roughness conditions (smooth, moderately roughened, and heavily roughened). During each experiment, we observed many stick-slip events preceded by precursory slow slip. We investigated when and where slow slip initiated by using the strain gauge data processed by the Kalman filter algorithm. The observed rupture preparation processes on the smooth fault (i.e. the first experiment among the three) showed high repeatability of the spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. Local stress measurements revealed that slow slip initiated around the region where the ratio of shear to normal stress (τ/σ) was the highest as expected from finite element method (FEM) modeling. However, the exact location of slow slip initiation was where τ/σ became locally minimum, probably due to the frictional heterogeneity. In the experiment on the moderately roughened fault, some irregular events were observed, though the basic characteristics of other regular events were similar to those on the smooth fault. Local stress data revealed that the spatiotemporal characteristics of slow slip initiation and the resulting τ/σ drop for irregular events were different from those for regular ones even under similar stress conditions. On the heavily roughened fault, the location of slow slip initiation was not consistent with τ/σ anymore because of the highly heterogeneous static friction on the fault, which also decreased the repeatability of spatiotemporal distributions of slow slip initiation. These results suggest that fault surface roughness strongly controls the rupture preparation process

  17. Rupture, waves and earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Normally, an earthquake is considered as a phenomenon of wave energy radiation by rupture (fracture) of solid Earth. However, the physics of dynamic process around seismic sources, which may play a crucial role in the occurrence of earthquakes and generation of strong waves, has not been fully understood yet. Instead, much of former investigation in seismology evaluated earthquake characteristics in terms of kinematics that does not directly treat such dynamic aspects and usually excludes the influence of high-frequency wave components over 1 Hz. There are countless valuable research outcomes obtained through this kinematics-based approach, but "extraordinary" phenomena that are difficult to be explained by this conventional description have been found, for instance, on the occasion of the 1995 Hyogo-ken Nanbu, Japan, earthquake, and more detailed study on rupture and wave dynamics, namely, possible mechanical characteristics of (1) rupture development around seismic sources, (2) earthquake-induced structural failures and (3) wave interaction that connects rupture (1) and failures (2), would be indispensable.

  18. Structural factors controlling inter-plate coupling and earthquake rupture process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, S.

    2007-05-01

    Recent availability of a large number of ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs), a large volume of air-gun array and a long streamer cable for academics provide several new findings of lithospheric scale structures in subduction seismogenic zones. JAMSTEC has acquired long-offset seismic data using a super-densely deploy OBS (i.e. 1 - 5 km spacing OBSs along 100 - 500 km long profiles) in the Nankai seismogeinc zone, SW. Japan, since 1999. Long-offset multichannel seismic (MCS) data by a two-ship experiment, as well as conventional 2D MCS data, have been also acquired at a part of the profiles. Some of those profiles have been designed as combined onshore - offshore profiles for imaging a land-ocean transition zone. One of the most striking findings is an image of several scales of subducted seamounts/ridges in the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. We detected the subducted seamount/ridges, which are 50 - 100 km wide, distributing from near trough axis to ~ 40 km deep beneath the Japanese island. From a point of seismogenic process, an important aspect is that those structures are strongly correlated with slip zones of magnitude 8-class earthquakes, i.e.; subducted seamounts/ridge control the rupture propagations. Moreover, the most recent seismic study crossing the segmentation boundary between M=8 class earthquakes detected a high seismic velocity body forming a strongly coupled patch at the segmentation boundary. The numerical simulation incorporating all those structures explained the historic rupture patterns, and shows the occurrence of a giant earthquake along the entire Nankai trough, a distance of over 600 km long (Mw=8.7). The growth processes of a rupture revealed from the simulation are; 1) prior to the giant earthquake, a small slow event (or earthquake) occurs near the segmentation boundary, 2) this accelerates a very slow slip (slower than the plate convergent rate), at the strong patch, which reduces a degree of coupling, 3) then a rupture easily propagates

  19. A method of creep rupture data extrapolation based on physical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leinster, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable method to extrapolate generic creep rupture data to failure times in excess of the currently published times. A method based on well-understood and mathematically described physical processes is likely to be stable and reliable. Creep process descriptions have been developed based on accepted theory, to the extent that good fits with published data have been obtained. Methods have been developed to apply these descriptions to extrapolate creep rupture data to stresses below the published values. The relationship creep life parameter=f(ln(sinh(stress))) has been shown to be justifiable over the stress ranges of most interest, and gives realistic results at high temperatures and long times to failure. In the interests of continuity with past and present practice, the suggested method is intended to extend existing polynomial descriptions of life parameters at low stress. Where no polynomials exist, the method can be used to describe the behaviour of life parameters throughout the full range of a particular failure mode in the published data

  20. Global catalog of earthquake rupture velocities shows anticorrelation between stress drop and rupture velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise

    2018-05-01

    Application of the SCARDEC method provides the apparent source time functions together with seismic moment, depth, and focal mechanism, for most of the recent earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.6-6. Using this large dataset, we have developed a method to systematically invert for the rupture direction and average rupture velocity Vr, when unilateral rupture propagation dominates. The approach is applied to all the shallow (z earthquakes of the catalog over the 1992-2015 time period. After a careful validation process, rupture properties for a catalog of 96 earthquakes are obtained. The subsequent analysis of this catalog provides several insights about the seismic rupture process. We first report that up-dip ruptures are more abundant than down-dip ruptures for shallow subduction interface earthquakes, which can be understood as a consequence of the material contrast between the slab and the overriding crust. Rupture velocities, which are searched without any a-priori up to the maximal P wave velocity (6000-8000 m/s), are found between 1200 m/s and 4500 m/s. This observation indicates that no earthquakes propagate over long distances with rupture velocity approaching the P wave velocity. Among the 23 ruptures faster than 3100 m/s, we observe both documented supershear ruptures (e.g. the 2001 Kunlun earthquake), and undocumented ruptures that very likely include a supershear phase. We also find that the correlation of Vr with the source duration scaled to the seismic moment (Ts) is very weak. This directly implies that both Ts and Vr are anticorrelated with the stress drop Δσ. This result has implications for the assessment of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) variability. As shown by Causse and Song (2015), an anticorrelation between Δσ and Vr significantly reduces the predicted PGA variability, and brings it closer to the observed variability.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in the repair of ruptured Achilles tendons. Morphological difference in healing process between conservative and surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Tetsuo; Tsuruta, Takao; Abe, Yasuyuki; Tani, Akifumi; Koga, Toshimitsu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro

    1996-01-01

    We observed the healing process of ruptured Achilles tendons in a series using magnetic resonance imaging. In six cases, tendons were repaired percutaneously with limited skin incisions. Seven cases were treated conservatively using unique functional braces. MR imaging revealed two different modes of conjoining. In the conservatively treated group, tendons inclined to conjoin in a dumbbell shape. In the surgically treated group, they inclined to conjoin in a spindle shape. The diameters of the ruptured part are wider in the spindle shape compared to the dumbbell shape at all stages. These findings suggest that surgical treatment is favorable for acquiring earlier strength. (author)

  2. Source to Sink Tectonic Fate of Large Oceanic Turbidite Systems and the Rupturing of Great and Giant Megathrust Earthquakes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, D. W.; Kirby, S. H.; von Huene, R.

    2010-12-01

    OCEAN FLOOR OBSERVATIONS: Oceanic turbidite systems accumulate above igneous oceanic crust and are commonly huge in areal and volumetric dimensions. For example, the volume of the Zodiac fan of the Gulf of Alaska is roughly 300,000 cubic km. Other large oceanic systems construct the Amazon cone, flood the Bay of Bengal abyss, and accumulate along trench axes to thickness of 1 to 7 km and lengths of 1000 to 3000 km, e.g., the Aleutian-Alaska, Sumatra-Andaman, Makran, and south central Chile Trenches. THE ROCK RECORD: Despite the large dimensions of oceanic turbidite systems, they are poorly preserved in the rock record. This includes oceanic systems deposited in passive-margin oceans, e.g., the Paleozoic Iapetus and Rheric oceans of the Atlantic realm, This circumstance does not apply to Cretaceous and E. Tertiary rock sequences of the north Pacific rim where oceanic turbidite deposits are preserved as accretionary complexes, e.g., the Catalina-Pelona-Orocopia-Rand schist of California and the Chugach-Kodiak complex of Alaska. These rock bodies are exhumed crustal underplates of once deeply (15-30 km) subducted oceanic turbidite systems. PATH FROM SOURCE TO TECTONIC SINK: The fate of most oceanic turbidite systems is to be removed from the sea floor and, ultimately, destroyed. This circumstance is unavoidable because most of them are deposited on lower plate crust destined for destruction in a subduction zone. During the past 4-5 myr alone a volume of 1-1.5 million cubic km of sediment sourced from the glaciated drainages of the Gulf of Alaska flooded the 3000-km-long Aleutian-Alaska trench axis. A small part of this volume accumulated tectonically as a narrow, 10-30-km wide accretionary frontal prism. But about 80 percent was subducted and entered the subduction channel separating the two plates. The subduction channel, roughly 1 km thick, conveys the trench turbidite deposits landward down dip along the rupturing width of the seismogenic zone. SEISMIC CONSEQUENCE

  3. Complex rupture process of the Mw 7.8, 2016, Kaikoura earthquake, New Zealand, and its aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesca, S.; Zhang, Y.; Mouslopoulou, V.; Wang, R.; Saul, J.; Savage, M.; Heimann, S.; Kufner, S.-K.; Oncken, O.; Dahm, T.

    2017-11-01

    The M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake that struck the northeastern South Island, New Zealand, on November 14, 2016 (local time), is one of the largest ever instrumentally recorded earthquakes in New Zealand. It occurred at the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction margin, where the subducting Pacific Plate transitions into the dextral Alpine transform fault. The earthquake produced significant distributed uplift along the north-eastern part of the South Island, reaching a peak amplitude of ∼8 m, which was accompanied by large (≥10 m) horizontal coseismic displacements at the ground surface along discrete active faults. The seismic waveforms' expression of the main shock indicate a complex rupture process. Early automated centroid moment tensor solutions indicated a strong non-double-couple term, which supports a complex rupture involving multiple faults. The hypocentral distribution of aftershocks, which appears diffuse over a broad region, clusters spatially along lineaments with different orientations. A key question of global interest is to shed light on the mechanism with which such a complex rupture occurred, and whether the underlying plate-interface was involved in the rupture. The consequences for seismic hazard of such a distributed, shallow faulting is important to be assessed. We perform a broad seismological analysis, combining regional and teleseismic seismograms, GPS and InSAR, to determine the rupture process of the main shock and moment tensors of 118 aftershocks down to Mw 4.2. The joint interpretation of the main rupture and aftershock sequence allow reconstruction of the geometry, and suggests sequential activation and slip distribution on at least three major active fault domains. We find that the rupture nucleated as a weak strike-slip event along the Humps Fault, which progressively propagated northward onto a shallow reverse fault, where most of the seismic moment was released, before it triggered slip on a second set of strike

  4. The Northern Rupture of the 1762 Arakan Meghathrust Earthquake and other Potential Earthquake Sources in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, S. H.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Bangladesh is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It occupies a major part of the Bengal Basin, which contains the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta (GBD), the largest and one of the most active of world deltas, and is located along the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt. As such it is vulnerable to many natural hazards, especially earthquakes. The country sits at the junction of three tectonic plates - Indian, Eurasian, and the Burma 'sliver' of the Sunda plate. These form two boundaries where plates converge- the India-Eurasia plate boundary to the north forming the Himalaya Arc and the India-Burma plate boundary to the east forming the Indo-Burma Arc. The India-Burma plate boundary is exceptionally wide because collision with the GBD feeds an exception amount of sediment into the subduction zone. Thus the Himalayan continent collision orogeny along with its syntaxes to the N and NE of Bangladesh and the Burma Arc subduction boundary surround Bangladesh on two sides with active faults of regional scale, raising the potential for high-magnitude earthquakes. In recent years Bangladesh has experienced minor to moderate earthquakes. Historical records show that major and great earthquakes have ravaged the country and the neighboring region several times over the last 450 years. Field observations of Tertiary structures along the Chittagong-Teknaf coast reveal that the rupture of 1762 Arakan megathrust earthquake extended as far north as the Sitakund anticline to the north of the city of Chittagong. This earthquake brought changes to the landscape, uplifting the Teknaf peninsula and St. Martin's Island by about 2-2.5 m, and activated two mud volcanos along the axis of the Sitakund anticline, where large tabular blocks of exotic crystalline limestone, were tectonically transported from a deep-seated formation along with the eruptive mud. Vast area of the coast including inland areas east of the lower Meghna River were inundated. More than 500 peoples died near

  5. Ruptured eardrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eardrum ruptures. After the rupture, you may have: Drainage from the ear (drainage may be clear, pus, or bloody) Ear noise/ ... doctor to see the eardrum. Audiology testing can measure how much hearing has been lost. Treatment You ...

  6. Creep rupture behavior of candidate materials for nuclear process heat applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, F.; te Heesen, E.; Bruch, U.; Cook, R.; Diehl, H.; Ennis, P.J.; Jakobeit, W.; Penkalla, H.J.; Ullrich, G.

    1984-01-01

    Creep and stress rupture properties are determined for the candidate materials to be used in hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) components. The materials and test methods are briefly described based on experimental results of test durations of about20000 h. The medium creep strengths of the alloys Inconel-617, Hastelloy-X, Nimonic-86, Hastelloy-S, Manaurite-36X, IN-519, and Incoloy-800H are compared showing that Inconel-617 has the best creep rupture properties in the temperature range above 800 0 C. The rupture time of welded joints is in the lower range of the scatterband of the parent metal. The properties determined in different simulated HTGR atmospheres are within the scatterband of the properties obtained in air. Extrapolation methods are discussed and a modified minimum commitment method is favored

  7. The Physics of Earthquakes: In the Quest for a Unified Theory (or Model) That Quantitatively Describes the Entire Process of an Earthquake Rupture, From its Nucleation to the Dynamic Regime and to its Arrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnaka, M.

    2004-12-01

    For the past four decades, great progress has been made in understanding earthquake source processes. In particular, recent progress in the field of the physics of earthquakes has contributed substantially to unraveling the earthquake generation process in quantitative terms. Yet, a fundamental problem remains unresolved in this field. The constitutive law that governs the behavior of earthquake ruptures is the basis of earthquake physics, and the governing law plays a fundamental role in accounting for the entire process of an earthquake rupture, from its nucleation to the dynamic propagation to its arrest, quantitatively in a unified and consistent manner. Therefore, without establishing the rational constitutive law, the physics of earthquakes cannot be a quantitative science in a true sense, and hence it is urgent to establish the rational constitutive law. However, it has been controversial over the past two decades, and it is still controversial, what the constitutive law for earthquake ruptures ought to be, and how it should be formulated. To resolve the controversy is a necessary step towards a more complete, unified theory of earthquake physics, and now the time is ripe to do so. Because of its fundamental importance, we have to discuss thoroughly and rigorously what the constitutive law ought to be from the standpoint of the physics of rock friction and fracture on the basis of solid evidence. There are prerequisites for the constitutive formulation. The brittle, seismogenic layer and individual faults therein are characterized by inhomogeneity, and fault inhomogeneity has profound implications for earthquake ruptures. In addition, rupture phenomena including earthquakes are inherently scale dependent; indeed, some of the physical quantities inherent in rupture exhibit scale dependence. To treat scale-dependent physical quantities inherent in the rupture over a broad scale range quantitatively in a unified and consistent manner, it is critical to

  8. Rupture disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The intermediate heat transport system for a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor includes a device for rapidly draining the sodium therefrom should a sodium-water reaction occur within the system. This device includes a rupturable member in a drain line in the system and means for cutting a large opening therein and for positively removing the sheared-out portion from the opening cut in the rupturable member. According to the preferred embodiment of the invention the rupturable member includes a solid head seated in the end of the drain line having a rim extending peripherally therearound, the rim being clamped against the end of the drain line by a clamp ring having an interior shearing edge, the bottom of the rupturable member being convex and extending into the drain line. Means are provided to draw the rupturable member away from the drain line against the shearing edge to clear the drain line for outflow of sodium therethrough

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog: Processing and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janet; Evans, Ian N.; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Hain, Roger; Hall, Diane M.; Miller, Joseph B.; Plummer, David A.; Zografou, Panagoula; Primini, Francis A.; Anderson, Craig S.; Bonaventura, Nina R.; Chen, Judy C.; Davis, John E.; Doe, Stephen M.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Galle, Elizabeth C.; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Grier, John D.; Harbo, Peter N.; He, Xiang Qun (Helen); Houck, John C.; Karovska, Margarita; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Mitschang, Arik W.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Refsdal, Brian L.; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael S.; van Stone, David W.; Winkelman, Sherry L.

    2009-09-01

    Chandra Source Catalog processing recalibrates each observation using the latest available calibration data, and employs a wavelet-based source detection algorithm to identify all the X-ray sources in the field of view. Source properties are then extracted from each detected source that is a candidate for inclusion in the catalog. Catalog processing is completed by matching sources across multiple observations, merging common detections, and applying quality assurance checks. The Chandra Source Catalog processing system shares a common processing infrastructure and utilizes much of the functionality that is built into the Standard Data Processing (SDP) pipeline system that provides calibrated Chandra data to end-users. Other key components of the catalog processing system have been assembled from the portable CIAO data analysis package. Minimal new software tool development has been required to support the science algorithms needed for catalog production. Since processing pipelines must be instantiated for each detected source, the number of pipelines that are run during catalog construction is a factor of order 100 times larger than for SDP. The increased computational load, and inherent parallel nature of the processing, is handled by distributing the workload across a multi-node Beowulf cluster. Modifications to the SDP automated processing application to support catalog processing, and extensions to Chandra Data Archive software to ingest and retrieve catalog products, complete the upgrades to the infrastructure to support catalog processing.

  10. Globe Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Honda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 46-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED with severe left eye pain and decreased vision after tripping and striking the left side of his head on the corner of his wooden nightstand. The patient arrived as an inter-facility transfer for a suspected globe rupture with a protective eye covering in place; thus, further physical examination of the eye was not performed by the emergency physician in order to avoid further leakage of aqueous humor. Significant findings: The patient’s computed tomography (CT head demonstrated a deformed left globe, concerning for ruptured globe. The patient had hyperdense material in the posterior segment (see green arrow, consistent with vitreous hemorrhage. CT findings that are consistent with globe rupture may include a collapsed globe, intraocular air, or foreign bodies. Discussion: A globe rupture is a full-thickness defect in the cornea, sclera, or both.1 It is an ophthalmologic emergency. Globe ruptures are almost always secondary to direct perforation via a penetrating mechanism; however, it can occur due to blunt injury if the force generated creates sufficient intraocular pressure to tear the sclera.2 Globes most commonly rupture at the insertions of the intraocular muscles or at the limbus. They are associated with a high rate of concomitant orbital floor fractures.2,3 Possible physical examination findings include a shallow anterior chamber on slit-lamp exam, hyphema, and an irregular “teardrop” pupil. Additionally, a positive Seidel sign, which is performed by instilling fluorescein in the eye and then examining for a dark stream of aqueous humor, is indicative of a globe rupture.4 CT is often used to assess for globe rupture; finds of a foreign body, intraocular air, abnormal contour or volume of the globe, or disruption of the sclera suggest globe rupture.2 The sensitivity of CT scan for diagnosis of globe rupture is only 75%; thus, high clinical

  11. Joint inversion of GNSS and teleseismic data for the rupture process of the 2017 M w6.5 Jiuzhaigou, China, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tan, Kai; Wang, Dong Zhen; Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yu; Qi, Yu Jie

    2018-05-01

    The spatio-temporal slip distribution of the earthquake that occurred on 8 August 2017 in Jiuzhaigou, China, was estimated from the teleseismic body wave and near-field Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data (coseismic displacements and high-rate GPS data) based on a finite fault model. Compared with the inversion results from the teleseismic body waves, the near-field GNSS data can better restrain the rupture area, the maximum slip, the source time function, and the surface rupture. The results show that the maximum slip of the earthquake approaches 1.4 m, the scalar seismic moment is 8.0 × 1018 N·m ( M w ≈ 6.5), and the centroid depth is 15 km. The slip is mainly driven by the left-lateral strike-slip and it is initially inferred that the seismogenic fault occurs in the south branch of the Tazang fault or an undetectable fault, a NW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault, and belongs to one of the tail structures at the easternmost end of the eastern Kunlun fault zone. The earthquake rupture is mainly concentrated at depths of 5-15 km, which results in the complete rupture of the seismic gap left by the previous four earthquakes with magnitudes > 6.0 in 1973 and 1976. Therefore, the possibility of a strong aftershock on the Huya fault is low. The source duration is 30 s and there are two major ruptures. The main rupture occurs in the first 10 s, 4 s after the earthquake; the second rupture peak arrives in 17 s. In addition, the Coulomb stress study shows that the epicenter of the earthquake is located in the area where the static Coulomb stress change increased because of the 12 May 2017 M w7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake. Therefore, the Wenchuan earthquake promoted the occurrence of the 8 August 2017 Jiuzhaigou earthquake.

  12. A rare moderate‐sized (Mw 4.9) earthquake in Kansas: Rupture process of the Milan, Kansas, earthquake of 12 November 2014 and its relationship to fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, George; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Yeck, William; McNamara, Daniel E.; Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The largest recorded earthquake in Kansas occurred northeast of Milan on 12 November 2014 (Mw 4.9) in a region previously devoid of significant seismic activity. Applying multistation processing to data from local stations, we are able to detail the rupture process and rupture geometry of the mainshock, identify the causative fault plane, and delineate the expansion and extent of the subsequent seismic activity. The earthquake followed rapid increases of fluid injection by multiple wastewater injection wells in the vicinity of the fault. The source parameters and behavior of the Milan earthquake and foreshock–aftershock sequence are similar to characteristics of other earthquakes induced by wastewater injection into permeable formations overlying crystalline basement. This earthquake also provides an opportunity to test the empirical relation that uses felt area to estimate moment magnitude for historical earthquakes for Kansas.

  13. Retrieving rupture history using waveform inversions in time sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, L.; Xu, C.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture history of large earthquakes is generally regenerated using the waveform inversion through utilizing seismological waveform records. In the waveform inversion, based on the superposition principle, the rupture process is linearly parameterized. After discretizing the fault plane into sub-faults, the local source time function of each sub-fault is usually parameterized using the multi-time window method, e.g., mutual overlapped triangular functions. Then the forward waveform of each sub-fault is synthesized through convoluting the source time function with its Green function. According to the superposition principle, these forward waveforms generated from the fault plane are summarized in the recorded waveforms after aligning the arrival times. Then the slip history is retrieved using the waveform inversion method after the superposing of all forward waveforms for each correspond seismological waveform records. Apart from the isolation of these forward waveforms generated from each sub-fault, we also realize that these waveforms are gradually and sequentially superimposed in the recorded waveforms. Thus we proposed a idea that the rupture model is possibly detachable in sequent rupture times. According to the constrained waveform length method emphasized in our previous work, the length of inverted waveforms used in the waveform inversion is objectively constrained by the rupture velocity and rise time. And one essential prior condition is the predetermined fault plane that limits the duration of rupture time, which means the waveform inversion is restricted in a pre-set rupture duration time. Therefore, we proposed a strategy to inverse the rupture process sequentially using the progressively shift rupture times as the rupture front expanding in the fault plane. And we have designed a simulation inversion to test the feasibility of the method. Our test result shows the prospect of this idea that requiring furthermore investigation.

  14. The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.

    1997-01-01

    In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage

  15. Ruptured Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be caused by various underlying problems, such as mononucleosis and other infections, liver disease, and blood cancers. ... cause a ruptured spleen. For instance, people with mononucleosis — a viral infection that can cause an enlarged ...

  16. Geologic Inheritance and Earthquake Rupture Processes: The 1905 M ≥ 8 Tsetserleg-Bulnay Strike-Slip Earthquake Sequence, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Hyuck; Klinger, Yann; Ferry, Matthieu; Ritz, Jean-François; Kurtz, Robin; Rizza, Magali; Bollinger, Laurent; Davaasambuu, Battogtokh; Tsend-Ayush, Nyambayar; Demberel, Sodnomsambuu

    2018-02-01

    In 1905, 14 days apart, two M 8 continental strike-slip earthquakes, the Tsetserleg and Bulnay earthquakes, occurred on the Bulnay fault system, in Mongolia. Together, they ruptured four individual faults, with a total length of 676 km. Using submetric optical satellite images "Pleiades" with ground resolution of 0.5 m, complemented by field observation, we mapped in detail the entire surface rupture associated with this earthquake sequence. Surface rupture along the main Bulnay fault is 388 km in length, striking nearly E-W. The rupture is formed by a series of fault segments that are 29 km long on average, separated by geometric discontinuities. Although there is a difference of about 2 m in the average slip between the western and eastern parts of the Bulnay rupture, along-fault slip variations are overall limited, resulting in a smooth slip distribution, except for local slip deficit at segment boundaries. We show that damage, including short branches and secondary faulting, associated with the rupture propagation, occurred significantly more often along the western part of the Bulnay rupture, while the eastern part of the rupture appears more localized and thus possibly structurally simpler. Eventually, the difference of slip between the western and eastern parts of the rupture is attributed to this difference of rupture localization, associated at first order with a lateral change in the local geology. Damage associated to rupture branching appears to be located asymmetrically along the extensional side of the strike-slip rupture and shows a strong dependence on structural geologic inheritance.

  17. Rupture Dynamics and Ground Motion from Earthquakes in Heterogeneous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlon, S.; Dunham, E. M.; Kozdon, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogeneities in the material properties of Earth's crust scatter propagating seismic waves. The effects of scattered waves are reflected in the seismic coda and depend on the relative strength of the heterogeneities, spatial arrangement, and distance from source to receiver. In the vicinity of the fault, scattered waves influence the rupture process by introducing fluctuations in the stresses driving propagating ruptures. Further variability in the rupture process is introduced by naturally occurring geometric complexity of fault surfaces, and the stress changes that accompany slip on rough surfaces. We have begun a modeling effort to better understand the origin of complexity in the earthquake source process, and to quantify the relative importance of source complexity and scattering along the propagation path in causing incoherence of high frequency ground motion. To do this we extended our two-dimensional high order finite difference rupture dynamics code to accommodate material heterogeneities. We generate synthetic heterogeneous media using Von Karman correlation functions and their associated power spectral density functions. We then nucleate ruptures on either flat or rough faults, which obey strongly rate-weakening friction laws. Preliminary results for flat faults with uniform frictional properties and initial stresses indicate that off-fault material heterogeneity alone can lead to a complex rupture process. Our simulations reveal the excitation of high frequency bursts of waves, which radiate energy away from the propagating rupture. The average rupture velocity is thus reduced relative to its value in simulations employing homogeneous material properties. In the coming months, we aim to more fully explore parameter space by varying the correlation length, Hurst exponent, and amplitude of medium heterogeneities, as well as the statistical properties characterizing fault roughness.

  18. Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0298 Binaural Processing of Multiple Sound Sources William Yost ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY 660 S MILL AVE STE 312 TEMPE, AZ 85281...18-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jul 2012 to 14 Jul 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Binaural Processing of...three topics cited above are entirely within the scope of the AFOSR grant. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Binaural hearing, Sound Localization, Interaural signal

  19. Forms, Sources and Processes of Trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key points in the analysis of trust, based on Nooteboom (2002)i.The following questions are addressed.What can we have trust in?What is the relation between trust and control?What are the sources of trust? And what are its limits?By what process is trust built up and broken

  20. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A.

    1996-01-01

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis

  1. Kinematic Rupture Process of the 2015 Gorkha (Nepal) Earthquake Sequence from Joint Inversion of Teleseismic, hr-GPS, Strong-Ground Motion, InSAR interferograms and pixel offsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, H.; Simons, M.; Jiang, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Riel, B. V.; Polet, J.; Duputel, Z.; Samsonov, S. V.; Avouac, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal (Mw 7.8) earthquake ruptured the front of Himalaya thrust belt, causing more than 9,000 fatalities. 17 days after the main event, a large aftershock (Mw 7.2) ruptured to down-dip and east of the main rupture area. To investigate the kinematic rupture process of this earthquake sequence, we explored linear and non-linear inversion techniques using a variety of datasets including teleseismic, high rate and conventional GPS, InSAR interferograms and pixel-offsets. InSAR interferograms from ALOS-2, RADARSAT-2 and Sentinel-1a satellites are used in the joint inversion. The main event is characterized by unilateral rupture extending along strike approximately 70 km to the southeast and 40 km along dip direction. The rupture velocity is well resolved to be lie between 2.8 and 3.0 km/s, which is consistent with back-projection results. An emergent initial phase is observed in teleseismic body wave records, which is consistent with a narrow area of rupture initiation near the hypocenter. The rupture mode of the main event is pulse like. The aftershock ruptured down-dip to the northeast of the main event rupture area. The aftershock rupture area is compact and contained within 40 km of its hypocenter. In contrast to the main event, teleseismic body wave records of the aftershock suggest an abrupt initial phase, which is consistent with a crack like rupture mode. The locations of most of the aftershocks (small and large) surround the rupture area of the main shock with little, if any, spatial overlap.

  2. The Identity Process in Times of Ruptures:Narratives from the Egyptian Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2016-01-01

    This is a longitudinal study of the identity process through times of dramatic social change. Using a narrative psychological approach this research follows the life stories of five Egyptian bloggers as they write their stories on online blogs over the course of the three years following the 2011 revolution, at which time Egypt has witnessed major social and political changes. The aim is to understand the identity process of individuals as they develop and adapt through changing social contex...

  3. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-04-06

    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  4. Standards for Documenting Finite‐Fault Earthquake Rupture Models

    KAUST Repository

    Mai, Paul Martin; Shearer, Peter; Ampuero, Jean‐Paul; Lay, Thorne

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we propose standards for documenting and disseminating finite‐fault earthquake rupture models, and related data and metadata. A comprehensive documentation of the rupture models, a detailed description of the data processing steps, and facilitating the access to the actual data that went into the earthquake source inversion are required to promote follow‐up research and to ensure interoperability, transparency, and reproducibility of the published slip‐inversion solutions. We suggest a formatting scheme that describes the kinematic rupture process in an unambiguous way to support subsequent research. We also provide guidelines on how to document the data, metadata, and data processing. The proposed standards and formats represent a first step to establishing best practices for comprehensively documenting input and output of finite‐fault earthquake source studies.

  5. Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banine, V Y; Swinkels, G H P M; Koshelev, K N

    2011-01-01

    The source is an integral part of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tool. Such a source, as well as the EUVL tool, has to fulfil very high demands both technical and cost oriented. The EUVL tool operates at a wavelength of 13.5 nm, which requires the following new developments. - The light production mechanism changes from conventional lamps and lasers to relatively high-temperature emitting plasmas. - The light transport, mainly refractive for deep ultraviolet (DUV), should be reflective for EUV. - The source specifications as derived from the customer requirements on wafer throughput mean that the output EUV source power has to be hundreds of watts. This in its turn means that tens to hundreds of kilowatts of dissipated power has to be managed in a relatively small volume. - In order to keep lithography costs as low as possible, the lifetime of the components should be as long as possible and at least of the order of thousands of hours. This poses a challenge for the sources, namely how to design and manufacture components robust enough to withstand the intense environment of high heat dissipation, flows of several keV ions as well as the atomic and particular debris within the source vessel. - As with all lithography tools, the imaging requirements demand a narrow illumination bandwidth. Absorption of materials at EUV wavelengths is extreme with extinguishing lengths of the order of tens of nanometres, so the balance between high transmission and spectral purity requires careful engineering. All together, EUV lithography sources present technological challenges in various fields of physics such as plasma, optics and material science. These challenges are being tackled by the source manufacturers and investigated extensively in the research facilities around the world. An overview of the published results on the topic as well as the analyses of the physical processes behind the proposed solutions will be presented in this paper. (topical review)

  6. Determine Earthquake Rupture Directivity Using Taiwan TSMIP Strong Motion Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaiwen; Chi, Wu-Cheng; Lai, Ying-Ju; Gung, YuanCheng

    2013-04-01

    Inverting seismic waveforms for the finite fault source parameters is important for studying the physics of earthquake rupture processes. It is also significant to image seismogenic structures in urban areas. Here we analyze the finite-source process and test for the causative fault plane using the accelerograms recorded by the Taiwan Strong-Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The point source parameters for the mainshock and aftershocks were first obtained by complete waveform moment tensor inversions. We then use the seismograms generated by the aftershocks as empirical Green's functions (EGFs) to retrieve the apparent source time functions (ASTFs) of near-field stations using projected Landweber deconvolution approach. The method for identifying the fault plane relies on the spatial patterns of the apparent source time function durations which depend on the angle between rupture direction and the take-off angle and azimuth of the ray. These derived duration patterns then are compared with the theoretical patterns, which are functions of the following parameters, including focal depth, epicentral distance, average crustal 1D velocity, fault plane attitude, and rupture direction on the fault plane. As a result, the ASTFs derived from EGFs can be used to infer the ruptured fault plane and the rupture direction. Finally we used part of the catalogs to study important seismogenic structures in the area near Chiayi, Taiwan, where a damaging earthquake has occurred about a century ago. The preliminary results show a strike-slip earthquake on 22 October 1999 (Mw 5.6) has ruptured unilaterally toward SSW on a sub-vertical fault. The procedure developed from this study can be applied to other strong motion waveforms recorded from other earthquakes to better understand their kinematic source parameters.

  7. Rupture Dynamics and Seismic Radiation on Rough Faults for Simulation-Based PSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. M.; Galis, M.; Thingbaijam, K. K. S.; Vyas, J. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Simulation-based ground-motion predictions may augment PSHA studies in data-poor regions or provide additional shaking estimations, incl. seismic waveforms, for critical facilities. Validation and calibration of such simulation approaches, based on observations and GMPE's, is important for engineering applications, while seismologists push to include the precise physics of the earthquake rupture process and seismic wave propagation in 3D heterogeneous Earth. Geological faults comprise both large-scale segmentation and small-scale roughness that determine the dynamics of the earthquake rupture process and its radiated seismic wavefield. We investigate how different parameterizations of fractal fault roughness affect the rupture evolution and resulting near-fault ground motions. Rupture incoherence induced by fault roughness generates realistic ω-2 decay for high-frequency displacement amplitude spectra. Waveform characteristics and GMPE-based comparisons corroborate that these rough-fault rupture simulations generate realistic synthetic seismogram for subsequent engineering application. Since dynamic rupture simulations are computationally expensive, we develop kinematic approximations that emulate the observed dynamics. Simplifying the rough-fault geometry, we find that perturbations in local moment tensor orientation are important, while perturbations in local source location are not. Thus, a planar fault can be assumed if the local strike, dip, and rake are maintained. The dynamic rake angle variations are anti-correlated with local dip angles. Based on a dynamically consistent Yoffe source-time function, we show that the seismic wavefield of the approximated kinematic rupture well reproduces the seismic radiation of the full dynamic source process. Our findings provide an innovative pseudo-dynamic source characterization that captures fault roughness effects on rupture dynamics. Including the correlations between kinematic source parameters, we present a new

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed radiography in Achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenaga, Tateo; Hachiya, Junichi; Miyasaka, Yasuo

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Radiography (CR) were performed in 15 patients with complete Achilles tendon rupture who were treated conservatively without surgery. MRI was obtained using Toshiba MRT 50 A superconductive machine, operaing at 0.5 Tesla. CR was performed by CR-101, Fuji Medical System. In fresh cases, ruptured tendons showed intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images. Thickening of the tendon was observed in all cases except in very acute stage. Configuration of thickend tendons tends to be dumbbell shape in subacute stage and fusiform in chronic stage of more than six months after the initial trauma. In cases which showed high signal intensity at the ruptured area both on T1 and T2 weighted images, migration of fat into the sapces between the ruptured tendons was considered to be the major source of increased signal intensity. Computed radiography showed thickening of the tendon, blurring of anterior margin of the tendon, and decreased translucency of pre-Achilles fat pad. However, MRI better demonstrated the details of ruptured tendons when compared to CR, and thought to be an usefull way of following up the healing process of the ruptured tendon to facilitate more reasonable judgement of the time of removing plaster casts and stating exercise. (author)

  9. Structural control on the Tohoku earthquake rupture process investigated by 3D FEM, tsunami and geodetic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F; Trasatti, E; Lorito, S; Piromallo, C; Piatanesi, A; Ito, Y; Zhao, D; Hirata, K; Lanucara, P; Cocco, M

    2014-07-09

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw = 9.1) highlighted previously unobserved features for megathrust events, such as the large slip in a relatively limited area and the shallow rupture propagation. We use a Finite Element Model (FEM), taking into account the 3D geometrical and structural complexities up to the trench zone, and perform a joint inversion of tsunami and geodetic data to retrieve the earthquake slip distribution. We obtain a close spatial correlation between the main deep slip patch and the local seismic velocity anomalies, and large shallow slip extending also to the North coherently with a seismically observed low-frequency radiation. These observations suggest that the friction controlled the rupture, initially confining the deeper rupture and then driving its propagation up to the trench, where it spreads laterally. These findings are relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment because they may help to detect regions likely prone to rupture along the megathrust, and to constrain the probability of high slip near the trench. Our estimate of ~40 m slip value around the JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project) drilling zone contributes to constrain the dynamic shear stress and friction coefficient of the fault obtained by temperature measurements to ~0.68 MPa and ~0.10, respectively.

  10. An industrial radiation source for food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadat, R.

    1986-01-01

    The scientific linacs realized by CGR MeV in France have been installed in several research centers, the medical accelerators of CGR MeV have been installed in radiotherapy centers all over the world, and the industrial linacs have been used for radiography in heavy industries. Based on the experience for 30 years, CGR MeV has realized a new industrial radiation source for food processing. CARIC is going to install a new machine of CGR MeV, CASSITRON, as the demand for radiation increased. This machine has been devised specially for industrial irradiation purpose. Its main features are security, simplicity and reliability, and it is easy to incorporate it into a production line. The use of CASSITRON for food industry, the ionizing effect on mechanically separated poultry meat, the capital and processing cost and others are explained. Only 10 % of medical disposable supplies is treated by ionizing energy in France. The irradiation for food decontamination, and that for industrial treatment are demanded. Therefore, CARIC is going to increase the capacity by installing a CASSITRON for sterilization. The capital and processing cost are shown. The start of operation is expected in March, 1986. At present, a CASSITRON is being installed in the SPI food processing factory, and starts operation in a few weeks. (Kako, I.)

  11. Rupture Dynamics and Scaling Behavior of Hydraulically Stimulated Micro-Earthquakes in a Shale Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, G. F.; Urbancic, T.; Baig, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    In hydraulic fracturing completion programs fluids are injected under pressure into fractured rock formations to open escape pathways for trapped hydrocarbons along pre-existing and newly generated fractures. To characterize the failure process, we estimate static and dynamic source and rupture parameters, such as dynamic and static stress drop, radiated energy, seismic efficiency, failure modes, failure plane orientations and dimensions, and rupture velocity to investigate the rupture dynamics and scaling relations of micro-earthquakes induced during a hydraulic fracturing shale completion program in NE British Columbia, Canada. The relationships between the different parameters combined with the in-situ stress field and rock properties provide valuable information on the rupture process giving insights into the generation and development of the fracture network. Approximately 30,000 micro-earthquakes were recorded using three multi-sensor arrays of high frequency geophones temporarily placed close to the treatment area at reservoir depth (~2km). On average the events have low radiated energy, low dynamic stress and low seismic efficiency, consistent with the obtained slow rupture velocities. Events fail in overshoot mode (slip weakening failure model), with fluids lubricating faults and decreasing friction resistance. Events occurring in deeper formations tend to have faster rupture velocities and are more efficient in radiating energy. Variations in rupture velocity tend to correlate with variation in depth, fault azimuth and elapsed time, reflecting a dominance of the local stress field over other factors. Several regions with different characteristic failure modes are identifiable based on coherent stress drop, seismic efficiency, rupture velocities and fracture orientations. Variations of source parameters with rock rheology and hydro-fracture fluids are also observed. Our results suggest that the spatial and temporal distribution of events with similar

  12. Heat source model for welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, D.D.

    2006-10-01

    One of the major industrial stakes of the welding simulation relates to the control of mechanical effects of the process (residual stress, distortions, fatigue strength... ). These effects are directly dependent on the temperature evolutions imposed during the welding process. To model this thermal loading, an original method is proposed instead of the usual methods like equivalent heat source approach or multi-physical approach. This method is based on the estimation of the weld pool shape together with the heat flux crossing the liquid/solid interface, from experimental data measured in the solid part. Its originality consists in solving an inverse Stefan problem specific to the welding process, and it is shown how to estimate the parameters of the weld pool shape. To solve the heat transfer problem, the interface liquid/solid is modeled by a Bezier curve ( 2-D) or a Bezier surface (3-D). This approach is well adapted to a wide diversity of weld pool shapes met for the majority of the current welding processes (TIG, MlG-MAG, Laser, FE, Hybrid). The number of parameters to be estimated is weak enough, according to the cases considered from 2 to 5 in 20 and 7 to 16 in 3D. A sensitivity study leads to specify the location of the sensors, their number and the set of measurements required to a good estimate. The application of the method on test results of welding TIG on thin stainless steel sheets in emerging and not emerging configurations, shows that only one measurement point is enough to estimate the various weld pool shapes in 20, and two points in 3D, whatever the penetration is full or not. In the last part of the work, a methodology is developed for the transient analysis. It is based on the Duvaut's transformation which overpasses the discontinuity of the liquid metal interface and therefore gives a continuous variable for the all spatial domain. Moreover, it allows to work on a fixed mesh grid and the new inverse problem is equivalent to identify a source

  13. Analysis of Communication between Main Control Room Operators in Decision-making Process in Steam Generator Tube Rupture Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, M.; Petkov, G.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation results for Main Control Room operators' reliability by Performance Evaluation of Teamwork method, based on FSS-1000 training archives in KNPP in case of Steam Generator Tube Rupture accident. The advantages of operators' teamwork are shown: a) group decision-making vs. individual one: b) positive influence of crew initiated communication consisting of orders and reports that are required by instruction. (authors)

  14. Investigating source processes of isotropic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Andrea

    This dissertation demonstrates the utility of the complete waveform regional moment tensor inversion for nuclear event discrimination. I explore the source processes and associated uncertainties for explosions and earthquakes under the effects of limited station coverage, compound seismic sources, assumptions in velocity models and the corresponding Green's functions, and the effects of shallow source depth and free-surface conditions. The motivation to develop better techniques to obtain reliable source mechanism and assess uncertainties is not limited to nuclear monitoring, but they also provide quantitative information about the characteristics of seismic hazards, local and regional tectonics and in-situ stress fields of the region . This dissertation begins with the analysis of three sparsely recorded events: the 14 September 1988 US-Soviet Joint Verification Experiment (JVE) nuclear test at the Semipalatinsk test site in Eastern Kazakhstan, and two nuclear explosions at the Chinese Lop Nor test site. We utilize a regional distance seismic waveform method fitting long-period, complete, three-component waveforms jointly with first-motion observations from regional stations and teleseismic arrays. The combination of long period waveforms and first motion observations provides unique discrimination of these sparsely recorded events in the context of the Hudson et al. (1989) source-type diagram. We examine the effects of the free surface on the moment tensor via synthetic testing, and apply the moment tensor based discrimination method to well-recorded chemical explosions. These shallow chemical explosions represent rather severe source-station geometry in terms of the vanishing traction issues. We show that the combined waveform and first motion method enables the unique discrimination of these events, even though the data include unmodeled single force components resulting from the collapse and blowout of the quarry face immediately following the initial

  15. Microwave Plasma Sources for Gas Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizeraczyk, J.; Jasinski, M.; Dors, M.; Zakrzewski, Z.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the non-thermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguide-based surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzle-type MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented

  16. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1990-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Sources with cobalt-60 are treated marginally, because most probably, there will be no installation of technically meaningful activity in Poland before the year 2000. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energetical yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of twenty years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 150 kV input power from the mains, only 5 kV of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, sometimes only a few percent, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of losses at the edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of losses during the dead time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical in case of objects of optimum type. At the first stage, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of the low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of these technologies, which make it possible to control the shape of the processed object are stressed. Ten parameters necessary for a proper calculation of technological yields of radiation processing are listed. Additional conditions which must be taken into account in the comparison of the cost of radiation processing with the cost of other technologies are also

  17. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.

    2011-01-01

    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  18. A Therapist’s Review of Process: Rupture and repair cycles in relational transactional analysis psychotherapy for a client with a dismissive attachment style: ‘Martha’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Baba Neal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a therapist review of the process that occurred during a systematic case study of psychotherapy with ‘Martha’, a female client who presented with depression, anxiety, alexithymia and dismissive/avoidant attachment style.  Assessment, diagnosis of the client and treatment direction is described, followed by a detailed account of the therapeutic process through 12 sessions and 2 post-therapy interviews. Analysis team results are summarised, indicating support for the therapist’s identification of issues during the process of the therapy. Particular attention is paid by the analysis team two points of rupture and repair, with pragmatic evaluation confirming that the relational struggles between therapist and client seemed pivotal in generating positive change. Citation - APA format: Baba Neal, S. (2017. A Therapist’s Review of Process: Rupture and repair cycles in relational transactional analysis psychotherapy for a client with a dismissive attachment style: ‘Martha’. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 24-34.

  19. Teleseismic and regional data analysis for estimating depth, mechanism and rupture process of the 3 April 2017 MW 6.5 Botswana earthquake and its aftershock (5 April 2017, MW 4.5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letort, J.; Guilhem Trilla, A.; Ford, S. R.; Sèbe, O.; Causse, M.; Cotton, F.; Campillo, M.; Letort, G.

    2017-12-01

    We constrain the source, depth, and rupture process of the Botswana earthquake of April 3, 2017, as well as its largest aftershock (5 April 2017, Mw 4.5). This earthquake is the largest recorded event (Mw 6.5) in the East African rift system since 1970, making one important case study to better understand source processes in stable continental regions. For the two events an automatic cepstrum analysis (Letort et al., 2015) is first applied on respectively 215 and 219 teleseismic records, in order to detect depth phase arrivals (pP, sP) in the P-coda. Coherent detections of depth phases for different azimuths allow us to estimate the hypocentral depths respectively at 28 and 23 km, suggesting that the events are located in the lower crust. A same cepstrum analysis is conducted on five other earthquakes with mb>4 in this area (from 2002 to 2017), and confirms a deep crustal seismicity cluster (around 20-30 km). The source mechanisms are then characterized using a joint inversion method by fitting both regional long-period surface-waves and teleseismic high-frequency body-waves. Combining regional and teleseismic data (as well as systematic comparisons between theoretical and observed regional surface-waves dispersion curves prior to the inversion) allows us to decrease epistemic uncertainties due to lack of regional data and poor knowledge about the local velocity structure. Focal mechanisms are both constrained as normal faulting with a northwest trending, and hypocentral depths are confirmed at 28 and 24 km. Finally, in order to study the mainshock rupture process, we originally apply a kymograph analysis method (an image processing method, commonly used in the field of cell biology for identifying motions of molecular motors, e.g. Mangeol et al., 2016). Here, the kymograph allows us to better identify high-frequency teleseismic P-arrivals inside the P-coda by tracking both reflected depth phase and direct P-wave arrivals radiated from secondary sources during the

  20. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  1. Online interferometric study of viscoelastic rupture and necking deformation of as-spun (iPP) fibres due to creep process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokkar, Taha; El-Farahaty, Kermal; Azzam, Amira

    2015-01-01

    Creep deformation under constant load leads to rupture when the polymer chains can no longer separate and accommodate the load. This fracture phenomenon is investigated interferometrically. The creep behaviour of as-spun isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) fibres is studied at different stresses, different initial lengths and different radii. The creep rate, which defines the velocity of the creep deformation and the dimensional stability of the material, is studied. The failure time and stress of iPP due to creep process is determined. The necking deformation was in situ detected during creep process. The mean refractive indices (n(P) andn⊥) profiles of iPP fibres were determined at different positions along the fibre axis before and after necking. The relation between the creep behaviour and different optical and structural parameters is investigated. Microinterferograms are given for illustration. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal Microscopical Society.

  2. Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiqing; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Sagy, Amir; Doan, Mai-Linh

    2018-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of earthquake rupture propagation requires the study of not only the sudden release of elastic strain energy during co-seismic slip, but also of other processes that operate at a variety of spatiotemporal scales. For example, the accumulation of the elastic strain energy usually takes decades to hundreds of years, and rupture propagation and termination modify the bulk properties of the surrounding medium that can influence the behavior of future earthquakes. To share recent findings in the multiscale investigation of earthquake rupture propagation, we held a session entitled "Physics of Earthquake Rupture Propagation" during the 2016 American Geophysical Union (AGU) Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The session included 46 poster and 32 oral presentations, reporting observations of natural earthquakes, numerical and experimental simulations of earthquake ruptures, and studies of earthquake fault friction. These presentations and discussions during and after the session suggested a need to document more formally the research findings, particularly new observations and views different from conventional ones, complexities in fault zone properties and loading conditions, the diversity of fault slip modes and their interactions, the evaluation of observational and model uncertainties, and comparison between empirical and physics-based models. Therefore, we organize this Special Issue (SI) of Tectonophysics under the same title as our AGU session, hoping to inspire future investigations. Eighteen articles (marked with "this issue") are included in this SI and grouped into the following six categories.

  3. Rupture Dynamics and Ground Motion from Earthquakes on Rough Faults in Heterogeneous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydlon, S. A.; Kozdon, J. E.; Duru, K.; Dunham, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    Heterogeneities in the material properties of Earth's crust scatter propagating seismic waves. The effects of scattered waves are reflected in the seismic coda and depend on the amplitude of the heterogeneities, spatial arrangement, and distance from source to receiver. In the vicinity of the fault, scattered waves influence the rupture process by introducing fluctuations in the stresses driving propagating ruptures. Further variability in the rupture process is introduced by naturally occurring geometric complexity of fault surfaces, and the stress changes that accompany slip on rough surfaces. Our goal is to better understand the origin of complexity in the earthquake source process, and to quantify the relative importance of source complexity and scattering along the propagation path in causing incoherence of high frequency ground motion. Using a 2D high order finite difference rupture dynamics code, we nucleate ruptures on either flat or rough faults that obey strongly rate-weakening friction laws. These faults are embedded in domains with spatially varying material properties characterized by Von Karman autocorrelation functions and their associated power spectral density functions, with variations in wave speed of approximately 5 to 10%. Flat fault simulations demonstrate that off-fault material heterogeneity, at least with this particular form and amplitude, has only a minor influence on the rupture process (i.e., fluctuations in slip and rupture velocity). In contrast, ruptures histories on rough faults in both homogeneous and heterogeneous media include much larger short-wavelength fluctuations in slip and rupture velocity. We therefore conclude that source complexity is dominantly influenced by fault geometric complexity. To examine contributions of scattering versus fault geometry on ground motions, we compute spatially averaged root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration values as a function of fault perpendicular distance for a homogeneous medium and several

  4. Rupture of primigravid uterus and recurrent rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahreen Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus. In Bangladesh, majority of deliveries arc attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant and maternal mortality is still quite high. It is rare Ln developed country but unfortunately it is common in a developing country like Bangladesh. We report a case history of a patient age 32yrs from Daudkandi, Comilla admitted with H/0 previous two rupture uterus and repair with no living issue. We did caesarean section at her 31+ weeks of pregnancy when she developed Jabour pain. A baby of 1.4 kg was delivered. During cesarean section, focal rupture was noted in previous scar of rupture. Unfortunately the baby expired in neonatal ICU after 36 hours.

  5. Contribution of Satellite Gravimetry to Understanding Seismic Source Processes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Riva, Riccardo

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 great Tohoku-Oki earthquake, apart from shaking the ground, perturbed the motions of satellites orbiting some hundreds km away above the ground, such as GRACE, due to coseismic change in the gravity field. Significant changes in inter-satellite distance were observed after the earthquake. These unconventional satellite measurements were inverted to examine the earthquake source processes from a radically different perspective that complements the analyses of seismic and geodetic ground recordings. We found the average slip located up-dip of the hypocenter but within the lower crust, as characterized by a limited range of bulk and shear moduli. The GRACE data constrained a group of earthquake source parameters that yield increasing dip (7-16 degrees plus or minus 2 degrees) and, simultaneously, decreasing moment magnitude (9.17-9.02 plus or minus 0.04) with increasing source depth (15-24 kilometers). The GRACE solution includes the cumulative moment released over a month and demonstrates a unique view of the long-wavelength gravimetric response to all mass redistribution processes associated with the dynamic rupture and short-term postseismic mechanisms to improve our understanding of the physics of megathrusts.

  6. Modeling crustal deformation and rupture processes related to upwelling of deep CO2-rich fluids during the 1965-1967 Matsushiro Earthquake Swarm in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappa, F.; Rutqvist, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2009-05-15

    In Matsushiro, central Japan, a series of more than 700,000 earthquakes occurred over a 2-year period (1965-1967) associated with a strike-slip faulting sequence. This swarm of earthquakes resulted in ground surface deformations, cracking of the topsoil, and enhanced spring-outflows with changes in chemical compositions as well as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) degassing. Previous investigations of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm have suggested that migration of underground water and/or magma may have had a strong influence on the swarm activity. In this study, employing coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modelling, we show that observed crustal deformations and seismicity can have been driven by upwelling of deep CO{sub 2}-rich fluids around the intersection of two fault zones - the regional East Nagano earthquake fault and the conjugate Matsushiro fault. We show that the observed spatial evolution of seismicity along the two faults and magnitudes surface uplift, are convincingly explained by a few MPa of pressurization from the upwelling fluid within the critically stressed crust - a crust under a strike-slip stress regime near the frictional strength limit. Our analysis indicates that the most important cause for triggering of seismicity during the Matsushiro swarm was the fluid pressurization with the associated reduction in effective stress and strength in fault segments that were initially near critically stressed for shear failure. Moreover, our analysis indicates that a two order of magnitude permeability enhancement in ruptured fault segments may be necessary to match the observed time evolution of surface uplift. We conclude that our hydromechanical modelling study of the Matsushiro earthquake swarm shows a clear connection between earthquake rupture, deformation, stress, and permeability changes, as well as large-scale fluid flow related to degassing of CO{sub 2} in the shallow seismogenic crust. Thus, our study provides further evidence of the

  7. Technological yields of sources for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The present report is prepared for planners of radiation processing of any material. Calculations are focused on accelerators of electrons, divided into two groups: versatile linacs of energy up to 13 MeV, and accelerators of lower energy, below 2 MeV, of better energy yield but of limited applications. The calculations are connected with the confrontation of the author's technological expectations during the preparation of the linac project in the late '60s, with the results of 25 years of exploitation of the machine. One has to realize that from the 200 kW input power from the mains, only 5 kW of bent and scanned beam is recovered on the conveyor. That power is only partially used for radiation induced phenomena, because of the demanded homogeneity of the dose, of the mode of packing of the object and its shape, of edges of the scanned area and in the spaces between boxes, and of loses during the idle time due to the tuning of the machine and dosimetric operations. The use of lower energy accelerators may be more economical than that of linacs in case of objects of specific type. At the first stage already, that is of the conversion of electrical power into that of low energy electron beam, the yield is 2-3 times better than in the case of linacs. Attention has been paid to the technological aspects of electron beam conversion into the more penetrating Bremsstrahlung similar to gamma radiation. The advantages of technologies, which make possible a control of the shape of the processed object are stressed. Special attention is focused to the relation between the yield of processing and the ratio between the maximum to the minimum dose in the object under the irradiation. (author). 14 refs, 14 figs

  8. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  9. Semiconductor processing apparatus with compact free radical source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.

    2013-01-01

    A semiconductor processing apparatus (1), comprising: a substrate processing chamber (158), defining a substrate support location (156) at which a generally planar semiconductor substrate (300) is supportable; and at least one free radical source (200), including: a precursor gas source (250); an

  10. Data processing with microcode designed with source coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, James A; Morrison, Steven E

    2013-05-07

    Programming for a data processor to execute a data processing application is provided using microcode source code. The microcode source code is assembled to produce microcode that includes digital microcode instructions with which to signal the data processor to execute the data processing application.

  11. Repairing business process models as retrieved from source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández-Ropero, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Pérez-Castillo, R.; Piattini, M.; Nurcan, S.; Proper, H.A.; Soffer, P.; Krogstie, J.; Schmidt, R.; Halpin, T.; Bider, I.

    2013-01-01

    The static analysis of source code has become a feasible solution to obtain underlying business process models from existing information systems. Due to the fact that not all information can be automatically derived from source code (e.g., consider manual activities), such business process models

  12. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlazim

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T dur . T dur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (μ) while T dur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or μ. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/μ, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T dur is proportional L and greater Mo/μ. Because Mo/μ is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4–5 min after an earthquake

  13. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  14. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gómez

    Full Text Available In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent.

  15. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  16. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  17. The Implications of Strike-Slip Earthquake Source Properties on the Transform Boundary Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, J. S.; Huang, Y.; Furlong, K.

    2017-12-01

    Subduction-Transform Edge Propagator (STEP) faults, produced by the tearing of a subducting plate, allow us to study the development of a transform plate boundary and improve our understanding of both long-term geologic processes and short-term seismic hazards. The 280 km long San Cristobal Trough (SCT), formed by the tearing of the Australia plate as it subducts under the Pacific plate near the Solomon and Vanuatu subduction zones, shows along-strike variations in earthquake behaviors. The segment of the SCT closest to the tear rarely hosts earthquakes > Mw 6, whereas the SCT sections more than 80 - 100 km from the tear experience Mw7 earthquakes with repeated rupture along the same segments. To understand the effect of cumulative displacement on SCT seismicity, we analyze b-values, centroid-time delays and corner frequencies of the SCT earthquakes. We use the spectral ratio method based on Empirical Green's Functions (eGfs) to isolate source effects from propagation and site effects. We find high b-values along the SCT closest to the tear with values decreasing with distance before finally increasing again towards the far end of the SCT. Centroid time-delays for the Mw 7 strike-slip earthquakes increase with distance from the tear, but corner frequency estimates for a recent sequence of Mw 7 earthquakes are approximately equal, indicating a growing complexity in earthquake behavior with distance from the tear due to a displacement-driven transform boundary development process (see figure). The increasing complexity possibly stems from the earthquakes along the eastern SCT rupturing through multiple asperities resulting in multiple moment pulses. If not for the bounding Vanuatu subduction zone at the far end of the SCT, the eastern SCT section, which has experienced the most displacement, might be capable of hosting larger earthquakes. When assessing the seismic hazard of other STEP faults, cumulative fault displacement should be considered a key input in

  18. Predicting creep rupture from early strain data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, Stefan; Auerkari, Pertti

    2009-01-01

    To extend creep life modelling from classical rupture modelling, a robust and effective parametric strain model has been developed. The model can reproduce with good accuracy all parts of the creep curve, economically utilising the available rupture models. The resulting combined model can also be used to predict rupture from the available strain data, and to further improve the rupture models. The methodology can utilise unfailed specimen data for life assessment at lower stress levels than what is possible from rupture data alone. Master curves for creep strain and rupture have been produced for oxygen-free phosphorus-doped (OFP) copper with a maximum testing time of 51,000 h. Values of time to specific strain at given stress (40-165 MPa) and temperature (125-350 deg. C) were fitted to the models in the strain range of 0.1-38%. With typical inhomogeneous multi-batch creep data, the combined strain and rupture modelling involves the steps of investigation of the data quality, extraction of elastic and creep strain response, rupture modelling, data set balancing and creep strain modelling. Finally, the master curves for strain and rupture are tested and validated for overall fitting efficiency. With the Wilshire equation as the basis for the rupture model, the strain model applies classical parametric principles with an Arrhenius type of thermal activation and a power law type of stress dependence for the strain rate. The strain model also assumes that the processes of primary and secondary creep can be reasonably correlated. The rupture model represents a clear improvement over previous models in the range of the test data. The creep strain information from interrupted and running tests were assessed together with the rupture data investigating the possibility of rupture model improvement towards lower stress levels by inverse utilisation of the combined rupture based strain model. The developed creep strain model together with the improved rupture model is

  19. Hepatic rupture in preeclampsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winer-Muram, H.T.; Muram, D.; Salazar, J.; Massie, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of hepatic rupture in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension (preeclampsia and eclampsia) is rarely made preoperatively. Diagnostic imaging can be utilized in some patients to confirm the preoperative diagnosis. Since hematoma formation precedes hepatic rupture, then, when diagnostic modalities such as sonography and computed tomography identify patients with hematomas, these patients are at risk of rupture, and should be hospitalized until the hematomas resolve

  20. Joint Inversion of 1-Hz GPS Data and Strong Motion Records for the Rupture Process of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake: Objectively Determining Relative Weighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Kato, T.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal fault slip history of the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake, Japan, is obtained by the joint inversion of 1-Hz GPS waveforms and near-field strong motion records. 1-Hz GPS data from GEONET is processed by GAMIT/GLOBK and then a low-pass filter of 0.05 Hz is applied. The ground surface strong motion records from stations of K-NET and Kik-Net are band-pass filtered for the range of 0.05 ~ 0.3 Hz and integrated once to obtain velocity. The joint inversion exploits a broader frequency band for near-field ground motions, which provides excellent constraints for both the detailed slip history and slip distribution. A fully Bayesian inversion method is performed to simultaneously and objectively determine the rupture model, the unknown relative weighting of multiple data sets and the unknown smoothing hyperparameters. The preferred rupture model is stable for different choices of velocity structure model and station distribution, with maximum slip of ~ 8.0 m and seismic moment of 2.9 × 1019 Nm (Mw 6.9). By comparison with the single inversion of strong motion records, the cumulative slip distribution of joint inversion shows sparser slip distribution with two slip asperities. One common slip asperity extends from the hypocenter southeastward to the ground surface of breakage; another slip asperity, which is unique for joint inversion contributed by 1-Hz GPS waveforms, appears in the deep part of fault where very few aftershocks are occurring. The differential moment rate function of joint and single inversions obviously indicates that rich high frequency waves are radiated in the first three seconds but few low frequency waves.

  1. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    G?mez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are ...

  2. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S.

    2017-01-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  3. Radioactive sealed sources production process for industrial radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Ngunga, Daniel M.G.; Camara, Julio R.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: hobeddaniel@gmail.com, E-mail: jrcamara@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energética s e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    providing products and services to the private and governmental Brazilian users of industrial radiography and nucleonic control systems. Radioactive sealed sources are commonly used in nondestructive tests as radiography to make inspections and verify the internal structure and integrity of materials and in nucleonic gauges to control level, density, viscosity, etc. in on-line industrial processes. One of the most important activities carried out by this laboratory is related to the inspection of source projectors devices used in industrial radiography and its constituent parts as well as remote handle control assembly drive cable and guide tube systems. The laboratory also provide for the users iridium-192, cobalt-60 and selenium-75 sealed sources and performs quality control tests replacing spent or contaminated radiative sources. All discard of radioactive source is treated as radioactive waste. Additionally, administrative and commercial processes and protocols for exportation and transport of radioactive material are developed by specialized departments. In this work are presented the mean processes and procedures used by the Sealed Source Production Laboratory such as the arrival of the radioactive material to the laboratory and the source projectors, mechanical inspections, source loading, source leaking tests, etc. (author)

  4. Computer program for source distribution process in radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kassiri, H.; Abdul Ghani, B.

    2007-08-01

    Computer simulation for dose distribution using Visual Basic has been done according to the arrangement and activities of Co-60 sources. This program provides dose distribution in treated products depending on the product density and desired dose. The program is useful for optimization of sources distribution during loading process. there is good agreement between calculated data for the program and experimental data.(Author)

  5. Metrics for comparing dynamic earthquake rupture simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barall, Michael; Harris, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquakes are complex events that involve a myriad of interactions among multiple geologic features and processes. One of the tools that is available to assist with their study is computer simulation, particularly dynamic rupture simulation. A dynamic rupture simulation is a numerical model of the physical processes that occur during an earthquake. Starting with the fault geometry, friction constitutive law, initial stress conditions, and assumptions about the condition and response of the near‐fault rocks, a dynamic earthquake rupture simulation calculates the evolution of fault slip and stress over time as part of the elastodynamic numerical solution (Ⓔ see the simulation description in the electronic supplement to this article). The complexity of the computations in a dynamic rupture simulation make it challenging to verify that the computer code is operating as intended, because there are no exact analytic solutions against which these codes’ results can be directly compared. One approach for checking if dynamic rupture computer codes are working satisfactorily is to compare each code’s results with the results of other dynamic rupture codes running the same earthquake simulation benchmark. To perform such a comparison consistently, it is necessary to have quantitative metrics. In this paper, we present a new method for quantitatively comparing the results of dynamic earthquake rupture computer simulation codes.

  6. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs

  8. Complementary Ruptures of Surface Ruptures and Deep Asperity during the 2014 Northern Nagano, Japan, Earthquake (MW 6.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

    2015-12-01

    A thrust earthquake of MW 6.3 occurred along the northern part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) in the northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan, on November 22, 2014. This event was reported to be related to an active fault, the Kamishiro fault belonging to the ISTL (e.g., HERP, 2014). The surface rupture is observed along the Kamishiro fault (e.g., Lin et al., 2015; Okada et al., 2015). We estimated the kinematic source rupture process of this earthquake through the multiple time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We used velocity waveforms in 0.05-1 Hz from 12 strong motion stations of K-NET, KiK-net (NIED), JMA, and Nagano prefecture (SK-net, ERI). In order to enhance the reliability in Green's functions, we assumed one-dimensional velocity structure models different for the different stations, which were extracted from the nation-wide three-dimensional velocity structure model, Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012). Considering the spatial distribution of aftershocks (Sakai et al., 2015) and surface ruptures, the assumed fault model consisted of two dip-bending fault segments with different dip angles between the northern and southern segments. The total length and width of the fault plane is 20 km and 13 km, relatively, and the fault model is divided into 260 subfaults of 1 km × 1 km in space and six smoothed ramp functions in time. An asperity or large slip area with a peak slip of 1.9 m was estimated in the lower plane of the northern segment in the approximate depth range of 4 to 8 km. The depth extent of this asperity is consistent with the seismogenic zone revealed by past studies (e.g., Panayotopoulos et al., 2014). In contrast, the slip in the southern segment is relatively concentrated in the shallow portion of the segment where the surface ruptures were found along the Kamishiro fault. The overall spatial rupture pattern of the source fault, in which the deep asperity

  9. Application of large radiation sources in chemical processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, K.

    1977-01-01

    Large radiation sources and their application in chemical processing industry are described. A reference has also been made to the present developments in this field in India. Radioactive sources, notably 60 Co, are employed in production of wood-plastic and concrete-polymer composites, vulcanised rubbers, polymers, sulfochlorinated paraffin hydrocarbons and in a number of other applications which require deep penetration and high reliability of source. Machine sources of electrons are used in production of heat shrinkable plastics, insulation materials for cables, curing of paints etc. Radiation sources have also been used for sewage hygienisation. As for the scene in India, 60 Co sources, gamma chambers and batch irradiators are manufactured. A list of the on-going R and D projects and organisations engaged in research in this field is given. (M.G.B.)

  10. Fundamental atomic collisional processes in negative ion sources for H-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, D.H.; Barnett, C.F.

    1977-01-01

    The basic collision processes which create or destroy H - in gas-phase collisions like those which occur in ion sources are discussed. Cross sections are presented which show that, for known processes, destruction is generally more likely than production. One possible production mechanism (on which there is no data) is suggested, and isotope effects between hydrogen and deuterium are discussed

  11. Global variations of large megathrust earthquake rupture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Hiroo

    2018-01-01

    Despite the surge of great earthquakes along subduction zones over the last decade and advances in observations and analysis techniques, it remains unclear whether earthquake complexity is primarily controlled by persistent fault properties or by dynamics of the failure process. We introduce the radiated energy enhancement factor (REEF), given by the ratio of an event’s directly measured radiated energy to the calculated minimum radiated energy for a source with the same seismic moment and duration, to quantify the rupture complexity. The REEF measurements for 119 large [moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 to 9.2] megathrust earthquakes distributed globally show marked systematic regional patterns, suggesting that the rupture complexity is strongly influenced by persistent geological factors. We characterize this as the existence of smooth and rough rupture patches with varying interpatch separation, along with failure dynamics producing triggering interactions that augment the regional influences on large events. We present an improved asperity scenario incorporating both effects and categorize global subduction zones and great earthquakes based on their REEF values and slip patterns. Giant earthquakes rupturing over several hundred kilometers can occur in regions with low-REEF patches and small interpatch spacing, such as for the 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and 2011 Tohoku earthquakes, or in regions with high-REEF patches and large interpatch spacing as in the case for the 2004 Sumatra and 1906 Ecuador-Colombia earthquakes. Thus, combining seismic magnitude Mw and REEF, we provide a quantitative framework to better represent the span of rupture characteristics of great earthquakes and to understand global seismicity. PMID:29750186

  12. Dispersal from deep ocean sources: physical and related scientific processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.R.; Kupferman, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    This report presents the results of the workshop ''Dispersal from Deep Ocean Sources: Physical and Related Scientific Processes,'' together with subsequent developments and syntheses of the material discussed there. The project was undertaken to develop usable predictive descriptions of dispersal from deep oceanic sources. Relatively simple theoretical models embodying modern ocean physics were applied, and observational and experimental data bases were exploited. All known physical processes relevant to the dispersal of passive, conservative tracers were discussed, and contact points for inclusion of nonconservative processes (biological and chemical) were identified. Numerical estimates of the amplitude, space, and time scales of dispersion were made for various mechanisms that control the evolution of the dispersal as the material spreads from a bottom point source to small-, meso-, and world-ocean scales. Recommendations for additional work are given. The volume is presented as a handbook of dispersion processes. It is intended to be updated as new results become available

  13. Premature rupture of membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000512.htm Premature rupture of membranes To use the sharing features on this page, ... water that surrounds your baby in the womb. Membranes or layers of tissue hold in this fluid. ...

  14. Ruptured submitral aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shukla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Submitral aneurysm is a rare entity, with around few hundred cases reported till date. Presentation can be varied. We describe here a case of submitral aneurysm in a young male with rupture into the left atrium cavity.

  15. Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a strong fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of your calf to your heel bone. If you overstretch your Achilles tendon, it can tear (rupture) completely or just partially. If your Achilles ...

  16. Ruptured cornual pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Yasmeen, H.; Noorani, K.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ruptured cornual pregnancy is presented here. The patient presented with history of 30 weeks gestational amenorrhoea and pain in the lower abdomen and epigastrium for the last seven days. Ultrasound revealed a 29 weeks abdominal pregnancy with blood in the pelvic cavity. On laparotomy; there was a ruptured right cornual pregnancy, treated cornual resection and uterine repair. An alive male baby of one kg weight was delivered from the resected cornua of the uterus. (author)

  17. Development of rupture discs for the FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Raju, C.; Anandkumar, V.; Seetharaman, V.; Rajan, K.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rupture discs are required as a safety device for protecting the secondary sodium circuit and its components against high pressure surges due to accidental water steam leaks in sodium heated steam generator and the consequent sodium water reaction. For identical reasons, rupture discs are also required on the vessels used for decontamination of sodium components. Reverse buckling knife blade concept with austenitic stainless steel disc has been developed for the rupture disc assemblies required for Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). Hydroforming process without any die has been used for disc fabrication. One rupture disc assembly required for steam generator is undergoing sodium endurance test and has accumulated 4,500 hours. The present status of development work as demonstrated by room temperature experimental results as well as the scope for future work are discussed. (author)

  18. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Thomas A.; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco; Holton, James M.; Kirian, Richard A.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Chapman, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam

  19. Crystallographic data processing for free-electron laser sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Thomas A., E-mail: taw@physics.org; Barty, Anton; Stellato, Francesco [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Holton, James M. [University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kirian, Richard A. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zatsepin, Nadia A. [Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Chapman, Henry N. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A processing pipeline for diffraction data acquired using the ‘serial crystallography’ methodology with a free-electron laser source is described with reference to the crystallographic analysis suite CrystFEL and the pre-processing program Cheetah. A detailed analysis of the nature and impact of indexing ambiguities is presented. Simulations of the Monte Carlo integration scheme, which accounts for the partially recorded nature of the diffraction intensities, are presented and show that the integration of partial reflections could be made to converge more quickly if the bandwidth of the X-rays were to be increased by a small amount or if a slight convergence angle were introduced into the incident beam.

  20. Component external leakage and rupture frequency estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eide, S.A.; Khericha, S.T.; Calley, M.B.; Johnson, D.A.; Marteeny, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    In order to perform detailed internal flooding risk analyses of nuclear power plants, external leakage and rupture frequencies are needed for various types of components - piping, valves, pumps, flanges, and others. However, there appears to be no up-to-date, comprehensive source for such frequency estimates. This report attempts to fill that void. Based on a comprehensive search of Licensee Event Reports (LERs) contained in Nuclear Power Experience (NPE), and estimates of component populations and exposure times, component external leakage and rupture frequencies were generated. The remainder of this report covers the specifies of the NPE search for external leakage and rupture events, analysis of the data, a comparison with frequency estimates from other sources, and a discussion of the results

  1. Open Source Web Based Geospatial Processing with OMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lucas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of geospatial data sets is exploding. New satellites, aerial platforms, video feeds, global positioning system tagged digital photos, and traditional GIS information are dramatically increasing across the globe. These raw materials need to be dynamically processed, combined and correlated to generate value added information products to answer a wide range of questions. This article provides an overview of OMAR web based geospatial processing. OMAR is part of the Open Source Software Image Map project under the Open Source Geospatial Foundation. The primary contributors of OSSIM make their livings by providing professional services to US Government agencies and programs. OMAR provides one example that open source software solutions are increasingly being deployed in US government agencies. We will also summarize the capabilities of OMAR and its plans for near term development.

  2. Study Of The Rupture Process Of The 2015 Mw7.8 Izu-Bonin Earthquake And Its Implication To Deep-Focus Earthquake Genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, P. R.; Hung, S. H.; Meng, L.

    2015-12-01

    On May 30, 2015, a major Mw7.8 great deep earthquake occurred at the base of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), approximately 680 km deep within the Pacific Plate which subducts westward under the Philippine Sea Plate along the Izu-Bonin trench. A global P wave tomographic image indicates that a tabular high-velocity structure delineated by ~1% faster than the ambient mantle plunges nearly vertical to a depth at most 600 km and afterword flattens and stagnates within the MTZ. Almost all the deep earthquakes in this region are clustered inside this fast anomaly corresponding to the cold core of the subducting slab. Those occurring at depth between 400~500 km close to the hinge of the bending slab show down-dip compressional focal mechanisms and reflect episodic release of compressive strain accumulated in the slab. The 2015 deep event, however, separated from the others, occurred uniquely near the base of the lithosphere with a down-dip extension mechanism, consistent with the notion that the outer portion of the folded slab experiences extensional bending stress. Here we perform a 3D MUSIC back-projection (BP) rupture imaging for this isolated deep event using P and pP waveforms individually from the European, North American and Australian array data. By integrating P- and pP- BP images in frequencies of 0.1-1 Hz obtained from three array observations with different azimuth, we first ascertain the most possible fault plan is the SW-dipping subhorizontal one. Then, from back-projecting higher frequency waveforms at 1-1.5 Hz onto the obtained fault plane, we find the rupture initially propagates slowly along the strike (SW-direction), and makes a turn to the NNW-direction at ~12s after the onset of rupture. The MUSIC psudospectrum over totally 20s rupture duration reveals that most seismic energy radiation takes place at the initial 8s of the first rupture along the strike, 10-15 km long region, while the along-updip second rupture lasting for 6-10s has a rupture

  3. Weldability of general purpose heat source new-process iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanne, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Weldability tests on General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium capsules showed that a new iridium fabrication process reduced susceptibility to underbead cracking. Seventeen capsules were welded (a total of 255 welds) in four categories and the number of cracks in each weld was measured

  4. Non-invasively collected amniotic fluid as a source of possible biomarkers for premature rupture of membranes investigated by proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Sara; Mainini, Veronica; Pizzardi, Agnese; Gianazza, Erica; Chinello, Clizia; Locatelli, Anna; Magni, Fulvio

    2014-02-01

    Preterm delivery is one of the main causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality and it accounts for 75 % of perinatal mortality and more than half of the long-term morbidity. We applied a proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry (MS) for biomarkers discovery of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM) by investigating amniotic fluid (AF) invasively and non-invasively collected. Amniotic fluid was obtained from vagina of women with pPROM (group 1), PROM at term (group 2) and by genetic amniocentesis (group 3). Pre-fractionated AF proteome was analyzed through matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS. The characterization of proteins/peptides of interest was obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem MS. Three peptides overexpressed in pPROM and able to discriminate the groups 1 and 2 were detected. One peptide was identified as the fragment Gly452LAVPDGPLGLPPKPro466 of the protein KIAA1522, expressed by fetal brain and liver. This peptide was overexpressed in a patient of the group 3, completely asymptomatic at the time of the amniocentesis, who later developed pPROM. Amniotic fluid invasively and non-invasively collected can be analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS to obtain proteomic profiles. Proteomic analysis identified a peptide with promising diagnostic capability for pPROM.

  5. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  6. TOWARD INDONESIAN TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM BY USING RAPID RUPTURE DURATIONS CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adlazim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has an Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purpose of this study is to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor Sea, Banda Sea, Arafura Sea and Pacific Ocean using a direct procedure and software developed Lomax and Michelini for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential by deriving two simple measures from vertical component broadband P-wave velocity record. The first is the high-frequency apparent rupture duration, Tdur which may be related to can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L, depth (z, and shear modulus (μ. The second is a confirmation of the earlier finding by Lomax and Michelini, namely that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and Depth. We analyzed at least 510 vertical seismogram recorded by GEOFON-IA and IRIS-DMC networks. Our analysis shows that the seismic potency, LWD, which is more obviously related to capability to generate a tsunami than former. The larger Tdur the larger is the seismic potency LWD because Tdur is proportional to L/vr (with vr – rupture velocity. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 3 to 8 min after the P-onset.

  7. Pure sources and efficient detectors for optical quantum information processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielnicki, Kevin

    Over the last sixty years, classical information theory has revolutionized the understanding of the nature of information, and how it can be quantified and manipulated. Quantum information processing extends these lessons to quantum systems, where the properties of intrinsic uncertainty and entanglement fundamentally defy classical explanation. This growing field has many potential applications, including computing, cryptography, communication, and metrology. As inherently mobile quantum particles, photons are likely to play an important role in any mature large-scale quantum information processing system. However, the available methods for producing and detecting complex multi-photon states place practical limits on the feasibility of sophisticated optical quantum information processing experiments. In a typical quantum information protocol, a source first produces an interesting or useful quantum state (or set of states), perhaps involving superposition or entanglement. Then, some manipulations are performed on this state, perhaps involving quantum logic gates which further manipulate or entangle the intial state. Finally, the state must be detected, obtaining some desired measurement result, e.g., for secure communication or computationally efficient factoring. The work presented here concerns the first and last stages of this process as they relate to photons: sources and detectors. Our work on sources is based on the need for optimized non-classical states of light delivered at high rates, particularly of single photons in a pure quantum state. We seek to better understand the properties of spontaneous parameteric downconversion (SPDC) sources of photon pairs, and in doing so, produce such an optimized source. We report an SPDC source which produces pure heralded single photons with little or no spectral filtering, allowing a significant rate enhancement. Our work on detectors is based on the need to reliably measure single-photon states. We have focused on

  8. Algorithms for the process management of sealed source brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, M.J.; Ulin, K.; Sternick, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Incidents and misadministrations suggest that brachytherapy may benefit form clarification of the quality management program and other mandates of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. To that end, flowcharts of step by step subprocesses were developed and formatted with dedicated software. The overall process was similarly organized in a complex flowchart termed a general process map. Procedural and structural indicators associated with each flowchart and map were critiqued and pre-existing documentation was revised. open-quotes Step-regulation tablesclose quotes were created to refer steps and subprocesses to Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules and recommendations in their sequences of applicability. Brachytherapy algorithms were specified as programmable, recursive processes, including therapeutic dose determination and monitoring doses to the public. These algorithms are embodied in flowcharts and step-regulation tables. A general algorithm is suggested as a template form which other facilities may derive tools to facilitate process management of sealed source brachytherapy. 11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  9. "Remember" source memory ROCs indicate recollection is a continuous process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    The dual process model assumes memory is based on recollection (retrieval with specific detail) or familiarity (retrieval without specific detail). A current debate is whether recollection is a threshold process or, like familiarity, is a continuous process. In the present study two continuous models and two threshold models of recollection were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. These models included the continuous signal detection unequal variance model and the threshold dual process model. In the study phase of three experiments, objects were presented to the right or left of fixation. At test, participants made either remember-know responses or item confidence responses followed by source memory (spatial location) confidence ratings. Recollection-based ROCs were generated from source memory confidence ratings associated with "remember" responses (in Experiments 1-2) or the highest item confidence responses (in Experiment 3). Neither threshold model adequately fit any of the recollection-based ROCs. By contrast, one or both of the continuous models adequately fit all of the recollection-based ROCs. The present results indicate recollection and familiarity are both continuous processes.

  10. RESEARCH ON REDUCING PREMATURITY RUPTURE OF MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria URSACHI (BOLOTA

    2016-12-01

    -term (3 days and distance (2 years interventional methods applied; clinical investigation of complications arising post intervention; studying behavior synthetic amnion. Conclusions: The cause of PRAS is multifactorial. Traditionally, fetal membrane rupture has been attributed to increased physical stress, which weakens the membranes. At the molecular level PRAS is the result of reducing collagen synthesis, alteration of the structure of collagen to accelerate degradation. In addition, these biochemical changes can be amplified and biophysical stress today. The priorities of this research include elucidation of the normal biological process of fetal membranes, including extracellular matrix remodeling, apoptosis.

  11. Note on fault-slip motion inferred from a study of micro-cataclastic particles from an underground shear rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlepp, W. D.

    1992-09-01

    Mining of a highly-stressed remnant in a deep South African gold mine was accompanied by considerable seismic activity and some significant rockbursts. The larger seismic events were registered some 60 km away at a WSSN station and several shear ruptures corresponding to these events were encountered during mining operations. A careful study based on detailed exploration of two of these ruptures proved them to be the source of two of the larger rockbursts. Certain striking features revealed by a scanning electron microscopic study of some of the fresh cataclastic ‘rock-flour’ forming part of the comminuted filling of these ruptures provide strong evidence of violent ’shock rebound’ phenomena in the faulting process. This interpretation could provide useful insight into earthquake source mechanisms and also has practical significance in the understanding of mine rockbursts.

  12. Evaluating sources and processing of nonpoint source nitrate in a small suburban watershed in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li; Huang, Minsheng; Ma, Minghai; Wei, Jinbao; Hu, Wei; Chouhan, Seema

    2018-04-01

    Identifying nonpoint sources of nitrate has been a long-term challenge in mixed land-use watershed. In the present study, we combine dual nitrate isotope, runoff and stream water monitoring to elucidate the nonpoint nitrate sources across land use, and determine the relative importance of biogeochemical processes for nitrate export in a small suburban watershed, Longhongjian watershed, China. Our study suggested that NH4+ fertilizer, soil NH4+, litter fall and groundwater were the main nitrate sources in Longhongjian Stream. There were large changes in nitrate sources in response to season and land use. Runoff analysis illustrated that the tea plantation and forest areas contributed to a dominated proportion of the TN export. Spatial analysis illustrated that NO3- concentration was high in the tea plantation and forest areas, and δ15N-NO3 and δ18O-NO3 were enriched in the step ponds. Temporal analysis showed high NO3- level in spring, and nitrate isotopes were enriched in summer. Study as well showed that the step ponds played an important role in mitigating nitrate pollution. Nitrification and plant uptake were the significant biogeochemical processes contributing to the nitrogen transformation, and denitrification hardly occurred in the stream.

  13. ACToR Chemical Structure processing using Open Source ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACToR (Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource) is a centralized database repository developed by the National Center for Computational Toxicology (NCCT) at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Free and open source tools were used to compile toxicity data from over 1,950 public sources. ACToR contains chemical structure information and toxicological data for over 558,000 unique chemicals. The database primarily includes data from NCCT research programs, in vivo toxicity data from ToxRef, human exposure data from ExpoCast, high-throughput screening data from ToxCast and high quality chemical structure information from the EPA DSSTox program. The DSSTox database is a chemical structure inventory for the NCCT programs and currently has about 16,000 unique structures. Included are also data from PubChem, ChemSpider, USDA, FDA, NIH and several other public data sources. ACToR has been a resource to various international and national research groups. Most of our recent efforts on ACToR are focused on improving the structural identifiers and Physico-Chemical properties of the chemicals in the database. Organizing this huge collection of data and improving the chemical structure quality of the database has posed some major challenges. Workflows have been developed to process structures, calculate chemical properties and identify relationships between CAS numbers. The Structure processing workflow integrates web services (PubChem and NIH NCI Cactus) to d

  14. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Paredes, J.A.

    2007-05-01

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k -2 source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w 2 model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C d . To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C d , as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M w 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  15. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  16. Double rupture disc experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Result of these observations, comparisons and evaluations can be summarized in the following list of concerns regarding the use of double rupture discs coupled to the liquid space of a steam generator that is subjected to a large leak sodium water reaction event. Single rupture disc show delayed collapse characteristics in LLTR Series I and double disc assemblies are presumed to be more complex with additional delay before opening to give pressure relief. Delayed failure increases pressures in the IHTS and must be adequately covered by design requirements. With CRBR design, the first disc may fail only partially reducing the loading on the second disc with the result that relief performance may not meet requirements

  17. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  18. Preliminary investigation of processes that affect source term identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickliff, D.S.; Solomon, D.K.; Farrow, N.D.

    1991-09-01

    Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 is known to be a significant source of contaminants, especially tritium ( 3 H), to the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. For example, Solomon et al. (1991) estimated the total 3 H discharge in Melton Branch (most of which originates in SWSA 5) for the 1988 water year to be 1210 Ci. A critical issue for making decisions concerning remedial actions at SWSA 5 is knowing whether the annual contaminant discharge is increasing or decreasing. Because (1) the magnitude of the annual contaminant discharge is highly correlated to the amount of annual precipitation (Solomon et al., 1991) and (2) a significant lag may exist between the time of peak contaminant release from primary sources (i.e., waste trenches) and the time of peak discharge into streams, short-term stream monitoring by itself is not sufficient for predicting future contaminant discharges. In this study we use 3 H to examine the link between contaminant release from primary waste sources and contaminant discharge into streams. By understanding and quantifying subsurface transport processes, realistic predictions of future contaminant discharge, along with an evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial action alternatives, will be possible. The objectives of this study are (1) to characterize the subsurface movement of contaminants (primarily 3 H) with an emphasis on the effects of matrix diffusion; (2) to determine the relative strength of primary vs secondary sources; and (3) to establish a methodology capable of determining whether the 3 H discharge from SWSA 5 to streams is increasing or decreasing

  19. Groundwater sources and geochemical processes in a crystalline fault aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Aquilina, Luc; Bour, Olivier; Maréchal, Jean-Christophe; Dewandel, Benoît; Pauwels, Hélène; Labasque, Thierry; Vergnaud-Ayraud, Virginie; Hochreutener, Rebecca

    2014-11-01

    The origin of water flowing in faults and fractures at great depth is poorly known in crystalline media. This paper describes a field study designed to characterize the geochemical compartmentalization of a deep aquifer system constituted by a graben structure where a permeable fault zone was identified. Analyses of the major chemical elements, trace elements, dissolved gases and stable water isotopes reveal the origin of dissolved components for each permeable domain and provide information on various water sources involved during different seasonal regimes. The geochemical response induced by performing a pumping test in the fault-zone is examined, in order to quantify mixing processes and contribution of different permeable domains to the flow. Reactive processes enhanced by the pumped fluxes are also identified and discussed. The fault zone presents different geochemical responses related to changes in hydraulic regime. They are interpreted as different water sources related to various permeable structures within the aquifer. During the low water regime, results suggest mixing of recent water with a clear contribution of older water of inter-glacial origin (recharge temperature around 7 °C), suggesting the involvement of water trapped in a local low-permeability matrix domain or the contribution of large scale circulation loops. During the high water level period, due to inversion of the hydraulic gradient between the major permeable fault zone and its surrounding domains, modern water predominantly flows down to the deep bedrock and ensures recharge at a local scale within the graben. Pumping in a permeable fault zone induces hydraulic connections with storage-reservoirs. The overlaid regolith domain ensures part of the flow rate for long term pumping (around 20% in the present case). During late-time pumping, orthogonal fluxes coming from the fractured domains surrounding the major fault zone are dominant. Storage in the connected fracture network within the

  20. Carotenoids Functionality, Sources, and Processing by Supercritical Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid is a group of pigments naturally present in vegetal raw materials that have biological properties. These pigments have been used mainly in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Currently, the industrial production is executed through chemical synthesis, but natural alternatives of carotenoid production/attainment are in development. The carotenoid extraction occurs generally with vegetal oil and organic solvents, but supercritical technology is an alternative technique to the recovery of these compounds, presenting many advantages when compared to conventional process. Brazil has an ample diversity of vegetal sources inadequately investigated and, then, a major development of optimization and validation of carotenoid production/attainment methods is necessary, so that the benefits of these pigments can be delivered to the consumer.

  1. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs

  2. Pseudo-dynamic source modelling with 1-point and 2-point statistics of earthquake source parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Song, S. G.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    statistical framework that governs the finite-fault rupture process with 1-point and 2-point statistics of source parameters in order to quantify the variability of finite source models for future scenario events. We test this method by extracting 1-point

  3. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro

    2017-02-23

    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario ruptures also account for key features of the national tsunami source model for the Nankai–Tonankai earthquake by the Central Disaster Management Council of the Japanese Government. The source models capture a wide range of realistic slip distributions and kinematic rupture processes, reflecting the current best understanding of what may happen due to a future mega-earthquake in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough, and therefore are useful for conducting probabilistic tsunami hazard and risk analysis. A large suite of scenario rupture models is then used to investigate the variability of tsunami effects in coastal areas, such as offshore tsunami wave heights and onshore inundation depths, due to realistic variations in source characteristics. Such investigations are particularly valuable for tsunami hazard mapping and evacuation planning in municipalities along the Nankai–Tonankai coast.

  4. [Achilles tendon rupture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermann, H; Hüfner, T; Tscherne, H

    2000-03-01

    The treatment of acute of Achilles tendon rupture experienced a dynamic development in the last ten years. Decisive for this development was the application of MRI and above all the ultrasonography in the diagnostics of the pathological changes and injuries of tendons. The question of rupture morphology as well as different courses of healing could be now evaluated objectively. These advances led consequently to new modalities in treatment concepts and rehabilitation protocols. The decisive input for improvements of the outcome results and particularly the shortening of the rehabilitation period came with introduction of the early functional treatment in contrast to immobilizing plaster treatment. In a prospective randomized study (1987-1989) at the Trauma Dept. of the Hannover Medical School could show no statistical differences comparing functional non-operative with functional operative therapy with a special therapy boot (Variostabil/Adidas). The crucial criteria for therapy selection results from the sonographically measured position of the tendon stumps in plantar flexion (20 degrees). With complete adaptation of the tendons' ends surgical treatment does not achieve better results than non-operative functional treatment in term of tendon healing and functional outcome. Regarding the current therapeutic standards each method has is advantages and disadvantages. Both, the operative and non-operative functional treatment enable a stable tendon healing with a low risk of re-rupture (1-2%). Meanwhile there is consensus for early functional after-treatment of the operated Achilles' tendons. There seems to be a trend towards non-operative functional treatment in cases of adequate sonographical findings, or to minimal invasive surgical techniques.

  5. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Sinai, Yohai Bar; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2011-01-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not comple...

  6. Source processes of strong earthquakes in the North Tien-Shan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, G.; Krueger, F.

    2013-12-01

    Tien-Shan region attracts attention of scientists worldwide due to its complexity and tectonic uniqueness. A series of very strong destructive earthquakes occurred in Tien-Shan at the turn of XIX and XX centuries. Such large intraplate earthquakes are rare in seismology, which increases the interest in the Tien-Shan region. The presented study focuses on the source processes of large earthquakes in Tien-Shan. The amount of seismic data is limited for those early times. In 1889, when a major earthquake has occurred in Tien-Shan, seismic instruments were installed in very few locations in the world and these analog records did not survive till nowadays. Although around a hundred seismic stations were operating at the beginning of XIX century worldwide, it is not always possible to get high quality analog seismograms. Digitizing seismograms is a very important step in the work with analog seismic records. While working with historical seismic records one has to take into account all the aspects and uncertainties of manual digitizing and the lack of accurate timing and instrument characteristics. In this study, we develop an easy-to-handle and fast digitization program on the basis of already existing software which allows to speed up digitizing process and to account for all the recoding system uncertainties. Owing to the lack of absolute timing for the historical earthquakes (due to the absence of a universal clock at that time), we used time differences between P and S phases to relocate the earthquakes in North Tien-Shan and the body-wave amplitudes to estimate their magnitudes. Combining our results with geological data, five earthquakes in North Tien-Shan were precisely relocated. The digitizing of records can introduce steps into the seismograms which makes restitution (removal of instrument response) undesirable. To avoid the restitution, we simulated historic seismograph recordings with given values for damping and free period of the respective instrument and

  7. ACCELERATING THE ADOPTION PROCESS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AMONG SMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Leloux

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available By 2020, intermittent renewable small scale energy sources (e.g. wind and solar energy are expected to represent about 17% of the EU’s total electricity consumption. All national overriding energy policy objectives are to ensure competitive, secure and sustainable energy for the economy and for society. Renewable energy, allied with energy efficiency, is often found crucial to meet these goals of secure sustainable and competitive energy supplies reducing dependency on expensive fossil imports and underpinning the move towards a low carbon economy while delivering green jobs to the economy. This all contributes to national competitiveness and the jobs and economic growth agenda. However, a straight forward implementation of renewable energy options is not easy, due to various barriers and obstacles. For most SMEs, the concept of generating their own renewable energy is still more of academic than genuine interest. In general, several barriers are experienced, such as high capital investments, slow return on investment, and the lack of knowledge of the benefits. There is a need for education on the benefits and drawbacks of sustainable energy, as well as a greater contribution to costs for this to work. In this paper we describe the intermediate outcomes of a European Partnership under the name of GREAT (Growing Renewable Energy Applications and Technologies, funded under the INTERREG IVB NWE Programme. GREAT aims to encourage communities and small to medium size enterprises (SMEs in Ireland, the United Kingdon, Belgium and The Netherlands to develop technological solutions for Smart Grid, Renewable Energy and Distributive Generation; research and develop policy issues for regulatory authorities and provide structured co-operation opportunities between SMEs and research institutes / technology developers. We developed GREAT spreadsheets to facilitate SMEs in each country to calculate the return-on-investment of renewable energy sources, such as

  8. Slow rupture of frictional interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar Sinai, Yohai; Brener, Efim A.; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2012-02-01

    The failure of frictional interfaces and the spatiotemporal structures that accompany it are central to a wide range of geophysical, physical and engineering systems. Recent geophysical and laboratory observations indicated that interfacial failure can be mediated by slow slip rupture phenomena which are distinct from ordinary, earthquake-like, fast rupture. These discoveries have influenced the way we think about frictional motion, yet the nature and properties of slow rupture are not completely understood. We show that slow rupture is an intrinsic and robust property of simple non-monotonic rate-and-state friction laws. It is associated with a new velocity scale cmin, determined by the friction law, below which steady state rupture cannot propagate. We further show that rupture can occur in a continuum of states, spanning a wide range of velocities from cmin to elastic wave-speeds, and predict different properties for slow rupture and ordinary fast rupture. Our results are qualitatively consistent with recent high-resolution laboratory experiments and may provide a theoretical framework for understanding slow rupture phenomena along frictional interfaces.

  9. Stellar neutron sources and s-process in massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Rashi

    The s-process or the slow neutron capture process is a nucleosynthesis process taking place at relatively low neutron densities in stars. It runs along the valley of beta stability since the neutron capture rate is much slower compared to the beta decay rate. The s-process occurs mainly during core helium burning and shell carbon burning phase in massive stars and during thermally pulsing helium burning phase in asymptotic giant-branch stars. The potential stellar neutron source for the s-process is associated with alpha-capture reactions on light nuclei. The capture-reaction rates provide the reaction flow for the build-up of22Ne neutron source during the heliumburning phase in these stars. The low energy 26Mg resonances at stellar energies below 800 keV are predicted to have a critical influence on the alpha-capture rates on 22Ne. Some of these resonances may also correspond to pronounced alpha cluster structure near the alpha-threshold. However, these resonances have remained elusive during direct alpha capture measurements owing to the high Coulomb barrier and background from cosmic rays and beam induced reactions. Hence, in the present work, alpha-inelastic scattering and alpha- transfer measurements have been performed to probe the level structure of 26Mg nucleus in order to determine the 22Ne+alpha-capture rates. Both experiments have been performed using the high-resolution Grand Raiden Spectrometer at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka, Japan. For the alpha-inelastic scattering measurement, a self-supporting solid 26Mg target was used and for the alpha-transfer study via the (6Li,d) reaction, 22Ne gas enclosed in a gas cell with Aramid windows was used. The reaction products were momentum analysed by the spectrometer and detected at the focal plane equipped with two multi-wire drift chambers and two plastic-scintillation detectors. The focal plane detection system provided information on the position, the angle, the time of flight and

  10. Multi-Fault Rupture Scenarios in the Brawley Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Oglesby, D. D.; Rockwell, T. K.; Meltzner, A. J.; Barall, M.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamic rupture complexity is strongly affected by both the geometric configuration of a network of faults and pre-stress conditions. Between those two, the geometric configuration is more likely to be anticipated prior to an event. An important factor in the unpredictability of the final rupture pattern of a group of faults is the time-dependent interaction between them. Dynamic rupture models provide a means to investigate this otherwise inscrutable processes. The Brawley Seismic Zone in Southern California is an area in which this approach might be important for inferring potential earthquake sizes and rupture patterns. Dynamic modeling can illuminate how the main faults in this area, the Southern San Andreas (SSAF) and Imperial faults, might interact with the intersecting cross faults, and how the cross faults may modulate rupture on the main faults. We perform 3D finite element modeling of potential earthquakes in this zone assuming an extended array of faults (Figure). Our results include a wide range of ruptures and fault behaviors depending on assumptions about nucleation location, geometric setup, pre-stress conditions, and locking depth. For example, in the majority of our models the cross faults do not strongly participate in the rupture process, giving the impression that they are not typically an aid or an obstacle to the rupture propagation. However, in some cases, particularly when rupture proceeds slowly on the main faults, the cross faults indeed can participate with significant slip, and can even cause rupture termination on one of the main faults. Furthermore, in a complex network of faults we should not preclude the possibility of a large event nucleating on a smaller fault (e.g. a cross fault) and eventually promoting rupture on the main structure. Recent examples include the 2010 Mw 7.1 Darfield (New Zealand) and Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (Mexico) earthquakes, where rupture started on a smaller adjacent segment and later cascaded into a larger

  11. Documenting open source migration processes for re-use

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several sources that indicate a remarkable increase in the adoption of open source software (OSS) into the technology infrastructure of organizations. In fact, the number of medium to large organizations without some OSS installations...

  12. Behind Linus's Law: Investigating Peer Review Processes in Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Open source software has revolutionized the way people develop software, organize collaborative work, and innovate. The numerous open source software systems that have been created and adopted over the past decade are influential and vital in all aspects of work and daily life. The understanding of open source software development can enhance its…

  13. Characterization of norm sources in petroleum coke calcining processes - 16314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian S.; Halter, Donald A.; Fruchtnicht, Erich H.; Arno, Matthew G.; Haumann, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or 'petcoke', is a waste by-product of the oil refining industry. The majority of petcoke consumption is in energy applications; catalyst coke is used as refinery fuel, anode coke for electricity conduction, and marketable coke for heating cement kilns. Roskill has predicted that long-term growth in petroleum coke production will be maintained, and may continue to increase slightly through 2012. Petcoke must first be calcined to drive off any undesirable petroleum by-products that would shorten the coke product life cycle. As an example, the calcining process can take place in large, rotary kilns heated to maximum temperatures as high as approximately 1400-1540 deg. C. The kilns and combustion/settling chambers, as well as some cooler units, are insulated with refractory bricks and other, interstitial materials, e.g., castable refractory materials, to improve the efficiency of the calcining process. The bricks are typically made of 70-85-percent bauxite, and are slowly worn away by the calcining process; bricks used to line the combustion chambers wear away, as well, but at a slower rate. It has been recognized that the refractory materials contain slight amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from the uranium- and thorium-decay series. Similarly, low levels of NORM could be present in the petcoke feed stock given the nature of its origin. Neither the petcoke nor the refractory bricks represent appreciable sources of radiation or radioactive waste. However, some of the demolished bricks that have been removed from service because of the aforementioned wearing process have caused portal alarms to activate at municipal disposal facilities. This has lead to the current investigation into whether there is a NORM concentrating mechanism facilitated by the presence of the slightly radioactive feed stock in the presence of the slightly radioactive refractory materials, at calcining-zone temperatures. Research conducted to date has been

  14. Alliance Rupture and Resolution in Dialectical Behavior Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boritz, Tali; Barnhart, Ryan; Eubanks, Catherine F; McMain, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate alliance rupture and resolution processes in the early sessions of a sample of clients who underwent 1 year of standard dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Participants were three recovered and three unrecovered clients drawn from the DBT arm of a randomized controlled trial that compared the clinical and cost-effectiveness of DBT and general psychiatric management. Alliance rupture and resolution processes were coded using the observer-based Rupture Resolution Rating Scale. Unrecovered clients evidenced a higher frequency of withdrawal ruptures than recovered clients. Withdrawal ruptures tended to persist for unrecovered clients despite the degree of resolution in the prior session, unlike for recovered clients, for whom the probability of withdrawal ruptures decreased as the degree of resolution increased. This study suggests that alliance rupture and resolution processes in early treatment differ between recovered and unrecovered clients in DBT for BPD.

  15. Resolution of alliance ruptures: The special case of animal-assisted psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilcha-Mano, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Many therapists regard alliance ruptures as one of the greatest challenges therapists face in the therapy room. Alliance ruptures has been previously defined as breakdowns in the process of negotiation of treatment tasks and goals and a deterioration in the affective bond between patient and therapist. Alliance ruptures have been found to predict premature termination of treatment and poor treatment outcomes. But ruptures can also present important opportunities for gaining insight and awareness and for facilitating therapeutic change. A process of rupture resolution may lead to beneficial outcomes and serve as a corrective emotional experience. The article describes unique processes of alliance rupture resolution inherent in animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP). Building on Safran and Muran's model and on clinical examples, the article describes strategies for identifying ruptures in AAP and techniques for repairing them to facilitate a corrective experience in treatment. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  16. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Untreated silicone breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse M; Conrad, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    Implant rupture is a well-known complication of breast implant surgery that can pass unnoticed by both patient and physician. To date, no prospective study has addressed the possible health implications of silicone breast implant rupture. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether untre...

  18. 40 CFR 74.17 - Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for process sources. [Reserved] ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application requirements for process sources. [Reserved] 74.17 Section 74.17 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  19. Solving the dynamic rupture problem with different numerical approaches and constitutive laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, A.; Cocco, M.; Andrews, D.J.; Boschi, Enzo

    2001-01-01

    We study the dynamic initiation, propagation and arrest of a 2-D in-plane shear rupture by solving the elastodynamic equation by using both a boundary integral equation method and a finite difference approach. For both methods we adopt different constitutive laws: a slip-weakening (SW) law, with constant weakening rate, and rate- and state-dependent friction laws (Dieterich-Ruina). Our numerical procedures allow the use of heterogeneous distributions of constitutive parameters along the fault for both formulations. We first compare the two solution methods with an SW law, emphasizing the required stability conditions to achieve a good resolution of the cohesive zone and to avoid artificial complexity in the solutions. Our modelling results show that the two methods provide very similar time histories of dynamic source parameters. We point out that, if a careful control of resolution and stability is performed, the two methods yield identical solutions. We have also compared the rupture evolution resulting from an SW and a rate- and state-dependent friction law. This comparison shows that despite the different constitutive formulations, a similar behaviour is simulated during the rupture propagation and arrest. We also observe a crack tip bifurcation and a jump in rupture velocity (approaching the P-wave speed) with the Dieterich-Ruina (DR) law. The rupture arrest at a barrier (high strength zone) and the barrier-healing mechanism are also reproduced by this law. However, this constitutive formulation allows the simulation of a more general and complex variety of rupture behaviours. By assuming different heterogeneous distributions of the initial constitutive parameters, we are able to model a barrier-healing as well as a self-healing process. This result suggests that if the heterogeneity of the constitutive parameters is taken into account, the different healing mechanisms can be simulated. We also study the nucleation phase duration Tn, defined as the time

  20. Blunt traumatic diaphragmatic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Nogueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury of the diaphragm ranges from 0.6 to 1.2% and rise up to 5%among patients who were victims of blunt trauma and underwent laparotomy.Clinical suspicion associated with radiological assessment contributes to earlydiagnosis. Isolated diaphragmatic injury has a good prognosis. Generallyworse outcomes are associated with other trauma injuries. Bilateral andright diaphragmatic lesions have worse prognosis. Multi detector computed tomography (MDCT scan of the chest and abdomen provides better diagnosticaccuracy using the possibility of image multiplanar reconstruction. Surgicalrepair via laparotomy and/ or thoracotomy in the acute phase of the injury hasa better outcome and avoids chronic complications of diaphragmatic hernia.The authors present the case of a young male patient, victim of blunt abdominaltrauma due to motor vehicle accident with rupture of the diaphragm, spleenand kidney injuries. The diagnosis was made by computed tomography of thethorax and abdomen and was confirmed during laparotomy.

  1. Simulating subduction zone earthquakes using discrete element method: a window into elusive source processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, D. G.; Morgan, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large earthquakes that occur on convergent plate margin interfaces have the potential to cause widespread damage and loss of life. Recent observations reveal that a wide range of different slip behaviors take place along these megathrust faults, which demonstrate both their complexity, and our limited understanding of fault processes and their controls. Numerical modeling provides us with a useful tool that we can use to simulate earthquakes and related slip events, and to make direct observations and correlations among properties and parameters that might control them. Further analysis of these phenomena can lead to a more complete understanding of the underlying mechanisms that accompany the nucleation of large earthquakes, and what might trigger them. In this study, we use the discrete element method (DEM) to create numerical analogs to subduction megathrusts with heterogeneous fault friction. Displacement boundary conditions are applied in order to simulate tectonic loading, which in turn, induces slip along the fault. A wide range of slip behaviors are observed, ranging from creep to stick slip. We are able to characterize slip events by duration, stress drop, rupture area, and slip magnitude, and to correlate the relationships among these quantities. These characterizations allow us to develop a catalog of rupture events both spatially and temporally, for comparison with slip processes on natural faults.

  2. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  3. The stress rupture properties of austenitic steel weld metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    Elevated temperature stress rupture data on Mo containing and Mo free austenitic weld metals have been collected from French, Dutch, German and UK sources and the results analysed. The stress rupture strength of Mo containing weld metal is significantly higher than that of Mo free weld metal. At 10,000h the rupture strength of Mo containing weld metal is higher than that of Type 316 steel whereas the Mo free weld metal is about 20% lower than that of Type 304 steel. Austenitic weld metal can give low stress rupture ductility values. It is concluded that there are insufficient data to permit reliable extrapolations to long times and it is recommended that long term tests are performed to overcome this situation

  4. Pseudo-dynamic source modelling with 1-point and 2-point statistics of earthquake source parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Song, S. G.

    2013-12-24

    Ground motion prediction is an essential element in seismic hazard and risk analysis. Empirical ground motion prediction approaches have been widely used in the community, but efficient simulation-based ground motion prediction methods are needed to complement empirical approaches, especially in the regions with limited data constraints. Recently, dynamic rupture modelling has been successfully adopted in physics-based source and ground motion modelling, but it is still computationally demanding and many input parameters are not well constrained by observational data. Pseudo-dynamic source modelling keeps the form of kinematic modelling with its computational efficiency, but also tries to emulate the physics of source process. In this paper, we develop a statistical framework that governs the finite-fault rupture process with 1-point and 2-point statistics of source parameters in order to quantify the variability of finite source models for future scenario events. We test this method by extracting 1-point and 2-point statistics from dynamically derived source models and simulating a number of rupture scenarios, given target 1-point and 2-point statistics. We propose a new rupture model generator for stochastic source modelling with the covariance matrix constructed from target 2-point statistics, that is, auto- and cross-correlations. Our sensitivity analysis of near-source ground motions to 1-point and 2-point statistics of source parameters provides insights into relations between statistical rupture properties and ground motions. We observe that larger standard deviation and stronger correlation produce stronger peak ground motions in general. The proposed new source modelling approach will contribute to understanding the effect of earthquake source on near-source ground motion characteristics in a more quantitative and systematic way.

  5. wradlib - an Open Source Library for Weather Radar Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Jacobi, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    for interactive data exploration and analysis. Based on the powerful scientific python stack (numpy, scipy, matplotlib) and in parts augmented by functions compiled in C or Fortran, most routines are fast enough to also allow data intensive re-analyses or even real-time applications. From the organizational point of view, wradlib is intended to be community driven. To this end, the source code is made available using a distributed version control system (DVCS) with a publicly hosted repository. Code may be contributed using the fork/pull-request mechanism available to most modern DVCS. Mailing lists were set up to allow dedicated exchange among users and developers in order to fix problems and discuss new developments. Extensive documentation is a key feature of the library, and is available online at http://wradlib.bitbucket.org. It includes an individual function reference as well as examples, tutorials and recipes, showing how those routines can be combined to create complete processing workflows. This should allow new users to achieve results quickly, even without much prior experience with weather radar data.

  6. Crystal plastic earthquakes in dolostones: from slow to fast ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelegue, F. X.; Aubry, J.; Nicolas, A.; Fondriest, M.; Schubnel, A.; Di Toro, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dolostone is the most dominant lithology of the seismogenic upper crust around the Mediterranean Sea. Understanding the internal mechanisms controlling fault friction is crucial for understanding seismicity along active faults. Displacement in such fault zones is frequently highlighted by highly reflective (mirror-like) slip surfaces, created by thin films of nanogranular fault rock. Using saw-cut dolostone samples coming from natural fault zones, we conducted stick-slip experiments under triaxial loading conditions at 30, 60 and 90 MPa confining pressure and temperature ranging from 30 to 100 degrees C. At 30 and 65 degrees C, only slow rupture was observed and the experimental fault exhibits frictional behaviour, i.e. a dependence of normal stress on peak shear stress. At 65 degrees C, a strengthening behaviour is observed after the main rupture, leading to a succession of slow rupture. At 100 degrees C, the macroscopic behaviour of the fault becomes ductile, and no dependence of pressure on the peak shear stress is observed. In addition, the increase of the confining pressure up to 60 and 90 MPa allow the transition from slow to fast rupture, highlighted by the records of acoustic activity and by dynamic stress drop occurring in a few tens of microseconds. Using strain gages located along the fault surface and acoustic transducers, we were able to measure the rupture velocities during slow and fast rupture. Slow ruptures propagated around 0.1 m/s, in agreement with natural observations. Fast ruptures propagated up to supershear velocities, i.e. faster than the shear wave speed (>3500 m/s). A complete study of the microstructures was realized before and after ruptures. Slow ruptures lead to the production of mirror-like surface driven by the production of nanograins due to dislocation processes. Fast ruptures induce the production of amorphous material along the fault surface, which may come from decarbonation and melting processes. We demonstrate that the

  7. Processing of transmission data from an uncollimated single photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikaios, N.; Dinelle, K.; Spinks, T.; Nikita, K.; Thielemans, K.

    2006-01-01

    The EXACT 3D PET scanner uses a Cs-137 single photon rotating point source for the transmission scan. As the source is un-collimated, the transmission data are contaminated by scatter. It has been suggested that segmentation of the reconstructed image can restore the quantitative information in the image. We study here if the results can be further improved by the application of a scale factor for every transaxial plane

  8. Strong-motion characteristics and source process during the Suruga Bay earthquake in 2009 through observed records on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    On 11 August 2009, a moderate earthquake of M 6.5 occurred in the Suruga Bay region, south of Shizuoka prefecture. During this event, JMA Seismic Intensity reached 6 lower in several cities around the hypocenter, and at Hamaoka nuclear power plant of Chubu Electric Power reactors were automatically shutdown due to large ground motions. Though the epicenter is located at the eastern edge of source area for the assumed great Tokai earthquake of M 8, this event is classified into the intra-plate (intra-slab) earthquake, due to its focal depth lower than that of the plate boundary and fault geometry supposed from the moment tensor solution. Dense strong-motion observation network has been deployed mainly on the rock outcrops by our institute around the source area, and the waveform data of the main shock and several aftershocks were obtained at 13 stations within 100 km from the hypocenter. The observed peak ground motions and velocity response spectral amplitudes are both obviously larger than the empirical attenuation relations derived from the inland and plate-boundary earthquake data, which displays the characteristics of the intra-slab earthquake faulting. Estimated acceleration source spectra of the main shock also exhibit the short period level about 1.7 times larger than the average of those for past events, and it corresponds with the additional term in the attenuation curve of the peak ground acceleration for the intra-plate earthquake. Detailed source process of the main shock is inferred using the inversion technique. The initial source model is assumed to be composed of two distinct fault planes according to the minute aftershock distribution. Estimated source model shows that large slip occurred near the hypocenter and at the boundary region between two fault planes where the rupture transfers from primary to secondary fault. Furthermore the broadband source inversion using velocity motions in the frequency up to 5 Hz demonstrates the high effective

  9. Spontaneous subserosal venous rupture overlying a uterine leiomyoma in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenayah, Amel Achour; Saoudi, Sarah; Sferi, Nour; Skander, Rim; Marzouk, Sofiène Ben; Cherni, Abdallah; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda; Boudaya, Fethia

    2017-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas are very common tumors found in women. Rupture of veins on the surface of uterine leiomyoma is an unusual source of hemoperitoneum. It is an extremely uncommon gynaecological cause of hemoperitoneum. It is a life threatening emergency. We report a case of massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage due to rupture of vessels on the surface of subserous leiomyoma. A differential diagnosis of rupture of leiomyoma'ssurface vessel should be considered, while dealing with a case of hemoperitoneum with pelvic mass.

  10. Presence of Bacteria in Spontaneous Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Christer G; Fu, Sai-Chuen; Hopkins, Chelsea; Luan, Ju; Ip, Margaret; Yung, Shu-Hang; Friman, Göran; Qin, Ling; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2017-07-01

    The structural pathology of Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures resembles tendinopathy, but the causes remain unknown. Recently, a number of diseases were found to be attributed to bacterial infections, resulting in low-grade inflammation and progressive matrix disturbance. The authors speculate that spontaneous AT ruptures may also be influenced by the presence of bacteria. Bacteria are present in ruptured ATs but not in healthy tendons. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Patients with spontaneous AT ruptures and patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were recruited for this study. During AT surgical repair, excised tendinopathic tissue was collected, and healthy tendon samples were obtained as controls from hamstring tendon grafts used in ACL reconstruction. Half of every sample was reserved for DNA extraction and the other half for histology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted using 16S rRNA gene universal primers, and the PCR products were sequenced for the identification of bacterial species. A histological examination was performed to compare tendinopathic changes in the case and control samples. Five of 20 AT rupture samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA, while none of the 23 hamstring tendon samples were positive. Sterile operating and experimental conditions and tests on samples, controlling for harvesting and processing procedures, ruled out the chance of postoperative bacterial contamination. The species identified predominantly belonged to the Staphylococcus genus. AT rupture samples exhibited histopathological features characteristic of tendinopathy, and most healthy hamstring tendon samples displayed normal tendon features. There were no apparent differences in histopathology between the bacterial DNA-positive and bacterial DNA-negative AT rupture samples. The authors have demonstrated the presence of bacterial DNA in ruptured AT samples. It may suggest the potential involvement of bacteria

  11. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc. in the vicinity of storage areas, transportation, transfer and processing of flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel.

  12. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture ?

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, Jos? Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a s...

  13. C-188 Co-60 sources installation and source rack loading optimization processes in a gamma irradiation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Paulo de S.; Vasquez, Pablo A.S., E-mail: psantos@ipen.br, E-mail: pavsalva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Since 2004, the Multipurpose Gamma Facility at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute has been providing services on radiation processing for disinfection and sterilization of health care and disposable medical products as well to support research studies on modification of physical, chemical and biological properties of several materials. Recently, there was an increment in irradiation of the Cultural Heritages. This facility uses C-188 double-encapsulated radioactive Cobalt-60 sources known as pencils from manufactures outside of country. The activity of the cobalt sources decays into a stable nickel isotope with a half-life around 5.27 years, which means a loss of 12.3% annually. Then, additional pencils of Cobalt-60 are added periodically to the source rack to maintain the required capacity or installed activity of the facility. The manufacturer makes shipping of the radioactive sources inside a high density container type B(U) , by sea. This one involves many administrative, transport and radiation safety procedures. Once in the facility, the container is opened inside a deep pool water to remove the pencils. The required source geometry of the facility is obtained by loading these source pencils into predetermined diagram or positions in source modules and distributing these modules over the source rack of the facility. The dose variation can be reduced placing the higher activity source pencils near the periphery of the source rack. In this work are presented the procedures for perform the boiling leaching tests applied to the container, the Cobalt-60 sources installation, the loading processes and the source rack loading optimization. (author)

  14. The diagnosis of breast implant rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, Lisbet R; Vejborg, Ilse; Conrad, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    participated in either one or two study MRI examinations, aiming at determining the prevalence and incidence of silent implant rupture, respectively, and who subsequently underwent explantation. Implant rupture status was determined by four independent readers and a consensus diagnosis of either rupture...... were in fact ruptured at surgery. Thirty-four of the 43 intact implants were described as intact at surgery. When categorising possible ruptures as ruptures, there were one false positive and nine false negative rupture diagnoses at MRI yielding an accuracy of 92%, a sensitivity of 89...

  15. Indigenous development of rupture discs for FBTR (Paper No. 028)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.; Raju, Chander; Anandkumar, V.; Seetharaman, V.

    1987-02-01

    Rupture discs are required as a safety device for protecting the secondary sodium circuit and its components against high pressure surges due to accidental water-steam leaks in sodium heated steam generator and the consequent sodium water reaction. For identical reasons, rupture discs are also required on the vessels used for decontamination of sodium components. As an import substitution of the costly items for the FBTR Project, development of the rupture disc assemblies has been in progress at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam. Reverse buckling knife blade concept with stainless steel disc has been taken up for development. Hydroforming process without any die has been selected for disc fabrication. One rupture disc assembly required for steam generator has been tested in sodium satisfactorily. (author). 4 tables, 5 figs

  16. Multi-Canister overpack necessity of the rupture disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) rupture disk precludes the MCO from pressurization above the design limit during transport from the K Basins to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility and prior to connection of the CVD process piping. Removal of the rupture disk from the MCO design would: (a) result in unacceptable dose consequences in the event a thermal runaway accident occurred; (b) increase residual risk; and (c) remove a degree of specificity from the dose calculations. The potential cost savings of removing the rupture disk from the MCO design is offset by the cost of design modifications, changes to hazard analyses and safety analyses, and changes to existing documentation. Retaining the rupture disk mitigates the consequences of MCO overpressurization, and considering the overall economic impacts to the SNF Project, is the most cost effective approach

  17. Recontamination as a source of pathogens in processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Asselt-den Aantrekker, van E.D.

    2004-01-01

    Food products that have been submitted to an adequate heat-treatment during processing are free of vegetative pathogens and, depending on the treatments, of sporeformers and are generally regarded as safe. Processed products such as pate, ice cream, infant formulae and others have nevertheless been

  18. AGILE: from source of law to business process specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Casellas, N.; Francesconi, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Montemagni, S.

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge management problems involved in managing the consequences of organizational change processes triggered by changes in the law, for instance for business processes, services, databases, fielded applications, forms and documents, and internal education, make a good case for application of

  19. An approach to business process recovery from source code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, Luiz A.; do Prado, Antonio F.; Lopes de Souza, Wanderley; Ferreira Pires, Luis; Latifi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Over time Business Process has become an asset for organization since it allows managing what happens within their environments. It is possible to automate some activities of the business process using information systems and accordingly decrease the execution time and increase the production. How-

  20. Bayesian image processing of data from fuzzy pattern sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Hart, H.

    1986-01-01

    In some radioisotopic organ image applications, a priori or supplementary source information may exist and can be characterized in terms of probability density functions P (phi) of the source elements {phi/sub j/} = phi (where phi/sub j/ (j = 1,2,..α) is the estimated average photon emission in voxel j per unit time at t = 0). For example, in cardiac imaging studies it is possible to evaluate the radioisotope concentration of the blood filling the cardiac chambers independently as a function of time by peripheral measurement. The blood concentration information in effect serves to limit amplitude uncertainty to the chamber boundary voxels and thus reduces the extent of amplitude ambiguities in the overall cardiac imaging reconstruction. The a priori or supplementary information may more generally be spatial, amplitude-dependent probability distributions P(phi), fuzzy patterns superimposed upon a background

  1. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    OpenAIRE

    Gooddy, D.C.; Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bennett, S.A.; Griffiths, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain ...

  2. H- formation process in a multicusp ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

    1987-07-01

    In recent years, H - ions have been found important applications in high energy accelerators and in neutral beam heating of fusion plasmas. There are different techniques for producing the H - or D - ions. The most attractive scheme is the direct extraction of H - ions from a hydrogen discharge. This technique requires no cesium and it utilizes the existing large area positive ion source technology. This paper investigates this techniques. 14 refs

  3. Study of the Release Process of Open Source Software: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Eide, Tor Erik

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a case study focusing on the release process of open source projects initiated with commercial motives. The purpose of the study is to gain an increased understanding of the release process, how a community can be attracted to the project, and how the interaction with the community evolves in commercial open source initiatives. Data has been gathered from four distinct sources to form the basis of this thesis. A thorough review of the open source literatu...

  4. Calculation of earthquake rupture histories using a hybrid global search algorithm: Application to the 1992 Landers, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.

    1996-01-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous calculation of slip amplitudes and rupture times for a finite fault using a hybrid global search algorithm. The method we use combines simulated annealing with the downhill simplex method to produce a more efficient search algorithm then either of the two constituent parts. This formulation has advantages over traditional iterative or linearized approaches to the problem because it is able to escape local minima in its search through model space for the global optimum. We apply this global search method to the calculation of the rupture history for the Landers, California, earthquake. The rupture is modeled using three separate finite-fault planes to represent the three main fault segments that failed during this earthquake. Both the slip amplitude and the time of slip are calculated for a grid work of subfaults. The data used consist of digital, teleseismic P and SH body waves. Long-period, broadband, and short-period records are utilized to obtain a wideband characterization of the source. The results of the global search inversion are compared with a more traditional linear-least-squares inversion for only slip amplitudes. We use a multi-time-window linear analysis to relax the constraints on rupture time and rise time in the least-squares inversion. Both inversions produce similar slip distributions, although the linear-least-squares solution has a 10% larger moment (7.3 ?? 1026 dyne-cm compared with 6.6 ?? 1026 dyne-cm). Both inversions fit the data equally well and point out the importance of (1) using a parameterization with sufficient spatial and temporal flexibility to encompass likely complexities in the rupture process, (2) including suitable physically based constraints on the inversion to reduce instabilities in the solution, and (3) focusing on those robust rupture characteristics that rise above the details of the parameterization and data set.

  5. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  6. Source Processes of the March 2007 Singkarak Earthquakes Inferred from Teleseismic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnimar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The rupture processes of two sequentialearthquakes have been inverted from teleseismic data. The first event released a total seismic moment of 7.9×1018 Nm (Mw 6.5 and the slip distribution shows three asperities, 1.5 m at the shallowside, 0.7 m at the rightsouth-east deep side and 0.5 m atthe north-west deep side. The second event had one asperity with 1.7 m slip and released a seismic moment of 7.5×1018 Nm (Mw 6.5. In both cases, maximum slip occurred above the hypocenter which was responsible for the surface displacement pattern.

  7. The source of the truth bias: Heuristic processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Chris N H; Masip, Jaume

    2015-06-01

    People believe others are telling the truth more often than they actually are; this is called the truth bias. Surprisingly, when a speaker is judged at multiple points across their statement the truth bias declines. Previous claims argue this is evidence of a shift from (biased) heuristic processing to (reasoned) analytical processing. In four experiments we contrast the heuristic-analytic model (HAM) with alternative accounts. In Experiment 1, the decrease in truth responding was not the result of speakers appearing more deceptive, but was instead attributable to the rater's processing style. Yet contrary to HAMs, across three experiments we found the decline in bias was not related to the amount of processing time available (Experiments 1-3) or the communication channel (Experiment 2). In Experiment 4 we found support for a new account: that the bias reflects whether raters perceive the statement to be internally consistent. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Coal Preparation and Processing Plants New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the NSPS regulation for coal preparation and processing plants by reading the rule summary, the rule history, the code of federal regulation text, the federal register, and additional docket documents

  9. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov, Dmitry Olegovich; Strizhak, Pavel Alexandrovich; Vershinina, Kseniya Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc.) in the vicinity of storage areas, tra...

  10. Comparison between smaller ruptured intracranial aneurysm and larger un-ruptured intracranial aneurysm: gene expression profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Haowen; Yue, Haiyan; Wang, Wen; Yu, Lanbing; ShuoWang; Cao, Yong; Zhao, Jizong

    2017-07-01

    As it grows in size, an intracranial aneurysm (IA) is prone to rupture. In this study, we compared two extreme groups of IAs, ruptured IAs (RIAs) smaller than 10 mm and un-ruptured IAs (UIAs) larger than 10 mm, to investigate the genes involved in the facilitation and prevention of IA rupture. The aneurismal walls of 6 smaller saccular RIAs (size smaller than 10 mm), 6 larger saccular UIAs (size larger than 10 mm) and 12 paired control arteries were obtained during surgery. The transcription profiles of these samples were studied by microarray analysis. RT-qPCR was used to confirm the expression of the genes of interest. In addition, functional group analysis of the differentially expressed genes was performed. Between smaller RIAs and larger UIAs, 101 genes and 179 genes were significantly over-expressed, respectively. In addition, functional group analysis demonstrated that the up-regulated genes in smaller RIAs mainly participated in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances, while most of the up-regulated genes in larger UIAs were involved in inflammation and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization. Moreover, compared with control arteries, inflammation was up-regulated and muscle-related biological processes were down-regulated in both smaller RIAs and larger UIAs. The genes involved in the cellular response to metal ions and inorganic substances may facilitate the rupture of IAs. In addition, the healing process, involving inflammation and ECM organization, may protect IAs from rupture.

  11. Earthquake cycle modeling of multi-segmented faults: dynamic rupture and ground motion simulation of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhin, A.; Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Ampuero, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    We perform earthquake cycle simulations to study the characteristics of source scaling relations and strong ground motions and in multi-segmented fault ruptures. For earthquake cycle modeling, a quasi-dynamic solver (QDYN, Luo et al, 2016) is used to nucleate events and the fully dynamic solver (SPECFEM3D, Galvez et al., 2014, 2016) is used to simulate earthquake ruptures. The Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake has been chosen as a target earthquake to validate our methodology. The SCEC fault geometry for the three-segmented Landers rupture is included and extended at both ends to a total length of 200 km. We followed the 2-D spatial correlated Dc distributions based on Hillers et. al. (2007) that associates Dc distribution with different degrees of fault maturity. The fault maturity is related to the variability of Dc on a microscopic scale. Large variations of Dc represents immature faults and lower variations of Dc represents mature faults. Moreover we impose a taper (a-b) at the fault edges and limit the fault depth to 15 km. Using these settings, earthquake cycle simulations are performed to nucleate seismic events on different sections of the fault, and dynamic rupture modeling is used to propagate the ruptures. The fault segmentation brings complexity into the rupture process. For instance, the change of strike between fault segments enhances strong variations of stress. In fact, Oglesby and Mai (2012) show the normal stress varies from positive (clamping) to negative (unclamping) between fault segments, which leads to favorable or unfavorable conditions for rupture growth. To replicate these complexities and the effect of fault segmentation in the rupture process, we perform earthquake cycles with dynamic rupture modeling and generate events similar to the Mw 7.3 Landers earthquake. We extract the asperities of these events and analyze the scaling relations between rupture area, average slip and combined area of asperities versus moment magnitude. Finally, the

  12. Social Networks as Information Source for the Purchase Decision Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Leoni Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The social networks have caused changes in the consumption habits and in the ways of relationship among companies and consumers, emerging a more demanding and informed consumer. In this paper it is aimed to assess the social networks as a source of information for the purchase of goods or services. In the study it was applied a research of exploratory nature through the survey method, conducted through personal interviews using a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sample of non-probabilistic type was comprised of 200 individuals from a higher education institution of São Paulo State hinterland. The survey data were analyzed descriptively. Overall, the results showed the use of social networks as a source of information search, in which the main motive is the practicality. The results corroborate the studies of Kotler and Keller (2006 when they state that the consumer seeks information on social networks to help him in the purchase, as Edelman and Hirshberg (2006 when approaching the user confidence in their friends’ opinion. For future works it is recommended to check what strategies and in what ways the companies could work in order to provide more detailed data to Internet users, aiming to support them in the decision

  13. Blind Time-Frequency Analysis for Source Discrimination in Multisensor Array Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amin, Moeness

    1999-01-01

    .... We have clearly demonstrated, through analysis and simulations, the offerings of time-frequency distributions in solving key problems in sensor array processing, including direction finding, source...

  14. The Kepler Science Data Processing Pipeline Source Code Road Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohler, Bill; Jenkins, Jon M.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Clarke, Bruce Donald; Middour, Christopher K.; Quintana, Elisa Victoria; Sanderfer, Jesse Thomas; Uddin, Akm Kamal; Sabale, Anima; hide

    2016-01-01

    We give an overview of the operational concepts and architecture of the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. Designed, developed, operated, and maintained by the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center, the Science Processing Pipeline is a central element of the Kepler Ground Data System. The SOC consists of an office at Ames Research Center, software development and operations departments, and a data center which hosts the computers required to perform data analysis. The SOC's charter is to analyze stellar photometric data from the Kepler spacecraft and report results to the Kepler Science Office for further analysis. We describe how this is accomplished via the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline, including, the software algorithms. We present the high-performance, parallel computing software modules of the pipeline that perform transit photometry, pixel-level calibration, systematic error correction, attitude determination, stellar target management, and instrument characterization.

  15. The transition of dynamic rupture styles in elastic media under velocity-weakening friction

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although kinematic earthquake source inversions show dominantly pulse-like subshear rupture behavior, seismological observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical models indicate that earthquakes can operate with different rupture styles: either as pulses or cracks, that propagate at subshear or supershear speeds. The determination of rupture style and speed has important implications for ground motions and may inform about the state of stress and strength of active fault zones. We conduct 2D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations with a spectral element method to investigate the diversity of rupture styles on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with dramatic velocity-weakening at high slip rate. Our rupture models are governed by uniform initial stresses, and are artificially initiated. We identify the conditions that lead to different rupture styles by investigating the transitions between decaying, steady state and growing pulses, cracks, sub-shear and super-shear ruptures as a function of background stress, nucleation size and characteristic velocity at the onset of severe weakening. Our models show that small changes of background stress or nucleation size may lead to dramatic changes of rupture style. We characterize the asymptotic properties of steady state and self-similar pulses as a function of background stress. We show that an earthquake may not be restricted to a single rupture style, but that complex rupture patterns may emerge that consist of multiple rupture fronts, possibly involving different styles and back-propagating fronts. We also demonstrate the possibility of a super-shear transition for pulse-like ruptures. Finally, we draw connections between our findings and recent seismological observations.

  16. The transition of dynamic rupture styles in elastic media under velocity-weakening friction

    KAUST Repository

    Gabriel, A.-A.

    2012-09-01

    Although kinematic earthquake source inversions show dominantly pulse-like subshear rupture behavior, seismological observations, laboratory experiments and theoretical models indicate that earthquakes can operate with different rupture styles: either as pulses or cracks, that propagate at subshear or supershear speeds. The determination of rupture style and speed has important implications for ground motions and may inform about the state of stress and strength of active fault zones. We conduct 2D in-plane dynamic rupture simulations with a spectral element method to investigate the diversity of rupture styles on faults governed by velocity-and-state-dependent friction with dramatic velocity-weakening at high slip rate. Our rupture models are governed by uniform initial stresses, and are artificially initiated. We identify the conditions that lead to different rupture styles by investigating the transitions between decaying, steady state and growing pulses, cracks, sub-shear and super-shear ruptures as a function of background stress, nucleation size and characteristic velocity at the onset of severe weakening. Our models show that small changes of background stress or nucleation size may lead to dramatic changes of rupture style. We characterize the asymptotic properties of steady state and self-similar pulses as a function of background stress. We show that an earthquake may not be restricted to a single rupture style, but that complex rupture patterns may emerge that consist of multiple rupture fronts, possibly involving different styles and back-propagating fronts. We also demonstrate the possibility of a super-shear transition for pulse-like ruptures. Finally, we draw connections between our findings and recent seismological observations.

  17. Risk perception in the process of working with radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.C.G.; Levy, D.; Sanches, M.P.; Rodrigues, D.L.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    This study discusses occupational risk under three distinct aspects, which are often interconnected or interdependent in the work environment. These are: environmental risks, human failures and equipment failures. The article addresses the potential exposure in the workplace, caused by the agent's physical radiation risk, resulting from handling with sources of ionizing radiation. Based on the history of accidents occurring in normal operations, the study summarizes the main accidents in various facilities and possible causes involving the three aspects of risk. In its final considerations, it presents the lessons learned and the measures to be taken with the intention of contributing to the prevention and mitigation of risks in the work environment. The analysis of accident cases and their causes provide valuable information to prevent the risk of similar accidents and contribute to the improvement of operational projects and procedures

  18. Steam generator tube rupture effects on a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaChance, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    A problem currently experienced in commercial operating pressurized water reactors (PWR) in the United States is the degradation of steam generator tubes. Safety questions have arisen concerning the effect of these degraded tubes rupturing during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). To determine the effect of a small number of tube ruptures on the behavior of a large PWR during a postulated LOCA, a series of computer simulations was performed. The primary concern of the study was to determine whether a small number (10 or less of steam generator tubes rupturing at the beginning surface temperatures. Additional reflood analyses were performed to determine the system behavior when from 10 to 60 tubes rupture at the beginning of core reflood. The FLOOD4 code was selected as being the most applicable code for use in this study after an extensive analysis of the capabilities of existing codes to perform simulations of a LOCA with concurrent steam generator tube ruptures. The results of the study indicate that the rupturing of 10 or less steam generator tubes in any of the steam generators during a 200% cold leg break will not result in a significant increase in the peak cladding temperature. However, because of the vaporization of the steam generator secondary water in the primary side of the steam generator, a significant increase in the core pressure occurs which retards the reflooding process

  19. Time-resolved observation of thermally activated rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Wan; Sung, Baekman; Kim, Jongwoo; Kwon, Soyoung; Kim, Bongsu; Jhe, Wonho

    2015-01-01

    The capillary-condensed liquid bridge is one of the most ubiquitous forms of liquid in nature and contributes significantly to adhesion and friction of biological molecules as well as microscopic objects. Despite its important role in nanoscience and technology, the rupture process of the bridge is not well understood and needs more experimental works. Here, we report real-time observation of rupture of a capillary-condensed water nanobridge in ambient condition. During slow and stepwise stretch of the nanobridge, we measured the activation time for rupture, or the latency time required for the bridge breakup. By statistical analysis of the time-resolved distribution of activation time, we show that rupture is a thermally activated stochastic process and follows the Poisson statistics. In particular, from the Arrhenius law that the rupture rate satisfies, we estimate the position-dependent activation energies for the capillary-bridge rupture

  20. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooddy, D.C.; Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J.; Bennett, S.A.; Griffiths, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  1. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooddy, D.C., E-mail: dcg@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Macdonald, D.M.J.; Lapworth, D.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Bennett, S.A. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Griffiths, K.J. [British Geological Survey, Maclean Building, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. - Highlights: • Peri-urban floodplains have been found to

  2. Analyzing Single-Event Gate Ruptures In Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Susceptibilities of power metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) to single-event gate ruptures analyzed by exposing devices to beams of energetic bromine ions while applying appropriate bias voltages to source, gate, and drain terminals and measuring current flowing into or out of each terminal.

  3. Process of magnetic reconnection as a source of longitudinal currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidneva, M.V.; Semenov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Variations in magnetic field and current system as applied to conditions in the Earth magnetospheric tail are calculated so as to show that three-dimensional reconnection leads inevitably to the appearance of a system of longitudinal currents. With reference to current layer of the magnetospheric tail the longitudinal currents appearing in the process of reconnection are directed to the Earth on the morning side and from Earth - on the evening side. The results presented suggest that magnetic reconnection can serve as a sourse of the Birkeland current loop of a substorm

  4. A method for simulating the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yajun; Hu, Hongbing; Yu, Bo; Sun, Dongliang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Yongtu

    2018-01-15

    The rupture of a high-pressure natural gas pipeline can pose a serious threat to human life and environment. In this research, a method has been proposed to simulate the release of natural gas from the rupture of high-pressure pipelines in any terrain. The process of gas releases from the rupture of a high-pressure pipeline is divided into three stages, namely the discharge, jet, and dispersion stages. Firstly, a discharge model is established to calculate the release rate of the orifice. Secondly, an improved jet model is proposed to obtain the parameters of the pseudo source. Thirdly, a fast-modeling method applicable to any terrain is introduced. Finally, based upon these three steps, a dispersion model, which can take any terrain into account, is established. Then, the dispersion scenarios of released gas in four different terrains are studied. Moreover, the effects of pipeline pressure, pipeline diameter, wind speed and concentration of hydrogen sulfide on the dispersion scenario in real terrain are systematically analyzed. The results provide significant guidance for risk assessment and contingency planning of a ruptured natural gas pipeline. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Trivial trauma and delayed rupture of a normal spleen: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowers Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although a majority of splenic ruptures present acutely with a known mechanism of injury, a minority of patients present days to weeks following trauma with a delayed rupture. Also uncommon is the atraumatic rupture, the vast majority of which occur in patients with underlying splenic pathology. A handful of cases of apparently spontaneous rupture of a normal spleen are reported; however, there is debate about whether these actually represent delayed ruptures following a history of trauma that is not elicited. Although a few cases of delayed rupture of the spleen following trivial trauma have been reported, the majority of these present evidence of an underlying disease process. We found only two such cases that documented a normal spleen and three cases where underlying splenic pathology was not reported. We review the literature and discuss the phenomenon of delayed rupture of the normal spleen following trivial trauma. Case presentation A 27-year-old Caucasian man with no underlying splenic pathology presented with splenic rupture one week after playfully wrestling with his partner. The patient did not present at the time of the injury and only recalled it upon repeated questioning after computed tomography diagnosis. Conclusions This case lends support to the theory that the normal spleen can rupture some time after trivial trauma, which seems like a more plausible explanation than rupture without cause. However, given the dearth of similar reports in the literature, the possibility remains that the association we have observed is not causational.

  6. Peer editing: a strategic source in EFL students’ writing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Mercedes Díaz Galvis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project focused on peer editing as a pedagogical tool to promote collaborative assessment in the EFL writing process. With teachers overstretched in the Bogotá public school system, a method needed to be found that would allow students to receive much needed feedback without overtaxing the teachers` resources. Peer editing, a phenomenon that often occurs naturally within the classroom, was therefore systematically implemented as a solution to the stated problem. The main aims of this study, conducted with a group of ninth grade student at a public school in Bogotá, were to determine the role of peer editing in the writing process and to characterize the relationships built when students corrected each others writings. The instruments used for collecting data were field notes, video recordings and students’ artifacts. The results showed that when students were engaged in peer editing sessions they created zones of proximal development in which high achiever students provided linguistic scaffolding and empowered low achievers. It was also found that students used thinking strategies such as noticing and explaining when they identified errors related to the formal aspects of the language.

  7. Nitrogen sources, transport and processing in peri-urban floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooddy, D C; Macdonald, D M J; Lapworth, D J; Bennett, S A; Griffiths, K J

    2014-10-01

    Peri-urban floodplains are an important interface between developed land and the aquatic environment and may act as a source or sink for contaminants moving from urban areas towards surface water courses. With increasing pressure from urban development the functioning of floodplains is coming under greater scrutiny. A number of peri-urban sites have been found to be populated with legacy landfills which could potentially cause pollution of adjacent river bodies. Here, a peri-urban floodplain adjoining the city of Oxford, UK, with the River Thames has been investigated over a period of three years through repeated sampling of groundwaters from existing and specially constructed piezometers. A nearby landfill has been found to have imprinted a strong signal on the groundwater with particularly high concentrations of ammonium and generally low concentrations of nitrate and dissolved oxygen. An intensive study of nitrogen dynamics through the use of N-species chemistry, nitrogen isotopes and dissolved nitrous oxide reveals that there is little or no denitrification in the majority of the main landfill plume, and neither is the ammonium significantly retarded by sorption to the aquifer sediments. A simple model has determined the flux of total nitrogen and ammonium from the landfill, through the floodplain and into the river. Over an 8 km reach of the river, which has a number of other legacy landfills, it is estimated that 27.5 tonnes of ammonium may be delivered to the river annually. Although this is a relatively small contribution to the total river nitrogen, it may represent up to 15% of the ammonium loading at the study site and over the length of the reach could increase in-stream concentrations by nearly 40%. Catchment management plans that encompass floodplains in the peri-urban environment need to take into account the likely risk to groundwater and surface water quality that these environments pose. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Nitrogen deposition to the United States: distribution, sources, and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We simulate nitrogen deposition over the US in 2006–2008 by using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model at 1/2°×2/3° horizontal resolution over North America and adjacent oceans. US emissions of NOx and NH3 in the model are 6.7 and 2.9 Tg N a−1 respectively, including a 20% natural contribution for each. Ammonia emissions are a factor of 3 lower in winter than summer, providing a good match to US network observations of NHx (≡NH3 gas + ammonium aerosol and ammonium wet deposition fluxes. Model comparisons to observed deposition fluxes and surface air concentrations of oxidized nitrogen species (NOy show overall good agreement but excessive wintertime HNO3 production over the US Midwest and Northeast. This suggests a model overestimate N2O5 hydrolysis in aerosols, and a possible factor is inhibition by aerosol nitrate. Model results indicate a total nitrogen deposition flux of 6.5 Tg N a−1 over the contiguous US, including 4.2 as NOy and 2.3 as NHx. Domestic anthropogenic, foreign anthropogenic, and natural sources contribute respectively 78%, 6%, and 16% of total nitrogen deposition over the contiguous US in the model. The domestic anthropogenic contribution generally exceeds 70% in the east and in populated areas of the west, and is typically 50–70% in remote areas of the west. Total nitrogen deposition in the model exceeds 10 kg N ha−1 a−1 over 35% of the contiguous US.

  9. Binary stars as sources of iron and of s-process isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, Icko Jr.; Bologna Univ.; Sussex Univ., Brighton

    1986-01-01

    Sources of elements and isotopes in stars, during the development of stars, is examined. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. Intermediate mass stars in their asymptotic giant branch phase of evolution as sources of carbon, merging white dwarfs as sources of iron, and helium star cataclysmics as sources of s-process elements, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  11. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lino Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  12. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  13. Rupture luminescence from natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Haneman, D.

    1999-12-01

    Fibers of cotton and wool, and samples of paper, have been ruptured in tension in vacuum and in air, and give detectable luminescence in the visible range. All have a common emission peak at around 2.0 eV, which is ascribed to the deexcitation of states excited by the rupture of organic chain molecule bonds. Rubber bands give stronger emission in air, but no emission in vacuum, suggesting the material breaks only at weak interchain bonds. Mohair, cat, and horse hair also give emission in air. The phenomena reveal effects that would occur widely in nature.

  14. Nonperfect synchronization of bond-forming and bond-rupturing processes in the reaction H + H2 → H2 + H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Rao, V.S.

    1996-01-01

    The simplest prototypical hydrogen transfer reaction, i.e., H + H 2 → H 2 + H, is studied by the quantum-mechanical ab initio methods. Results reveal that during this reaction free valence which almost equals the square of the spin density develops on the migrating hydrogen atom. Bond orders are calculated using Mayer's formalism. Both the variations of bond orders and bond lengths along the reaction path are examined. This analysis reveals that the bond formation and bond cleavage processes in this reaction are not perfectly synchronous. The bond clevage process is slightly more advanced on the reaction path. 38 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Analysis of 30 breast implant rupture cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tark, Kwan Chul; Jeong, Hii Sun; Roh, Tae Suk; Choi, Jong Woo

    2005-01-01

    Breast implants used for augmentation mammoplasty or breast reconstruction could rupture from various causes such as trauma or spontaneous failure. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationships between the causes of implant rupture and the degree of capsular contracture, and then to evaluate the relative efficacies of specific signs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) known to be beneficial for diagnosing the rupture. A retrospective review identified patients with prosthetic implant rupture or impending rupture treated by the senior author. The 30 cases of implant rupture available for review were classified into two groups: intracapsular and extracapsular ruptures. The 30 cases of breast implant ruptures were analyzed with respect to the clinical symptoms and signs, the causes of rupture, the degree of capsular contracture, and therapeutic plans. Among the 30 cases, 14 patients who had undergone MRI during the diagnostic period were analyzed with respect to the relationships between MRI readings and operative findings. Spontaneous rupture of membranes was most common (80%), followed by failure because of trauma (7%) and valve or implant base (4%). The symptoms during implant rupture were contour deformity, palpated mass-like lesions, pain, and focal inflammation. According to the analysis of specific MRI signs, the sensitivity and specificity of the linguine sign were 87% and 100%, respectively, for intracapsular rupture. For extracapsular rupture, the sensitivity and specificity of the linguine sign were, respectively, 67% and 75%. The sensitivity and specificity of the rat-tail sign and tear drop sign were 14% and 50%, respectively. Breast implant rupture was correlated with the degree of capsular contracture in our study. Among the various specific MRI signs used in diagnosing the rupture, the linguine sign was reliable and had a high sensitivity and specificity, especially in cases of intracapsular rupture. On the other hand, the rat

  16. Rupture of Achilles Tendon : Usefulness of Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Hyeon; Ki, Won Woo; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Kim, Song Mun; Shin, Myeong Jin; Kwon, Soon Tae

    1996-01-01

    To differentiate a complete rupture of Achilles tendon from an incomplete one which is important because its treatment is quite different. And it is necessary to know the exact site of the rupture preoperatively. Fifteen cases of fourteen patients which were diagnosed as Achilles tendon rupture by ultrasonography and surgery were reviewed. We compared sonographic rupture site with surgical findings. Ultrasonographic criteria for differentiation of complete and incomplete rupture was defined as follows : the discreteness, which means the proximal intervening hypoechogenicity to the interface echogenicity of distal margin of ruptured tendon : the slant sign, which represents the interface of ruptured distal margin which was seen over the 3/4 of the thickness of the tendon without intervening low echogeneicity : the invagination sign, which means the echogenic invagination from Kager triangle into posterior aspect of Achilles tendon over the half thickness of the tendon. The sites of complete tendon rupture were exactly corresponded to surgical finding in four cases of ten complete ruptures. And the discrepancy between sonographic and surgical findings in the site of complete rupture was 1.2 ± 0.4 cm in six cases. Three of ten complete ruptures showed the discreteness sign, all of ten showed the slant sign and two of ten showed the invagination sign. It is helpful to differentiate a complete from incomplete rupture of the Achilles tendon and to localize the site of the complete rupture with the ultrasonographic evaluation

  17. Process for recovery and purification of lithium from dilute sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Komasawa, Isao

    1990-01-01

    A process was studied for recovery and purification of lithium from hot spring water and leachate of coal fly ash in which lithium is present at very low concentration in a mixture of high concentration of less desirable species such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and others. Lithium is, as a first step, adsorbed selectively by an ion-sieve type adsorbent, λ-MnO 2 , which can effect separation by adsorbing lithium alone in its intraparticle spaces while adsorbing most metals on its surface. Stagewise elutions are performed, employing two elutrients: NH 4 NO 3 and then HNO 3 solution. The concentration ratio of lithium and sodium is 1/70∼1/120 in the original feed stream, and this is upgraded to 300/1 in the pregnant elutrient. Some impurities in the pregnant elutrient is removed by a solvent extraction technique, employing a mixed extractant of a β-diketone (LIX51) and tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide in kerosene. A lithium solution with an undetectable amount of impurities is obtained by single extraction followed by single scrubbing with dilute hydrochloric acid of carefully controlled concentration. (author)

  18. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifting Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, S. L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle s Kevlar-49 (DuPont) fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed nonconservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23 percent lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  19. Composite Overwrap Pressure Vessels: Mechanics and Stress Rupture Lifing Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesken, John C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Phoenix, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has been conducting an independent technical assessment to address safety concerns related to the known stress rupture failure mode of filament wound pressure vessels in use on Shuttle and the International Space Station. The Shuttle's Kevlar-49 fiber overwrapped tanks are of particular concern due to their long usage and the poorly understood stress rupture process in Kevlar-49 filaments. Existing long term data show that the rupture process is a function of stress, temperature and time. However due to the presence of load sharing liners and the complex manufacturing procedures, the state of actual fiber stress in flight hardware and test articles is not clearly known. Indeed non-conservative life predictions have been made where stress rupture data and lifing procedures have ignored the contribution of the liner in favor of applied pressure as the controlling load parameter. With the aid of analytical and finite element results, this paper examines the fundamental mechanical response of composite overwrapped pressure vessels including the influence of elastic-plastic liners and degraded/creeping overwrap properties. Graphical methods are presented describing the non-linear relationship of applied pressure to Kevlar-49 fiber stress/strain during manufacturing, operations and burst loadings. These are applied to experimental measurements made on a variety of vessel systems to demonstrate the correct calibration of fiber stress as a function of pressure. Applying this analysis to the actual qualification burst data for Shuttle flight hardware revealed that the nominal fiber stress at burst was in some cases 23% lower than what had previously been used to predict stress rupture life. These results motivate a detailed discussion of the appropriate stress rupture lifing philosophy for COPVs including the correct transference of stress rupture life data between dissimilar vessels and test articles.

  20. Application of discrete scale invariance method on pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkovic, M.; Mihailovic, Z.; Riznic, J.

    2007-01-01

    'Full text:' A process of material failure of a mechanical system in the form of cracks and microcracks, a catastrophic phenomenon of considerable technological and scientific importance, may be forecasted according to the recent advances in the theory of critical phenomena in statistical physics. Critical rupture scenario states that, in many concrete and composite heterogeneous materials under compression and materials with large distributed residual stresses, rupture is a genuine critical point, i.e., the culmination of a self-organization of damage and cracking characterized by power law signatures. The concept of discrete scale invariance leads to a complex critical exponent (or dimension) and may occur spontaneously in systems and materials developing rupture. It establishes, theoretically, the power law dependence of a measurable observable, such as the rate of acoustic emissions radiated during loading or rate of heat released during the process, upon the time to failure. However, the problem is the power law can be distinguished from other parametric functional forms such as an exponential only close to the critical time. In this paper we modify the functional renormalization method to include the noise elimination procedure and dimension reduction. The aim is to obtain the prediction of the critical rupture time only from the knowledge of the power law parameters at early times prior to rupture, and based on the assumption that the dynamics close to rupture is governed by the power law dependence of the temperature measured along the perimeter of the tube upon the time-to-failure. Such an analysis would not only enhance the precision of prediction related to the rupture mechanism but also significantly help in determining and predicting the leak rates. The prediction will be compared to experimental data on Zr-2.5%Nb made tubes. Note: The views expressed in the paper are those of the authors and do not necessary represents those of the commission. (author)

  1. Dynamic rupture models of subduction zone earthquakes with off-fault plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, S.; van Zelst, I.; Gabriel, A. A.; van Dinther, Y.; Madden, E. H.; Ulrich, T.

    2017-12-01

    displacement, in 2D. Finally, we use the same rheology in a large-scale 3D scenario of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake to shed light to the source process that caused the subsequent devastating tsunami.

  2. A comparison of pre-dropout and temporary rupture sessions in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülüm, I Volkan; Soygüt, Gonca; Safran, Jeremy D

    2016-11-15

    Although numerous studies have investigated the relationship between the therapeutic alliance and dropout, most have focused on the relationship between alliance quality and psychotherapy outcomes. To compare sessions with therapeutic alliance ruptures and two sessions prior to treatment dropout (pre-dropout) in terms of rupture subtypes, psychotherapists' behavior, attitudes, and session content. We implemented quantitative methods to select the sessions and qualitative methods to analyze them. We analyzed 16 temporary rupture sessions from 12 therapist-patient dyads and 16 pre-dropout sessions from 8 different therapist-patient dyads. The sessions originate from clinical psychology Master's or Doctoral students under supervision in either cognitive behavioral or schema therapy. Pre-dropout sessions were considered unrepaired rupture sessions while rupture sessions were subsequently repaired. Results revealed apparent differences and similarities between the session types in positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, content intensity, and the type and frequency of ruptures. We explored three new rupture subtypes: attributing positive developments to other sources, indirect speech, and sarcastic hostility. A striking implication is that the frequency of positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, ruptures, and session content is more likely to decrease in the pre-dropout sessions than in the temporary rupture sessions.

  3. A review of the rupture characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Mw 9.1 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Thorne

    2018-05-01

    The 2011 March 11 Tohoku-oki great (Mw 9.1) earthquake ruptured the plate boundary megathrust fault offshore of northern Honshu with estimates of shallow slip of 50 m and more near the trench. Non-uniform slip extended 220 km across the width and 400 km along strike of the subduction zone. Extensive data provided by regional networks of seismic and geodetic stations in Japan and global networks of broadband seismic stations, regional and global ocean bottom pressure sensors and sea level measurement stations, seafloor GPS/Acoustic displacement sites, repeated multi-channel reflection images, extensive coastal runup and inundation observations, and in situ sampling of the shallow fault zone materials and temperature perturbation, make the event the best-recorded and most extensively studied great earthquake to date. An effort is made here to identify the more robust attributes of the rupture as well as less well constrained, but likely features. Other issues involve the degree to which the rupture corresponded to geodetically-defined preceding slip-deficit regions, the influence of re-rupture of slip regions for large events in the past few centuries, and relationships of coseismic slip to precursory slow slip, foreshocks, aftershocks, afterslip, and relocking of the megathrust. Frictional properties associated with the slip heterogeneity and in situ measurements of frictional heating of the shallow fault zone support low stress during shallow sliding and near-total shear stress drop of 10-30 MPa in large-slip regions in the shallow megathrust. The roles of fault morphology, sediments, fluids, and dynamical processes in the rupture behavior continue to be examined; consensus has not yet been achieved. The possibility of secondary sources of tsunami excitation such as inelastic deformation of the sedimentary wedge or submarine slumping remains undemonstrated; dislocation models in an elastic continuum appear to sufficiently account for most mainshock observations

  4. A retrospective study of eyeball rupture in patients with or without orbital fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Yao, Yi; Wang, Fengxiang; Liu, Tiecheng; Zhao, Xiao

    2017-06-01

    To summarize the clinical features of eyeball rupture with or without orbital fracture and explore the differences between them.In all, 197 patients were observed, and the following data were recorded: sex, age, time of injury, place of injury, cause of trauma, zone of eye injury, intraocular content prolapse, surgical methods and the therapeutic process, visual acuity after injury, and the final best corrected visual acuity. The results were analyzed for statistically significant differences.There was no significant difference (P > .05) in the age, sex, or cause of injury. Patients with eyeball rupture with fracture had poorer vision than did those in the simple eyeball rupture group; eyeball rupture with fracture also had a higher probability of enucleation.In this study, the clinical results show that prognosis of eyeball rupture with orbital fracture is worse than that of eyeball rupture without orbital fracture.

  5. PREMATURE RUPTURE OF THE MEMBRANES*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In patients presenting with premature rupture of the membranes there are two factors which influence the foetal morbidity and mortality. These factors are prema- turity and intra-uterine infection. The purpose of this analysis was to elucidate which factor carried the greater risk to the foetus. Recently there has been a spate of.

  6. Ruptured Cervical Anellrysm with Neurofibromatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rupture of an aneurysm of a lateral branch of the right thyrocervical trunk in a patient suffering from diffuse neurofibromatosis. The operative findings are reported. s. Air. Med. ... system demonstrated decreased power in all muscles of the right shoulder girdle and arm, without sensory change. The cranial nerves were normal.

  7. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  8. ACL Rupture in Collegiate Wrestler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay A. Palmer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To educate others on unique Anterior Cruciate Ligament tears and percentage of usage of the ACL in normal daily function. Background: Patient is an eighteen year old male participating in wrestling and football at the time of the injury. Patient now only participates in wrestling. No previous knee or chronic injuries were reported prior to this injury. Patient was playing football during the time of injury. The patient stated that he planted his foot down and was tackled at the same time when the injury occurred. The patient felt his knee twist and buckle. Patient complained of clicking inside the knee and had minimal swelling. He also complained of it being difficult to bear weight at the time. The patient did not seek further treatment until two months after the injury occurred when he received an MRI. His MRI showed a positive finding for an Anterior Cruciate Ligament rupture. His previous Athletic Trainer could not find a positive diagnosis for the patient prior to the MRI. Differential Diagnosis: Possible meniscal or ACL injury. Treatment: Doctors officially diagnosed the injury as a complete rupture of the ACL. The patient did not receive surgery immediately. Doctors have stated that he only uses about 50% of his ACL on a daily basis compared to a normal person who uses about 95% of their ACL daily. Because of this, the patient played on his rupture for seven months before receiving surgery. He played a whole season of high school football and a whole season of wrestling his senior year with the ACL ruptured. The patient only used a brace for better comfort during the seven months. The patient then received reconstructive surgery to repair the rupture. A hamstring tendon graft was used to repair the ruptured ACL. Because a tendon was taken from the hamstring, patient experienced a tight ACL and hamstring of the left leg post-surgery. The patient participated in Physical Therapy for five months to strengthen and stretch the new

  9. Off-fault plasticity in three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations using a modal Discontinuous Galerkin method on unstructured meshes: Implementation, verification, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Uphoff, Carsten

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics and potential size of earthquakes depend crucially on rupture transfers between adjacent fault segments. To accurately describe earthquake source dynamics, numerical models can account for realistic fault geometries and rheologies such as nonlinear inelastic processes off the slip interface. We present implementation, verification, and application of off-fault Drucker-Prager plasticity in the open source software SeisSol (www.seissol.org). SeisSol is based on an arbitrary high-order derivative modal Discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method using unstructured, tetrahedral meshes specifically suited for complex geometries. Two implementation approaches are detailed, modelling plastic failure either employing sub-elemental quadrature points or switching to nodal basis coefficients. At fine fault discretizations the nodal basis approach is up to 6 times more efficient in terms of computational costs while yielding comparable accuracy. Both methods are verified in community benchmark problems and by three dimensional numerical h- and p-refinement studies with heterogeneous initial stresses. We observe no spectral convergence for on-fault quantities with respect to a given reference solution, but rather discuss a limitation to low-order convergence for heterogeneous 3D dynamic rupture problems. For simulations including plasticity, a high fault resolution may be less crucial than commonly assumed, due to the regularization of peak slip rate and an increase of the minimum cohesive zone width. In large-scale dynamic rupture simulations based on the 1992 Landers earthquake, we observe high rupture complexity including reverse slip, direct branching, and dynamic triggering. The spatio-temporal distribution of rupture transfers are altered distinctively by plastic energy absorption, correlated with locations of geometrical fault complexity. Computational cost increases by 7% when accounting for off-fault plasticity in the demonstrating application. Our results

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of Ruptured Breast Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Yeol Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRupture is an important complication of breast implants. Before cohesive gel silicone implants, rupture rates of both saline and silicone breast implants were over 10%. Through an analysis of ruptured implants, we can determine the various factors related to ruptured implants.MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of 72 implants that were removed for implant rupture between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution. The following data were collected: type of implants (saline or silicone, duration of implantation, type of implant shell, degree of capsular contracture, associated symptoms, cause of rupture, diagnostic tools, and management.ResultsForty-five Saline implants and 27 silicone implants were used. Rupture was diagnosed at a mean of 5.6 and 12 years after insertion of saline and silicone implants, respectively. There was no association between shell type and risk of rupture. Spontaneous was the most common reason for the rupture. Rupture management was implant change (39 case, microfat graft (2 case, removal only (14 case, and follow-up loss (17 case.ConclusionsSaline implants have a shorter average duration of rupture, but diagnosis is easier and safer, leading to fewer complications. Previous-generation silicone implants required frequent follow-up observation, and it is recommended that they be changed to a cohesive gel implant before hidden rupture occurs.

  11. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  12. Categorisation of Practices and Sources- A Key Issue in Licensing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janzekovic, H.; Krizman, M.; Vokal, B.; Petrovic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of a radioactive sources inventory in countries with a nuclear programme usually comprises nearly all possible man-made sources available today, from sources related to nuclear power plants to calibration sources used for educational purposes. The risk based licensing process of radiation sources and exposures is a demanding task which could be internationally harmonised by introducing sources and practice related categorisation. The detailed categorisation of radioisotopes, replacing [1], was recently published [2]. The activity ratio (A/D ratio) is used as a basic parameter which is proportional to a risk involved in a use of a radioisotope. Radioisotopes as well as related practices are categorised. No categorisation of ionising sources related to electrical apparatus producing ionising radiation without radioisotopes has been given in literature. In addition, licensees usually perform many different activities with a specific source, so the categorisation of practice should be done, based on a risk involved with a specific practice. The risk is related to the probability of a specific event as well as to the consequences of that event. It is strongly related to the categorisation of source. The main issues related to a licensing process of sources and practices are presented. The review of possible categorisation of radioisotopes and related practices is given and a proposal of a combined harmonised approach of categorisation of sources and practices, based on risk, is given. (Author) 19 refs

  13. Vortex dynamics in ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trylesinski, Gabriel

    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) are a potentially devastating pathological dilation of brain arteries that affect 1.5-5 % of the population. Causing around 500 000 deaths per year worldwide, their detection and treatment to prevent rupture is critical. Multiple recent studies have tried to find a hemodynamics predictor of aneurysm rupture, but concluded with distinct opposite trends using Wall Shear Stress (WSS) based parameters in different clinical datasets. Nevertheless, several research groups tend to converge for now on the fact that the flow patterns and flow dynamics of the ruptured aneurysms are complex and unstable. Following this idea, we investigated the vortex properties of both unruptured and ruptured cerebral aneurysms. A brief comparison of two Eulerian vortex visualization methods (Q-criterion and lambda 2 method) showed that these approaches gave similar results in our complex aneurysm geometries. We were then able to apply either one of them to a large dataset of 74 patient specific cases of intracranial aneurysms. Those real cases were obtained by 3D angiography, numerical reconstruction of the geometry, and then pulsatile CFD simulation before post-processing with the mentioned vortex visualization tools. First we tested the two Eulerian methods on a few cases to verify their implementation we made as well as compare them with each other. After that, the Q-criterion was selected as method of choice for its more obvious physical meaning (it shows the balance between two characteristics of the flow, its swirling and deformation). Using iso-surfaces of Q, we started by categorizing the patient-specific aneurysms based on the gross topology of the aneurysmal vortices. This approach being unfruitful, we found a new vortex-based characteristic property of ruptured aneurysms to stratify the rupture risk of IAs that we called the Wall-Kissing Vortices, or WKV. We observed that most ruptured aneurysms had a large amount of WKV, which appears to agree with

  14. Plasma Processing of Metallic and Semiconductor Thin Films in the Fisk Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampkin, Gregory; Thomas, Edward, Jr.; Watson, Michael; Wallace, Kent; Chen, Henry; Burger, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    The use of plasmas to process materials has become widespread throughout the semiconductor industry. Plasmas are used to modify the morphology and chemistry of surfaces. We report on initial plasma processing experiments using the Fisk Plasma Source. Metallic and semiconductor thin films deposited on a silicon substrate have been exposed to argon plasmas. Results of microscopy and chemical analyses of processed materials are presented.

  15. A systematic quantification of the sources of variation of process analytical measurements in the steel industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, R.H.; Louwerse, D.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Guldemond, D.; Voet, van der H.; Vereijken, P.F.G.

    2003-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for the Identification and quantification of sources of variation in a manufacturing process. The strategy involves six steps: identification and selection of factors, model selection, design of the experiments, performing the experiments, estimation of sources of variation,

  16. Simulating variable source problems via post processing of individual particle tallies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuel, D.L.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo is an extremely powerful method of simulating complex, three dimensional environments without excessive problem simplification. However, it is often time consuming to simulate models in which the source can be highly varied. Similarly difficult are optimization studies involving sources in which many input parameters are variable, such as particle energy, angle, and spatial distribution. Such studies are often approached using brute force methods or intelligent guesswork. One field in which these problems are often encountered is accelerator-driven Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of cancers. Solving the reverse problem of determining the best neutron source for optimal BNCT treatment can be accomplished by separating the time-consuming particle-tracking process of a full Monte Carlo simulation from the calculation of the source weighting factors which is typically performed at the beginning of a Monte Carlo simulation. By post-processing these weighting factors on a recorded file of individual particle tally information, the effect of changing source variables can be realized in a matter of seconds, instead of requiring hours or days for additional complete simulations. By intelligent source biasing, any number of different source distributions can be calculated quickly from a single Monte Carlo simulation. The source description can be treated as variable and the effect of changing multiple interdependent source variables on the problem's solution can be determined. Though the focus of this study is on BNCT applications, this procedure may be applicable to any problem that involves a variable source

  17. Rule and Rupture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Treating the ‘state’ as a finished product gets in the way of understanding it. The state is always in the making. This article, which acts as the Introduction to a special issue, argues that political authority is (re-)produced through the process of successfully defining and enforcing rights...... are conceptually tied together by recognition. This article demonstrates how contracts of recognition unfold. It proposes an approach to the systematic investigation of the constitution of authority through the social production of property and citizenship as the recognition of claims to resources and membership...

  18. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  19. Natural Radionuclides and Isotopic Signatures for Determining Carbonaceous Aerosol Sources, Aerosol Lifetimes, and Washout Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-12-12

    This is the final technical report. The project description is as follows: to determine the role of aerosol radiative forcing on climate, the processes that control their atmospheric concentrations must be understood, and aerosol sources need to be determined for mitigation. Measurements of naturally occurring radionuclides and stable isotopic signatures allow the sources, removal and transport processes, as well as atmospheric lifetimes of fine carbonaceous aerosols, to be evaluated.

  20. Renal allograft rupture: US diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maklad, N.F.

    1987-01-01

    The US appearances in seven pathologically and/or surgically proved cases of renal allograft rupture are presented. These include a triangular or amorphous echogenic area in the cortex and medulla in a polar location, an echogenic band or wavy, branching anechoic lines in the hyperechoic region, a subcapsular hematoma, and an extrarenal hematoma in direct continuity with the echogenic area. Duplex Doppler examination in renal allograft rupture shows marked reduction of absence of the diastolic component of the velocity waveform in the arcuate and interlobar arteries, with reduction in amplitude of the systolic wave form. Correlation of the US appearances with gross and microscopic pathologic findings indicates that the echogenic area is due to an intrarenal hematoma, while the echogenic band represents the cortical laceration with adherent blood clots. The US-duplex Doppler examination should be the primary diagnostic modality in this life-threatening condition

  1. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault's roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  2. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  3. Achilles tendon rupture in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaalund, S; Lass, P; Høgsaa, B; Nøhr, M

    1989-01-01

    The typical badminton player with an Achilles tendon rupture is 36 years old and, despite limbering up, is injured at the rear line in a sudden forward movement. He resumes work within three months and has a slight lack of dorsiflexion in the ankle as the main complication. Most patients resume badminton within one year, but some finish their sports career, mainly due to fear of a new injury. The investigation discusses predisposing factors and prophylactic measures. PMID:2605439

  4. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-09-17

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  5. Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of unilateral dynamic rupture propagation along very-long reverse faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, S.

    2017-12-01

    JGR) and succeeded in a simulation of unilateral rupture propagation in some parameter ranges (see figure). This unilateral rupture might be caused by energy dissipation due to the plastic yielding process that concentrates in the vicinity of only one rupture tip depending on the rupture direction.

  6. Investigating microearthquake finite source attributes with IRIS Community Wavefield Demonstration Experiment in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenyuan; McGuire, Jeffrey J.

    2018-05-01

    An earthquake rupture process can be kinematically described by rupture velocity, duration and spatial extent. These key kinematic source parameters provide important constraints on earthquake physics and rupture dynamics. In particular, core questions in earthquake science can be addressed once these properties of small earthquakes are well resolved. However, these parameters of small earthquakes are poorly understood, often limited by available datasets and methodologies. The IRIS Community Wavefield Experiment in Oklahoma deployed ˜350 three component nodal stations within 40 km2 for a month, offering an unprecedented opportunity to test new methodologies for resolving small earthquake finite source properties in high resolution. In this study, we demonstrate the power of the nodal dataset to resolve the variations in the seismic wavefield over the focal sphere due to the finite source attributes of a M2 earthquake within the array. The dense coverage allows us to tightly constrain rupture area using the second moment method even for such a small earthquake. The M2 earthquake was a strike-slip event and unilaterally propagated towards the surface at 90 per cent local S- wave speed (2.93 km s-1). The earthquake lasted ˜0.019 s and ruptured Lc ˜70 m by Wc ˜45 m. With the resolved rupture area, the stress-drop of the earthquake is estimated as 7.3 MPa for Mw 2.3. We demonstrate that the maximum and minimum bounds on rupture area are within a factor of two, much lower than typical stress drop uncertainty, despite a suboptimal station distribution. The rupture properties suggest that there is little difference between the M2 Oklahoma earthquake and typical large earthquakes. The new three component nodal systems have great potential for improving the resolution of studies of earthquake source properties.

  7. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; A. Zahra, Shaker

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting......Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities, but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm’s interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...

  8. The Role of External Knowledge Sources and Organizational Design in the Process of Opportunity Exploitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob; Zahra, Shaker A.

    2013-01-01

    involving 536 Danish firms shows that the use of external knowledge sources is positively associated with opportunity exploitation, but the strength of this association is significantly influenced by organizational designs that enable the firm to access external knowledge during the process of exploiting......Research highlights the role of external knowledge sources in the recognition of strategic opportunities but is less forthcoming with respect to the role of such sources during the process of exploiting or realizing opportunities. We build on the knowledge-based view to propose that realizing...... opportunities often involves significant interactions with external knowledge sources. Organizational design can facilitate a firm's interactions with these sources, while achieving coordination among organizational members engaged in opportunity exploitation. Our analysis of a double-respondent survey...

  9. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  10. Searching for evidence of a preferred rupture direction in small earthquakes at Parkfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, D. L.; Shearer, P. M.; Allmann, B.; Vernon, F. L.

    2009-12-01

    Theoretical modeling of strike-slip ruptures along a bimaterial interface suggests that the interface will have a preferred rupture direction and will produce asymmetric ground motion (Shi and Ben-Zion, 2006). This could have widespread implications for earthquake source physics and for hazard analysis on mature faults because larger ground motions would be expected in the direction of rupture propagation. Studies have shown that many large global earthquakes exhibit unilateral rupture, but a consistently preferred rupture direction along faults has not been observed. Some researchers have argued that the bimaterial interface model does not apply to natural faults, noting that the rupture of the M 6 2004 Parkfield earthquake propagated in the opposite direction from previous M 6 earthquakes along that section of the San Andreas Fault (Harris and Day, 2005). We analyze earthquake spectra from the Parkfield area to look for evidence of consistent rupture directivity along the San Andreas Fault. We separate the earthquakes into spatially defined clusters and quantify the differences in high-frequency energy among earthquakes recorded at each station. Propagation path effects are minimized in this analysis because we compare earthquakes located within a small volume and recorded by the same stations. By considering a number of potential end-member models, we seek to determine if a preferred rupture direction is present among small earthquakes at Parkfield.

  11. The Reasons of Steam Pipeline Elbow Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesjasz A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5 and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.

  12. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  13. Cavities as the sources of acid mine process in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine (poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluta, I.; Mazurkiewicz, M.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine process is one of the most significant sources the pollution of surface water. The intensive process was discovered in the Niwka-Modrzejow Coal Mine at the level 100-130 m. In this paper the method of prevention by the filling cavities of wastes from energy plants was proposed. (authors)

  14. External Carbon Source Addition as a Means to Control an Activated Sludge Nutrient Removal Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens; Søeberg, Henrik

    1994-01-01

    In alternating type activated sludge nutrient removal processes, the denitrification rate can be limited by the availability of readily-degradable carbon substrate. A control strategy is proposed by which an easily metabolizable COD source is added directly to that point in the process at which d...

  15. Levels-of-processing effect on internal source monitoring in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, J Daniel; McCarthy, Erin; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen M; Valdez, Jeffrey; Kohler, Christian; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2006-05-01

    Recognition can be normalized in schizophrenia by providing patients with semantic organizational strategies through a levels-of-processing (LOP) framework. However, patients may rely primarily on familiarity effects, making recognition less sensitive than source monitoring to the strength of the episodic memory trace. The current study investigates whether providing semantic organizational strategies can also normalize patients' internal source-monitoring performance. Sixteen clinically stable medicated patients with schizophrenia and 15 demographically matched healthy controls were asked to identify the source of remembered words following an LOP-encoding paradigm in which they alternated between processing words on a 'shallow' perceptual versus a 'deep' semantic level. A multinomial analysis provided orthogonal measures of item recognition and source discrimination, and bootstrapping generated variance to allow for parametric analyses. LOP and group effects were tested by contrasting recognition and source-monitoring parameters for words that had been encoded during deep versus shallow processing conditions. As in a previous study there were no group differences in LOP effects on recognition performance, with patients and controls benefiting equally from deep versus shallow processing. Although there were no group differences in internal source monitoring, only controls had significantly better performance for words processed during the deep encoding condition. Patient performance did not correlate with clinical symptoms or medication dose. Providing a deep processing semantic encoding strategy significantly improved patients' recognition performance only. The lack of a significant LOP effect on internal source monitoring in patients may reflect subtle problems in the relational binding of semantic information that are independent of strategic memory processes.

  16. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  17. Multicharged heavy ion production process and ion sources in impulse regime allowing the operation of the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, B.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is concerned with a production process of multicharged ions of elements choosen in the following group carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon and argon in a ion source in impulse regime; the process is characterized in that the gas introduced in the ion souce enclosure is a gas mixture in a non-critical proportion (about 50% in partial pressure) of a first gas choosen among helium, nitrogen and oxygen and a second gas choosen in the group comprising carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon and argon. This process allows to grow current intensity of heavy ions more than 10 times. The invention is also concerned with a ion source in impulse regime; it is characterized in that it comprises an enclosure related to two gas entrances, provided with a valve controlled by pressure measurement in the enclosure [fr

  18. The Simple Concurrent Online Processing System (SCOPS) - An open-source interface for remotely sensed data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M. A.; Goult, S.; Clewley, D.

    2018-06-01

    Advances in technology allow remotely sensed data to be acquired with increasingly higher spatial and spectral resolutions. These data may then be used to influence government decision making and solve a number of research and application driven questions. However, such large volumes of data can be difficult to handle on a single personal computer or on older machines with slower components. Often the software required to process data is varied and can be highly technical and too advanced for the novice user to fully understand. This paper describes an open-source tool, the Simple Concurrent Online Processing System (SCOPS), which forms part of an airborne hyperspectral data processing chain that allows users accessing the tool over a web interface to submit jobs and process data remotely. It is demonstrated using Natural Environment Research Council Airborne Research Facility (NERC-ARF) instruments together with other free- and open-source tools to take radiometrically corrected data from sensor geometry into geocorrected form and to generate simple or complex band ratio products. The final processed data products are acquired via an HTTP download. SCOPS can cut data processing times and introduce complex processing software to novice users by distributing jobs across a network using a simple to use web interface.

  19. Atmospheric processing of combustion aerosols as a source of soluble iron to the open ocean

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 彰記; ITO, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    The majority of bioavailable iron (Fe) from the atmosphere is delivered from arid and semiarid regions to the oceans because the global deposition of iron from combustion sources is small compared with that from mineral dust. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by inorganic and organic acids from anthropogenic and natural sources has been shown to increase the iron solubility of soils (initially < 0.5%) up to about 10%. On the other hand, atmospheric observations have shown that iron i...

  20. Spontaneous rupture of a left gastroepiploic artery aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohatgi A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastroepiploic aneurysms are extremely rare. They occur mainly in elderly men and in 90% of cases are ruptured at presentation. Visceral aneurysms though rare should be borne in mind in cases of unexplained haemorrhagic shock. We present a case of a 79-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain, hypotension and anaemia but no obvious source of bleeding. He had undergone a prior aorto-bifemoral graft. The patient refused an operation and died the following day.

  1. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  2. Analysis of the emission characteristics of ion sources for high-value optical counting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beermann, Nils

    2009-01-01

    The production of complex high-quality thin film systems requires a detailed understanding of all partial processes. One of the most relevant partial processes is the condensation of the coating material on the substrate surface. The optical and mechanical material properties can be adjusted by the well-defined impingement of energetic ions during deposition. Thus, in the past, a variety of different ion sources were developed. With respect to the present and future challenges in the production of precisely fabricated high performance optical coatings, the ion emission of the sources has commonly not been characterized sufficiently so far. This question is addressed in the frame of this work which itself is thematically integrated in the field of process-development and -control of ion assisted deposition processes. In a first step, a Faraday cup measurement system was developed which allows the spatially resolved determination of the ion energy distribution as well as the ion current distribution. Subsequently, the ion emission profiles of six ion sources were determined depending on the relevant operating parameters. Consequently, a data pool for process planning and supplementary process analysis is made available. On the basis of the acquired results, the basic correlations between the operating parameters and the ion emission are demonstrated. The specific properties of the individual sources as well as the respective control strategies are pointed out with regard to the thin film properties and production yield. Finally, a synthesis of the results and perspectives for future activities are given. (orig.)

  3. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ordas Bayon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pectoralis major (PM ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture.

  4. Traumatic rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha Ramlakhan, BMedSc, MBBCh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial dermoid cysts are congenital tumors of ectodermal origin. Rupture of these cysts can occur spontaneously, but rupture in association with trauma is reported infrequently. The diagnosis of rupture is made by the presence of lipid (cholesterol droplets in the subarachnoid spaces and ventricles. Nonenhanced CT of the head demonstrates multiple foci of low attenuation that correspond with hyperintense signal on T1-weighted MRI. We present a case of an adult patient with rupture of an intracranial dermoid cyst, precipitated by minor trauma.

  5. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacknoff, R.; Novelline, R.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Waltman, A.C.; De Luca, S.A.; Rhea, J.T.; Lawrason, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate diagnosis and surgery. In a series of 23 consecutive patients scanned by CT for suspected ruptured AAA, CT proved 100% accurate. In seven patients with surgically or pathologically proved ruptured AAA, CT demonstrated a similar distribution of hemorrhage into the perirenal space and to a lesser degree into the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. The 16 true-negative examinations included ten in patients with unruptured AAA and six in patients with other diseases. The authors conclude that patients in stable condition with suspected ruptured AAA should be examined by CT

  6. Rubber matting on an obstacle course causes anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and its removal eliminates them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Rodney P

    2002-04-01

    In June 1998, six unexpected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures within 12 months were detected by routine injury surveillance in a cohort of Australian Army recruits. Local investigation, reported separately as a Case Report in this issue, suggested the cause to be an excessive coefficient of friction between rubber boot soles and newly laid rubber matting on one obstacle course, creating excessive knee torques. The matting was removed progressively, but not before two more ruptures occurred on one remaining section. In this retrospective study, chi 2 analyses were used to compare the incidence of ACL rupture in prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, and the average costs to the institution of each ACL rupture were determined. Zero, eight, and zero ACL ruptures occurred in the prehazard, hazard-exposed, and postintervention cohorts, respectively (chi 2 > 4.75 for 1 df, p < 0.03 for each change in incidence). The temporal relationships between hazard introduction or removal and changes in the incidence of ACL rupture were strong. The average institutional cost of each ACL rupture was AU$54,627 or US$34,322. Rubber matting on obstacle courses increases the risk of ACL rupture in the presence of speed and rubber-soled footwear. Routine injury surveillance and simple preventive processes save money and personnel.

  7. Hybrid broadband Ground Motion simulation based on a dynamic rupture model of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Somerville, P.; Bayless, J.; Dalguer, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The rupture process of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake exhibits depth-dependent variations in the frequency content of seismic radiation from the plate interface. This depth-varying rupture property has also been observed in other subduction zones (Lay et al, 2012). During the Tohoku earthquake, the shallow region radiated coherent low frequency seismic waves whereas the deeper region radiated high frequency waves. Several kinematic inversions (Suzuki et al, 2011; Lee et al, 2011; Bletery et al, 2014; Minson et al, 2014) detected seismic waves below 0.1 Hz coming from the shallow depths that produced slip larger than 40-50 meters close to the trench. Using empirical green functions, Asano & Iwata (2012), Kurahashi and Irikura (2011) and others detected regions of strong ground motion radiation at frequencies up to 10Hz located mainly at the bottom of the plate interface. A recent dynamic model that embodies this depth-dependent radiation using physical models has been developed by Galvez et al (2014, 2015). In this model the rupture process is modeled using a linear weakening friction law with slip reactivation on the shallow region of the plate interface (Galvez et al, 2015). This model reproduces the multiple seismic wave fronts recorded on the Kik-net seismic network along the Japanese coast up to 0.1 Hz as well as the GPS displacements. In the deep region, the rupture sequence is consistent with the sequence of the strong ground motion generation areas (SMGAs) that radiate high frequency ground motion at the bottom of the plate interface (Kurahashi and Irikura, 2013). It remains challenging to perform ground motions fully coupled with a dynamic rupture up to 10 Hz for a megathrust event. Therefore, to generate high frequency ground motions, we make use of the stochastic approach of Graves and Pitarka (2010) but add to the source spectrum the slip rate function of the dynamic model. In this hybrid-dynamic approach, the slip rate function is windowed with Gaussian

  8. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  9. Why Did the Fault Rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake Propagate Predominately Northeastwards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S.; Yuan, J.

    2017-12-01

    The rupture processes of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake are much complex. The rupture propagated northeastward a large distance as long as 300 km, but rupture length is short in the southwest direction. Although a great deal of attention has been paid to why the rupture propagated preponderantly northeastward in the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the physical mechanism remains unclear. By means of finite element model, in which bimaterial contrast across the Longmen Shan fault is taken into account, nucleation process is initiated at the center of the fault, ruptures then spread out outward spontaneously in both directions. The simulated results show that the different materials between both sides of the fault lead to tensile changes of normal stresses on the fault, which enhance the propagation of the ruptures in northeastward direction. We found that bimaterial mechanism is important for earthquake ruptures, and mode II rupture evolves with propagation distance along a bimaterial interface to a unilateral wrinkle-like Weertman pulse in the direction of slip on the more compliant side of the fault, namely in the positive direction (i.e, the northeast direction in the study). The Weertman pulse can be self-amplified, self-sustained and self-healing, which gives rise to little frictional energy and long propagation distance. This may be the reason why the Wenchuan earthquake is a unilateral fault rupture and a high seismic magnitude. In addition, the modelling results suggest that the rupture distance is much smaller if the material in the model is homogeneous, in which no huge earthquakes can occur like the 2008 Wenchan event. This research was jointly supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41574041), Beijing Natural Science Foundation (8152034), and by Basic Research Project (ZDJ2017-08).

  10. Slip reactivation during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: Dynamic rupture and ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake generated such as vast geophysical data that allows studying with an unprecedented resolution the spatial-temporal evolution of the rupture process of a mega thrust event. Joint source inversion of teleseismic, near-source strong motion and coseismic geodetic data , e.g [Lee et. al, 2011], reveal an evidence of slip reactivation process at areas of very large slip. The slip of snapshots of this source model shows that after about 40 seconds the big patch above to the hypocenter experienced an additional push of the slip (reactivation) towards the trench. These two possible repeating slip exhibited by source inversions can create two waveform envelops well distinguished in the ground motion pattern. In fact seismograms of the KiK-Net Japanese network contained this pattern. For instance a seismic station around Miyagi (MYGH10) has two main wavefronts separated between them by 40 seconds. A possible physical mechanism to explain the slip reactivation could be a thermal pressurization process occurring in the fault zone. In fact, Kanamori & Heaton, (2000) proposed that for large earthquakes frictional melting and fluid pressurization can play a key role of the rupture dynamics of giant earthquakes. If fluid exists in a fault zone, an increase of temperature can rise up the pore pressure enough to significantly reduce the frictional strength. Therefore, during a large earthquake the areas of big slip persuading strong thermal pressurization may result in a second drop of the frictional strength after reaching a certain value of slip. Following this principle, we adopt for slip weakening friction law and prescribe a certain maximum slip after which the friction coefficient linearly drops down again. The implementation of this friction law has been done in the latest unstructured spectral element code SPECFEM3D, Peter et. al. (2012). The non-planar subduction interface has been taken into account and place on it a big asperity patch inside

  11. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  12. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  13. Complex rupture during the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Briggs, R.W.; Sladen, A.; Fielding, E.J.; Prentice, C.; Hudnut, K.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Crone, A.J.; Gold, R.; Ito, T.; Simons, M.

    2010-01-01

    Initially, the devastating Mw 7.0, 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake seemed to involve straightforward accommodation of oblique relative motion between the Caribbean and North American plates along the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone. Here, we combine seismological observations, geologic field data and space geodetic measurements to show that, instead, the rupture process may have involved slip on multiple faults. Primary surface deformation was driven by rupture on blind thrust faults with only minor, deep, lateral slip along or near the main Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone; thus the event only partially relieved centuries of accumulated left-lateral strain on a small part of the plate-boundary system. Together with the predominance of shallow off-fault thrusting, the lack of surface deformation implies that remaining shallow shear strain will be released in future surface-rupturing earthquakes on the Enriquillog-Plantain Garden fault zone, as occurred in inferred Holocene and probable historic events. We suggest that the geological signature of this earthquakeg-broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zoneg-will not be easily recognized by standard palaeoseismic studies. We conclude that similarly complex earthquakes in tectonic environments that accommodate both translation and convergenceg-such as the San Andreas fault through the Transverse Ranges of Californiag-may be missing from the prehistoric earthquake record. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Ion source techniques for high-speed processing of material surface by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    1990-01-01

    The present paper discusses some key or candidate techniques for future ion source development and such ion sources developed by the author. Several types of microwave ion sources for producing low charge state ions have been developed in Japan. When a microwave plasma cathode developed by the author is adapted to a Kaufman type ion source, the electron emission currents are found to be 2.5 A for argon gas and 0.5-0.9 A for oxygen gas. An alternative ionization method for metal atoms is strongly required for high-speed processing of material surface by metal-ion beams. Detailed discussion is made of collisional ionization of vaporized atoms, and negative-ion production (secondary negative-ion emission by sputtering). An impregnated electrode type liquid-metal ion source developed by the author, which has a porous tip structure, is described. The negative-ion production efficiency is quite high. The report also presents a neutral and ionized alkaline-metal bombardment type heavy negative-ion source, which consists of a cesium plasma ion source, suppressor, target electrode, negative-ion extraction electrode, and einzel lens. (N.K.)

  15. Post-processing of Monte Carlo simulations for rapid BNCT source optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.

    2000-01-01

    A great advantage of some neutron sources, such as accelerator-produced sources, is that they can be tuned to produce different spectra. Unfortunately, optimization studies are often time-consuming and difficult, as they require a lengthy Monte Carlo simulation for each source. When multiple characteristics, such as energy, angle, and spatial distribution of a neutron beam are allowed to vary, an overwhelming number of simulations may be required. Many optimization studies, therefore, suffer from a small number of datapoints, restrictive treatment conditions, or poor statistics. By scoring pertinent information from every particle tally in a Monte Carlo simulation, then applying appropriate source variable weight factors in a post-processing algorithm, a single simulation can be used to model any number of multiple sources. Through this method, the response to a new source can be modeled in minutes or seconds, rather than hours or days, allowing for the analysis of truly variable source conditions of much greater resolution than is normally possible when a new simulation must be run for each datapoint in a study. This method has been benchmarked and used to recreate optimization studies in a small fraction of the time spent in the original studies

  16. Post-processing of Monte Carlo simulations for rapid BNCT source optimization studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleuel, D.L.; Chu, W.T.; Donahue, R.J.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Vujic, J.

    2000-01-01

    A great advantage of some neutron sources, such as accelerator-produced sources, is that they can be tuned to produce different spectra. Unfortunately, optimization studies are often time-consuming and difficult, as they require a lengthy Monte Carlo simulation for each source. When multiple characteristics, such as energy, angle, and spatial distribution of a neutron beam are allowed to vary, an overwhelming number of simulations may be required. Many optimization studies, therefore, suffer from a small number of data points, restrictive treatment conditions, or poor statistics. By scoring pertinent information from every particle tally in a Monte Carlo simulation, then applying appropriate source variable weight factors in a post-processing algorithm; a single simulation can be used to model any number of multiple sources. Through this method, the response to a new source can be modeled in minutes or seconds, rather than hours or days, allowing for the analysis of truly variable source conditions of much greater resolution than is normally possible when a new simulation must be run for each data point in a study. This method has been benchmarked and used to recreate optimization studies in a small fraction of the time spent in the original studies. (author)

  17. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    to predict by themselves the risk of rupture. Therefore, our hypothesis is that the risk of rupture lies on the combination of multiple actors. These actors together would play different roles that could be: weakening of the artery wall, increasing biomechanical stresses on the wall induced by blood flow, in addition to personal sensitivity due to family history, or personal history of comorbidity, or even seasonal variations that could gate different inflammation mechanisms. The main goal of this project is to identify relevant variables that may help in the process of predicting the risk of intracranial aneurysm rupture using machine learning and image processing techniques based on structured and non-structured data from multiple sources. We believe that the identification and the combined use of relevant variables extracted from clinical, demographical, environmental and medical imaging data sources will improve the estimation of the aneurysm rupture risk, with respect to the actual practiced method based essentially on the aneurysm size. The methodology of this work consist of four phases: (1 Data collection and storage, (2 feature extraction from multiple sources in particular from angiographic images, (3 development of the model that could describe the risk of aneurysm rupture based on the fusion and combination of the features, and (4 Identification of relevant variables related to the aneurysm rupture process. This study corresponds to an analytic transversal study with prospective and retrospective characteristics. This work will be based on publicly available health statistics data, data of weather conditions, together with clinical and demographic data of patients diagnosed with intracranial aneurysm in the Hospital Carlos van Buren. As main results of this project we are expecting to identify relevant variables extracted from images and other sources that could play a role in the risk of aneurysm rupture. The proposed model will be presented to the

  18. Implementing Pollution Source Control—Learning from the Innovation Process in English and Welsh Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving the stimulation and management of innovation by water utilities is a key mechanism through which the challenges of securing sustainable water and wastewater services will be achieved. This paper describes the process of adopting source control interventions (SCIs) by water and sewerage

  19. Persistence of attitude change and attitude-behavior correspondence based on extensive processing of source information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierro, Antonio; Mannetti, Lucia; Kruglanski, Arie W.; Klein, Kristen; Orehek, Edward

    A three-phase longitudinal study (spread over a month's time) was carried out to investigate attitude's persistence and linkage to behavior as it may be affected by the processing of information about the communication source. The following three independent variables were manipulated: (i) contents

  20. The 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake: Investigation of rupture velocity, risetime, and high-frequency radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, S.; Liu, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1996-01-01

    A hybrid global search algorithm is used to solve the nonlinear problem of calculating slip amplitude, rake, risetime, and rupture time on a finite fault. Thirty-five strong motion velocity records are inverted by this method over the frequency band from 0.1 to 1.0 Hz for the Northridge earthquake. Four regions of larger-amplitude slip are identified: one near the hypocenter at a depth of 17 km, a second west of the hypocenter at about the same depth, a third updip from the hypocenter at a depth of 10 km, and a fourth updip from the hypocenter and to the northwest. The results further show an initial fast rupture with a velocity of 2.8 to 3.0 km/s followed by a slow termination of the rupture with velocities of 2.0 to 2.5 km/s. The initial energetic rupture phase lasts for 3 s, extending out 10 km from the hypocenter. Slip near the hypocenter has a short risetime of 0.5 s, which increases to 1.5 s for the major slip areas removed from the hypocentral region. The energetic rupture phase is also shown to be the primary source of high-frequency radiation (1-15 Hz) by an inversion of acceleration envelopes. The same global search algorithm is used in the envelope inversion to calculate high-frequency radiation intensity on the fault and rupture time. The rupture timing from the low- and high-frequency inversions is similar, indicating that the high frequencies are produced primarily at the mainshock rupture front. Two major sources of high-frequency radiation are identified within the energetic rupture phase, one at the hypocenter and another deep source to the west of the hypocenter. The source at the hypocenter is associated with the initiation of rupture and the breaking of a high-stress-drop asperity and the second is associated with stopping of the rupture in a westerly direction.

  1. Common and uncommon CT findings in rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Z.; Ling, L.; Ettles, D.F.

    2013-01-01

    The rapid imaging evaluation and diagnosis of rupture and impending rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is imperative. This article describes the imaging findings of rupture, impending rupture, and other abdominal aortic abnormalities. It is important not to overlook AAA as the consequences can be life threatening. All patients who had open or endovascular repair of AAA rupture over 6 years (2008–2012) were identified from our departmental database. The computed tomography (CT) images of 99 patients were reviewed for relevant findings. The mean age of the patients was 65 years and 85% were male

  2. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  3. Rupture of esophagus by compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Tan, Yuyong; Huo, Jirong

    2016-11-01

    Currently, beverages containing compressed air such as cola and champagne are widely used in our daily life. Improper ways to unscrew the bottle, usually by teeth, could lead to an injury, even a rupture of the esophagus. This letter to editor describes a case of esophageal rupture caused by compressed air.

  4. Coiling of ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Rooij, W.J.J. van; Sluzewski, M.; Wijnalda, D.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the technical feasibility of treating ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysms with detachable coils and to evaluate the anatomic and clinical results. METHODS: Over a period of 27 months, 12 patients with a ruptured pericallosal artery aneurysm were treated with detachable

  5. Treatment Alternative for Irreparable Rotator Cuff Ruptures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... and such ruptures also lead to a pseudo-paralysis.[1,2]. Pain during daily ... 2) repairable rotator cuff rupture, as determined on MRI and during arthroscopy ..... functioning and lead to cosmetic deformities.[4]. Arthroplasty is a ...

  6. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    to uterine rupture when adjusted for parity, epidural analgesia and augmentation by oxytocin. CONCLUSION: Although uterine rupture is rare, its association with epidural analgesia and augmentation of labour with oxytocin in multipara should be considered. Thus, vigilance should be exercised when labour...

  7. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  8. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Abstract. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture subsequent to blunt abdominal injury is rare. Most literatures on the subjects consist of case reports. We reported a rare case of isolated gallbladder rupture and discussed the possible predisposing factors to ...

  9. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  10. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  11. Spontaneous rupture of adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chae Hun; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Soo Youn; Hwang, Seong Su; Choi, Hyun Joo [St. Vincent Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-03-15

    Rupture of adrenal tumor from various primary origins is a rather rare event. We report here on a ruptured adrenal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma, and this ruptured metastasis was observed at the time of the initial diagnosis.

  12. Source-Modeling Auditory Processes of EEG Data Using EEGLAB and Brainstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Stropahl

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG source localization approaches are often used to disentangle the spatial patterns mixed up in scalp EEG recordings. However, approaches differ substantially between experiments, may be strongly parameter-dependent, and results are not necessarily meaningful. In this paper we provide a pipeline for EEG source estimation, from raw EEG data pre-processing using EEGLAB functions up to source-level analysis as implemented in Brainstorm. The pipeline is tested using a data set of 10 individuals performing an auditory attention task. The analysis approach estimates sources of 64-channel EEG data without the prerequisite of individual anatomies or individually digitized sensor positions. First, we show advanced EEG pre-processing using EEGLAB, which includes artifact attenuation using independent component analysis (ICA. ICA is a linear decomposition technique that aims to reveal the underlying statistical sources of mixed signals and is further a powerful tool to attenuate stereotypical artifacts (e.g., eye movements or heartbeat. Data submitted to ICA are pre-processed to facilitate good-quality decompositions. Aiming toward an objective approach on component identification, the semi-automatic CORRMAP algorithm is applied for the identification of components representing prominent and stereotypic artifacts. Second, we present a step-wise approach to estimate active sources of auditory cortex event-related processing, on a single subject level. The presented approach assumes that no individual anatomy is available and therefore the default anatomy ICBM152, as implemented in Brainstorm, is used for all individuals. Individual noise modeling in this dataset is based on the pre-stimulus baseline period. For EEG source modeling we use the OpenMEEG algorithm as the underlying forward model based on the symmetric Boundary Element Method (BEM. We then apply the method of dynamical statistical parametric mapping (dSPM to obtain

  13. Characterization of emission factors related to source activity for trichloroethylene degreasing and chrome plating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, R A; Hawkins, J L; Scheff, P A; Franke, J E

    1991-09-01

    A study at an automotive parts fabrication plant evaluated four metal surface treatment processes during production conditions. The evaluation provides examples of how to estimate process emission factors from activity and air concentration data. The processes were open tank and enclosed tank degreasing with trichloroethylene (TCE), chromium conversion coating, and chromium electroplating. Area concentrations of TCE and chromium (Cr) were monitored for 1-hr periods at three distances from each process. Source activities at each process were recorded during each sampling interval. Emission rates were determined by applying appropriate mass balance models to the concentration patterns around each source. The emission factors obtained from regression analysis of the emission rate and activity data were 16.9 g TCE/basket of parts for the open-top degreaser; 1.0 g TCE/1000 parts for the enclosed degreaser; 1.48-1.64 mg Cr/1000 parts processed in the hot CrO3/HNO3 tank for the chrome conversion coating; and 5.35-9.17 mg Cr/rack of parts for chrome electroplating. The factors were also used to determine the efficiency of collection for the local exhaust systems serving each process. Although the number of observations were limited, these factors may be useful for providing initial estimates of emissions from similar processes in other settings.

  14. Triple Achilles Tendon Rupture: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Hofer, Deann

    We present a case report with 1-year follow-up data of a 57-year-old male soccer referee who had sustained an acute triple Achilles tendon rupture injury during a game. His triple Achilles tendon rupture consisted of a rupture of the proximal watershed region, a rupture of the main body (mid-watershed area), and an avulsion-type rupture of insertional calcific tendinosis. The patient was treated surgically with primary repair of the tendon, including tenodesis with anchors. Postoperative treatment included non-weightbearing for 4 weeks and protected weightbearing until 10 weeks postoperative, followed by formal physical therapy, which incorporated an "antigravity" treadmill. The patient was able to return to full activity after 26 weeks, including running and refereeing, without limitations. Copyright © 2017 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI of tibialis anterior tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, Robert A.; DeMeo, Patrick J.; Kolman, Brett H.; Daffner, Richard H.; Sciulli, Robert L.; Roberts, Catherine C.

    2004-01-01

    Ruptures of the tibialis anterior tendon are rare. We present the clinical histories and MRI findings of three recent male patients with tibialis anterior tendon rupture aged 58-67 years, all of whom presented with pain over the dorsum of the ankle. Two of the three patients presented with complete rupture showing discontinuity of the tendon, thickening of the retracted portion of the tendon, and excess fluid in the tendon sheath. One patient demonstrated a partial tear showing an attenuated tendon with increased surrounding fluid. Although rupture of the tibialis anterior tendon is a rarely reported entity, MRI is a useful modality in the definitive detection and characterization of tibialis anterior tendon ruptures. (orig.)

  16. Ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad S. Ashrafi

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gastroepiploic artery aneurysms are extremely rare, with few reported cases in the literature. The risk of rupture however, is high and thus warrants attention. Presentation of case: Here we present a rare case of a women who presented to the emergency department in shock and was found to have a ruptured gastroepiploic artery aneurysm during surgical exploration. Suture ligation of the aneurysm was completed. Discussion: Although rare, gastroepiploic artery aneurysms have up to a 90% rate of rupture and therefore require intervention. A laparoscopic approach has been described however, in cases where rupture has occurred, urgent laparotomy and control of hemorrhage is needed. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of a ruptured gastroepiploic aneurysm that was successfully managed with urgent laparotomy and aneurysmal resection. Keywords: Gastroepiploic, Aneurysm, Hemorrhage, Case report

  17. Slip reactivation model for the 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake: Dynamic rupture, sea floor displacements and tsunami simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, P.; Dalguer, L. A.; Rahnema, K.; Bader, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Mw9 Tohoku earthquake has been recorded with a vast GPS and seismic network given unprecedented chance to seismologists to unveil complex rupture processes in a mega-thrust event. In fact more than one thousand near field strong-motion stations across Japan (K-Net and Kik-Net) revealed complex ground motion patterns attributed to the source effects, allowing to capture detailed information of the rupture process. The seismic stations surrounding the Miyagi regions (MYGH013) show two clear distinct waveforms separated by 40 seconds. This observation is consistent with the kinematic source model obtained from the inversion of strong motion data performed by Lee's et al (2011). In this model two rupture fronts separated by 40 seconds emanate close to the hypocenter and propagate towards the trench. This feature is clearly observed by stacking the slip-rate snapshots on fault points aligned in the EW direction passing through the hypocenter (Gabriel et al, 2012), suggesting slip reactivation during the main event. A repeating slip on large earthquakes may occur due to frictional melting and thermal fluid pressurization effects. Kanamori & Heaton (2002) argued that during faulting of large earthquakes the temperature rises high enough creating melting and further reduction of friction coefficient. We created a 3D dynamic rupture model to reproduce this slip reactivation pattern using SPECFEM3D (Galvez et al, 2014) based on a slip-weakening friction with sudden two sequential stress drops . Our model starts like a M7-8 earthquake breaking dimly the trench, then after 40 seconds a second rupture emerges close to the trench producing additional slip capable to fully break the trench and transforming the earthquake into a megathrust event. The resulting sea floor displacements are in agreement with 1Hz GPS displacements (GEONET). The seismograms agree roughly with seismic records along the coast of Japan.The simulated sea floor displacement reaches 8-10 meters of

  18. Effect of Source, Surfactant, and Deposition Process on Electronic Properties of Nanotube Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dheeraj Jain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of arrays of carbon nanotubes from several different sources differing in the manufacturing process used with a variety of average properties such as length, diameter, and chirality are studied. We used several common surfactants to disperse each of these nanotubes and then deposited them on Si wafers from their aqueous solutions using dielectrophoresis. Transport measurements were performed to compare and determine the effect of different surfactants, deposition processes, and synthesis processes on nanotubes synthesized using CVD, CoMoCAT, laser ablation, and HiPCO.

  19. Numerical modeling of optical coherent transient processes with complex configurations-III: Noisy laser source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Tiejun; Tian Mingzhen

    2007-01-01

    A previously developed numerical model based on Maxwell-Bloch equations was modified to simulate optical coherent transient and spectral hole burning processes with noisy laser sources. Random walk phase noise was simulated using laser-phase sequences generated numerically according to the normal distribution of the phase shift. The noise model was tested by comparing the simulated spectral hole burning effect with the analytical solution. The noise effects on a few typical optical coherence transient processes were investigated using this numerical tool. Flicker and random walk frequency noises were considered in accumulation process

  20. BioSig: the free and open source software library for biomedical signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaurre, Carmen; Sander, Tilmann H; Schlögl, Alois

    2011-01-01

    BioSig is an open source software library for biomedical signal processing. The aim of the BioSig project is to foster research in biomedical signal processing by providing free and open source software tools for many different application areas. Some of the areas where BioSig can be employed are neuroinformatics, brain-computer interfaces, neurophysiology, psychology, cardiovascular systems, and sleep research. Moreover, the analysis of biosignals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocorticogram (ECoG), electrocardiogram (ECG), electrooculogram (EOG), electromyogram (EMG), or respiration signals is a very relevant element of the BioSig project. Specifically, BioSig provides solutions for data acquisition, artifact processing, quality control, feature extraction, classification, modeling, and data visualization, to name a few. In this paper, we highlight several methods to help students and researchers to work more efficiently with biomedical signals.

  1. Traumatic rupture of the aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, G.S.; Paolella, L.P.; Haas, R.A.; Lambiase, R.E.; Cronan, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of traumatic rupture of the aorta (TRA), the authors obtained 56 thoracic aortograms in 55 consecutive trauma patients, using both DSA and cut-film angiography (CFA). Both studies were ranked blindly and assigned scores for quality and diagnosis. Interobserver variance for DSA and CFA quality rankings was insignificant. CFA achieved significantly higher ranking for quality. In the 56 examinations, CFA demonstrated seven abnormalities that demanded intervention for follow-up angiography. DSA demonstrated only five of these and found no additional abnormalities. While this evaluation applies only to the particular digital system that the authors tested, they found that DSA, as compared with CFA, failed to demonstrate significant aortic injury. The confidence of diagnosis was significantly greater with CFA. Similar double-blind evaluation is mandatory at any trauma center prior to converting from CFA to DSA in the diagnosis of this life-threatening condition

  2. Rupture of the meniscofibular ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyanli Oguz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The meniscofibular ligament is an anatomically defined ligament of the knee in humans. However, there are no data regarding the prognosis following injury to this ligament. Our case was a 42-year-old man who presented at our clinic with pain of the lateral side of his left knee. MRI of his left knee revealed the rupture of the meniscofibular ligament. The mechanism of injury was consistent with anatomical and mechanical studies of the meniscofibular ligament. The patient was treated conservatively for 1 year, but his pain did not resolve completely. A case series of patients with the same injury is required to establish an effective treatment for this rare injury.

  3. Xiphoid Process-Derived Chondrocytes: A Novel Cell Source for Elastic Cartilage Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seungwoo; Cho, Wheemoon; Cho, Hyunji; Lee, Jungsun

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction of elastic cartilage requires a source of chondrocytes that display a reliable differentiation tendency. Predetermined tissue progenitor cells are ideal candidates for meeting this need; however, it is difficult to obtain donor elastic cartilage tissue because most elastic cartilage serves important functions or forms external structures, making these tissues indispensable. We found vestigial cartilage tissue in xiphoid processes and characterized it as hyaline cartilage in the proximal region and elastic cartilage in the distal region. Xiphoid process-derived chondrocytes (XCs) showed superb in vitro expansion ability based on colony-forming unit fibroblast assays, cell yield, and cumulative cell growth. On induction of differentiation into mesenchymal lineages, XCs showed a strong tendency toward chondrogenic differentiation. An examination of the tissue-specific regeneration capacity of XCs in a subcutaneous-transplantation model and autologous chondrocyte implantation model confirmed reliable regeneration of elastic cartilage regardless of the implantation environment. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that xiphoid process cartilage, the only elastic cartilage tissue source that can be obtained without destroying external shape or function, is a source of elastic chondrocytes that show superb in vitro expansion and reliable differentiation capacity. These findings indicate that XCs could be a valuable cell source for reconstruction of elastic cartilage. PMID:25205841

  4. Study on conditional probability of surface rupture: effect of fault dip and width of seismogenic layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, N.

    2017-12-01

    The conditional probability of surface ruptures is affected by various factors, such as shallow material properties, process of earthquakes, ground motions and so on. Toda (2013) pointed out difference of the conditional probability of strike and reverse fault by considering the fault dip and width of seismogenic layer. This study evaluated conditional probability of surface rupture based on following procedures. Fault geometry was determined from the randomly generated magnitude based on The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion (2017) method. If the defined fault plane was not saturated in the assumed width of the seismogenic layer, the fault plane depth was randomly provided within the seismogenic layer. The logistic analysis was performed to two data sets: surface displacement calculated by dislocation methods (Wang et al., 2003) from the defined source fault, the depth of top of the defined source fault. The estimated conditional probability from surface displacement indicated higher probability of reverse faults than that of strike faults, and this result coincides to previous similar studies (i.e. Kagawa et al., 2004; Kataoka and Kusakabe, 2005). On the contrary, the probability estimated from the depth of the source fault indicated higher probability of thrust faults than that of strike and reverse faults, and this trend is similar to the conditional probability of PFDHA results (Youngs et al., 2003; Moss and Ross, 2011). The probability of combined simulated results of thrust and reverse also shows low probability. The worldwide compiled reverse fault data include low fault dip angle earthquake. On the other hand, in the case of Japanese reverse fault, there is possibility that the conditional probability of reverse faults with less low dip angle earthquake shows low probability and indicates similar probability of strike fault (i.e. Takao et al., 2013). In the future, numerical simulation by considering failure condition of surface by the source

  5. Rupture Dynamics along Thrust Dipping Fault: Inertia Effects due to Free Surface Wave Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilotte, J. P.; Scala, A.; Festa, G.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamic interaction between free surface and up-dip, in-plane rupture propagation along thrust faults, under linear slip-weakening friction. With reference to shallow along-dip rupture propagation during large subduction earthquakes, we consider here low dip-angle fault configurations with fixed strength excess and depth-increasing initial stress. In this configuration, the rupture undergoes a break of symmetry with slip-induced normal stress perturbations triggered by the interaction with reflected waves from the free surface. We found that both body-waves - behind the crack front - and surface waves - at the crack front - can trigger inertial effects. When waves interact with the rupture before this latter reaches its asymptotic speed, the rupture can accelerate toward the asymptotic speed faster than in the unbounded symmetric case, as a result of these inertial effects. Moreover, wave interaction at the crack front also affects the slip rate generating large ground motion on the hanging wall. Imposing the same initial normal stress, frictional strength and stress drop while varying the static friction coefficient we found that the break of symmetry makes the rupture dynamics dependent on the absolute value of friction. The higher the friction the stronger the inertial effect both in terms of rupture acceleration and slip amount. When the contact condition allows the fault interface to open close to the free surface, the length of the opening zone is shown to depend on the propagation length, the initial normal stress and the static friction coefficient. These new results are shown to agree with analytical results of rupture propagation in bounded media, and open new perspectives for understanding the shallow rupture of large subduction earthquakes and tsunami sources.

  6. Modeling 3D Dynamic Rupture on Arbitrarily-Shaped faults by Boundary-Conforming Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Zhu, H.; Luo, Y.; Chen, X.

    2008-12-01

    We use a new finite difference method (FDM) and the slip-weakening law to model the rupture dynamics of a non-planar fault embedded in a 3-D elastic media with free surface. The new FDM, based on boundary- conforming grid, sets up the mapping equations between the curvilinear coordinate and the Cartesian coordinate and transforms irregular physical space to regular computational space; it also employs a higher- order non-staggered DRP/opt MacCormack scheme which is of low dispersion and low dissipation so that the high accuracy and stability of our rupture modeling are guaranteed. Compared with the previous methods, not only we can compute the spontaneous rupture of an arbitrarily shaped fault, but also can model the influence of the surface topography on the rupture process of earthquake. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, we compared our results and other previous results, and found out they matched perfectly. Thanks to the boundary-conforming FDM, problems such as dynamic rupture with arbitrary dip, strike and rake over an arbitrary curved plane can be handled; and supershear or subshear rupture can be simulated with different parameters such as the initial stresses and the critical slip displacement Dc. Besides, our rupture modeling is economical to be implemented owing to its high efficiency and does not suffer from displacement leakage. With the help of inversion data of rupture by field observations, this method is convenient to model rupture processes and seismograms of natural earthquakes.

  7. A new method to estimate heat source parameters in gas metal arc welding simulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiaolei; Xu, Jie; Liu, Zhaoheng; Huang, Shaojie; Fan, Yu; Sun, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A new method for accurate simulation of heat source parameters was presented. •The partial least-squares regression analysis was recommended in the method. •The welding experiment results verified accuracy of the proposed method. -- Abstract: Heat source parameters were usually recommended by experience in welding simulation process, which induced error in simulation results (e.g. temperature distribution and residual stress). In this paper, a new method was developed to accurately estimate heat source parameters in welding simulation. In order to reduce the simulation complexity, a sensitivity analysis of heat source parameters was carried out. The relationships between heat source parameters and welding pool characteristics (fusion width (W), penetration depth (D) and peak temperature (T p )) were obtained with both the multiple regression analysis (MRA) and the partial least-squares regression analysis (PLSRA). Different regression models were employed in each regression method. Comparisons of both methods were performed. A welding experiment was carried out to verify the method. The results showed that both the MRA and the PLSRA were feasible and accurate for prediction of heat source parameters in welding simulation. However, the PLSRA was recommended for its advantages of requiring less simulation data

  8. Effects of irradiation source and dose level on quality characteristics of processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Choi, Yun-Sang; Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of irradiation source (gamma-ray, electron-beam, and X-ray) and dose levels on the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbial properties of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was studied, during 10 days of storage at 30±1 °C. The processed meat products were irradiated at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 kGy by three different irradiation sources. The pH of cooked beef patties and pork sausages was unaffected by irradiation sources or their doses. The redness of beef patties linearly decreased with increasing dose level (Pchanges in overall acceptability were observed for pork sausages regardless of irradiation source (P>0.05), while gamma-ray irradiated beef patties showed significantly decreased overall acceptability in a dose-dependent manner (Poxidation of samples was accelerated by irradiation depending on irradiation sources and dose levels during storage at 30 °C. E-beam reduced total aerobic bacteria of beef patties more effectively, while gamma-ray considerably decreased microbes in pork sausages as irradiation dose increased. The results of this study indicate that quality attributes of meat products, in particular color, lipid oxidation, and microbial properties are significantly influenced by the irradiation sources.

  9. The SCEC/USGS dynamic earthquake rupture code verification exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R.A.; Barall, M.; Archuleta, R.; Dunham, E.; Aagaard, Brad T.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Bhat, H.; Cruz-Atienza, Victor M.; Dalguer, L.; Dawson, P.; Day, S.; Duan, B.; Ely, G.; Kaneko, Y.; Kase, Y.; Lapusta, N.; Liu, Yajing; Ma, S.; Oglesby, D.; Olsen, K.; Pitarka, A.; Song, S.; Templeton, E.

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics are now common, yet it has been difficult to test the validity of these simulations because there have been few field observations and no analytic solutions with which to compare the results. This paper describes the Southern California Earthquake Center/U.S. Geological Survey (SCEC/USGS) Dynamic Earthquake Rupture Code Verification Exercise, where codes that simulate spontaneous rupture dynamics in three dimensions are evaluated and the results produced by these codes are compared using Web-based tools. This is the first time that a broad and rigorous examination of numerous spontaneous rupture codes has been performed—a significant advance in this science. The automated process developed to attain this achievement provides for a future where testing of codes is easily accomplished.Scientists who use computer simulations to understand earthquakes utilize a range of techniques. Most of these assume that earthquakes are caused by slip at depth on faults in the Earth, but hereafter the strategies vary. Among the methods used in earthquake mechanics studies are kinematic approaches and dynamic approaches.The kinematic approach uses a computer code that prescribes the spatial and temporal evolution of slip on the causative fault (or faults). These types of simulations are very helpful, especially since they can be used in seismic data inversions to relate the ground motions recorded in the field to slip on the fault(s) at depth. However, these kinematic solutions generally provide no insight into the physics driving the fault slip or information about why the involved fault(s) slipped that much (or that little). In other words, these kinematic solutions may lack information about the physical dynamics of earthquake rupture that will be most helpful in forecasting future events.To help address this issue, some researchers use computer codes to numerically simulate earthquakes and construct dynamic, spontaneous

  10. Gaussian process based independent analysis for temporal source separation in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Ditte Høvenhoff; Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) gives us a unique insight into the processes of the brain, and opens up for analyzing the functional activation patterns of the underlying sources. Task-inferred supervised learning with restrictive assumptions in the regression set-up, restricts...... the exploratory nature of the analysis. Fully unsupervised independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms, on the other hand, can struggle to detect clear classifiable components on single-subject data. We attribute this shortcoming to inadequate modeling of the fMRI source signals by failing to incorporate its...

  11. Disambiguating past events: Accurate source memory for time and context depends on different retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bjorn M; Ainge, James A; O'Connor, Akira R

    2016-07-01

    Current animal models of episodic memory are usually based on demonstrating integrated memory for what happened, where it happened, and when an event took place. These models aim to capture the testable features of the definition of human episodic memory which stresses the temporal component of the memory as a unique piece of source information that allows us to disambiguate one memory from another. Recently though, it has been suggested that a more accurate model of human episodic memory would include contextual rather than temporal source information, as humans' memory for time is relatively poor. Here, two experiments were carried out investigating human memory for temporal and contextual source information, along with the underlying dual process retrieval processes, using an immersive virtual environment paired with a 'Remember-Know' memory task. Experiment 1 (n=28) showed that contextual information could only be retrieved accurately using recollection, while temporal information could be retrieved using either recollection or familiarity. Experiment 2 (n=24), which used a more difficult task, resulting in reduced item recognition rates and therefore less potential for contamination by ceiling effects, replicated the pattern of results from Experiment 1. Dual process theory predicts that it should only be possible to retrieve source context from an event using recollection, and our results are consistent with this prediction. That temporal information can be retrieved using familiarity alone suggests that it may be incorrect to view temporal context as analogous to other typically used source contexts. This latter finding supports the alternative proposal that time since presentation may simply be reflected in the strength of memory trace at retrieval - a measure ideally suited to trace strength interrogation using familiarity, as is typically conceptualised within the dual process framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo; Michele, Mangiameli; Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito

    2015-01-01

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue

  13. Laser scanner data processing and 3D modeling using a free and open source software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriele, Fatuzzo [Dept. of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, University of Catania (Italy); Michele, Mangiameli, E-mail: amichele.mangiameli@dica.unict.it; Giuseppe, Mussumeci; Salvatore, Zito [Dept. of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The laser scanning is a technology that allows in a short time to run the relief geometric objects with a high level of detail and completeness, based on the signal emitted by the laser and the corresponding return signal. When the incident laser radiation hits the object to detect, then the radiation is reflected. The purpose is to build a three-dimensional digital model that allows to reconstruct the reality of the object and to conduct studies regarding the design, restoration and/or conservation. When the laser scanner is equipped with a digital camera, the result of the measurement process is a set of points in XYZ coordinates showing a high density and accuracy with radiometric and RGB tones. In this case, the set of measured points is called “point cloud” and allows the reconstruction of the Digital Surface Model. Even the post-processing is usually performed by closed source software, which is characterized by Copyright restricting the free use, free and open source software can increase the performance by far. Indeed, this latter can be freely used providing the possibility to display and even custom the source code. The experience started at the Faculty of Engineering in Catania is aimed at finding a valuable free and open source tool, MeshLab (Italian Software for data processing), to be compared with a reference closed source software for data processing, i.e. RapidForm. In this work, we compare the results obtained with MeshLab and Rapidform through the planning of the survey and the acquisition of the point cloud of a morphologically complex statue.

  14. Splenic rupture and intracranial haemorrhage in a haemophilic neonate: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic rupture and intracranial haemorrhage are life-threatening conditions infrequently encountered in neonates without history of birth trauma. External manifestations of birth trauma; namely, capput succadeneum and cephalhematoma, when present raise suspicions for more serious intracranial or visceral damage. Rupture of normal spleen without an obvious source of trauma in haemophilic neonate is a rare event. The concurrence of both conditions and the unusual presentation make this case a rare one that is seldom encountered in the literature. Additionally, when splenic rupture occurs, the consensus is to employ all non-operative techniques aimed at salvaging the spleen, thus avoiding the immune-compromised state associated with splenectomy. However, in this case, we present a 3-day-old male with family history of haemophilia A, who was diagnosed with splenic rupture and bilateral subdural haematomas and underwent splenectomy, albeit with post-operative complications, in light of haemodynamic instability and high ongoing transfusion requirements.

  15. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  16. Tsunami simulations of mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai Trough (Japan) based on stochastic rupture scenarios

    KAUST Repository

    Goda, Katsuichiro; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Mai, Paul Martin; Maruyama, Takuma; Mori, Nobuhito

    2017-01-01

    In this study, earthquake rupture models for future mega-thrust earthquakes in the Nankai–Tonankai subduction zone are developed by incorporating the main characteristics of inverted source models of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. These scenario

  17. The coordination of problem solving strategies: when low competence sources exert more influence on task processing than high competence sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiamzade, Alain; Mugny, Gabriel; Darnon, Céline

    2009-03-01

    Previous research has shown that low competence sources, compared to highly competent sources, can exert influence in aptitudes tasks in as much as they induce people to focus on the task and to solve it more deeply. Two experiments aimed at testing the coordination between self and source's problem solving strategies as a main explanation of such a difference in influence. The influence of a low versus high competence source has been examined in an anagram task that allows for distinguishing between three response strategies, including one that corresponds to the coordination between the source's strategy and participants' own strategy. In Study 1 the strategy suggested by the source was either relevant and useful or irrelevant and useless for solving the task. Results indicated that participants used the coordination strategy in a larger extend when they had been confronted to a low competence rather than a highly competent source but only when the source displayed a strategy that was useful to solve the task. In Study 2 the source's strategy was always relevant and useful, but a decentring procedure was introduced for half of the participants. This procedure induced participants to consider other points of view than their own. Results replicated the difference observed in Study 1 when no decentring was introduced. The difference however disappeared when decentring was induced, because of an increase of the high competence source's influence. These results highlight coordination of strategies as one mechanism underlying influence from low competence sources.

  18. An Open Source-Based Real-Time Data Processing Architecture Framework for Manufacturing Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafrudin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the manufacturing industry is experiencing a data-driven revolution. There are multiple processes in the manufacturing industry and will eventually generate a large amount of data. Collecting, analyzing and storing a large amount of data are one of key elements of the smart manufacturing industry. To ensure that all processes within the manufacturing industry are functioning smoothly, the big data processing is needed. Thus, in this study an open source-based real-time data processing (OSRDP architecture framework was proposed. OSRDP architecture framework consists of several open sources technologies, including Apache Kafka, Apache Storm and NoSQL MongoDB that are effective and cost efficient for real-time data processing. Several experiments and impact analysis for manufacturing sustainability are provided. The results showed that the proposed system is capable of processing a massive sensor data efficiently when the number of sensors data and devices increases. In addition, the data mining based on Random Forest is presented to predict the quality of products given the sensor data as the input. The Random Forest successfully classifies the defect and non-defect products, and generates high accuracy compared to other data mining algorithms. This study is expected to support the management in their decision-making for product quality inspection and support manufacturing sustainability.

  19. Index for simultaneous rupture assessment of active faults. Part 3. Subsurface structure deduced from geophysical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yasuhira

    2012-01-01

    Tomographic inversion was carried out in the northern source region of the 1891 Nobi earthquake, the largest inland earthquake (M8.0) in Japan to detect subsurface structure to control simultaneous rupture of active fault system. In the step-over between the two ruptured fault segments in 1891, a remarkable low velocity zone is found between the Nukumi and Ibigawa faults at the depth shallower than 3-5 km. The low velocity zone forms a prism-like body narrowing down in the deeper. Hypocenters below the low velocity zone connecting the two ruptured segments indicate the possibility of their convergence in the seismogenic zone. Northern tip of the Neodani fault locates in the low velocity zone. The results show that fault rupture is easy to propagate in the low velocity zone between two parallel faults. In contrast an E-W cross-structure is found in the seismogenic depth between the Nobi earthquake and the 1948 Fukui earthquake (M7.1) source regions. It runs parallel to the Hida gaien belt, a major geologic structure in the district. P-wave velocity is lower and the hypocenter depths are obviously shallower in north of the cross-structure. Since a few faults lie in E-W direction just above it, a cross-structure zone including the Hida gaien belt might terminate the fault rupture. The results indicate fault rupture is difficult to propagate beyond major cross-structure. The length ratio of cross-structure to fault segment (PL/FL) is proposed to use for simultaneous rupture assessment. Some examples show that fault ruptures perhaps (PL/FL>3-4), maybe (∼1), and probably (<1) cut through such cross-structures. (author)

  20. Hepatic Rupture Induced by Spontaneous Intrahepatic Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-bao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of hepatic rupture is usually secondary to trauma, and hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma is clinically rare. We describe here a 61-year-old female patient who was transferred to our hospital with hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. The patient had no history of trauma and had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus for five years, taking a daily dose of 5 mg prednisone for treatment. The patients experienced durative blunt acute right upper abdominal pain one day after satiation, which aggravated in two hours, accompanied by dizziness and sweating. Preoperative diagnosis was rupture of the liver mass. Laparotomy revealed 2500 mL fluid consisting of a mixture of blood and clot in the peritoneal cavity. A 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm rupture was discovered on the hepatic caudate lobe near the vena cava with active arterial bleeding, and a 5  × 6 cm hematoma was reached on the right posterior lobe of the liver. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and laparotomy revealed spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic hematoma with hemorrhagic shock. The patient was successfully managed by suturing the rupture of the hepatic caudate lobe and clearing part of the hematoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged after two weeks of hospitalization.

  1. Nitrogen deposition in precipitation to a monsoon-affected eutrophic embayment: Fluxes, sources, and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunchao; Zhang, Jingping; Liu, Songlin; Jiang, Zhijian; Arbi, Iman; Huang, Xiaoping; Macreadie, Peter Ian

    2018-06-01

    Daya Bay in the South China Sea (SCS) has experienced rapid nitrogen pollution and intensified eutrophication in the past decade due to economic development. Here, we estimated the deposition fluxes of nitrogenous species, clarified the contribution of nitrogen from precipitation and measured ions and isotopic composition (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in precipitation in one year period to trace its sources and formation processes among different seasons. We found that the deposition fluxes of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) to Daya Bay were 132.5, 64.4 17.5, 1.0, 49.6 mmol m-2•yr-1, respectively. DON was a significant contributor to nitrogen deposition (37% of TDN), and NO3- accounted for 78% of the DIN in precipitation. The nitrogen deposition fluxes were higher in spring and summer, and lower in winter. Nitrogen from precipitation contributed nearly 38% of the total input of nitrogen (point sources input and dry and wet deposition) in Daya Bay. The δ15N-NO3- abundance, ion compositions, and air mass backward trajectories implicated that coal combustion, vehicle exhausts, and dust from mainland China delivered by northeast monsoon were the main sources in winter, while fossil fuel combustion (coal combustion and vehicle exhausts) and dust from PRD and southeast Asia transported by southwest monsoon were the main sources in spring; marine sources, vehicle exhausts and lightning could be the potential sources in summer. δ18O results showed that OH pathway was dominant in the chemical formation process of nitrate in summer, while N2O5+ DMS/HC pathways in winter and spring.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO 3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO 4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ 34 S SO4 and δ 18 O SO4 ) verified that the SO 4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) indicated that NO 3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO 3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ 34 S SO4 and δ 15 N NO3 . This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different

  3. Tsunami impact to Washington and northern Oregon from segment ruptures on the southern Cascadia subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, George R.; Zhang, Yinglong; Witter, Robert C.; Wang, Kelin; Goldfinger, Chris; Stimely, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the size and arrival of tsunamis in Oregon and Washington from the most likely partial ruptures of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) in order to determine (1) how quickly tsunami height declines away from sources, (2) evacuation time before significant inundation, and (3) extent of felt shaking that would trigger evacuation. According to interpretations of offshore turbidite deposits, the most frequent partial ruptures are of the southern CSZ. Combined recurrence of ruptures extending ~490 km from Cape Mendocino, California, to Waldport, Oregon (segment C) and ~320 km from Cape Mendocino to Cape Blanco, Oregon (segment D), is ~530 years. This recurrence is similar to frequency of full-margin ruptures on the CSZ inferred from paleoseismic data and to frequency of the largest distant tsunami sources threatening Washington and Oregon, ~Mw 9.2 earthquakes from the Gulf of Alaska. Simulated segment C and D ruptures produce relatively low-amplitude tsunamis north of source areas, even for extreme (20 m) peak slip on segment C. More than ~70 km north of segments C and D, the first tsunami arrival at the 10-m water depth has an amplitude of earthquake. MM V–VI shaking could trigger evacuation of educated populaces as far north as Newport, Oregon for segment D events and Grays Harbor, Washington for segment C events. The NOAA and local warning systems will be the only warning at greater distances from sources.

  4. By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Djilas

    Full Text Available The processing of fruits results in high amounts of waste materials such as peels, seeds, stones, and oilseed meals. A disposal of these materials usually represents a problem that is further aggravated by legal restrictions. Thus new aspects concerning the use of these wastes as by-products for further exploitation on the production of food additives or supplements with high nutritional value have gained increasing interest because these are high-value products and their recovery may be economically attractive. It is well known that by-products represent an important source of sugars, minerals, organic acid, dietary fibre and phenolics which have a wide range of action which includes antitumoral, antiviral, antibacterial, cardioprotective and antimutagenic activities. This review discusses the potential of the most important by-products of apple, grape and citrus fruits processing as a source of valuable compounds. The relevance of this topic is illustrated by a number of references.

  5. Three-Dimensional Dynamic Rupture in Brittle Solids and the Volumetric Strain Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenishi, K.; Yamachi, H.

    2017-12-01

    As pointed out by Uenishi (2016 AGU Fall Meeting), source dynamics of ordinary earthquakes is often studied in the framework of 3D rupture in brittle solids but our knowledge of mechanics of actual 3D rupture is limited. Typically, criteria derived from 1D frictional observations of sliding materials or post-failure behavior of solids are applied in seismic simulations, and although mode-I cracks are frequently encountered in earthquake-induced ground failures, rupture in tension is in most cases ignored. Even when it is included in analyses, the classical maximum principal tensile stress rupture criterion is repeatedly used. Our recent basic experiments of dynamic rupture of spherical or cylindrical monolithic brittle solids by applying high-voltage electric discharge impulses or impact loads have indicated generation of surprisingly simple and often flat rupture surfaces in 3D specimens even without the initial existence of planes of weakness. However, at the same time, the snapshots taken by a high-speed digital video camera have shown rather complicated histories of rupture development in these 3D solid materials, which seem to be difficult to be explained by, for example, the maximum principal stress criterion. Instead, a (tensile) volumetric strain criterion where the volumetric strain (dilatation or the first invariant of the strain tensor) is a decisive parameter for rupture seems more effective in computationally reproducing the multi-directionally propagating waves and rupture. In this study, we try to show the connection between this volumetric strain criterion and other classical rupture criteria or physical parameters employed in continuum mechanics, and indicate that the criterion has, to some degree, physical meanings. First, we mathematically illustrate that the criterion is equivalent to a criterion based on the mean normal stress, a crucial parameter in plasticity. Then, we mention the relation between the volumetric strain criterion and the

  6. Neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent cued recall and source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lucie; Isingrini, Michel; Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Fay, Séverine

    2013-03-06

    In this experiment, event-related potentials were used to examine whether the neural correlates of encoding processes predicting subsequent successful recall differed from those predicting successful source memory retrieval. During encoding, participants studied lists of words and were instructed to memorize each word and the list in which it occurred. At test, they had to complete stems (the first four letters) with a studied word and then make a judgment of the initial temporal context (i.e. list). Event-related potentials recorded during encoding were segregated according to subsequent memory performance to examine subsequent memory effects (SMEs) reflecting successful cued recall (cued recall SME) and successful source retrieval (source memory SME). Data showed a cued recall SME on parietal electrode sites from 400 to 1200 ms and a late inversed cued recall SME on frontal sites in the 1200-1400 ms period. Moreover, a source memory SME was reported from 400 to 1400 ms on frontal areas. These findings indicate that patterns of encoding-related activity predicting successful recall and source memory are clearly dissociated.

  7. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.X.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (?200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in ...

  8. Optimization of industrial processes using radiation sources; Otimizacao dos trabalhos envolvendo radiacao industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, Claudio G.; Silva Filho, Edmundo D. da; Toribio, Norberto M.; Gandara, Leonardo A. [SAMARCO Mineracao S.A., Mariana, MG (Brazil). Mina de Germano

    1996-12-31

    Aiming the enhancement of the staff protection against radiation in operational areas, the SAMARCO Mineracao S.A. proceeded a reevaluation and analysis of the real necessity of the densimeters/radioactive sources in the operational area, and also the development of an alternative control process for measurement the ore pulp, and introduced of the advanced equipment for sample chemical analysis 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Design and optimization of components and processes for plasma sources in advanced material treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    The research activities described in the present thesis have been oriented to the design and development of components and technological processes aimed at optimizing the performance of plasma sources in advanced in material treatments. Consumables components for high definition plasma arc cutting (PAC) torches were studied and developed. Experimental activities have in particular focussed on the modifications of the emissive insert with respect to the standard electrode configuration, whi...

  10. Misdiagnosed Chest Pain: Spontaneous Esophageal Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Sinan; Gundogdu, Fuat; Gungor, Hasan; Arslan, Sakir; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Eroglu, Atila

    2013-01-01

    Chest pain is one of themost common complaints expressed by patients presenting to the emergency department, and any initial evaluation should always consider life-threatening causes. Esophageal rupture is a serious condition with a highmortality rate. If diagnosed, successful therapy depends on the size of the rupture and the time elapsed between rupture and diagnosis.We report on a 41-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of left-sided chest pain for two hours. PMID:27122690

  11. Eccentric pressurized tube for measuring creep rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    Creep rupture is a long term failure mode in structural materials that occurs at high temperatures and moderate stress levels. The deterioration of the material preceding rupture, termed creep damage, manifests itself in the formation of small cavities on grain boundaries. To measure creep damage, sometimes uniaxial tests are performed, sometimes density measurements are made, and sometimes the grain boundary cavities are measured by microscopy techniques. The purpose of the present research is to explore a new method of measuring creep rupture, which involves measuring the curvature of eccentric pressurized tubes. Theoretical investigations as well as the design, construction, and operation of an experimental apparatus are included in this research

  12. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-03-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users' progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software.

  14. The source term and waste optimization of molten salt reactors with processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.; Dodds, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The source term of a molten salt reactor (MSR) with fuel processing is reduced by the ratio of processing time to refueling time as compared to solid fuel reactors. The reduction, which can be one to two orders of magnitude, is due to removal of the long-lived fission products. The waste from MSRs can be optimized with respect to its chemical composition, concentration, mixture, shape, and size. The actinides and long-lived isotopes can be separated out and returned to the reactor for transmutation. These features make MSRs more acceptable and simpler in operation and handling

  15. Concepts and Criteria for Blind Quantum Source Separation and Blind Quantum Process Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Deville

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blind Source Separation (BSS is an active domain of Classical Information Processing, with well-identified methods and applications. The development of Quantum Information Processing has made possible the appearance of Blind Quantum Source Separation (BQSS, with a recent extension towards Blind Quantum Process Tomography (BQPT. This article investigates the use of several fundamental quantum concepts in the BQSS context and establishes properties already used without justification in that context. It mainly considers a pair of electron spins initially separately prepared in a pure state and then submitted to an undesired exchange coupling between these spins. Some consequences of the existence of the entanglement phenomenon, and of the probabilistic aspect of quantum measurements, upon BQSS solutions, are discussed. An unentanglement criterion is established for the state of an arbitrary qubit pair, expressed first with probability amplitudes and secondly with probabilities. The interest of using the concept of a random quantum state in the BQSS context is presented. It is stressed that the concept of statistical independence of the sources, widely used in classical BSS, should be used with care in BQSS, and possibly replaced by some disentanglement principle. It is shown that the coefficients of the development of any qubit pair pure state over the states of an orthonormal basis can be expressed with the probabilities of results in the measurements of well-chosen spin components.

  16. How geometry and structure control the seismic radiation : spectral element simulation of the dynamic rupture of the Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festa, G.; Vilotte, J.; Scala, A.

    2012-12-01

    The M 9.0, 2011 Tohoku earthquake, along the North American-Pacific plate boundary, East of the Honshu Island, yielded a complex broadband rupture extending southwards over 600 km along strike and triggering a large tsunami that ravaged the East coast of North Japan. Strong motion and high-rate continuous GPS data, recorded all along the Japanese archipelago by the national seismic networks K-Net and Kik-net and geodetic network Geonet, together with teleseismic data, indicated a complex frequency dependent rupture. Low frequency signals (fmeters), extending along-dip over about 100 km, between the hypocenter and the trench, and 150 to 200 km along strike. This slip asperity was likely the cause of the localized tsunami source and of the large amplitude tsunami waves. High-frequency signals (f>0.5 Hz) were instead generated close to the coast in the deeper part of the subduction zone, by at least four smaller size asperities, with possible repeated slip, and were mostly the cause for the ground shaking felt in the Eastern part of Japan. The deep origin of the high-frequency radiation was also confirmed by teleseismic high frequency back projection analysis. Intermediate frequency analysis showed a transition between the shallow and deeper part of the fault, with the rupture almost confined in a small stripe containing the hypocenter before propagating southward along the strike, indicating a predominant in-plane rupture mechanism in the initial stage of the rupture itself. We numerically investigate the role of the geometry of the subduction interface and of the structural properties of the subduction zone on the broadband dynamic rupture and radiation of the Tohoku earthquake. Based upon the almost in-plane behavior of the rupture in its initial stage, 2D non-smooth spectral element dynamic simulations of the earthquake rupture propagation are performed including the non planar and kink geometry of the subduction interface, together with bi-material interfaces

  17. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C; Campbell, Malachy T; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-05-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. Image Harvest: an open-source platform for high-throughput plant image processing and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Avi C.; Campbell, Malachy T.; Caprez, Adam; Swanson, David R.; Walia, Harkamal

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput plant phenotyping is an effective approach to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap in crops. Phenomics experiments typically result in large-scale image datasets, which are not amenable for processing on desktop computers, thus creating a bottleneck in the image-analysis pipeline. Here, we present an open-source, flexible image-analysis framework, called Image Harvest (IH), for processing images originating from high-throughput plant phenotyping platforms. Image Harvest is developed to perform parallel processing on computing grids and provides an integrated feature for metadata extraction from large-scale file organization. Moreover, the integration of IH with the Open Science Grid provides academic researchers with the computational resources required for processing large image datasets at no cost. Image Harvest also offers functionalities to extract digital traits from images to interpret plant architecture-related characteristics. To demonstrate the applications of these digital traits, a rice (Oryza sativa) diversity panel was phenotyped and genome-wide association mapping was performed using digital traits that are used to describe different plant ideotypes. Three major quantitative trait loci were identified on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, which co-localize with quantitative trait loci known to regulate agronomically important traits in rice. Image Harvest is an open-source software for high-throughput image processing that requires a minimal learning curve for plant biologists to analyzephenomics datasets. PMID:27141917

  19. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  20. Extreme of random field over rectangle with application to concrete rupture stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2000-01-01

    to time consuming simulation procedures. This paperrevives a conceptually simple approach that gives surprisingly good results in particular for wide band typesof random processes and fields. The closed form formulas obtained for smooth Gaussian fieldsover rectangles contain size effects both with respect...... to the area of the rectangle and the side lengths of therectangle. Published rupture stress data for plain concrete beams illustrate the applicability of the derivedclosed form extreme value distributions as models for distributions of rupture stresses related to weakest linkmechanisms....

  1. Implications on 1 + 1 D Tsunami Runup Modeling due to Time Features of the Earthquake Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M.; Riquelme, S.; Ruiz, J.; Campos, J.

    2018-04-01

    The time characteristics of the seismic source are usually neglected in tsunami modeling, due to the difference in the time scale of both processes. Nonetheless, there are just a few analytical studies that intended to explain separately the role of the rise time and the rupture velocity. In this work, we extend an analytical 1 + 1 D solution for the shoreline motion time series, from the static case to the kinematic case, by including both rise time and rupture velocity. Our results show that the static case corresponds to a limit case of null rise time and infinite rupture velocity. Both parameters contribute in shifting the arrival time, but maximum runup may be affected by very slow ruptures and long rise time. Parametric analysis reveals that runup is strictly decreasing with the rise time while is highly amplified in a certain range of slow rupture velocities. For even lower rupture velocities, the tsunami excitation vanishes and for larger, quicker approaches to the instantaneous case.

  2. Implications on 1 + 1 D Tsunami Runup Modeling due to Time Features of the Earthquake Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, M.; Riquelme, S.; Ruiz, J.; Campos, J.

    2018-02-01

    The time characteristics of the seismic source are usually neglected in tsunami modeling, due to the difference in the time scale of both processes. Nonetheless, there are just a few analytical studies that intended to explain separately the role of the rise time and the rupture velocity. In this work, we extend an analytical 1 + 1 D solution for the shoreline motion time series, from the static case to the kinematic case, by including both rise time and rupture velocity. Our results show that the static case corresponds to a limit case of null rise time and infinite rupture velocity. Both parameters contribute in shifting the arrival time, but maximum runup may be affected by very slow ruptures and long rise time. Parametric analysis reveals that runup is strictly decreasing with the rise time while is highly amplified in a certain range of slow rupture velocities. For even lower rupture velocities, the tsunami excitation vanishes and for larger, quicker approaches to the instantaneous case.

  3. Surface Rupture Effects on Earthquake Moment-Area Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yingdi; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Miyakoshi, Ken; Irikura, Kojiro

    2017-09-01

    Empirical earthquake scaling relations play a central role in fundamental studies of earthquake physics and in current practice of earthquake hazard assessment, and are being refined by advances in earthquake source analysis. A scaling relation between seismic moment ( M 0) and rupture area ( A) currently in use for ground motion prediction in Japan features a transition regime of the form M 0- A 2, between the well-recognized small (self-similar) and very large (W-model) earthquake regimes, which has counter-intuitive attributes and uncertain theoretical underpinnings. Here, we investigate the mechanical origin of this transition regime via earthquake cycle simulations, analytical dislocation models and numerical crack models on strike-slip faults. We find that, even if stress drop is assumed constant, the properties of the transition regime are controlled by surface rupture effects, comprising an effective rupture elongation along-dip due to a mirror effect and systematic changes of the shape factor relating slip to stress drop. Based on this physical insight, we propose a simplified formula to account for these effects in M 0- A scaling relations for strike-slip earthquakes.

  4. Real-Time Detection of Rupture Development: Earthquake Early Warning Using P Waves From Growing Ruptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodera, Yuki

    2018-01-01

    Large earthquakes with long rupture durations emit P wave energy throughout the rupture period. Incorporating late-onset P waves into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms could contribute to robust predictions of strong ground motion. Here I describe a technique to detect in real time P waves from growing ruptures to improve the timeliness of an EEW algorithm based on seismic wavefield estimation. The proposed P wave detector, which employs a simple polarization analysis, successfully detected P waves from strong motion generation areas of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake rupture. An analysis using 23 large (M ≥ 7) events from Japan confirmed that seismic intensity predictions based on the P wave detector significantly increased lead times without appreciably decreasing the prediction accuracy. P waves from growing ruptures, being one of the fastest carriers of information on ongoing rupture development, have the potential to improve the performance of EEW systems.

  5. The development of control processes supporting source memory discrimination as revealed by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Friedman, David; Cycowicz, Yael M

    2007-08-01

    Improvement in source memory performance throughout childhood is thought to be mediated by the development of executive control. As postretrieval control processes may be better time-locked to the recognition response rather than the retrieval cue, the development of processes underlying source memory was investigated with both stimulus- and response-locked event-related potentials (ERPs). These were recorded in children, adolescents, and adults during a recognition memory exclusion task. Green- and red-outlined pictures were studied, but were tested in black outline. The test requirement was to endorse old items shown in one study color ("targets") and to reject new items along with old items shown in the alternative study color ("nontargets"). Source memory improved with age. All age groups retrieved target and nontarget memories as reflected by reliable parietal episodic memory (EM) effects, a stimulus-locked ERP correlate of recollection. Response-locked ERPs to targets and nontargets diverged in all groups prior to the response, although this occurred at an increasingly earlier time point with age. We suggest these findings reflect the implementation of attentional control mechanisms to enhance target memories and facilitate response selection with the greatest and least success, respectively, in adults and children. In adults only, response-locked ERPs revealed an early-onsetting parietal negativity for nontargets, but not for targets. This was suggested to reflect adults' ability to consistently inhibit prepotent target responses for nontargets. The findings support the notion that the development of source memory relies on the maturation of control processes that serve to enhance accurate selection of task-relevant memories.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  7. An open source Bayesian Monte Carlo isotope mixing model with applications in Earth surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Carli A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Hetland, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    The implementation of isotopic tracers as constraints on source contributions has become increasingly relevant to understanding Earth surface processes. Interpretation of these isotopic tracers has become more accessible with the development of Bayesian Monte Carlo (BMC) mixing models, which allow uncertainty in mixing end-members and provide methodology for systems with multicomponent mixing. This study presents an open source multiple isotope BMC mixing model that is applicable to Earth surface environments with sources exhibiting distinct end-member isotopic signatures. Our model is first applied to new δ18O and δD measurements from the Athabasca Glacier, which showed expected seasonal melt evolution trends and vigorously assessed the statistical relevance of the resulting fraction estimations. To highlight the broad applicability of our model to a variety of Earth surface environments and relevant isotopic systems, we expand our model to two additional case studies: deriving melt sources from δ18O, δD, and 222Rn measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet bulk water samples and assessing nutrient sources from ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr measurements of Hawaiian soil cores. The model produces results for the Greenland Ice Sheet and Hawaiian soil data sets that are consistent with the originally published fractional contribution estimates. The advantage of this method is that it quantifies the error induced by variability in the end-member compositions, unrealized by the models previously applied to the above case studies. Results from all three case studies demonstrate the broad applicability of this statistical BMC isotopic mixing model for estimating source contribution fractions in a variety of Earth surface systems.

  8. Acute Iliac Artery Rupture: Endovascular Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatziioannou, A.; Mourikis, D.; Katsimilis, J.; Skiadas, V.; Koutoulidis, V.; Katsenis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present 7 patients who suffered iliac artery rupture over a 2 year period. In 5 patients, the rupture was iatrogenic: 4 cases were secondary to balloon angioplasty for iliac artery stenosis and 1 occurred during coronary angioplasty. In the last 2 patients, the rupture was secondary to iliac artery mycotic aneurysm. Direct placement of a stent-graft was performed in all cases, which was dilated until extravasation was controlled. Placement of the stent-graft was successful in all the cases, without any complications. The techniques used, results, and mid-term follow-up are presented. In conclusion, endovascular placement of a stent-graft is a quick, minimally invasive, efficient, and safe method for emergency treatment of acute iliac artery rupture, with satisfactory short- and mid-term results

  9. Arthrographic diagnosis of ruptured calcaneofibular ligament. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuust, M.

    1980-01-01

    A new projection, oblique axial, is recommended for the arthrography of the acute sprained ankle for the correct diagnosis of a ruptured calcaneofibular ligament. Its value is experimentally confirmed. (Auth.)

  10. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  11. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  12. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Egawa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy.

  13. Cognitive frames in psychology: demarcations and ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurevich, Andrey V

    2009-06-01

    As there seems to be a recurrent feeling of crisis in psychology, its present state is analyzed in this article. The author believes that in addition to the traditional manifestations that have dogged psychology since it emerged as an independent science some new features of the crisis have emerged. Three fundamental "ruptures" are identified: the "horizontal" rupture between various schools and trends, the "vertical" rupture between natural science and humanitarian psychology, and the "diagonal" rupture between academic research and applied practice of psychology. These manifestations of the crisis of psychology have recently been compounded by the crisis of its rationalistic foundations. This situation is described in terms of the cognitive systems in psychology which include meta-theories, paradigms, sociodigms and metadigms.

  14. Real-time speckle variance swept-source optical coherence tomography using a graphics processing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth K C; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yu, Joe X Z; Cadotte, David W; Wilson, Brian C; Standish, Beau A; Yang, Victor X D

    2012-07-01

    Advances in swept source laser technology continues to increase the imaging speed of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. These fast imaging speeds are ideal for microvascular detection schemes, such as speckle variance (SV), where interframe motion can cause severe imaging artifacts and loss of vascular contrast. However, full utilization of the laser scan speed has been hindered by the computationally intensive signal processing required by SS-OCT and SV calculations. Using a commercial graphics processing unit that has been optimized for parallel data processing, we report a complete high-speed SS-OCT platform capable of real-time data acquisition, processing, display, and saving at 108,000 lines per second. Subpixel image registration of structural images was performed in real-time prior to SV calculations in order to reduce decorrelation from stationary structures induced by the bulk tissue motion. The viability of the system was successfully demonstrated in a high bulk tissue motion scenario of human fingernail root imaging where SV images (512 × 512 pixels, n = 4) were displayed at 54 frames per second.

  15. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  16. Process strategies for ultra-deep x-ray lithography at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mancini, D.C.; Moldovan, N.; Divan, R.; De Carlo, F.; Yaeger, J.

    2001-01-01

    For the past five years, we have been investigating and advancing processing capabilities for deep x-ray lithography (DXRL) using synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), with an emphasis on ultra-deep structures (1mm to 1cm thick). The use of higher-energy x-rays has presented many challenges in developing optimal lithographic techniques for high-aspect ratio structures: mask requirements, resist preparation, exposure, development, and post-processing. Many problems are more severe for high-energy exposure of thicker films than for sub-millimeter structures and affect resolution, processing time, adhesion, damage, and residue. A number of strategies have been created to overcome the challenges and limitations of ultra-deep x-ray lithography (UDXRL), that have resulted in the current choices for mask, substrate, and process flow at the APS. We describe our current process strategies for UDXRL, how they address the challenges presented, and their current limitations. We note especially the importance of the process parameters for use of the positive tone resist PMMA for UDXRL, and compare to the use of negative tone resists such as SU-8 regarding throughput, resolution, adhesion, damage, and post-processing.

  17. Traumatic Fundal Rupture of unscarred Uterus in a Primigravida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uterine rupture is an infrequent but life threatening obstetric emergency. Rupture of previously scarred uterus is often encountered especially in multiparous women, but the traumatic rupture of an unscarred primigravid uterus as presented here is a relatively rare event. We report a case of rupture of an ...

  18. Describing Soils: Calibration Tool for Teaching Soil Rupture Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, C. A.; Harms, D. S.; Grossman, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Rupture resistance is a measure of the strength of a soil to withstand an applied stress or resist deformation. In soil survey, during routine soil descriptions, rupture resistance is described for each horizon or layer in the soil profile. The lower portion of the rupture resistance classes are assigned based on rupture between thumb and…

  19. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Kovanen, Vuokko; Hölmich, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive.......The Achilles tendon is one of the strongest tendons in the human body, and yet it frequently ruptures, which is a substantial clinical problem. However, the cause of ruptures remains elusive....

  20. Bladder And Uterine Rupture At Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rupture of the uterus is still a major obstetric problem in developing countries. The urinary bladder is often affected especially when a lower segment Caesarean scar ruptures. We present a case of bladder rupture associated with uterine rupture in a patient who was attempting vaginal delivery after two previous Caesarean ...

  1. Fissile material detection and control facility with pulsed neutron sources and digital data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romodanov, V.L.; Chernikova, D.N.; Afanasiev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In connection with possible nuclear terrorism, there is long-felt need of devices for effective control of radioactive and fissile materials in the key points of crossing the state borders (airports, seaports, etc.), as well as various customs check-points. In International Science and Technology Center Projects No. 596 and No. 2978, a new physical method and digital technology have been developed for the detection of fissile and radioactive materials in models of customs facilities with a graphite moderator, pulsed neutron source and digital processing of responses from scintillation PSD detectors. Detectability of fissile materials, even those shielded with various radiation-absorbing screens, has been shown. The use of digital processing of scintillation signals in this facility is a necessary element, as neutrons and photons are discriminated in the time dependence of fissile materials responses at such loads on the electronic channels that standard types of spectrometers are inapplicable. Digital processing of neutron and photon responses practically resolves the problem of dead time and allows implementing devices, in which various energy groups of neutrons exist for some time after a pulse of source neutrons. Thus, it is possible to detect fissile materials deliberately concealed with shields having a large cross-section of absorption of photons and thermal neutrons. Two models of detection and the control of fissile materials were advanced: 1. the model based on graphite neutrons moderator and PSD scintillators with digital technology of neutrons and photons responses separation; 2. the model based on plastic scintillators and detecting of time coincidences of fission particles by digital technology. Facilities that count time coincidences of neutrons and photons occurring in the fission of fissile materials can use an Am Li source of neutrons, e.g. that is the case with the AWCC system. The disadvantages of the facility are related to the issues

  2. Biomechanical rupture risk assessment of abdominal aortic aneurysms based on a novel probabilistic rupture risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Stanislav; Gasser, T Christian

    2015-12-06

    A rupture risk assessment is critical to the clinical treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. The biomechanical AAA rupture risk assessment quantitatively integrates many known AAA rupture risk factors but the variability of risk predictions due to model input uncertainties remains a challenging limitation. This study derives a probabilistic rupture risk index (PRRI). Specifically, the uncertainties in AAA wall thickness and wall strength were considered, and wall stress was predicted with a state-of-the-art deterministic biomechanical model. The discriminative power of PRRI was tested in a diameter-matched cohort of ruptured (n = 7) and intact (n = 7) AAAs and compared to alternative risk assessment methods. Computed PRRI at 1.5 mean arterial pressure was significantly (p = 0.041) higher in ruptured AAAs (20.21(s.d. 14.15%)) than in intact AAAs (3.71(s.d. 5.77)%). PRRI showed a high sensitivity and specificity (discriminative power of 0.837) to discriminate between ruptured and intact AAA cases. The underlying statistical representation of stochastic data of wall thickness, wall strength and peak wall stress had only negligible effects on PRRI computations. Uncertainties in AAA wall stress predictions, the wide range of reported wall strength and the stochastic nature of failure motivate a probabilistic rupture risk assessment. Advanced AAA biomechanical modelling paired with a probabilistic rupture index definition as known from engineering risk assessment seems to be superior to a purely deterministic approach. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Blunt cardiac rupture in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peep Talving

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Blunt cardiac rupture is typically a fatal injury with overall mortality exceeding 90%. Most of the patients never reach the hospital alive. In pediatric patients, only 0.03% of cases following blunt trauma admissions have a cardiac injury. This report presents a rare survivor of 16-months old toddler injured in a domestic accident suffering a right atrial rupture repaired through a median sternotomy. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in the literature.

  4. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  5. Endovascular treatment of ruptured splenic artery aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerring, Ole Steen

    2008-01-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAA) are traditionally treated surgically, but endovascular techniques are becoming increasingly popular. A 64 year-old male with chest pain and low blood pressure was admitted under suspicion of AMI. A CT scan showed a 56 mm SAA with signs of rupture. The patient...... was treated with endovascular embolisation of the SAA with coils. Blood pressure and haemoglobin levels were stabilized and the patient was discharged. In the case of rupture the treatment of choice seems to be endovascular....

  6. Splenic artery aneurysm rupture in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.R.; Low, S.; Selinger, M.; Nelson, N.

    2004-01-01

    Rupture of a splenic artery aneurysm, commonly associated with pregnancy is a rare and catastrophic event. We report here a case of a patient in her second pregnancy who presented with a short history of left hypochondriac and epigastric pain, followed by collapse at 32 weeks gestation. Sudden fetal distress lead to emergency caesarean delivery when splenic artery aneurysm rupture was diagnosed. With timely involvement of multidisciplinary personnel both mother and baby survived and had an uneventful recovery. (author)

  7. Plantar Fascia Rupture: Ultrasound to Facilitate Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servey, Jessica T; Jonas, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Plantar fascia rupture in the absence of previous diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, corticosteroid injection, or injury is a rare occurrence with only 7 case reports in the literature since 1978. This is a case of spontaneous plantar fascia rupture in a 38-year-old active-duty US military member with current considerations in musculoskeletal ultrasound, other radiologic imaging, treatment, and followup of this diagnosis. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. MRI findings of achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuezhe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the MRI findings of achilles tendon rupture. Methods: The MRI data of 7 patients with achilles tendon rupture were retrospectively analysed. All 7 patients were male with the age ranging from 34 to 71 years. Routine MR scanning was performed in axial and sagittal planes, including T 1 WI, T 2 WI and a fat suppression MRI (SPIR). Results: Among 7 patients, complete achilles tendon rupture was seen in 6 cases, partial achilles tendon rupture 1 case. The site of tendon disruption were 2.6-11.0 cm( mean 5.4 cm) proximal to the insertion in the calcaneus. The MRI findings of a partial or complete rupture of the achilles tendon included enlarged and thickened achilles tendon (7 cases), wavy lax achilles tendon (2 cases), discontinuity of some or all of its fibers and intratendinous regions of increased signal intensity (7 cases). In the cases of complete tendon rupture, the size of the tendinous gap varied from 3.0-8.0 mm, which was filled with blood and appeared as edema of increase signal intensity on T 2 WI and SPIR. In all 7 patients, MR scanning showed medium signal intensity (7 cases) on T 1 WI, or medium signal intensity (1 cases), medium-high signal intensity (3 cases ), high signal intensity (3 cases) on T 2 WI, and medium-high signal intensity (2 cases), high signal intensity (5 cases) on fat suppression MRI. The preachilles fat pad showed obscure in 6 cases of complete achilles tendon rupture. Conclusion: MRI is an excellent method for revealing achilles tendon rupture and confirming the diagnosis. (authors)

  9. Sources and processes contributing to nitrogen deposition: an adjoint model analysis applied to biodiversity hotspots worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel J; Henze, Daven K

    2013-04-02

    Anthropogenic enrichment of reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition is an ecological concern. We use the adjoint of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to identify the sources and processes that control Nr deposition to an ensemble of biodiversity hotspots worldwide and two U.S. national parks (Cuyahoga and Rocky Mountain). We find that anthropogenic sources dominate deposition at all continental sites and are mainly regional (less than 1000 km) in origin. In Hawaii, Nr supply is controlled by oceanic emissions of ammonia (50%) and anthropogenic sources (50%), with important contributions from Asia and North America. Nr deposition is also sensitive in complicated ways to emissions of SO2, which affect Nr gas-aerosol partitioning, and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which affect oxidant concentrations and produce organic nitrate reservoirs. For example, VOC emissions generally inhibit deposition of locally emitted NOx but significantly increase Nr deposition downwind. However, in polluted boreal regions, anthropogenic VOC emissions can promote Nr deposition in winter. Uncertainties in chemical rate constants for OH + NO2 and NO2 hydrolysis also complicate the determination of source-receptor relationships for polluted sites in winter. Application of our adjoint sensitivities to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios for 2010-2050 indicates that future decreases in Nr deposition due to NOx emission controls will be offset by concurrent increases in ammonia emissions from agriculture.

  10. Contribution of electric energy to the process of elimination of low emission sources in Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, J.; Mejer, T.; Wybranski, A. [Power Distribution Plant, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    At present energy supply belongs to the most important global problems. A significant part of energy is consumed for residential heating purposes. Depending on climatic conditions, fuel distribution and the level of technological development, the contribution of these purposes ranges between ca. 50% (Poland) and ca. 12% (Spain). The power engineering structure in Poland is based almost exclusively upon solid fuels, i.e. hard and brown coal. Chemical compounds (carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) produced in combustion process influence negatively the natural environment. The contribution of residential heating in this negative effect is rather significant. Because of the fact, that the resources of fossil fuels (the most important source of energy at present) are limited and their influence on natural environment is negative, efforts are made to find out more effective ways of energy consumption and to reduce the pollutant emission from heating sources. This problem is a topical issue in Cracow, especially during the heating season because the coal-fired stoves situated in the central part of the town remain the most important source of pollutant emission. These sources cause serious menace to the health of inhabitants; furthermore the pollutants destroy Cracow monuments entered in the UNESCO world list of human heritage.

  11. High frequency source localization in a shallow ocean sound channel using frequency difference matched field processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthmann, Brian M; Song, H C; Dowling, David R

    2015-12-01

    Matched field processing (MFP) is an established technique for source localization in known multipath acoustic environments. Unfortunately, in many situations, particularly those involving high frequency signals, imperfect knowledge of the actual propagation environment prevents accurate propagation modeling and source localization via MFP fails. For beamforming applications, this actual-to-model mismatch problem was mitigated through a frequency downshift, made possible by a nonlinear array-signal-processing technique called frequency difference beamforming [Abadi, Song, and Dowling (2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, 3018-3029]. Here, this technique is extended to conventional (Bartlett) MFP using simulations and measurements from the 2011 Kauai Acoustic Communications MURI experiment (KAM11) to produce ambiguity surfaces at frequencies well below the signal bandwidth where the detrimental effects of mismatch are reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results suggest that frequency difference MFP can be more robust against environmental mismatch than conventional MFP. In particular, signals of frequency 11.2 kHz-32.8 kHz were broadcast 3 km through a 106-m-deep shallow ocean sound channel to a sparse 16-element vertical receiving array. Frequency difference MFP unambiguously localized the source in several experimental data sets with average peak-to-side-lobe ratio of 0.9 dB, average absolute-value range error of 170 m, and average absolute-value depth error of 10 m.

  12. Diagnostics of microdischarge-integrated plasma sources for display and materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, K; Kishimoto, Y; Kawai, S; Sakaguchi, T; Sakai, O

    2005-01-01

    Two different types of microdischarge-integrated plasma sources have been operated at around the atmospheric pressure range. The discharge characteristics were diagnosed by optical emission spectroscopy (OES), laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and microwave transmission (MT) techniques. The dynamic spatiotemporal behaviour of excited atoms was analysed using OES and LAS and the temporal behaviour of the electron density was estimated using the MT method. In Ar and Xe/Ne gases, waveforms of the MT signal followed the current waveform in the rise period and lasted longer according to the recombination losses. However, in He the waveform followed the density of metastable atoms, reflecting the production of a large amount of electrons by the Penning ionization process with impurities. The estimated peak electron density in those plasma sources is of the order of 10 12 cm -3 , and the metastable atom density can reach 10 13 cm -3 . Thus, it is suggested that these sources can be potentially applied to convenient material processing tools of large area operated stably at atmospheric pressure

  13. Inverse Source Data-Processing Strategies for Radio-Frequency Localization in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Gennarelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indoor positioning of mobile devices plays a key role in many aspects of our daily life. These include real-time people tracking and monitoring, activity recognition, emergency detection, navigation, and numerous location based services. Despite many wireless technologies and data-processing algorithms have been developed in recent years, indoor positioning is still a problem subject of intensive research. This paper deals with the active radio-frequency (RF source localization in indoor scenarios. The localization task is carried out at the physical layer thanks to receiving sensor arrays which are deployed on the border of the surveillance region to record the signal emitted by the source. The localization problem is formulated as an imaging one by taking advantage of the inverse source approach. Different measurement configurations and data-processing/fusion strategies are examined to investigate their effectiveness in terms of localization accuracy under both line-of-sight (LOS and non-line of sight (NLOS conditions. Numerical results based on full-wave synthetic data are reported to support the analysis.

  14. Aqueous organic chemistry in the atmosphere: sources and chemical processing of organic aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, V Faye

    2015-02-03

    Over the past decade, it has become clear that aqueous chemical processes occurring in cloud droplets and wet atmospheric particles are an important source of organic atmospheric particulate matter. Reactions of water-soluble volatile (or semivolatile) organic gases (VOCs or SVOCs) in these aqueous media lead to the formation of highly oxidized organic particulate matter (secondary organic aerosol; SOA) and key tracer species, such as organosulfates. These processes are often driven by a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and therefore their accurate representation in models is important for effective air quality management. Despite considerable progress, mechanistic understanding of some key aqueous processes is still lacking, and these pathways are incompletely represented in 3D atmospheric chemistry and air quality models. In this article, the concepts, historical context, and current state of the science of aqueous pathways of SOA formation are discussed.

  15. Improvement of a microwave ECR plasma source for the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongchen; Zhang Huafang; Peng Liping; Jiang Yanli; Ma Guojia

    2004-01-01

    The Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (PIII and D) process has many advantages over the pure plasma immersion ion implantation or deposition. It can compensate for or eliminate the disadvantages of the shallow modification layer (for PIII) and increase the bond strength of the coating (of deposition). For this purpose, a new type of microwave plasma source used in the PIII and D process was developed, composed of a vacuum bend wave guide and a special magnetic circuit, so that the coupling window was protected from being deposited with a coating and bombarded by high-energy particles. So the life of the window is increased. To enhance the bonding between the coating and substrate a new biasing voltage is applied to the work piece so that the implantation and deposition (or hybrid process) can be completed in one vacuum cycle

  16. Endovascular therapeutic strategies in ruptured intracranial aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Paolo; Lobotesis, Kyriakos; Vendrell, Jean Francoise; Riquelme, Carlos; Eker, Omer; Costalat, Vincent; Bonafe, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate endovascular techniques used currently which were not available at the time of ISAT inclusion period, such as balloon remodelling and flow-divertion, in order to assess whether these new technologies have improved the endovascular approach outcomes. We present a review of articles, published in major journals, with the aim to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of coiling with balloon remodelling for the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in comparison to coiling performed without such coadjutant techniques. Furthermore, we reviewed publications reporting on the treatment of ruptured aneurysms in the acute phase with the one of the most recent technologies available nowadays: the flow diverting stent. Looking at the recent literature the results regarding ruptured aneurysms treated with balloon assisted coiling (BAC) have shown an improvement in terms of anatomical results and morbi-mortality rates. Case series of ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms treated by EVT report results similar to those obtained by surgical clipping. Several articles recently report encouraging results in treating ruptured dissecting and blister aneurysms with flow diverters. Questions regarding the best treatment available for ruptured aneurysms are yet to be answered. Hence there is a need for a subsequent trial aiming to answer these unresolved issues

  17. Depth varying rupture properties during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Simons, Mark; Duputel, Zacharie; Jiang, Junle; Fielding, Eric; Liang, Cunren; Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Riel, Bryan; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Samsonov, Sergey V.

    2017-09-01

    On April 25th 2015, the Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake ruptured a portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust underlying Kathmandu and surrounding regions. We develop kinematic slip models of the Gorkha earthquake using both a regularized multi-time-window (MTW) approach and an unsmoothed Bayesian formulation, constrained by static and high rate GPS observations, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offset images, interferometric SAR (InSAR), and teleseismic body wave records. These models indicate that Kathmandu is located near the updip limit of fault slip and approximately 20 km south of the centroid of fault slip. Fault slip propagated unilaterally along-strike in an ESE direction for approximately 140 km with a 60 km cross-strike extent. The deeper portions of the fault are characterized by a larger ratio of high frequency (0.03-0.2 Hz) to low frequency slip than the shallower portions. From both the MTW and Bayesian results, we can resolve depth variations in slip characteristics, with higher slip roughness, higher rupture velocity, longer rise time and higher complexity of subfault source time functions in the deeper extents of the rupture. The depth varying nature of rupture characteristics suggests that the up-dip portions are characterized by relatively continuous rupture, while the down-dip portions may be better characterized by a cascaded rupture. The rupture behavior and the tectonic setting indicate that the earthquake may have ruptured both fully seismically locked and a deeper transitional portions of the collision interface, analogous to what has been seen in major subduction zone earthquakes.

  18. Sources of Law: Approach in the Light of Disciplinary Process Right

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre dos Santos Lopes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the sources of law that has an correlation with the disciplinary procedural law, especially when you realize the reverberation of principles inflows and axiological values arising from the constitution that procedural species. Calls that outline the sources  of  law  that  are  related  to  this  kind  of  administrative  process,  translates  into significant challenge, insofar as its structure, especially in the new constitutional order (post- positivist allows, starting from the look and constitutional filter, define more precisely the height, feature and densification in the context of the Brazilian legal system, enabling better framing of disciplinary procedural legal relationship.

  19. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christopher Oishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS. We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or “baseline”, which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  20. 40 CFR 74.48 - Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transfer of allowances from the replacement of thermal energy-process sources. [Reserved] 74.48 Section 74.48 Protection of Environment... energy—process sources. [Reserved] ...

  1. Leveraging human oversight and intervention in large-scale parallel processing of open-source data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Enrico; Suri, Niranjan; Bradshaw, Jeffrey M.

    2015-05-01

    The popularity of cloud computing along with the increased availability of cheap storage have led to the necessity of elaboration and transformation of large volumes of open-source data, all in parallel. One way to handle such extensive volumes of information properly is to take advantage of distributed computing frameworks like Map-Reduce. Unfortunately, an entirely automated approach that excludes human intervention is often unpredictable and error prone. Highly accurate data processing and decision-making can be achieved by supporting an automatic process through human collaboration, in a variety of environments such as warfare, cyber security and threat monitoring. Although this mutual participation seems easily exploitable, human-machine collaboration in the field of data analysis presents several challenges. First, due to the asynchronous nature of human intervention, it is necessary to verify that once a correction is made, all the necessary reprocessing is done in chain. Second, it is often needed to minimize the amount of reprocessing in order to optimize the usage of resources due to limited availability. In order to improve on these strict requirements, this paper introduces improvements to an innovative approach for human-machine collaboration in the processing of large amounts of open-source data in parallel.

  2. Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: A review of main hydrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Review of the main hydrometallurgical processes to recover yttrium. • Recovery of yttrium from primary sources. • Recovery of yttrium from e-waste and other types of waste. - Abstract: Yttrium is important rare earths (REs) used in numerous fields, mainly in the phosphor powders for low-energy lighting. The uses of these elements, especially for high-tech products are increased in recent years and combined with the scarcity of the resources and the environmental impact of the technologies to extract them from ores make the recycling waste, that contain Y and other RE, a priority. The present review summarized the main hydrometallurgical technologies to extract Y from ores, contaminated solutions, WEEE and generic wastes. Before to discuss the works about the treatment of wastes, the processes to retrieval Y from ores are discussed, since the processes are similar and derived from those already developed for the extraction from primary sources. Particular attention was given to the recovery of Y from WEEE because the recycle of them is important not only for economical point of view, considering its value, but also for environmental impact that this could be generated if not properly disposal.

  3. Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus caused by carbonated drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyerovitch, J.; Barzilay, Z.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Ben Ami, T.; Rozenman, J.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1988-01-01

    Pneumatic rupture of the esophagus occurs when gas under pressure is accidentally delivered into the oral cavity. To the 4 cases previously described we add 2 pediatric patients and in both the source of the offending gas was a bottle of carbonated drink. The mild initial symptoms were followed in both by physical and radiographic findings suggesting pharyngoesophageal perforation. Early radiologic findings included free subcutaneous and mediastinal air, followed later by hydropneumothorax and mediastinal widening as well as leak of contrast material on gastrografin swallow. CT findings contributed to patient evaluation and management. (orig.)

  4. Heavy-ion-induced, gate-rupture in power MOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new, heavy-ion-induced, burnout mechanism has been experimentally observed in power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). This mechanism occurs when a heavy, charged particle passes through the gate oxide region of n- or p-channel devices having sufficient gate-to-source or gate-to-drain bias. The gate-rupture leads to significant permanent degradation of the device. A proposed failure mechanism is discussed and experimentally verified. In addition, the absolute immunity of p-channel devices to heavy-ion-induced, semiconductor burnout is demonstrated and discussed along with new, non-destructive, burnout testing methods

  5. Atraumatic splenic rupture and ileal volvulus following cocaine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; Smith, J Patrick; Samra, Navdeep S

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 38-year-old male with an atraumatic splenic rupture, hemoperitoneum, and ileal volvulus following acute cocaine intoxication. Computed tomography showed a "whirl sign", a subcapsular splenic hematoma with suspected peripheral laceration, and diffuse hemoperitoneum. At laparotomy, the spleen was confirmed to be the source of bleeding and was removed. A nonreducible volvulus was found at the distal ileum, and this segment of small bowel was removed. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. MzJava: An open source library for mass spectrometry data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlacher, Oliver; Nikitin, Frederic; Alocci, Davide; Mariethoz, Julien; Müller, Markus; Lisacek, Frederique

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a widely used and evolving technique for the high-throughput identification of molecules in biological samples. The need for sharing and reuse of code among bioinformaticians working with MS data prompted the design and implementation of MzJava, an open-source Java Application Programming Interface (API) for MS related data processing. MzJava provides data structures and algorithms for representing and processing mass spectra and their associated biological molecules, such as metabolites, glycans and peptides. MzJava includes functionality to perform mass calculation, peak processing (e.g. centroiding, filtering, transforming), spectrum alignment and clustering, protein digestion, fragmentation of peptides and glycans as well as scoring functions for spectrum-spectrum and peptide/glycan-spectrum matches. For data import and export MzJava implements readers and writers for commonly used data formats. For many classes support for the Hadoop MapReduce (hadoop.apache.org) and Apache Spark (spark.apache.org) frameworks for cluster computing was implemented. The library has been developed applying best practices of software engineering. To ensure that MzJava contains code that is correct and easy to use the library's API was carefully designed and thoroughly tested. MzJava is an open-source project distributed under the AGPL v3.0 licence. MzJava requires Java 1.7 or higher. Binaries, source code and documentation can be downloaded from http://mzjava.expasy.org and https://bitbucket.org/sib-pig/mzjava. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Proteomics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing of coal from any source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limberg, T

    1916-10-15

    A process is described for carbonizing, distilling, and vaporizing coal from any source, especially of humid and bituminous coals as well as bituminous shale and peat for recovering an especially light tar with a large aliphatic hydrocarbon content that is characterized in that it is exposed to internal heating under vacuum at a temperature below dull-red heat. The distillation products of the material are washed away by the heating gases for the whole length of the furnace and are removed immediately and carried into separate condensers.

  8. Radiation hardness evaluation of the commercial 150 nm CMOS process using 60Co source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carna, M; Havranek, M; Hejtmanek, M; Janoska, Z; Marcisovsky, M; Neue, G; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of radiation effects on MOSFET transistors irradiated with a 60 Co source to a total absorbed dose of 1.5 Mrad. The transistor test structures were manufactured using a commercial 150 nm CMOS process and are composed of transistors of different types (NMOS and PMOS), dimensions and insulation from the bulk material by means of deep n-wells. We have observed a degradation of electrical characteristics of both PMOS and NMOS transistors, namely a large increase of the leakage current of the NMOS transistors after irradiation

  9. Processing summary report: Fabrication of cesium and strontium heat and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K. Jr.; Surma, J.E.; Allen, R.P.

    1989-02-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), has produced 30 isotopic heat sources (canisters) for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) to be used as part of a repository testing program in the Asse Salt Mine. PNL program work involved the filling, closure, and decontamination of the 30 canisters. The canisters were fabricated (filled) in three separate processing campaigns using the radioactive liquid-fed ceramic melter to produce a borosilicate glass. Within the borosilicate glass matrix radiochemical constituents ( 137 Cs and 90 Sr) were immobilized to yield a product with a predetermined decay heat and surface radiation exposure rate

  10. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  11. Width of surface rupture zone for thrust earthquakes: implications for earthquake fault zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boncio, Paolo; Liberi, Francesca; Caldarella, Martina; Nurminen, Fiia-Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    of the principal fault. The average footwall to hanging wall ratio (FW : HW) is close to 1 : 2 in all analysed cases. These criteria are applicable to "simple thrust" faults, without considering possible B-M or F-S fault ruptures due to large-scale folding, and without considering sympathetic slip on distant faults. Areas potentially susceptible to B-M or F-S fault ruptures should have their own zones of fault rupture hazard that can be defined by detailed knowledge of the structural setting of the area (shape, wavelength, tightness and lithology of the thrust-related large-scale folds) and by geomorphic evidence of past secondary faulting. Distant active faults, potentially susceptible to sympathetic triggering, should be zoned as separate principal faults. The entire database of distributed ruptures (including B-M, F-S and Sy fault ruptures) can be useful in poorly known areas, in order to assess the extent of the area within which potential sources of fault displacement hazard can be present. The results from this study and the database made available in the Supplement can be used for improving the attenuation relationships for distributed faulting, with possible applications in probabilistic studies of fault displacement hazard.

  12. Intentional back flow effects on ruptured steam generator cooldown during a SGTR event for KSNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Park, S.J.; Choi, C.J.; Seo, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    For an optimum recovery from a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event, the operators are directed to isolate the steam generator (SG) with ruptured tube as early as possible to minimize the radioactive material release. However, the reactor coolant system (RCS) cooldown and depressurization to the shutdown cooling system (SCS) operation conditions using the intact SG only are hard to achieve unless the ruptured SG is properly cooled since the ruptured SG, which is isolated by operator, remains at high temperature even though the RCS has been cooled down. The effects of intentional back flow from the SG secondary side to the RCS through the ruptured U-tube on the the ruptured SG cooldown were evaluated for the pressurized light water reactor, especially for the Korean standard nuclear power plant (KSNP). In order to evaluate the back flow effect, a series of analyses was conducted using the RELAP5/MOD3 computer code. For the first stage of the analysis, the cooldown process by natural circulation in the SG secondary side was simulated for the initial conditions of the ruptured SG cooldown. In the next analysis stage, two methods of the ruptured SG cooldown by using back flow after RCS cooldown were evaluated. One utilizes the steam condensation on the uncovered U-tube surface, and the other is a SG drain and fill. In the former method, SG tubes are exposed to the steam space by draining SG secondary water into the RCS in order to condense the steam directly onto the uncovered tubes. This method showed that the steam condensation decreased SG secondary pressure and temperature rapidly, demonstrating its effectiveness for cooling. However, this process has a limited applicability if the rupture is located at the lower region. The latter method, draining by back flow and filling using the feedwater system was also found to be effective in ruptured SG cooldown and depressurization even if the rupture occurred at the top of the U-tube. It is concluded that the

  13. Forecasting the Rupture Directivity of Large Earthquakes: Centroid Bias of the Conditional Hypocenter Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, J.; Jordan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Forecasting the rupture directivity of large earthquakes is an important problem in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), because directivity is known to strongly influence ground motions. We describe how rupture directivity can be forecast in terms of the "conditional hypocenter distribution" or CHD, defined to be the probability distribution of a hypocenter given the spatial distribution of moment release (fault slip). The simplest CHD is a uniform distribution, in which the hypocenter probability density equals the moment-release probability density. For rupture models in which the rupture velocity and rise time depend only on the local slip, the CHD completely specifies the distribution of the directivity parameter D, defined in terms of the degree-two polynomial moments of the source space-time function. This parameter, which is zero for a bilateral rupture and unity for a unilateral rupture, can be estimated from finite-source models or by the direct inversion of seismograms (McGuire et al., 2002). We compile D-values from published studies of 65 large earthquakes and show that these data are statistically inconsistent with the uniform CHD advocated by McGuire et al. (2002). Instead, the data indicate a "centroid biased" CHD, in which the expected distance between the hypocenter and the hypocentroid is less than that of a uniform CHD. In other words, the observed directivities appear to be closer to bilateral than predicted by this simple model. We discuss the implications of these results for rupture dynamics and fault-zone heterogeneities. We also explore their PSHA implications by modifying the CyberShake simulation-based hazard model for the Los Angeles region, which assumed a uniform CHD (Graves et al., 2011).

  14. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-05-01

    I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50-150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics.

  15. I12: the Joint Engineering, Environment and Processing (JEEP) beamline at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakopoulos, Michael; Connolley, Thomas; Reinhard, Christina; Atwood, Robert; Magdysyuk, Oxana; Vo, Nghia; Hart, Michael; Connor, Leigh; Humphreys, Bob; Howell, George; Davies, Steve; Hill, Tim; Wilkin, Guy; Pedersen, Ulrik; Foster, Andrew; De Maio, Nicoletta; Basham, Mark; Yuan, Fajin; Wanelik, Kaz

    2015-01-01

    JEEP is a high-energy (50–150 keV) multi-purpose beamline offering polychromatic and monochromatic modes. It can accommodate large samples and experimental rigs, enabling in situ studies using radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. I12 is the Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline, constructed during Phase II of the Diamond Light Source. I12 is located on a short (5 m) straight section of the Diamond storage ring and uses a 4.2 T superconducting wiggler to provide polychromatic and monochromatic X-rays in the energy range 50–150 keV. The beam energy enables good penetration through large or dense samples, combined with a large beam size (1 mrad horizontally × 0.3 mrad vertically). The beam characteristics permit the study of materials and processes inside environmental chambers without unacceptable attenuation of the beam and without the need to use sample sizes which are atypically small for the process under study. X-ray techniques available to users are radiography, tomography, energy-dispersive diffraction, monochromatic and white-beam two-dimensional diffraction/scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering. Since commencing operations in November 2009, I12 has established a broad user community in materials science and processing, chemical processing, biomedical engineering, civil engineering, environmental science, palaeontology and physics

  16. Minimally processed beetroot waste as an alternative source to obtain functional ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anne Porto Dalla; Hermes, Vanessa Stahl; Rios, Alessandro de Oliveira; Flôres, Simone Hickmann

    2017-06-01

    Large amounts of waste are generated by the minimally processed vegetables industry, such as those from beetroot processing. The aim of this study was to determine the best method to obtain flour from minimally processed beetroot waste dried at different temperatures, besides producing a colorant from such waste and assessing its stability along 45 days. Beetroot waste dried at 70 °C originates flour with significant antioxidant activity and higher betalain content than flour produced from waste dried at 60 and 80 °C, while chlorination had no impact on the process since microbiological results were consistent for its application. The colorant obtained from beetroot waste showed color stability for 20 days and potential antioxidant activity over the analysis period, thus it can be used as a functional additive to improve nutritional characteristics and appearance of food products. These results are promising since minimally processed beetroot waste can be used as an alternative source of natural and functional ingredients with high antioxidant activity and betalain content.

  17. Sub-Patch Roughness in Earthquake Rupture Investigations

    KAUST Repository

    Zielke, Olaf

    2016-02-13

    Fault geometric complexities exhibit fractal characteristics over a wide range of spatial scales (<µm to >km) and strongly affect the rupture process at corresponding scales. Numerical rupture simulations provide a framework to quantitatively investigate the relationship between a fault\\'s roughness and its seismic characteristics. Fault discretization however introduces an artificial lower limit to roughness. Individual fault patches are planar and sub-patch roughness –roughness at spatial scales below fault-patch size– is not incorporated. Does negligence of sub-patch roughness measurably affect the outcome of earthquake rupture simulations? We approach this question with a numerical parameter space investigation and demonstrate that sub-patch roughness significantly modifies the slip-strain relationship –a fundamental aspect of dislocation theory. Faults with sub-patch roughness induce less strain than their planar-fault equivalents at distances beyond the length of a slipping fault. We further provide regression functions that characterize the stochastic effect sub-patch roughness.

  18. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong [Shilla General Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture.

  19. The roentgenographic findings of achilles tendon rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seouk, Kang Hyo; Keun, Rho Yong

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of a lateral view of the ankles in Achilles tendon rupture. We performed a retrospective analysis of the roentgenographic findings of 15 patients with surgically proven Achilles tendon rupture. Four groups of 15 patients(normal, ankle sprain, medial lateral malleolar fracture, and calcaneal fracture) were analysed as reference groups. Plain radiographs were reviewed with regard to Kager's triangle, Arner's sign, Toygar's angle, ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon, sharpness of the anterior margin of Achilles tendon, and meniscoid smooth margin of the posterior skin surface of the ankle. Kager's triangle was deformed and disappeared after rupture of the Achilles tendon in nine patients(60%) with operative verification of the rupture, six patients(40%) had a positive Arner's sign, while none had a diminished Toygars angle. In 13 patients(87%) with a ruptured Achilles tendon, the thickness of this was nonuniform compared with the reference group. The anterior margin of the Achilles tendon became serrated and indistinct in 14 patients(93%) in whom this was ruptured. An abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon was noted in nine patient(60%), and nonparallelism between the anterior margin of the Achilles tendon and posterior skin surface of the ankle was detected in 11 patients(73%). The posterior skin surface of the ankle had a nodular surface margin in 13 patients(87%). A deformed Kager's triangle and Achilles tendon, and an abnormal ill defined radiolucent shadow through the Achilles tendon in a lateral view of the ankles are important findings for the diagnesis of in diagnosing achilles tendon rupture

  20. Arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratz, S.; Behr, T.; Becker, W.; Koester, G.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: In order to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of arthroscintigraphy in suspected rotator cuff ruptures this new imaging procedure was performed 20 times in 17 patients with clinical signs of a rotator cuff lesion. The scintigraphic results were compared with sonography (n=20), contrast arthrography (n=20) and arthroscopy (n=10) of the shoulder joint. Methods: After performing a standard bone scintigraphy with intravenous application of 300 MBq 99m-Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) for landmarking of the shoulder region arthroscintigraphy was performed after an intraarticular injection of 99m-Tc microcolloid (ALBU-RES 400 μCi/5 ml). The application was performed either in direct combination with contrast arthrography (n=10) or ultrasound conducted mixed with a local anesthetic (n=10). Findings at arthroscopical surgery (n=10) were used as the gold standard. Results: In case of complete rotator cuff rupture (n=5), arthroscintigraphy and radiographic arthrography were identical in 5/5. In one patient with advanced degenerative alterations of the shoulder joint radiographic arthrography incorrectly showed a complete rupture which was not seen by arthroscintigraphy and endoscopy. In 3 patients with incomplete rupture, 2/3 results were consistant. A difference was seen in one patient with a rotator cuff, that has been already revised in the past and that suffered of capsulitis and calcification. Conclusion: Arthroscinitgraphy is a sensitive technique for detection of rotator cuff ruptures. Because of the lower viscosity of the active compound, small ruptures can be easily detected, offering additional value over radiographic arthrography and ultrasound, especially for evaluation of incomplete cuff ruptures. (orig.) [de

  1. Influence of ion source configuration and its operation parameters on the target sputtering and implantation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalnov, K V; Kukhta, V R; Uemura, K; Ito, Y

    2012-06-01

    In the work, investigation of the features and operation regimes of sputter enhanced ion-plasma source are presented. The source is based on the target sputtering with the dense plasma formed in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. It allows operation with noble or reactive gases at low pressure discharge regimes, and, the resulting ion beam is the mixture of ions from the working gas and sputtering target. Any conductive material, such as metals, alloys, or compounds, can be used as the sputtering target. Effectiveness of target sputtering process with the plasma was investigated dependently on the gun geometry, plasma parameters, and the target bias voltage. With the applied accelerating voltage from 0 to 20 kV, the source can be operated in regimes of thin film deposition, ion-beam mixing, and ion implantation. Multi-component ion beam implantation was applied to α-Fe, which leads to the surface hardness increasing from 2 GPa in the initial condition up to 3.5 GPa in case of combined N(2)-C implantation. Projected range of the implanted elements is up to 20 nm with the implantation energy 20 keV that was obtained with XPS depth profiling.

  2. Chemical composition, sources and secondary processes of aerosols in Baoji city of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Huang, R.-J.; Ni, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Q. Y.; Li, G. H.; Tie, X. X.; Shen, Z. X.; Huang, Y.; Liu, S. X.; Dong, W. M.; Xue, P.; Fröhlich, R.; Canonaco, F.; Elser, M.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; El Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Cao, J. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particulate air pollution is a severe environmental problem in China, affecting visibility, air quality, climate and human health. However, previous studies focus mainly on large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In this study, an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was deployed in Baoji, a middle size inland city in northwest China from 26 February to 27 March 2014. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was dominated by organics (55%), followed by sulfate (16%), nitrate (15%), ammonium (11%) and chloride (3%). A source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was performed with the Sofi (Source Finder) interface of ME-2 (Multilinear Engine), and six main sources/factors were identified and classified as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), which contributed 20%, 14%, 13%, 9%, 23% and 21% of total OA, respectively. The contribution of secondary components shows increasing trends from clean days to polluted days, indicating the importance of secondary aerosol formation processes in driving particulate air pollution. The formation of LO-OOA and MO-OOA is mainly driven by photochemical reactions, but significantly influenced by aqueous-phase chemistry during periods of low atmospheric oxidative capacity.

  3. The effect of tube rupture location on the consequences of multiple steam generator tube rupture event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Hwan; Kweon, Young Chul

    2002-01-01

    A multiple steam generator tube rupture (MSGTR) event has never occurred in the commercial operation of nuclear reactors while single steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) events are reported to occur every 2 years. As there has been no occurrence of a MSGTR event, the understanding of transients and consequences of this event is very limited. In this study, a postulated MSGTR event in an advanced power reactor 1400 (APR 1400) is analyzed using the thermal-hydraulic system code, MARS1.4. The APR 1400 is a two-loop, 3893 MWt, PWR proposed to be built in 2010. The present study aims to understand the effects of rupture location in heat transfer tubes following a MSGTR event. The effects of five tube rupture locations are compared with each other. The comparison shows that the response of APR1400 allows the shortest time for operator action following a tube rupture in the vicinity of the hot-leg side tube sheet and allows the longest time following a tube rupture at the tube top. The MSSV lift time for rupture at the tube-top is evaluated as 24.5% larger than that for rupture at the hot-leg side tube sheet

  4. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine (Lasso)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Keon; Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chun Nam University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    This is a report of a case of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine for the purpose of suicide in a 27 year old Korean male whose chief complaints were dyspnea, epigastric pain, swallowing disturbance, and hoarseness for 3 days prior to admission. A review of literature is submitted.

  5. A nutribusiness strategy for processing and marketing animal-source foods for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Edward W; Seetharaman, Koushik; Maretzki, Audrey N

    2007-04-01

    Nutritional benefits of animal source foods in the diets of children in developing countries indicate a need to increase the availability of such foods to young children. A nutribusiness strategy based on a dried meat and starch product could be used to increase children's access to such foods. The "Chiparoo" was developed at The Pennsylvania State University with this objective in mind. Plant-based and meat ingredients of the Chiparoo are chosen based on regional availability and cultural acceptability. Chiparoo processing procedures, including solar drying, are designed to ensure product safety and to provide product properties that allow them to be eaten as a snack or crumbled into a weaning porridge. Continued work is needed to develop formulation and processing variations that accommodate the needs of cultures around the world.

  6. The Earthquake Source Inversion Validation (SIV) - Project: Summary, Status, Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Finite-fault earthquake source inversions infer the (time-dependent) displacement on the rupture surface from geophysical data. The resulting earthquake source models document the complexity of the rupture process. However, this kinematic source inversion is ill-posed and returns non-unique solutions, as seen for instance in multiple source models for the same earthquake, obtained by different research teams, that often exhibit remarkable dissimilarities. To address the uncertainties in earthquake-source inversions and to understand strengths and weaknesses of various methods, the Source Inversion Validation (SIV) project developed a set of forward-modeling exercises and inversion benchmarks. Several research teams then use these validation exercises to test their codes and methods, but also to develop and benchmark new approaches. In this presentation I will summarize the SIV strategy, the existing benchmark exercises and corresponding results. Using various waveform-misfit criteria and newly developed statistical comparison tools to quantify source-model (dis)similarities, the SIV platforms is able to rank solutions and identify particularly promising source inversion approaches. Existing SIV exercises (with related data and descriptions) and all computational tools remain available via the open online collaboration platform; additional exercises and benchmark tests will be uploaded once they are fully developed. I encourage source modelers to use the SIV benchmarks for developing and testing new methods. The SIV efforts have already led to several promising new techniques for tackling the earthquake-source imaging problem. I expect that future SIV benchmarks will provide further innovations and insights into earthquake source kinematics that will ultimately help to better understand the dynamics of the rupture process.

  7. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling; Generation d'accelerogrammes synthetiques large-bande par modelisation cinematique de la rupture sismique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Paredes, J.A

    2007-05-15

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k{sup -2} source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w{sup 2} model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity C{sub d}. To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of C{sub d}, as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, M{sub w} 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  8. Primary and secondary aerosols in Beijing in winter: sources, variations and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yele; Du, Wei; Fu, Pingqing; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jie; Ge, Xinlei; Zhang, Qi; Zhu, Chunmao; Ren, Lujie; Xu, Weiqi; Zhao, Jian; Han, Tingting; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-07-01

    Winter has the worst air pollution of the year in the megacity of Beijing. Despite extensive winter studies in recent years, our knowledge of the sources, formation mechanisms and evolution of aerosol particles is not complete. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols that were measured by an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer from 17 December 2013 to 17 January 2014 along with offline filter analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that submicron aerosols composition was generally similar across the winter of different years and was mainly composed of organics (60 %), sulfate (15 %) and nitrate (11 %). Positive matrix factorization of high- and unit-mass resolution spectra identified four primary organic aerosol (POA) factors from traffic, cooking, biomass burning (BBOA) and coal combustion (CCOA) emissions as well as two secondary OA (SOA) factors. POA dominated OA, on average accounting for 56 %, with CCOA being the largest contributor (20 %). Both CCOA and BBOA showed distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) spectral signatures, indicating that PAHs in winter were mainly from coal combustion (66 %) and biomass burning emissions (18 %). BBOA was highly correlated with levoglucosan, a tracer compound for biomass burning (r2 = 0.93), and made a considerable contribution to OA in winter (9 %). An aqueous-phase-processed SOA (aq-OOA) that was strongly correlated with particle liquid water content, sulfate and S-containing ions (e.g. CH2SO2+) was identified. On average aq-OOA contributed 12 % to the total OA and played a dominant role in increasing oxidation degrees of OA at high RH levels (> 50 %). Our results illustrate that aqueous-phase processing can enhance SOA production and oxidation states of OA as well in winter. Further episode analyses highlighted the significant impacts of meteorological parameters on aerosol composition, size

  9. The Chandra Source Catalog 2.0: Combining Data for Processing (or How I learned 17 different words for "group")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Roger; Allen, Christopher E.; Anderson, Craig S.; Budynkiewicz, Jamie A.; Burke, Douglas; Chen, Judy C.; Civano, Francesca Maria; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Doe, Stephen M.; Evans, Ian N.; Evans, Janet D.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Gibbs, Danny G., II; Glotfelty, Kenny J.; Graessle, Dale E.; Grier, John D.; Hall, Diane M.; Harbo, Peter N.; Houck, John C.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Laurino, Omar; Lee, Nicholas P.; Martínez-Galarza, Juan Rafael; McCollough, Michael L.; McDowell, Jonathan C.; Miller, Joseph; McLaughlin, Warren; Morgan, Douglas L.; Mossman, Amy E.; Nguyen, Dan T.; Nichols, Joy S.; Nowak, Michael A.; Paxson, Charles; Plummer, David A.; Primini, Francis Anthony; Rots, Arnold H.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Sundheim, Beth A.; Tibbetts, Michael; Van Stone, David W.; Zografou, Panagoula

    2018-01-01

    The Second Chandra Source Catalog (CSC2.0) combines data at multiple stages to improve detection efficiency, enhance source region identification, and match observations of the same celestial source taken with significantly different point spread functions on Chandra's detectors. The need to group data for different reasons at different times in processing results in a hierarchy of groups to which individual sources belong. Source data are initially identified as belonging to each Chandra observation ID and number (an "obsid"). Data from each obsid whose pointings are within sixty arcseconds of each other are reprojected to the same aspect reference coordinates and grouped into stacks. Detection is performed on all data in the same stack, and individual sources are identified. Finer source position and region data are determined by further processing sources whose photons may be commingled together, grouping such sources into bundles. Individual stacks which overlap to any extent are grouped into ensembles, and all stacks in the same ensemble are later processed together to identify master sources and determine their properties.We discuss the basis for the various methods of combining data for processing and precisely define how the groups are determined. We also investigate some of the issues related to grouping data and discuss what options exist and how groups have evolved from prior releases.This work has been supported by NASA under contract NAS 8-03060 to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for operation of the Chandra X-ray Center.

  10. Splenic rupture following idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder presenting as acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurisic D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic rupture of the urinary bladder is an uncommon condition and represents less than 1% of all bladder rupture cases. In most of the cases the main etiological factor was heavy alcohol ingestion. A combined injury of the spleen and bladder is a very rare condition that is almost often associated with trauma and foreign bodies. In this paper we present the extremely rare clinical course of acute abdomen caused by a combined spontaneous intraperitoneal injury; spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder and spleen. According to our opinion, spontaneous bladder rupture caused by bladder distension due to alcohol ingestion led to urinary ascites and abdominal distension. Finally, repeated minor abdominal blunt trauma during everyday life, to a moderately distended abdomen caused a spontaneous splenic rupture in the patient with abnormal coagulation studies.

  11. Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siqi; Wang, Li; Feng, Xuning; He, Xiangming

    2018-02-01

    Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.

  12. Chemical compositions, sources and evolution processes of the submicron aerosols in Nanjing, China during wintertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; He, Y.; Ge, X.; Wang, J.; Yu, H.; Chen, M.

    2016-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric particulate matter pollution is one of the most significant environmental issues in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China. Thus it is important to unravel the characteristics, sources and evolution processes of the ambient aerosols in order to improve the air quality. In this study, we report the real-time monitoring results on submicron aerosol particles (PM1) in suburban Nanjing during wintertime of 2015, using an Aerodyne soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). This instrument allows the fast measurement of refractory black carbon simultaneously with other aerosol components. Results show that organics was on average the most abundant species of PM1 (25.9%), but other inorganic species, such as nitrate (23.7%) and sulfate (23.3%) also comprised large mass fractions. As the sampling site is heavily influenced by various sources including industrial, traffic and other anthropogenic emissions, etc., six organic aerosol (OA) factors were identified from Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the SP-AMS OA mass spectra. These factors include three primary OA factors - a hydrocarbon-like OA, an industry-related OA (IOA) and a cooking OA (COA), and three secondary OA factors, i.e., a local OOA (LSOA), a semi-volatile OOA (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA). Overall, the primary organic aerosol (POA) (HOA, IOA and COA) dominated the total OA mass. Behaviors and evolution processes of these OA factors will be discussed in combining with the other supporting data.

  13. High speed imaging of dynamic processes with a switched source x-ray CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, William M; Lionheart, William R B; Morton, Edward J; Cunningham, Mike; Luggar, Russell D

    2015-01-01

    Conventional x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanners are limited in their scanning speed by the mechanical constraints of their rotating gantries and as such do not provide the necessary temporal resolution for imaging of fast-moving dynamic processes, such as moving fluid flows. The Real Time Tomography (RTT) system is a family of fast cone beam CT scanners which instead use multiple fixed discrete sources and complete rings of detectors in an offset geometry. We demonstrate the potential of this system for use in the imaging of such high speed dynamic processes and give results using simulated and real experimental data. The unusual scanning geometry results in some challenges in image reconstruction, which are overcome using algebraic iterative reconstruction techniques and explicit regularisation. Through the use of a simple temporal regularisation term and by optimising the source firing pattern, we show that temporal resolution of the system may be increased at the expense of spatial resolution, which may be advantageous in some situations. Results are given showing temporal resolution of approximately 500 µs with simulated data and 3 ms with real experimental data. (paper)

  14. Sources of salmonellae in an uninfected commercially-processed broiler flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, C E; Pettit, J R; Baker, M F; Bentley, A H; Salomons, M O; Lior, H

    1980-07-01

    Cultural monitoring was used to study the incidence and sources of salmonellae in a 4160 bird broiler flock during the growing period, transport and processing in a commercial plant. No salmonellae were isolated from any of 132 litter samples of 189 chickens cultured during the seven-week growing period, even though nest litter samples from four of the eight parent flocks yielded salmonellae and Salmonella worthington was isolated from the meat meal component of the grower ration. On arrival at the plant, 2/23 birds sampled carried S. infantis on their feathers, although intestinal cultures failed to yield salmonellae. Three of 18 processed carcasses samples yielded salmonellae (S. infantis, S. heidelberg, S. typhimurium var copenhagen). The most likely source of these salmonellae was the plastic transport crates, since 15/107 sampled before the birds were loaded yielded salmonellae (S. infantis, S. typhimurium). The crate washer at the plant did not reduce the incidence of Salmonella-contaminated crates, since 16/116 sampled after washing yielded salmonellae (S. infantis, S. typhimurium, S. heidelberg, S. schwarzengrund, S. albany).

  15. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of hydrogen negative ions by surface and volume processes with application to negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    During the last few decades interest in negative-hydrogen ion sources has been directed mainly toward synchrotron and other particle accelerator applications, with emphasis on high current densities delivered for short pulses. But within the last several years there has been an awareness in the magnetic fusion program of the future need for negative ions as a means for generating high energy neutral beams, beams with energies above a few hundred keV. Negative ions seem to be the only effective intermediary for efficiently producing such beams. Although methods for generating negative ion beams have relied upon synchrotron concepts, the requirements for fusion are very different: here one is interested in more moderate current densities, up to 100 m A cm -2 , but with continuous operation. Proposed source modules would accelerate of the order of 10 A of beam current and deliver several megawatts of beam power. Both H - and D - beams are being considered for application in different reactor systems. The conceptualization of negative ion sources is now in a very volatile stage. But of the great variety of proposals that have been offered to date, three general areas appear ready for development. These are: first, the double charge exchange method for converting a positive ion beam into a negative ion beam; second, electron-volume processes wherein low energy electrons interacting with molecular species lead to negative ion products via dissociative attachment or recombination; and third, generation of negative ions in surface interactions, principally via desorption and backscattering. Both our qualitative and our quantitative understanding of these processes diminishes as one proceeds from the first through the third. The physics of these three methods is considered in detail

  17. Coupling individual kernel-filling processes with source-sink interactions into GREENLAB-Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuntao; Chen, Youjia; Zhu, Jinyu; Meng, Lei; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2018-02-13

    Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand. The remobilization of non-structural carbohydrates from reserve organs to kernels was also incorporated. Two years of field experiments were conducted to determine the model parameter values and to evaluate the model using two maize hybrids with different plant densities and pollination treatments. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and dry weights of individual kernels and other above-ground plant organs throughout the seasons. Three basic traits characterizing an individual kernel were compared on simulated and measured individual kernels: (1) final kernel size; (2) kernel growth rate; and (3) duration of kernel filling. Simulations of individual kernel growth closely corresponded to experimental data. The model was able to reproduce the observed dry weight of plant organs well. Then, the source-sink dynamics and the remobilization of carbohydrates for kernel growth were quantified to show that remobilization processes accompanied source-sink dynamics during the kernel-filling process. We conclude that the model may be used to explore options for optimizing plant kernel yield by matching maize management to the environment, taking into account responses at the level of individual kernels. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Study of the Dissociative Processes in O_2 Discharges. Development of an Atomic Oxygen Beam Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnon, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this work is devoted to the study of dissociative processes in an oxygen glow discharge at low pressure (0,1-5 Torr, 1-80 mA). The kinetics of oxygen atoms has been determined supported by the measurements of atomic concentrations by VUV absorption spectroscopy and actinometry. The reaction coefficients for dissociative excitation and direct excitation of oxygen atoms have been calculated using the cross sections of the literature and a previously calculated EEDF. It has been demonstrated that dissociative excitation is negligible in respect with direct excitation for dissociation rates smaller than 2,5 %. An upper limit of 20 % for dissociative rates is observed. This limit has been explained by the increase of the atomic recombination at the discharge wall with increasing wall temperature. Using all these results, we have designed and optimized a source of oxygen atoms which has then been adapted on a MBE device. The spatial distribution of the atomic density has been measured in molecular jet by laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and Resonant Multi-Photon Ionization (RMPI). A stimulated emission has been evidenced and the coefficient for this process evaluated. A model for the effusion of atoms has been developed from which the flow of atoms on the sample can be predicted. This source has already been used in industrial MBE devices for in-situ oxidation of copper films, superconductors, and substrates for VLSI high speed applications. The methodology of this work and the diagnostics developed can be applied to other kinds of discharges, of other molecular gases, to design sources of atoms for the treatment of large area samples. (author) [fr

  19. Earthquake source imaging by high-resolution array analysis at regional distances: the 2010 M7 Haiti earthquake as seen by the Venezuela National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J. P.; Rendon, H.

    2010-12-01

    Back projection of teleseismic waves based on array processing has become a popular technique for earthquake source imaging,in particular to track the areas of the source that generate the strongest high frequency radiation. The technique has been previously applied to study the rupture process of the Sumatra earthquake and the supershear rupture of the Kunlun earthquakes. Here we attempt to image the Haiti earthquake using the data recorded by Venezuela National Seismic Network (VNSN). The network is composed of 22 broad-band stations with an East-West oriented geometry, and is located approximately 10 degrees away from Haiti in the perpendicular direction to the Enriquillo fault strike. This is the first opportunity to exploit the privileged position of the VNSN to study large earthquake ruptures in the Caribbean region. This is also a great opportunity to explore the back projection scheme of the crustal Pn phase at regional distances,which provides unique complementary insights to the teleseismic source inversions. The challenge in the analysis of the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake is its very compact source region, possibly shorter than 30km, which is below the resolution limit of standard back projection techniques based on beamforming. Results of back projection analysis using the teleseismic USarray data reveal little details of the rupture process. To overcome the classical resolution limit we explored the Multiple Signal Classification method (MUSIC), a high-resolution array processing technique based on the signal-noise orthognality in the eigen space of the data covariance, which achieves both enhanced resolution and better ability to resolve closely spaced sources. We experiment with various synthetic earthquake scenarios to test the resolution. We find that MUSIC provides at least 3 times higher resolution than beamforming. We also study the inherent bias due to the interferences of coherent Green’s functions, which leads to a potential quantification

  20. Water conservation and reuse using the Water Sources Diagram method for batch process: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Pellegrini Pessoa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The water resources management has been an important factor for the sustainability of industrial processes, since there is a growing need for the development of methodologies aimed at the conservation and rational use of water. The objective of this work was to apply the heuristic-algorithmic method called Water Sources Diagram (WSD, which is used to define the target of minimum water consumption, to batch processes. Scenarios with reuse of streams were generated and evaluated with application of the method from the data of water quantity and concentration of contaminants in the operations. Two case studies aiming to show the reduction of water consumption and wastewater generation, and final treatment costs besides investment in storage tanks, were presented. The scenarios showed great promising, achieving reduction up to 45% in water consumption and wastewater generation, and a reduction of around 37% on cost of storage tanks, without the need to allocate regeneration processes. Thus, the WSD method showed to be a relevant and flexible alternative regarding to systemic tools aimed at minimizing the consumption of water in industrial processes, playing an important role within a program of water resources management.

  1. Formation of a cavitation cluster in the vicinity of a quasi-empty rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol'shakova, E. S.; Kedrinskiy, V. K.

    2017-09-01

    The presentation deals with one of the experimental and numerical models of a quasi-empty rupture in the magma melt. This rupture is formed in the liquid layer of a distilled cavitating fluid under shock loading within the framework of the problem formulation with a small electromagnetic hydrodynamic shock tube. It is demonstrated that the rupture is shaped as a spherical segment, which retains its topology during the entire process of its evolution and collapsing. The dynamic behavior of the quasi-empty rupture is analyzed, and the growth of cavitating nuclei in the form of the boundary layer near the entire rupture interface is found. It is shown that rupture implosion is accompanied by the transformation of the bubble boundary layer to a cavitating cluster, which takes the form of a ring-shaped vortex floating upward to the free surface of the liquid layer. A p-κ mathematical model is formulated, and calculations are performed to investigate the implosion of a quasi-empty spherical cavity in the cavitating liquid, generation of a shock wave by this cavity, and dynamics of the bubble density growth in the cavitating cluster by five orders of magnitude.

  2. Ambivalence and alliance ruptures in cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer A; Button, Melissa L; Westra, Henny A

    2014-01-01

    Client ambivalence about change (or motivation) is regarded as central to outcomes in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, little research has been conducted to examine the impact of client ambivalence about change on therapy process variables such as the therapeutic alliance. Given the demonstrated limitations of self-report measures of key constructs such as ambivalence and motivation, the present study instead employed a newly adapted observational measure of client ambivalence. Client statements regarding change (change talk (CT) and counter-change talk (CCT)) were coded in early (session 1 or 2) therapy sessions of CBT for generalized anxiety disorder. The frequency of CT and CCT was then compared between clients who later experienced an alliance rupture with their therapist, and clients who did not. The results showed that clients in dyads who later experienced an alliance rupture expressed significantly more CCT at the outset of therapy than clients who did not later experience an alliance rupture. However, CT utterances did not significantly differ between alliance rupture and no-rupture groups. CCT may strain the alliance because clients expressing higher levels of CCT early in therapy may be less receptive to therapist direction in CBT. Consequently, it is recommended that clients and therapists work together to carefully address these key moments in therapy so as to prevent alliance rupture and preserve client engagement in therapy.

  3. THE USE OF MULTIPLE DATA SOURCES IN THE PROCESS OF TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS UPDATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cantemir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods used in the process of updating maps have evolved and become more complex, especially upon the development of the digital technology. At the same time, the development of technology has led to an abundance of available data that can be used in the updating process. The data sources came in a great variety of forms and formats from different acquisition sensors. Satellite images provided by certain satellite missions are now available on space agencies portals. Images stored in archives of satellite missions such us Sentinel, Landsat and other can be downloaded free of charge.The main advantages are represented by the large coverage area and rather good spatial resolution that enables the use of these images for the map updating at an appropriate scale. In our study we focused our research of these images on 1: 50.000 scale map. DEM that are globally available could represent an appropriate input for watershed delineation and stream network generation, that can be used as support for hydrography thematic layer update. If, in addition to remote sensing aerial photogrametry and LiDAR data are ussed, the accuracy of data sources is enhanced. Ortophotoimages and Digital Terrain Models are the main products that can be used for feature extraction and update. On the other side, the use of georeferenced analogical basemaps represent a significant addition to the process. Concerning the thematic maps, the classic representation of the terrain by contour lines derived from DTM, remains the best method of surfacing the earth on a map, nevertheless the correlation with other layers such as Hidrography are mandatory. In the context of the current national coverage of the Digital Terrain Model, one of the main concerns of the National Center of Cartography, through the Cartography and Photogrammetry Department, is represented by the exploitation of the available data in order to update the layers of the Topographic Reference Map 1:5000, known as

  4. Ultrasonogram of tubal pregnancy: Unruptured or ruptured?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Jung Sik; Lee, Sung Moon; Kim, Hong; Woo, Seong Ku; Yeun, Seong Do; Lee, Doo Ryong

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in the differentiation of the unruptured ones, we performed prospective ultrasonographic study in 56 patients with tubal pregnancy and subsequently correlated with the surgical (45 cases) and laparoscopic (11 cases) findings. The criterion for unruptured tubal pregnancy was the visualization of extra uterine gestational sac or a mass that was separated from the ipsilateral ovary. All cases were confirmed surgically or laparoscopically within 48 hours after sonographic examination. Forty five (80%)cases were proved as unruptured, tubal pregnancy, while 11 (20%) as ruptured one. Extra uterine gestational sac was seen in 31/45 (69%) in unruptured group and 2/11 (18%) in ruptured group. A mass separated from the ipsilateral ovary was seen in 7 unruptured tubal pregnancies and 2 ruptured pregnancies. A mass that was not separated from the ipsilateral ovary was seen in 13 cases. Seven of these were ruptured pregnancies, while 6 were unrupture dones. Using our criteria, the unruptured tubal pregnancy was diagnosed with a sensitivity of 84%, a specificity of 64%, an accuracy of 80%, a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 50%. We conclude that ultrasonography is useful in the differentiation of the unruptured tubal pregnancy from the ruptured one

  5. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthivel, T., E-mail: tsakthivel@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K. [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower {delta}-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with {delta}-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  6. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K.S.; Mathew, M.D.; Bhaduri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  7. Creep rupture strength of activated-TIG welded 316L(N) stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, T.; Vasudevan, M.; Laha, K.; Parameswaran, P.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Mathew, M. D.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2011-06-01

    316L(N) stainless steel plates were joined using activated-tungsten inert gas (A-TIG) welding and conventional TIG welding process. Creep rupture behavior of 316L(N) base metal, and weld joints made by A-TIG and conventional TIG welding process were investigated at 923 K over a stress range of 160-280 MPa. Creep test results showed that the enhancement in creep rupture strength of weld joint fabricated by A-TIG welding process over conventional TIG welding process. Both the weld joints fractured in the weld metal. Microstructural observation showed lower δ-ferrite content, alignment of columnar grain with δ-ferrite along applied stress direction and less strength disparity between columnar and equiaxed grains of weld metal in A-TIG joint than in MP-TIG joint. These had been attributed to initiate less creep cavitation in weld metal of A-TIG joint leading to improvement in creep rupture strength.

  8. Geosfear? - Overcoming System Boundaries by Open-source Based Monitoring of Spatio-temporal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, T.; Schima, R.; Goblirsch, T.; Paschen, M.; Francyk, B.; Bumberger, J.; Zacharias, S.; Dietrich, P.; Rubin, Y.; Rinke, K.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.; Vieweg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of global change, intensive agriculture and complex interactions between humans and the environment show different effects on different scales. However, the desire to obtain a better understanding of ecosystems and process dynamics in nature accentuates the need for observing these processes at higher temporal and spatial resolutions. Especially with regard to the process dynamics and heterogeneity of rivers and catchment areas, a comprehensive monitoring of the ongoing processes and effects remains to be a challenging issue. What we need are monitoring systems which can collect most diverse data across different environmental compartments and scales. Today, open-source based electronics and innovative sensors and sensor components are offering a promising approach to investigate new possibilities of mobile data acquisition to improve our understanding of the geosphere. To start with, we have designed and implemented a multi-operable, embedded Linux platform for fast integration of different sensors within a single infrastructure. In addition, a GPS module in combination with a GSM transmitter ensures the synchronization and geo-referencing of all data, no matter how old-fashioned the sensors are. To this end, initial field experiments were conducted at a 3rd order stream in the Central German Lowland. Here, we linked in-stream DOC inputs with subsurface metabolism by coupling miniaturized DOC sensor probes with a modified vertical oxygen profiler in situ. Starting from metrological observations to water quality and subsurface conditions, the overarching goal is the detection of interlinked process dynamics across highly reactive biogeochemical interfaces. Overall, the field experiments demonstrated the feasibility of this emerging technology and its potential towards a cutting-edge strategy based on a holistic and integrated process. Now, we are only a few steps away from realizing adaptive and event-triggered observations close to real

  9. Pressure tube rupture in a closed tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, H.A.; Hadaller, G.I.; Stern, F.

    1985-06-01

    A study has been prepared on the feasibility of conducting pressure tube/calandria tube rupture tests in a closed tank, simulating a scaled-down calandria vessel. The study includes: i) a review of previous work, ii) an analytical investigation of the scaling problem of the calandria vessel and relevant in-core structures, iii) selection of a method for initiating pressure tube/calandria tube rupture, iv) a set of specifications for the test assembly, v) general arrangement drawings, vi) a proposal for a test matrix, vii) a survey and evaluation of existing facilities which could provide the required high pressure, temperature and fluid inventory, and viii) a cost estimate for the detailed design and construction, instrumentation, data acquisition and reduction, testing and reporting. The study concludes that it is both technically and practically feasible to conduct pressure tube rupture tests in a closed tank

  10. Bladder rupture caused by postpartum urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-García, Omar Felipe; Rico, Hugo; Gorbea-Sanchez, Viridiana; Herrerias-Canedo, Tomas

    2008-08-01

    Postpartum bladder rupture is an uncommon surgical emergency and a diagnostic challenge. A primigravida delivered a healthy newborn without complications at 39.4 weeks of gestation. The patient was admitted 80 hours postpartum with abdominal pain, oliguria, hematuria, and pain that worsened during the previous 4 hours. An inserted Foley catheter drained only a small amount of urine, and serum creatinine was elevated (3.5 mg/dL). A laparotomy was performed and revealed a 10-cm hole in the urinary bladder. The bladder was repaired and the patient was discharged 15 days after surgery. The follow-up cystoscopy revealed adequate healing of the bladder. Urinary retention can lead to serious complications, including bladder rupture. Postpartum bladder rupture due to urinary retention should be ruled out if there is a history of abdominal pain, oliguria, and elevated of serum creatinine.

  11. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  12. Ruptured Massa Intermedia Secondary to Hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Damaty, Ahmed; Langner, Soenke; Schroeder, Henry W S

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of ruptured massa intermedia (MI) as a sequela of hydrocephalus. A single case report is presented describing the sequelae of tumor bed hematoma after a posterior fossa hemangioblastoma resection in which the patient bled 3 days after surgery, resulting in secondary hydrocephalus and subsequently dilatation of the third ventricle, which resulted in rupture of the MI. The patient was managed on emergency basis with an external ventricular drain then endoscopically with a third ventriculostomy and clot extraction. Absent MI is not uncommon in hydrocephalic patients, and it is assumed to be the result of rupture from acute dilatation of the third ventricle. Our case report proves this assumption and documents the presence and absence of the MI before and after developing hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Y. T.

    1980-01-01

    A 'material modeling' methodology for predicting the creep rupture behavior of unidirectional advanced composites is proposed. In this approach the parameters (obtained from short-term tests) required to make the predictions are the three principal creep compliance master curves and their corresponding quasi-static strengths tested at room temperature (22 C). Using these parameters in conjunction with a failure criterion, creep rupture envelopes can be generated for any combination of in-plane loading conditions and ambient temperature. The analysis was validated experimentally for one composite system, the T300/934 graphite-epoxy system. This was done by performing short-term creep tests (to generate the principal creep compliance master curves with the time-temperature superposition principle) and relatively long-term creep rupture tensile tests of off-axis specimens at 180 C. Good to reasonable agreement between experimental and analytical results is observed.

  14. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  15. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E.; Walker, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  16. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  17. Neutrino-heated winds from millisecond protomagnetars as sources of the weak r-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasov, Andrey D.; Metzger, Brian D.; Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2017-06-01

    We explore heavy element nucleosynthesis in neutrino-driven winds from rapidly rotating, strongly magnetized protoneutron stars ('millisecond protomagnetars') for which the magnetic dipole is aligned with the rotation axis, and the field is assumed to be a static force-free configuration. We process the protomagnetar wind trajectories calculated by Vlasov, Metzger & Thompson through the r-process nuclear reaction network SkyNet using contemporary models for the evolution of the wind electron fraction during the protoneutron star cooling phase. Although we do not find a successful second or third-peak r-process for any rotation period P, we show that protomagnetars with P ˜ 1-5 ms produce heavy element abundance distributions that extend to higher nuclear mass number than from otherwise equivalent spherical winds (with the mass fractions of some elements enhanced by factors of ≳100-1000). The heaviest elements are synthesized by outflows emerging along flux tubes that graze the closed zone and pass near the equatorial plane outside the light cylinder. Due to dependence of the nucleosynthesis pattern on the magnetic field strength and rotation rate of the protoneutron star, natural variations in these quantities between core collapse events could contribute to the observed diversity of the abundances of weak r-process nuclei in metal-poor stars. Further diversity, including possibly even a successful third-peak r-process, could be achieved for misaligned rotators with non-zero magnetic inclination with respect to the rotation axis. If protomagnetars are central engines for GRBs, their relativistic jets should contain a high-mass fraction of heavy nuclei of characteristic mass number \\bar{A}≈ 100, providing a possible source for ultrahigh energy cosmic rays comprised of heavy nuclei with an energy spectrum that extends beyond the nominal Grezin-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off for protons or iron nuclei.

  18. Compact laser-produced plasma EUV sources for processing polymers and nanoimaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Szczurek, M.; Wachulak, P.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) can be produced form a high-temperature plasma generated by interaction of high power laser pulses with matter. Laser plasma EUV sources are considered to be used in various applications in physics, material science, biomedicine, and technology. In the paper new compact laser plasma EUV sources developed for processing polymers and imaging are presented. The sources are based on a gas puff target formed by pulsed injection of a small amount of gas under high-pressure into a laser focus region. The use of the gas puff target instead of a solid target allows for efficient generation of EUV radiation without debris production. The compact laser plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target was developed for metrology applications. The EUV source developed for processing polymers is equipped with a grazing incidence axisymmetrical ellipsoidal mirror to focus EUV radiation in the relatively broad spectral range with the strong maximum near 10 nm. The size of the focal spot is about 1.3 mm in diameter with the maximum fluence up to 70 mJ/cm 2 . EUV radiation in the wavelength range of about 5 to 50 nm is produced by irradiation of xenon or krypton gas puff target with a Nd:YAG laser operating at 10 Hz and delivering 4 ns pulses of energy up to 0.8 J per pulse. The experiments on EUV irradiation of various polymers have been performed. Modification of polymer surfaces was achieved, primarily due to direct photo-etching with EUV photons and formation of micro- and nanostructures onto the surface. The mechanism of the interaction is similar to the UV laser ablation where energetic photons cause chemical bonds of the polymer chain to be broken. However, because of very low penetration depth of EUV radiation, the interaction region is limited to a very thin surface layer (<100 nm). This makes it possible to avoid degradation of bulk material caused by deeply penetrating UV radiation. The results of the studies

  19. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael X Cohen

    Full Text Available Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz, followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz, alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  20. EEG source reconstruction reveals frontal-parietal dynamics of spatial conflict processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30-50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8-12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4-8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions.

  1. EEG Source Reconstruction Reveals Frontal-Parietal Dynamics of Spatial Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michael X; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control requires the suppression of distracting information in order to focus on task-relevant information. We applied EEG source reconstruction via time-frequency linear constrained minimum variance beamforming to help elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in spatial conflict processing. Human subjects performed a Simon task, in which conflict was induced by incongruence between spatial location and response hand. We found an early (∼200 ms post-stimulus) conflict modulation in stimulus-contralateral parietal gamma (30–50 Hz), followed by a later alpha-band (8–12 Hz) conflict modulation, suggesting an early detection of spatial conflict and inhibition of spatial location processing. Inter-regional connectivity analyses assessed via cross-frequency coupling of theta (4–8 Hz), alpha, and gamma power revealed conflict-induced shifts in cortical network interactions: Congruent trials (relative to incongruent trials) had stronger coupling between frontal theta and stimulus-contrahemifield parietal alpha/gamma power, whereas incongruent trials had increased theta coupling between medial frontal and lateral frontal regions. These findings shed new light into the large-scale network dynamics of spatial conflict processing, and how those networks are shaped by oscillatory interactions. PMID:23451201

  2. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m -3 for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Application of random-point processes to the detection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    In this report the mathematical theory of random-point processes is reviewed and it is shown how use of the theory can obtain optimal solutions to the problem of detecting radiation sources. As noted, the theory also applies to image processing in low-light-level or low-count-rate situations. Paralleling Snyder's work, the theory is extended to the multichannel case of a continuous, two-dimensional (2-D), energy-time space. This extension essentially involves showing that the data are doubly stochastic Poisson (DSP) point processes in energy as well as time. Further, a new 2-D recursive formulation is presented for the radiation-detection problem with large computational savings over nonrecursive techniques when the number of channels is large (greater than or equal to 30). Finally, some adaptive strategies for on-line ''learning'' of unknown, time-varying signal and background-intensity parameters and statistics are present and discussed. These adaptive procedures apply when a complete statistical description is not available a priori

  4. Insects associated with the composting process of solid urban waste separated at the source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Estela Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosaprophagous macroinvertebrates (earthworms, termites and a number of Diptera larvae enhance changes in the physical and chemical properties of organic matter during degradation and stabilization processes in composting, causing a decrease in the molecular weights of compounds. This activity makes these organisms excellent recyclers of organic matter. This article evaluates the succession of insects associated with the decomposition of solid urban waste separated at the source. The study was carried out in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A total of 11,732 individuals were determined, belonging to the classes Insecta and Arachnida. Species of three orders of Insecta were identified, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Diptera corresponding to 98.5% of the total, was the most abundant and diverse group, with 16 families (Calliphoridae, Drosophilidae, Psychodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Milichiidae, Ulidiidae, Scatopsidae, Sepsidae, Sphaeroceridae, Heleomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Phoridae, Tephritidae and Curtonotidae followed by Coleoptera with five families (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Hydrophilidae and Phalacaridae. Three stages were observed during the composting process, allowing species associated with each stage to be identified. Other species were also present throughout the whole process. In terms of number of species, Diptera was the most important group observed, particularly Ornidia obesa, considered a highly invasive species, and Hermetia illuscens, both reported as beneficial for decomposition of organic matter.

  5. SIproc: an open-source biomedical data processing platform for large hyperspectral images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Sebastian; Chang, Shengyuan; Saki, Sam; Daeinejad, Davar; He, Ziqi; Mankar, Rupali; Mayerich, David

    2017-04-10

    There has recently been significant interest within the vibrational spectroscopy community to apply quantitative spectroscopic imaging techniques to histology and clinical diagnosis. However, many of the proposed methods require collecting spectroscopic images that have a similar region size and resolution to the corresponding histological images. Since spectroscopic images contain significantly more spectral samples than traditional histology, the resulting data sets can approach hundreds of gigabytes to terabytes in size. This makes them difficult to store and process, and the tools available to researchers for handling large spectroscopic data sets are limited. Fundamental mathematical tools, such as MATLAB, Octave, and SciPy, are extremely powerful but require that the data be stored in fast memory. This memory limitation becomes impractical for even modestly sized histological images, which can be hundreds of gigabytes in size. In this paper, we propose an open-source toolkit designed to perform out-of-core processing of hyperspectral images. By taking advantage of graphical processing unit (GPU) computing combined with adaptive data streaming, our software alleviates common workstation memory limitations while achieving better performance than existing applications.

  6. Tracking and Quantifying Developmental Processes in C. elegans Using Open-source Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Priyanka; Lehmann, Christina; Odedra, Devang; Singh, Deepika; Pohl, Christian

    2015-12-16

    Quantitatively capturing developmental processes is crucial to derive mechanistic models and key to identify and describe mutant phenotypes. Here protocols are presented for preparing embryos and adult C. elegans animals for short- and long-term time-lapse microscopy and methods for tracking and quantification of developmental processes. The methods presented are all based on C. elegans strains available from the Caenorhabditis Genetics Center and on open-source software that can be easily implemented in any laboratory independently of the microscopy system used. A reconstruction of a 3D cell-shape model using the modelling software IMOD, manual tracking of fluorescently-labeled subcellular structures using the multi-purpose image analysis program Endrov, and an analysis of cortical contractile flow using PIVlab (Time-Resolved Digital Particle Image Velocimetry Tool for MATLAB) are shown. It is discussed how these methods can also be deployed to quantitatively capture other developmental processes in different models, e.g., cell tracking and lineage tracing, tracking of vesicle flow.

  7. A Rare Case of Simultaneous Acute Bilateral Quadriceps Tendon Rupture and Unilateral Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yee Leong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There have been multiple reported cases of bilateral quadriceps tendon ruptures (QTR in the literature. These injuries frequently associated with delayed diagnosis, which results in delayed surgical treatment. In very unusual cases, bilateral QTRs can be associated with other simultaneous tendon ruptures. Case Report: We present a rare case of bilateral QTR with a simultaneous Achilles Tendon Rupture involving a 31 years old Caucasian man who is a semi-professional body builder taking anabolic steroids. To date bilateral QTR with additional TA rupture has only been reported once in the literature and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral QTR and simultaneous TA rupture in a young, fit and healthy individual. Conclusion: The diagnosis of bilateral QTR alone can sometimes be challenging and the possibility of even further tendon injuries should be carefully assessed. A delay in diagnosis could result in delay in treatment and potentially worse outcome for the patient. Keywords: Quadriceps tendon rupture; Achilles tendon rupture; Bilateral.

  8. Testicular Rupture: A Tough Nut to Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler L. Holliday

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blunt scrotal injury represents a diagnostic dilemma for emergency physicians (EP. Consequently, point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS has emerged as a tool for early investigation of the acute scrotum in the emergency department. We describe a case where an EP used scrotal POCUS to immediately visualize the loss of testicular contour and underlying heterogeneous parenchyma to rapidly make the diagnosis of testicular rupture in a young male presenting with scrotal trauma. The use of POCUS in this case expedited therapy, likely improving the patient’s outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of testicular rupture diagnosed with POCUS by an EP

  9. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Alajoulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alkaptonuria (AKU is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA. Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis, early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations.

  10. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alajoulin, Omar A; Alsbou, Mohammed S; Ja'afreh, Somayya O; Kalbouneh, Heba M

    2015-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare inborn metabolic disease characterized by accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Excretion of HGA in urine causes darkening of urine and its deposition in connective tissues causes dark pigmentation (ochronosis), early degeneration of articular cartilage, weakening of the tendons, and subsequent rupture. In this case report, we present a rare case of a patient presented with unilateral spontaneous rupture of Achilles tendon due to AKU. The patient developed most of the orthopedic manifestations of the disease earlier than typical presentations. Alkaptonuria patients should avoid strenuous exercises and foot straining especially in patients developing early orthopedic manifestations.

  11. Physiotherapy in patients with rupture LCA

    OpenAIRE

    Čížková, Karolína

    2012-01-01

    Author: Karolína Čížková Institution: Rehab clinic LF UK in Hradec Králové Topic of bachelor's thesis: Physiotherapy in patiens with rupture of ACL Supervisor: Mgr. Zuzana Hamarová Number of pages: 108 Number of annex: 11 Year of vindication 2012 Key words: ACL, knee, rupture of ACL, rehabilitation In general part of this bachelor's thesis is described anatomy, kinesiology and biomechanics of the knee joint, mostly anterior cruciate ligament. It contents causes of injury of anterior cruciate ...

  12. Proximal Hamstring Tendinosis and Partial Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Startzman, Ashley N; Fowler, Oliver; Carreira, Dominic

    2017-07-01

    Proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring origin ruptures are painful conditions of the proximal thigh and hip that may occur in the acute, chronic, or acute on chronic setting. Few publications exist related to their diagnosis and management. This systematic review discusses the incidence, treatment, and prognosis of proximal hamstring tendinosis and partial hamstring ruptures. Conservative treatment measures include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, physical therapy, rest, and ice. If these measures fail, platelet-rich plasma or shockwave therapy may be considered. When refractory to conservative management, these injuries may be treated with surgical debridement and hamstring reattachment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e574-e582.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Development of Achilles tendon rupture in skiing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckert, K; Benedetto, K P; Vogel, A

    1983-06-01

    This is an analysis of decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing while there is a steady increase of skiing injuries. Three groups, equipped with three different types of ski boots were observed once on a plane slope on the other hand on a bump track. The simultaneous size of angle of knee and ankle was measured by telemetry. The high plastic ski boot, which obstructs the ankle forward and lateral is apart from the rise of heel in the boot, the safety binding and the new skiing style the main reason for decline of rupture of the Achilles tendon in skiing.

  14. Biomechanical ToolKit: Open-source framework to visualize and process biomechanical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barre, Arnaud; Armand, Stéphane

    2014-04-01

    C3D file format is widely used in the biomechanical field by companies and laboratories to store motion capture systems data. However, few software packages can visualize and modify the integrality of the data in the C3D file. Our objective was to develop an open-source and multi-platform framework to read, write, modify and visualize data from any motion analysis systems using standard (C3D) and proprietary file formats (used by many companies producing motion capture systems). The Biomechanical ToolKit (BTK) was developed to provide cost-effective and efficient tools for the biomechanical community to easily deal with motion analysis data. A large panel of operations is available to read, modify and process data through C++ API, bindings for high-level languages (Matlab, Octave, and Python), and standalone application (Mokka). All these tools are open-source and cross-platform and run on all major operating systems (Windows, Linux, MacOS X). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving risk estimates of runoff producing areas: formulating variable source areas as a bivariate process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoya; Shaw, Stephen B; Marjerison, Rebecca D; Yearick, Christopher D; DeGloria, Stephen D; Walter, M Todd

    2014-05-01

    Predicting runoff producing areas and their corresponding risks of generating storm runoff is important for developing watershed management strategies to mitigate non-point source pollution. However, few methods for making these predictions have been proposed, especially operational approaches that would be useful in areas where variable source area (VSA) hydrology dominates storm runoff. The objective of this study is to develop a simple approach to estimate spatially-distributed risks of runoff production. By considering the development of overland flow as a bivariate process, we incorporated both rainfall and antecedent soil moisture conditions into a method for predicting VSAs based on the Natural Resource Conservation Service-Curve Number equation. We used base-flow immediately preceding storm events as an index of antecedent soil wetness status. Using nine sub-basins of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, we demonstrated that our estimated runoff volumes and extent of VSAs agreed with observations. We further demonstrated a method for mapping these areas in a Geographic Information System using a Soil Topographic Index. The proposed methodology provides a new tool for watershed planners for quantifying runoff risks across watersheds, which can be used to target water quality protection strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Selection of organic process and source indicator substances for the anthropogenically influenced water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekel, Martin; Dott, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Axel; Dünnbier, Uwe; Gnirß, Regina; Haist-Gulde, Brigitte; Hamscher, Gerd; Letzel, Marion; Licha, Tobias; Lyko, Sven; Miehe, Ulf; Sacher, Frank; Scheurer, Marco; Schmidt, Carsten K; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    An increasing number of organic micropollutants (OMP) is detected in anthropogenically influenced water cycles. Source control and effective natural and technical barriers are essential to maintain a high quality of drinking water resources under these circumstances. Based on the literature and our own research this study proposes a limited number of OMP that can serve as indicator substances for the major sources of OMP, such as wastewater treatment plants, agriculture and surface runoff. Furthermore functional indicators are proposed that allow assessment of the proper function of natural and technical barriers in the aquatic environment, namely conventional municipal wastewater treatment, advanced treatment (ozonation, activated carbon), bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment as well as self-purification in surface water. These indicator substances include the artificial sweetener acesulfame, the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen, the anticonvulsant carbamazepine, the corrosion inhibitor benzotriazole and the herbicide mecoprop among others. The chemical indicator substances are intended to support comparisons between watersheds and technical and natural processes independent of specific water cycles and to reduce efforts and costs of chemical analyses without losing essential information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Study of Aerosol Sources and Processing at the GVAX Pantnagar Supersite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Joel A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Worsnop, Douglas [Aerodyne Research, Billerica, MA (United States)

    2016-09-22

    This project was part of a collaborative campaign, including the participation of scientists from seven research groups as part of the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 km southeast of central London to study wintertime sources of urban particulate matter. The UW contribution by PI Thornton’s group was to make the first deployment of a chemical ionization mass spectrometer instrument (MOVI-CI-ToFMS) to measure both particle and gas phase organic acids. The new instrument ran nearly continuously during the ClearfLo WINTER IOP at the Detling site, producing a first-ever data set of molecular composition information that can be used for source apportionment and process studies. The UW group published a paper in Environmental Science and Technology and contributed to another (Bohnenstengel et al BAMS 2015) detailing a direct molecular connection between biomass/biofuel burning particles and aerosol light absorption. The ES&T paper (Mohr, et al ES&T 2013) has received 42 citations in just 3 years indicative of its significant impact on the field. These measurements of urban and rural aerosol properties will contribute to improved modeling of regional aerosol emissions, and of atmospheric aging and removal.

  18. Earthquake scaling laws for rupture geometry and slip heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.; Mai, P. Martin; Goda, Katsuichiro

    2016-04-01

    We analyze an extensive compilation of finite-fault rupture models to investigate earthquake scaling of source geometry and slip heterogeneity to derive new relationships for seismic and tsunami hazard assessment. Our dataset comprises 158 earthquakes with a total of 316 rupture models selected from the SRCMOD database (http://equake-rc.info/srcmod). We find that fault-length does not saturate with earthquake magnitude, while fault-width reveals inhibited growth due to the finite seismogenic thickness. For strike-slip earthquakes, fault-length grows more rapidly with increasing magnitude compared to events of other faulting types. Interestingly, our derived relationship falls between the L-model and W-model end-members. In contrast, both reverse and normal dip-slip events are more consistent with self-similar scaling of fault-length. However, fault-width scaling relationships for large strike-slip and normal dip-slip events, occurring on steeply dipping faults (δ~90° for strike-slip faults, and δ~60° for normal faults), deviate from self-similarity. Although reverse dip-slip events in general show self-similar scaling, the restricted growth of down-dip fault extent (with upper limit of ~200 km) can be seen for mega-thrust subduction events (M~9.0). Despite this fact, for a given earthquake magnitude, subduction reverse dip-slip events occupy relatively larger rupture area, compared to shallow crustal events. In addition, we characterize slip heterogeneity in terms of its probability distribution and spatial correlation structure to develop a complete stochastic random-field characterization of earthquake slip. We find that truncated exponential law best describes the probability distribution of slip, with observable scale parameters determined by the average and maximum slip. Applying Box-Cox transformation to slip distributions (to create quasi-normal distributed data) supports cube-root transformation, which also implies distinctive non-Gaussian slip

  19. Using ISO/IEC 12207 to analyze open source software development processes: an E-learning case study

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Aarthy; O'Connor, Rory

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed To date, there is no comprehensive study of open source software development process (OSSDP) carried out for open source (OS) e-learning systems. This paper presents the work which objectively analyzes the open source software development (OSSD) practices carried out by e-learning systems development communities and their results are represented using DEMO models. These results are compared using ISO/IEC 12207:2008. The comparison of DEMO models with ISO/IEC...

  20. Dynamic rupture simulation of the 2017 Mw 7.8 Kaikoura (New Zealand) earthquake: Is spontaneous multi-fault rupture expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, R.; Kaneko, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The coseismic rupture of the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake propagated over the distance of 150 km along the NE-SW striking fault system in the northern South Island of New Zealand. The analysis of In-SAR, GPS and field observations (Hamling et al., 2017) revealed that the most of the rupture occurred along the previously mapped active faults, involving more than seven major fault segments. These fault segments, mostly dipping to northwest, are distributed in a quite complex manner, manifested by fault branching and step-over structures. Back-projection rupture imaging shows that the rupture appears to jump between three sub-parallel fault segments in sequence from the south to north (Kaiser et al., 2017). The rupture seems to be terminated on the Needles fault in Cook Strait. One of the main questions is whether this multi-fault rupture can be naturally explained with the physical basis. In order to understand the conditions responsible for the complex rupture process, we conduct fully dynamic rupture simulations that account for 3-D non-planar fault geometry embedded in an elastic half-space. The fault geometry is constrained by previous In-SAR observations and geological inferences. The regional stress field is constrained by the result of stress tensor inversion based on focal mechanisms (Balfour et al., 2005). The fault is governed by a relatively simple, slip-weakening friction law. For simplicity, the frictional parameters are uniformly distributed as there is no direct estimate of them except for a shallow portion of the Kekerengu fault (Kaneko et al., 2017). Our simulations show that the rupture can indeed propagate through the complex fault system once it is nucleated at the southernmost segment. The simulated slip distribution is quite heterogeneous, reflecting the nature of non-planar fault geometry, fault branching and step-over structures. We find that optimally oriented faults exhibit larger slip, which is consistent with the slip model of Hamling et al

  1. General information on licensing process in Bulgaria and disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamska, M.

    2003-01-01

    The basic legal framework for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources is given in the report. The authorisation process is described. Actual data for the system of authorisation about SIR during 2002/2003 are given. The planned activities related to RAW management are:commissioning of the complex for treatment, conditioning and storage of RAW in Kozloduy NPP - by the end of 2003; investigation of Gabra site for construction of institutional waste disposal facility - by the end of 2004; implementation of program for reconstruction and modernisation of Novi Han Repository - by the end of 2007; site selection for the national RAW disposal facility - by the end of 2008. The Nuclear Energy Act defines the following future activities: establishment of the State Enterprise 'RAW' in 2004; development of new secondary legislation for safe management of SF and RAW until July 2004; update of the National Strategy for Safe Management of SF and RAW until the end of 2003

  2. Possibilities Of Using Innovative Sources Of Information On Real Estate In The Spatial Data Collection Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwartnik-Pruc Anita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The register of land and buildings is an essential source of information on real estate. The use of cadastral data in land management is manifold, starting from spatial planning, through the calculation of taxes, the designation of real estate in land and mortgage registers, and finally, in real estate management. The accuracy of information from public records, i.e. the register of land and buildings, obtained by entities managing property has a direct impact on the correctness of the conducted processes of land management. Data necessary to determine the position of boundaries of cadastral parcels are taken from surveying documentation accepted into the national geodetic and cartographic resource database. If there is no such documentation, or the data contained therein are not reliable, information on the boundaries of cadastral parcels are obtained by means of field or photogrammetric surveys, preceded by the determination of the course of these boundaries.

  3. Ionizing radiation and radionuclides in the environment: sources, origin, geochemical processes and health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangic, A.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation related to the radioactivity and radionuclides appears to be ones of most dangerous environmental risks to the human health. The paper considers appearance and importance of radionuclides, both natural (cosmogenic and Earth's) and anthropogenic, mode of their entering into and movement through the environment. Most risk to the population are radionuclides related to the geological-geochemical systems - in Serbia, high concentrations of radionuclides related to these sources were indicated at a number of localities. Movement of radionuclides through the environment is regulated by the geochemical processes i.e. the geochemical cycles of the elements. For the discovering of radionuclides in the nature, the assessment of the health risks to the population and the related protection are necessary multilayer geochemical studies. (author)

  4. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources...... was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous......% if feeds were delivered as four feedings per day rather than as one. Reducing the exposed face of storage can also be useful. Simulated use of silage bags resulted in 90% and 18% reductions in emissions from the storage face and whole farm, respectively....

  5. Development and application of the new BPM system data processing program at Hefei light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Tianji; Yang Yongliang; Sun Baogen; Zou Junying; Lu Ping; Zhou Zeran; Xu Hongliang

    2012-01-01

    A data processing program has been applied for the new beam position monitor (BPM) system of the storage ring at Hefei Light Source (HLS). The new BPM system in the upgrade project will be equipped with Libera Brilliance BPM processors to replace the old Bergoz MX-BPM processors. The embedded Linux system on Libera has completed some important work, including instrument status check, data acquisition, position calculation, EPICS IOC data release, and so on. A new EPICS record type has been developed to recalculate the beam position with log-ratio method. The property of the new position data was analyzed in the time and frequency domain. The results show that the rms value of beam position measurement resolution can be up to submicron. Preliminary studies have been carried out on the measurement of the tune and the beam lifetime with this new BPM system. (authors)

  6. Primary and secondary aerosols in Beijing in winter: sources, variations and processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Winter has the worst air pollution of the year in the megacity of Beijing. Despite extensive winter studies in recent years, our knowledge of the sources, formation mechanisms and evolution of aerosol particles is not complete. Here we have a comprehensive characterization of the sources, variations and processes of submicron aerosols that were measured by an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer from 17 December 2013 to 17 January 2014 along with offline filter analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Our results suggest that submicron aerosols composition was generally similar across the winter of different years and was mainly composed of organics (60 %, sulfate (15 % and nitrate (11 %. Positive matrix factorization of high- and unit-mass resolution spectra identified four primary organic aerosol (POA factors from traffic, cooking, biomass burning (BBOA and coal combustion (CCOA emissions as well as two secondary OA (SOA factors. POA dominated OA, on average accounting for 56 %, with CCOA being the largest contributor (20 %. Both CCOA and BBOA showed distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs spectral signatures, indicating that PAHs in winter were mainly from coal combustion (66 % and biomass burning emissions (18 %. BBOA was highly correlated with levoglucosan, a tracer compound for biomass burning (r2 = 0.93, and made a considerable contribution to OA in winter (9 %. An aqueous-phase-processed SOA (aq-OOA that was strongly correlated with particle liquid water content, sulfate and S-containing ions (e.g. CH2SO2+ was identified. On average aq-OOA contributed 12 % to the total OA and played a dominant role in increasing oxidation degrees of OA at high RH levels (> 50 %. Our results illustrate that aqueous-phase processing can enhance SOA production and oxidation states of OA as well in winter. Further episode analyses highlighted the significant impacts of meteorological parameters on

  7. Source estimation for propagation processes on complex networks with an application to delays in public transportation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manitz, J. (Juliane); Harbering, J. (Jonas); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); T. Kneib (Thomas); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe correct identification of the source of a propagation process is crucial in many research fields. As a specific application, we consider source estimation of delays in public transportation networks. We propose two approaches: an effective distance median and a backtracking method.

  8. Exploring information-seeking processes by business: analyzing source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem Jan; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Arendsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of electronic channels it has become easier for businesses to consult various types of information sources in information-seeking processes. Governments are urged to rethink their role as reliable information source and the roles of their (electronic) service channels to provide

  9. Controlled Carbon Source Addition to an Alternating Nitrification-Denitrification Wastewater Treatment Process Including Biological P Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaacs, Steven Howard; Henze, Mogens

    1995-01-01

    The paper investigates the effect of adding an external carbon source on the rate of denitrification in an alternating activated sludge process including biological P removal. Two carbon sources were examined, acetate and hydrolysate derived from biologically hydrolyzed sludge. Preliminary batch ...

  10. Final Air Toxics Standards for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains a December 2007 fact sheet with information regarding the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Clay Ceramics Manufacturing, Glass Manufacturing, and Secondary Nonferrous Metals Processing Area Sources

  11. Using pattern classification and nuclear forensic signatures to link UOC to source rocks and purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.; Robel, M.; Borg, M.; Hutcheon, I.; Kristo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a scientific discipline interfacing law enforcement, nuclear science and nonproliferation. Information on the history and on the potential origin of unknown nuclear material can be obtained through nuclear forensic analysis. Using commonly available techniques of mass spectrometry, microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we have gained insight into the processing and origin of a suite of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples. We have applied chemometric techniques to investigate the relationships between uranium ore deposits and UOC samples in order to identify chemical and isotopic signatures of nuclear forensic importance. We developed multivariate signatures based on elemental concentrations and isotope ratios using a database of characteristics of UOC originating throughout the world. By introducing detailed and specific information about the source rock geology for each sample, we improved our understanding of the preservation of forensic signatures in UOC. Improved characterization of sample processing and provenance allows us to begin to assess the statistical significance of different groupings of samples and identify underlying patterns. Initial results indicate the concentration of uranium in the ore body, the geochemical conditions associated with uranium emplacement, and host rock petrogenesis exert controlling influences on the impurities preserved in UOC. Specific ore processing techniques, particularly those related to In-Situ Recovery, are also reflected in UOC impurity signatures. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry can be used in conjunction with rare earth element patterns and other characteristics to link UOCs to specific geologic deposits of origin. We will present a number of case studies illustrating the ways in which nuclear forensic analysis can provide insight into the ore geology and production and purification processes used to produce UOC. (author)

  12. Bilateral Poly Implant Prothèse Implant Rupture: An Uncommon Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mallon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: A woman in her 50s underwent delayed bilateral Poly Implant Prothèse implant reconstruction following mastectomy for breast cancer. Symptoms of implant rupture developed 43 months after surgery with an erythematous rash on her trunk. The rash then spread to her reconstructed breast mounds. Initial ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance imaging were normal; however, subsequent magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left implant rupture only. In theater, following removal of both implants, both were found to be ruptured. The rash on her trunk resolved within 3 weeks in the postoperative period. Chemical analyses of silicone in both implants confirmed a nonauthorized silicone source; in addition, the chemical structure was significantly different between the left and right implant, perhaps explaining the variation in presentation.

  13. Rupture loop annex ion exchange RLAIX vault deactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.E.; Harris, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This engineering report documents the deactivation, stabilization and final conditions of the Rupture Loop Annex Ion Exchange (RLAIX) Vault located northwest of the 309 Building`s Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR). Twelve ion exchange columns, piping debris, and column liquid were removed from the vault, packaged and shipped for disposal. The vault walls and floor were decontaminated, and portions of the vault were painted to fix loose contamination. Process piping and drains were plugged, and the cover blocks and rain cover were installed. Upon closure,the vault was empty, stabilized, isolated.

  14. Functional rehabilitation of patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture: a meta-analysis of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark-Christensen, Troels; Troelsen, Anders; Kallemose, Thomas; Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner

    2016-06-01

    The optimal treatment for acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) is continuously debated. Recent studies have proposed that the choice of either operative or non-operative treatment may not be as important as rehabilitation, suggesting that functional rehabilitation should be preferred over traditional immobilization. The purpose of this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to compare functional rehabilitation to immobilization in the treatment of ATR. This meta-analysis was conducted using the databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Rehabilitation and Sports Medicine Source, AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and PEDro using the search terms: "Achilles tendon," "rupture," "mobilization" and "immobilization". Seven RCTs involving 427 participants were eligible for inclusion, with a total of 211 participants treated with functional rehabilitation and 216 treated with immobilization. Re-rupture rate, other complications, strength, range of motion, duration of sick leave, return to sport and patient satisfaction were examined. There were no statistically significant differences between groups. A trend favoring functional rehabilitation was seen regarding the examined outcomes. Functional rehabilitation after acute Achilles tendon rupture does not increase the rate of re-rupture or other complications. A trend toward earlier return to work and sport, and increased patient satisfaction was found when functional rehabilitation was used. The present literature is of low-to-average quality, and the basic constructs of the examined treatment and study protocols vary considerably. Larger, randomized controlled trials using validated outcome measures are needed to confirm the findings. II.

  15. Rupture geometry and slip distribution of the 2016 January 21st Ms6.4 Menyuan, China earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    On 21 January 2016, an Ms6.4 earthquake stroke Menyuan country, Qinghai Province, China. The epicenter of the main shock and locations of its aftershocks indicate that the Menyuan earthquake occurred near the left-lateral Lenglongling fault. However, the focal mechanism suggests that the earthquake should take place on a thrust fault. In addition, field investigation indicates that the earthquake did not rupture the ground surface. Therefore, the rupture geometry is unclear as well as coseismic slip distribution. We processed two pairs of InSAR images acquired by the ESA Sentinel-1A satellite with the ISCE software, and both ascending and descending orbits were included. After subsampling the coseismic InSAR images into about 800 pixels, coseismic displacement data along LOS direction are inverted for earthquake source parameters. We employ an improved mixed linear-nonlinear Bayesian inversion method to infer fault geometric parameters, slip distribution, and the Laplacian smoothing factor simultaneously. This method incorporates a hybrid differential evolution algorithm, which is an efficient global optimization algorithm. The inversion results show that the Menyuan earthquake ruptured a blind thrust fault with a strike of 124°and a dip angle of 41°. This blind fault was never investigated before and intersects with the left-lateral Lenglongling fault, but the strikes of them are nearly parallel. The slip sense is almost pure thrusting, and there is no significant slip within 4km depth. The max slip value is up to 0.3m, and the estimated moment magnitude is Mw5.93, in agreement with the seismic inversion result. The standard error of residuals between InSAR data and model prediction is as small as 0.5cm, verifying the correctness of the inversion results.

  16. Modeling the Influence of Process Parameters and Additional Heat Sources on Residual Stresses in Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückner, F.; Lepski, D.; Beyer, E.

    2007-09-01

    In laser cladding thermal contraction of the initially liquid coating during cooling causes residual stresses and possibly cracks. Preweld or postweld heating using inductors can reduce the thermal strain difference between coating and substrate and thus reduce the resulting stress. The aim of this work is to better understand the influence of various thermometallurgical and mechanical phenomena on stress evolution and to optimize the induction-assisted laser cladding process to get crack-free coatings of hard materials at high feed rates. First, an analytical one-dimensional model is used to visualize the most important features of stress evolution for a Stellite coating on a steel substrate. For more accurate studies, laser cladding is simulated including the powder-beam interaction, the powder catchment by the melt pool, and the self-consistent calculation of temperature field and bead shape. A three-dimensional finite element model and the required equivalent heat sources are derived from the results and used for the transient thermomechanical analysis, taking into account phase transformations and the elastic-plastic material behavior with strain hardening. Results are presented for the influence of process parameters such as feed rate, heat input, and inductor size on the residual stresses at a single bead of Stellite coatings on steel.

  17. Natural circulation analysis for the advanced neutron source reactor refueling process 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, R.F.; Dasardhi, S.; Elkassabgi, Y. [Texas A& M Univ., Kingsville, TX (United States); Yoder, G.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    During the refueling process of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), the spent fuel elements must be moved from the primary coolant loop (containing D{sub 2}O), through a heavy water pool, and finally into a light water spent fuel storage area. The present refueling scheme utilizes remote refueling equipment to move the spent fuel elements through a D{sub 2}O filled stack and tunnel into a temporary storage canal. A transfer lock is used to move the spent fuel elements from the D{sub 2}O-filled interim storage canal to a light water pool. Each spent fuel element must be cooled during this process, using either natural circulation or forced convection. This paper presents a summary of the numerical techniques used to analyze natural circulation cooling of the ANSR fuel elements as well as selected results of the calculations. Details of the analysis indicate that coolant velocities below 10 cm/s exist in the coolant channels under single phase natural circulation conditions. Also, boiling does not occur within the channels if power levels are below a few hundred kW when the core transitions to natural circulation conditions.

  18. Open source software in a practical approach for post processing of radiologic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeri, Gianluca; Mazza, Francesco Antonino; Maggi, Stefania; Aramini, Daniele; La Riccia, Luigi; Mazzoni, Giovanni; Giovagnoni, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of open source software (OSS) to process DICOM images. We selected 23 programs for Windows and 20 programs for Mac from 150 possible OSS programs including DICOM viewers and various tools (converters, DICOM header editors, etc.). The programs selected all meet the basic requirements such as free availability, stand-alone application, presence of graphical user interface, ease of installation and advanced features beyond simple display monitor. Capabilities of data import, data export, metadata, 2D viewer, 3D viewer, support platform and usability of each selected program were evaluated on a scale ranging from 1 to 10 points. Twelve programs received a score higher than or equal to eight. Among them, five obtained a score of 9: 3D Slicer, MedINRIA, MITK 3M3, VolView, VR Render; while OsiriX received 10. OsiriX appears to be the only program able to perform all the operations taken into consideration, similar to a workstation equipped with proprietary software, allowing the analysis and interpretation of images in a simple and intuitive way. OsiriX is a DICOM PACS workstation for medical imaging and software for image processing for medical research, functional imaging, 3D imaging, confocal microscopy and molecular imaging. This application is also a good tool for teaching activities because it facilitates the attainment of learning objectives among students and other specialists.

  19. In-liquid Plasma. A stable light source for advanced oxidation processes in environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Akihiro; Shimamura, Takeshi; Sawada, Seiya; Sato, Susumu; Serpone, Nick; Horikoshi, Satoshi

    2018-06-01

    A microwave-inspired device that generates stable in-liquid plasma (LP) in aqueous media and emits narrow light emission lines at 280-320 nm, 660 nm and 780 nm is examined as a light source capable of driving photochemical reactions and advanced oxidation processes in wastewater treatments. The microwave-driven lighting efficiency was improved by decompressing the inside of the reaction vessel, which resulted in lowering the incident power of the microwaves and suppressed the deterioration of the microwave irradiation antenna. This protocol made it possible to generate continuous stable plasma in water. Evaluation of the LP device was carried out by revisiting the decomposition of 1,4-dioxane in aqueous media against the use of such other conventional water treatment processes as (i) UV irradiation alone, (ii) TiO2-assisted photocatalysis with UV irradiation (UV/TiO2), (iii) oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and (iv) UV-assisted decomposition in the presence of NaClO (UV/NaClO). The in-liquid plasma technique proved superior to these four other methods. The influence of pH on the LP protocol was ascertained through experiments in acidified (HCl and H2SO4) and alkaline (NaOH and KOH) aqueous media. Except for H2SO4, decomposition of 1,4-dioxane was enhanced in both acidic and alkaline media.

  20. Open splenectomy for Varicella zoster induced spontaneous splenic rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Christopher Sykes

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Atraumatic splenic rupture should be considered as an important differential in those presenting with abdominal pain and peritonism without a history of preceding trauma. Haematological and infectious diagnoses should be sought to identify causation for the splenic rupture.

  1. Instantaneous and Frequency-Warped Signal Processing Techniques for Auditory Source Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Avery Li-Chun

    This thesis summarizes several contributions to the areas of signal processing and auditory source separation. The philosophy of Frequency-Warped Signal Processing is introduced as a means for separating the AM and FM contributions to the bandwidth of a complex-valued, frequency-varying sinusoid p (n), transforming it into a signal with slowly-varying parameters. This transformation facilitates the removal of p (n) from an additive mixture while minimizing the amount of damage done to other signal components. The average winding rate of a complex-valued phasor is explored as an estimate of the instantaneous frequency. Theorems are provided showing the robustness of this measure. To implement frequency tracking, a Frequency-Locked Loop algorithm is introduced which uses the complex winding error to update its frequency estimate. The input signal is dynamically demodulated and filtered to extract the envelope. This envelope may then be remodulated to reconstruct the target partial, which may be subtracted from the original signal mixture to yield a new, quickly-adapting form of notch filtering. Enhancements to the basic tracker are made which, under certain conditions, attain the Cramer -Rao bound for the instantaneous frequency estimate. To improve tracking, the novel idea of Harmonic -Locked Loop tracking, using N harmonically constrained trackers, is introduced for tracking signals, such as voices and certain musical instruments. The estimated fundamental frequency is computed from a maximum-likelihood weighting of the N tracking estimates, making it highly robust. The result is that harmonic signals, such as voices, can be isolated from complex mixtures in the presence of other spectrally overlapping signals. Additionally, since phase information is preserved, the resynthesized harmonic signals may be removed from the original mixtures with relatively little damage to the residual signal. Finally, a new methodology is given for designing linear-phase FIR filters

  2. Modeling fault rupture hazard for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppersmith, K.J.; Youngs, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper as part of the Electric Power Research Institute's High Level Waste program, the authors have developed a preliminary probabilistic model for assessing the hazard of fault rupture to the proposed high level waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The model is composed of two parts: the earthquake occurrence model that describes the three-dimensional geometry of earthquake sources and the earthquake recurrence characteristics for all sources in the site vicinity; and the rupture model that describes the probability of coseismic fault rupture of various lengths and amounts of displacement within the repository horizon 350 m below the surface. The latter uses empirical data from normal-faulting earthquakes to relate the rupture dimensions and fault displacement amounts to the magnitude of the earthquake. using a simulation procedure, we allow for earthquake occurrence on all of the earthquake sources in the site vicinity, model the location and displacement due to primary faults, and model the occurrence of secondary faulting in conjunction with primary faulting

  3. Amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G J

    2000-01-01

    Preterm rupture of membranes places a fetus at risk of cord compression and amnionitis. Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes on maternal and perinatal outcomes. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. Randomised trials of amnioinfusion compared to no amnioinfusion in women with preterm rupture of membranes. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by the reviewer. One trial of 66 women was included. It had some methodological flaws. No significant differences between amnioinfusion and no amnioinfusion were detected for caesarean section (relative risk 0.32, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 1.40); low Apgar scores (relative risk 0.28, 95% confidence interval 0.03 to 2.33) or neonatal death (relative risk 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 5.77). In the amnioinfusion group, the number of severe fetal heart rate decelerations per hour during the first stage of labour were reduced (weighted mean difference -1.20, 95% confidence interval -1.83 to -0.57). These outcomes are consistent with those found in the Cochrane review on amnioinfusion for cord compression. There is not enough evidence concerning the use of amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes.

  4. The reactor Phenix - cartridge rupture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graftieaux, J.

    1967-01-01

    This report defines the role of cartridge rupture detection in the reactor Phenix. It gives the possible methods, their probable performances, their advantages and disadvantages. The final form of the installation will be determined mainly by the degree of safety required, by the technical possibilities of the reactor design and by the operational flexibility wanted. (author) [fr

  5. Traumatic rupture of the diaphragm: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Tae; Kim, Sung Jin; Cha, Sang Hoon; Park, Kil Sun; Kim, Jin Hee; Yim, Se Hwan

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical utility of the known CT signs of the traumatic rupture of the diaphragm. CT scans and chest radiographs were retrospectively reviewed in 13 patients who had diaphragmatic rupture confirmed by surgery. On chest radiographs the elevation of the diaphragm was evaluated. On CT, 1) discontinuity of the diaphragm, 2) lack of depiction of the diaphragm surrounding the herniated intraabdominal organs (absent diaphragm sign), and 3) fat seen lateral to the diaphragm (fat sign) were evaluated. Chest radiographs showed the elevation of the diaphragm in 11 patients (85%). CT scan showed absent diaphragm sign in 11 patients (85%), discontinuity of the diaphragm in 8 (62%), and fat sign in 7 (54%). All of 12 patients who had the left diaphragmatic rupture had one or more of the above findings. Discontinuity of the diaphragm, absent diaphragm sign, and fat sign may be helpful CT findings in the diagnosis of the traumatic rupture of the left diaphragm

  6. Rupture of the tuberosity of the tibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, H.; Schwarzkopf, W.

    1981-01-01

    Ruptures of the tuberosity of the tibia occur particularly in male adolescents, although on the whole they represent a rare type of injury. The article discusses classification into different types according to Watson-Jones as well as exemplary models, traumatology, clinic and therapy. (orig.) [de

  7. Ruptured Cervical Aneurysm with Neurofibromatosis | Smith | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case is presented of spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of a lateral branch of the right thyrocervical trunk in a patient suffering from diffuse neurofibromatosis. The operative findings are reported. S. Afr. Med. J., 48, 945 (1974). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  8. Diagnosis of foetal membrane ruptures: Placental alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Pre‑labour rupture of membranes (PROM) is a common obstetric complication which presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in equivocal ... problematic with the need to balance the risk of prematurity with that of prolonged ... array of rapid, minimally invasive tests based on biochemical markers in amniotic fluid ...

  9. The electrocardiogram in traumatic right atrial rupture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuisen, DJ; van den Berg, MP

    1999-01-01

    We:report the case of a previously healthy 20-year-old man who had a traumatic rupture of the right atrium. On admission an electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded which is highly remarkable and, retrospectively, suggestive for the diagnosis. The patient died soon after the EGG, and the diagnosis was

  10. Radiographic Features of Acute Patellar Tendon Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Ali; Moonot, Pradeep; Haddad, Fares

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess soft tissue features of acute patellar tendon rupture on lateral knee radiograph that would facilitate early diagnosis. The participants were divided into two groups of 35 patients each. There were 28 men and seven women with a mean age of 46 years in the control group and 26 men and nine women with a mean age of 47 years in the rupture group. The lateral knee radiograph of each patient was evaluated for Insall-Salvati ratio for patella alta, increased density of the infrapatellar fat pad, appearance of the soft tissue margin of the patellar tendon and bony avulsions. In the rupture group there were three consistent soft tissue radiographic features in addition to patellar alta. These were increased density of infrapatellar fat pad; loss of sharp, well-defined linear margins of the patellar tendon and angulated wavy margin of the patellar tendon while in the control group these features were not observed. The soft tissue radiographic features described in the rupture group are consistent and reliable. When coupled with careful clinical assessment, these will aid in early diagnosis and further imaging will be seldom required. © 2015 Chinese Orthopaedic Association and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Bilateral synchronous rupture of the quadriceps tendon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2012-09-01

    Bilateral simultaneous rupture of the quadriceps tendon is a rare entity. They are often associated with degenerative changes of the tendons and predisposing conditions such as diabetes or excessive steroid use. They most commonly tend to occur in patients of 40 years of age or older.

  12. Rupture of the neck in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Managan, R.A.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    We introduce a degree of freedom to describe the rupture of the neck in nuclear fission and calculate the point at which the neck ruptures as the nucleus descends dynamically from its fission saddle point. This is done by mentally slicing the system into two portions at its minimum neck radius and calculating the force required to separate the two portions while keeping their shapes fixed. This force is obtained by differentiating with respect to separation the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction energies between the two portions. For nuclei throughout the Periodic Table we calculate this force along dynamical paths leading from the fission saddle point. The force is initially attractive but becomes repulsive when the neck reaches a critical size. For actinide nuclei the neck radius at which rupture occurs is about 2 fm. This increases the calculated translational kinetic energy of the fission fragments at infinity relative to that calculated for scission occurring at zero neck radius. With the effect of neck rupture taken into account, we calculate and compare with experimental results fission-fragment kinetic energies for two types of nuclear dissipation: ordinary two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation

  13. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  14. PhysioSpace: relating gene expression experiments from heterogeneous sources using shared physiological processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lenz

    Full Text Available Relating expression signatures from different sources such as cell lines, in vitro cultures from primary cells and biopsy material is an important task in drug development and translational medicine as well as for tracking of cell fate and disease progression. Especially the comparison of large scale gene expression changes to tissue or cell type specific signatures is of high interest for the tracking of cell fate in (trans- differentiation experiments and for cancer research, which increasingly focuses on shared processes and the involvement of the microenvironment. These signature relation approaches require robust statistical methods to account for the high biological heterogeneity in clinical data and must cope with small sample sizes in lab experiments and common patterns of co-expression in ubiquitous cellular processes. We describe a novel method, called PhysioSpace, to position dynamics of time series data derived from cellular differentiation and disease progression in a genome-wide expression space. The PhysioSpace is defined by a compendium of publicly available gene expression signatures representing a large set of biological phenotypes. The mapping of gene expression changes onto the PhysioSpace leads to a robust ranking of physiologically relevant signatures, as rigorously evaluated via sample-label permutations. A spherical transformation of the data improves the performance, leading to stable results even in case of small sample sizes. Using PhysioSpace with clinical cancer datasets reveals that such data exhibits large heterogeneity in the number of significant signature associations. This behavior was closely associated with the classification endpoint and cancer type under consideration, indicating shared biological functionalities in disease associated processes. Even though the time series data of cell line differentiation exhibited responses in larger clusters covering several biologically related patterns, top scoring

  15. Source and Processes of Dissolved Organic Matter in a Bangladesh Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, D. M.; Simone, B. E.; Mladenov, N.; Zheng, Y.; Legg, T. M.; Nemergut, D.

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global health crisis, especially in Bangladesh where an estimated 40 million people are at risk. The release of geogenic arsenic bound to sediments into groundwater is thought to be influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) through several biogeochemical processes. Abiotically, DOM can promote the release of sediment bound As through the formation of DOM-As complexes and competitive interactions between As and DOM for sorption sites on the sediment. Additionally, the labile portion of groundwater DOM can serve as an electron donor to support microbial growth and the more recalcitrant humic DOM may serve as an electron shuttle, facilitating the eventual reduction of ferric iron present as iron oxides in sediments and consequently the mobilization of sorbed As and organic material. The goal of this study is to understand the source of DOM in representative Bangladesh groundwaters and the DOM sorption processes that occur at depth. We report chemical characteristics of representative DOM from a surface water, a shallow low-As groundwater, mid-depth high-As groundwater from the Araihazar region of Bangladesh. The humic DOM from groundwater displayed a more terrestrial chemical signature, indicative of being derived from plant and soil precursor materials, while the surface water humic DOM had a more microbial signature, suggesting an anthropogenic influence. In terms of biogeochemical processes occurring in the groundwater system, there is evidence from a diverse set of chemical characteristics, ranging from 13C-NMR spectroscopy to the analysis of lignin phenols, for preferential sorption onto iron oxides influencing the chemistry and reactivity of humic DOM in high As groundwater in Bangladesh. Taken together, these results provide chemical evidence for anthropogenic influence and the importance of sorption reactions at depth controlling the water quality of high As groundwater in Bangladesh.

  16. On the unit rupture work of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkhoturov, A.D.; Kovalenko, V.S.; Dyatel, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Studied is the effect of the nature of the treated material treatment regimes on their unit rupture work at laser treatment in the regime of quasistationary evaporation. It is shown that the unit rupture work changes its values depending on the treatment regimes, coincidences between experimental and calculation values of unit rupture work are not being observed, especially for refractory metals of the 6th group and for solid alloys. Established are optimum regimes for determination of stable values of unit rupture work

  17. On the possibility of the multiple inductively coupled plasma and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Won; Lee, Yun-Seong, E-mail: leeeeys@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Hong-Young [Low-temperature Plasma Laboratory, Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); An, Sang-Hyuk [Agency of Defense Development, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-151 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In this study, we attempted to determine the possibility of multiple inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and helicon plasma sources for large-area processes. Experiments were performed with the one and two coils to measure plasma and electrical parameters, and a circuit simulation was performed to measure the current at each coil in the 2-coil experiment. Based on the result, we could determine the possibility of multiple ICP sources due to a direct change of impedance due to current and saturation of impedance due to the skin-depth effect. However, a helicon plasma source is difficult to adapt to the multiple sources due to the consistent change of real impedance due to mode transition and the low uniformity of the B-field confinement. As a result, it is expected that ICP can be adapted to multiple sources for large-area processes.

  18. Investigation into Mechanism of Floor Dynamic Rupture by Evolution Characteristics of Stress and Mine Tremors: A Case Study in Guojiahe Coal Mine, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjian Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the mechanism of floor dynamic rupture, the current study adopts a thin plate model to further investigate the condition of floor failure. One of the possible explanations could be floor buckling due to high horizontal stress and dynamic disturbance ultimately leading to rapid and massive release of elastic energy thus inducing dynamic rupture. Seismic computed tomography and 3D location were employed to explore the evolution characteristics of floor stress distribution and positions of mine tremors. In the regions of floor dynamic rupture, higher P-wave velocity was recorded prior to the dynamic rupture. On the contrary, relatively lower reading was observed after the dynamic rupture thus depicting a high stress concentration condition. Meanwhile, evolution of mine tremors revealed the accumulation and subsequent release of energy during the dynamic rupture process. It was further revealed that dynamic rupture was induced due to the superposition of static and dynamic stresses: (i the high static stress concentration due to frontal and lateral abutment stress from coal pillar and (ii dynamic stress from the fracture and caving of coal pillar, hard roof, and key stratum. In the later part of this study, the floor dynamic rupture occurrence process would be reproduced through numerical simulations within a 0.6 sec time frame. The above-mentioned findings would be used to propose a feasible mechanism for prewarning and prevention of floor dynamic rupture using seismic computed tomography and mine tremors 3D location.

  19. Towards a Numerical Description of Volcano Aeroacoustic Source Processes using Lattice Boltzmann Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, F.; Malaspinas, O.; Bonadonna, C.; Chopard, B.; Ripepe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Low frequency (data can be related to the exit velocity of the volcanic jet and to mass erupti