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Sample records for source rock middle

  1. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  2. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  3. Biomarkers, carbon isotopic composition and source rock potentials of Awgu coals, middle Benue trough, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedosu, Taofik A.; Sonibare, Oluwadayo O.; Tuo, Jincai; Ekundayo, Olusegun

    2012-05-01

    Coal and carbonaceous shale samples were collected from two boreholes (BH 94 and BH 120) in Awgu formation of Middle Benue Trough, Nigeria. Source rock potentials of the samples were studied using biomarkers and carbon isotopic composition. Biomarkers in the aliphatic fractions in the samples were studied using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The Carbon isotope analysis of individual n-alkanes in the aliphatic fraction was performed using Gas Chromatography-Combustion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (GC-IRMS). The abundance of hopanes, homohopanes (C31-C35), and C29 steranes in the samples indicate terrestrial plant, phytoplankton and cyanobacteria contributions to the organic matter that formed the coal. High (Pr/Ph) ratio (3.04-11.07) and isotopic distribution of individual alkanes showed that the samples consisted of mixed terrestrial/marine organic matter deposited under oxic condition in lacustrine-fluvial/deltaic depositional environment. The maturity parameters derived from biomarker distributions showed that the samples are in the main phase of oil window.

  4. Evaluation of the nature, origin and potentiality of the subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well, North Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate the nature and origin of the source rock potentiality of subsurface Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous source rocks in Melleiha G-1x well. This target was achieved throughout the evaluation of total organic carbon, rock Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance for fifteen cutting samples and three extract samples collected from Khatatba, Alam El Bueib and Kharita formations in the studied well. The result revealed that the main hydrocarbon of source rocks, for the Middle Jurassic (Khatatba Fm. is mainly mature, and has good capability of producing oil and minor gas. Lower Cretaceous source rocks (Alam El Bueib Fm. are mature, derived from mixed organic sources and have fair to good capability to generate gas and oil. Kharita Formation of immature source rocks originated from terrestrial origin and has poor to fair potential to produce gas. This indicates that Khatatba and Alam El Bueib formations take the direction of increasing maturity far away from the direction of biodegradation and can be considered as effective source potential in the Melleiha G-1x well.

  5. Source rock hydrocarbons. Present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, R.; Maisonnier, G.; Rouaud, T.

    2013-01-01

    This report first presents the characteristics of conventional oil and gas system, and the classification of liquid and gaseous non conventional hydrocarbons, with the peculiar case of coal-bed methane. The authors then describe how source rock hydrocarbons are produced: production of shale oils and gases (horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, exploitation) and of coal-bed methane and coal mine methane. In the next part, they address and discuss the environmental impact of source rock hydrocarbon production: installation footprint, water resource management, drilling fluids, fracturing fluids composition, toxicity and recycling, air pollution, induced seismicity, pollutions from other exploitation and production activities. They propose an overview of the exploitation and production of source rock gas, coal-bed gas and other non conventional gases in the world. They describe the current development and discuss their economic impacts: world oil context and trends in the USA, in Canada and other countries, impacts on the North American market, on the world oil industry, on refining industries, on the world oil balance. They analyse the economic impacts of non conventional gases: development potential, stakes for the world gas trade, consequence for gas prices, development opportunities for oil companies and for the transport sector, impact on CO 2 emissions, macro-economic impact in the case of the USA

  6. Palynofacies characterization for hydrocarbon source rock ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    source rock potential of the Subathu Formation in the area. Petroleum geologists are well aware of the fact that the dispersed organic matter derived either from marine or non-marine sediments on reach- ing its maturation level over extended period of time contributes as source material for the produc- tion of hydrocarbons.

  7. Oil source rocks in the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Cengiz

    In the Adiyaman area, southeast Turkey, two carbonate source rock units, the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation, are identified. The maturity levels of the source rock units increase towards the north and the west. Both the Karababa-A Member and the Karabogaz Formation are good to excellent oil-source rocks with widespread "kitchen areas".

  8. Depositional environments and oil potential of Jurassic/Cretaceous source rocks within the Seychelles microcontinent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, P.S.; Joseph, P.R.; Samson, P.J. [Seychelles National Oil Co., Mahe (Seychelles)

    1998-12-31

    The Seychelles microcontinent became isolated between the Somali, Mascarene and Arabian basins of the Indian Ocean as a result of the Mesozoic fragmentation of Gondwana. Major rifting events occurred during the Triassic-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Santonian and Maastrichtian) during which shaly source rock facies accumulated in principally marginal marine/deltaic environments. Between these times, post-rift passive margin deposition within restricted to open marine environments produced shaly source rocks during late Middle Jurasic-Early Cretaceous, Campanian-Maastrichtian and Paleocene times. Recent geochemical analysis of cuttings from the Seagull Shoals-1 well has identified an oil-prone liptinitic (Type II) coaly shale within early Middle Jurassic abandoned deltaic deposits. This coaly source rock is regionally developed, having also been identified in the Majunja and Morondava basins of Madagascar. Oil-prone Type II organic matter has also been identified in the Owen Bank A-1 well within restricted marine shales of late Middle Jurassic age. These shales are part of a thick post-rift source rock sequence that extends into the Early Cretaceous and is in part correlative with the proven Late Jurassic Uarandab Shale of Somalia. Analysis of Campanian marine shales from Reith Bank-1 well identified significant dilution of total organic carbon content in composite, compared to picked, well cuttings samples. This finding supports a published inference that these post-rift shales have source rock potential. (author)

  9. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)

    2012-03-15

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  10. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  11. Preliminary investigation on the sedimentary facies of the middle silurian uraniferous rock formations in western Qinling Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yunian; Min Yongming.

    1987-01-01

    The Middle Silurian stratabound uranium deposits in Western Qinling were formed due to hydrothermal modification of ground water and reconcentration of uranium from the sedimentary source rocks. The Silurian system consists of the sediments deposited in the marginal sea of the passive continent, to the south of which is the Ruoergai palaeocontinent. The Middle Silurian is divided into three formations. The lower members of each formation are composed of fine-grained clastic rocks with bay-lagoon facies, while the upper members of each formation are uraniferous rock formations consisted of carbonaceous-siliceous-limestone-argillaceous rocks. During the Middle Silurian period there occurred an island chain barrier which is roughly parallel to the palaeocoast and was formed by undersea uplifts. The uraniferous rock formations belong to the assemblage of lagoon-reef-back tidal flat-reef beach facies. Nearshore shallow water environment, abundant terrestrial fine detritus, local reduction facies and zones are three cardinal conditions for the formation of uranium-rich sediments. Uranium deposition mainly took place in the environments of the inner part of reef beach and reef-back tidal flat, which are characterized by having medium to slightly lower energy, the terrestrial fine detritus involved, and local reduction field resulting from the decomposition of organism after their massive death. Furing the process of relative slow deposition, UO 2 2+ in the sea water was formed by means of infiltration, diffusion and alternative absorption of water at the bottom into organic matter and clay

  12. Geochemical characteristics of Lower Jurassic source rocks in the Zhongkouzi Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haiqing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wei, Jianshe; Zhang, Huiyuan; Wang, Baowen

    2018-01-01

    Zhongkouzi basin is formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic and developed on the Hercynian folded belt, the degree of exploration for oil and gas is relatively low hitherto. In order to find out the geochemical characteristics of the source rocks and the potentials for hydrocarbon generation. The research result shows that by analysis the geochemical characteristics of outcrop samples and new core samples in Longfengshan Group, Longfengshan Group are most developed intervals of favorable source rocks. They are formed in depression period of the basin when the sedimentary environments is salt water lacustrine and the water is keeping stable; The organic matter abundance is middle-higher, the main kerogen type is II1-II2 and few samples act as III type, The organic matter maturity is low maturity to medium maturity. The organic matter maturity of the source rock from eastern part of the basin is higher than in the western region. The source rock of Longfengshan Group are in the hydrocarbon generation threshold. The great mass of source rocks are matured and in the peak stage of oil generation.

  13. North Slope, Alaska: Source rock distribution, richness, thermal maturity, and petroleum charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Magoon, L.B.; Bird, K.J.; Valin, Z.C.; Keller, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Four key marine petroleum source rock units were identified, characterized, and mapped in the subsurface to better understand the origin and distribution of petroleum on the North Slope of Alaska. These marine source rocks, from oldest to youngest, include four intervals: (1) Middle-Upper Triassic Shublik Formation, (2) basal condensed section in the Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, (3) Cretaceous pebble shale unit, and (4) Cretaceous Hue Shale. Well logs for more than 60 wells and total organic carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses for 1183 samples in 125 well penetrations of the source rocks were used to map the present-day thickness of each source rock and the quantity (TOC), quality (hydrogen index), and thermal maturity (Tmax) of the organic matter. Based on assumptions related to carbon mass balance and regional distributions of TOC, the present-day source rock quantity and quality maps were used to determine the extent of fractional conversion of the kerogen to petroleum and to map the original TOC (TOCo) and the original hydrogen index (HIo) prior to thermal maturation. The quantity and quality of oil-prone organic matter in Shublik Formation source rock generally exceeded that of the other units prior to thermal maturation (commonly TOCo > 4 wt.% and HIo > 600 mg hydrocarbon/g TOC), although all are likely sources for at least some petroleum on the North Slope. We used Rock-Eval and hydrous pyrolysis methods to calculate expulsion factors and petroleum charge for each of the four source rocks in the study area. Without attempting to identify the correct methods, we conclude that calculations based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis overestimate expulsion factors and petroleum charge because low pressure and rapid removal of thermally cracked products by the carrier gas retards cross-linking and pyrobitumen formation that is otherwise favored by natural burial maturation. Expulsion factors and petroleum charge based on hydrous pyrolysis may also be high

  14. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Hydrocarbon source rock potential evaluation of the Late Paleocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    research is available on its source rock potential evaluation at Nammal Gorge Section in the Salt. Range, Potwar Basin .... methods of Tucker (2003) and Assaad (2008) have been followed. A total of fifteen ..... Business Media. Baker D M, Lillie ...

  16. Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Figure 1. This ESTCP demonstration was focused in the vicinity of Building 8595, adjacent to the location of a reported surface release of PCE ( Earth ...electron donor source, such as vegetable oil, is typically used in passive approaches. When treating a DNAPL source area in fractured rock, there are... vegetable oil) are used. Hydrogen The generation of hydrogen can be used to verify fermentation of electron donor. Metals (Fe, Mn, As) Increase

  17. Middle east gas: supply source of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivies, P. de

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of gas demand, the decreasing of reserves leads to the question of European future needs satisfaction. The european market can call on the russian production or middle east production. Iran has the most important reserves but the needs of the population can limit the gas supply. Yemen and Oman which have less important reserves but also less important needs to satisfy can be a serious alternative; Abu dhabi reserves are destined to asia market. The qatar has the most important gas offshore field in the world. The LNG (liquefied natural gas) seems to have a better position than gas pipeline to dispatch gas towards Europe

  18. Trace element characterisation of Cretaceous Orange Basin hydrocarbon source rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Adekola, S.A.; Swakamisa, O.; Fadipe, O.A.; Akinyemi, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Vanadium and nickel contents indicate that the rock samples from the Orange Basin have marine organic matter input. → The organic matter of the Orange Basin source rocks were deposited in reducing conditions. → Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal their subtle differences. → Cluster analysis classified the samples into three groups based on subtle differences in their .thermal maturity. - Abstract: Trace elements in the kerogen fraction of hydrocarbon source rock samples from two wells obtained from the Cretaceous units of the Orange Basin, South Africa were determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, in order to determine their distribution and geochemical significances. The concentrations of the elements (As, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb and V) determined ranged from 0.64 to 47,300 ppm for the samples analysed. The total organic carbon (TOC) values indicate that the samples are organic rich but did not show any trend with the distribution of the trace metals except Ce, Mo and Pb. Dendrogram cluster analysis discriminated the samples into three groups on the basis of their level of thermal maturity. Thermal maturity has a significant effect on the distribution of the trace metals. Cobalt/Ni and V/Ni ratios and cross plots of the absolute values of V and Ni indicate that the samples had significant marine organic matter input. The V and Ni contents and V/(V + Ni) ratio indicate that the organic matter of the source rocks had been deposited in reducing conditions. Despite the similarities in the organic matter source input and depositional environment of the organic matter of the samples from the two well, cross plots of Co/Ni versus V/Ni and Mo/Ni versus Co/Ni were able to reveal subtle differences. Cluster analysis of the samples was also able to reveal the subtle

  19. "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle": An Online Guided Inquiry Tool for Middle and High School Geoscience Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, Laura; Cardace, Dawn; Kortz, Karen; Saul, Karen; Gilfert, Amber; Veeger, Anne I.; Murray, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The rock cycle is a key component of geoscience education at all levels. In this paper, we report on a new guided inquiry curricular module, "Sleuthing through the Rock Cycle," which has a blended online/offline constructivist design with comprehensive teaching notes and has been successful in pilot use in Rhode Island middle and high…

  20. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  1. Explosion Source Characteristics in Frozen and Unfrozen Rock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Jessie L; Leidig, Mark R; Murphy, Katherine; Dougherty, Sara L; Martin, Randolph J

    2008-01-01

    .... Central Alaska has abrupt lateral boundaries in discontinuous permafrost, and we detonated 3 shots in frozen, saturated rock and 3 shots nearby in unfrozen, dry rock ranging in size from 200 to 350 Ibs...

  2. A chemical and thermodynamic model of oil generation in hydrocarbon source rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Harold C.; Richard, Laurent; McKenzie, William F.; Norton, Denis L.; Schmitt, Alexandra

    2009-02-01

    calculations indicate that the minimal volume of crude oil expelled into these formations is comparable to, or exceeds the volume of oil produced and in proven reserves in major oil fields such as the North Sea, the Paris and Los Angeles Basins, and those in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and elsewhere in the Middle East. For example, taking account of the average weight percent ( W%) organic carbon in the immature kerogen (3.4 wt%) with an average H/C of ˜1.04 in the hydrocarbon source rocks in Saudi Arabia, which have an average thickness of ˜43 m, it can be shown (see below) that all of the oil (and oil equivalent of natural gas) produced and in proven reserves in Saudi Arabia (374 billion barrels of oil or ˜1.9 million barrels of oil km -2) can be accounted for by minimal expulsion from the source rocks of oil generated at ˜125 °C solely by the incongruent melting process. Computer experiments indicate that this process can also account for all the petroleum that can be, and has been generated in the world's hydrocarbon source rocks. Of the latter, as much as 75-80% may still remain in these rocks.

  3. Geothermal regime and Jurassic source rock maturity of the Junggar basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansheng, Qiu; Zhihuan, Zhang; Ershe, Xu

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the thermal gradient distribution of the Junggar basin based on oil-test and well-logging temperature data. The basin-wide average thermal gradient in the depth interval of 0-4000 m is 22.6 °C/km, which is lower than other sedimentary basins in China. We report 21 measured terrestrial heat flow values based on detailed thermal conductivity data and systematical steady-state temperature data. These values vary from 27.0 to 54.1 mW/m 2 with a mean of 41.8 ± 7.8 mW/m 2. The Junggar basin appears to be a cool basin in terms of its thermal regime. The heat flow distribution within the basin shows the following characteristics. (1) The heat flow decreases from the Luliang Uplift to the Southern Depression; (2) relatively high heat flow values over 50 mW/m 2 are confined to the northern part of the Eastern Uplift and the adjacent parts of the Eastern Luliang Uplift and Central Depression; (3) The lowest heat flow of smaller than 35 mW/m 2 occurs in the southern parts of the basin. This low thermal regime of the Junggar basin is consistent with the geodynamic setting, the extrusion of plates around the basin, the considerably thick crust, the dense lithospheric mantle, the relatively stable continental basement of the basin, low heat generation and underground water flow of the basin. The heat flow of this basin is of great significance to oil exploration and hydrocarbon resource assessment, because it bears directly on issues of petroleum source-rock maturation. Almost all oil fields are limited to the areas of higher heat flows. The relatively low heat flow values in the Junggar basin will deepen the maturity threshold, making the deep-seated widespread Permian and Jurassic source rocks in the Junggar basin favorable for oil and gas generation. In addition, the maturity evolution of the Lower Jurassic Badaowan Group (J 1b) and Middle Jurassic Xishanyao Group (J 2x) were calculated based on the thermal data and burial depth. The maturity of the Jurassic

  4. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  5. Catahoula Formation as uranium source rock in East Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B.; Tieh, T.T.; Rowe, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas Gulf coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, it consists of stream-transported detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent Mexico. This volcaniclastic component has altered to release uranium to mineralization processes in the lower Gulf Coast, but there has not been uranium production in the middle and upper Gulf Coast. To evaluate the potential of the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain for uranium ore deposits, a geochemical study was undertaken. The Catahoula Formation was analyzed for U, Th, K, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ti to estimate the nature of volcanic glass and its abundance and alteration. Concentrations from three key outcrops were compared. They were also compared to samples from a volcanic area in Trans-Pecos Texas, which is chemically appropriate as a source for the volcanic material in the Catahoula Formation. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, where uranium is produced, the glassy volcanic material has been pervasively altered, but in the upper coastal plain much glass remains. Because glass alteration is necessary for uranium release and concentration, the potential is low for large, shallow uranium ore bodies in the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain

  6. The potentiality of hydrocarbon generation of the Jurassic source rocks in Salam-3x well,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the identification of the potential and generating capability of oil generation in the Jurassic source rocks in the Salam-3x well. This depending on the organo-geochemical analyses of cutting samples representative of Masajid, Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations, as well as, representative extract samples of the Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations. The geochemical analysis suggested the potential source intervals within the encountered rock units as follows: Masajid Formation bears mature source rocks and have poor to fair generating capability for generating gas (type III kerogen. Khatatba Formation bears mature source rock, and has poor to good generating capability for both oil and gas. Ras Qattara Formation constituting mature source rock has good to very good generating capability for both oil and gas. The burial history modeling shows that the Masajid Formation lies within oil and gas windows; Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations lie within the gas window. From the biomarker characteristics of source rocks it appears that the extract is genetically related as the majority of them were derived from marine organic matters sources (mainly algae deposited under reducing environment and take the direction of increasing maturity and far away from the direction of biodegradation. Therefore, Masajid Formation is considered as effective source rocks for generating hydrocarbons, while Khatatba and Ras Qattara formations are the main source rocks for hydrocarbon accumulations in the Salam-3x well.

  7. A Study of Porphyrins in Petroleum Source Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, Berit

    1997-12-31

    This thesis discusses several aspects of porphyrin geochemistry. Degradation experiments have been performed on the Messel oil shale (Eocene, Germany) to obtain information on porphyrins bound or incorporated into macromolecular structures. Thermal heating of the preextracted kerogen by hydrous pyrolysis was used to study the release of porphyrins and their temperature dependent changes during simulated diagenesis and catagenesis. Selective chemical degradation experiments were performed on the preextracted sediment to get more detailed information about porphyrins that are specifically bound to the macromolecular structures via ester bonds. From the heating experiments, in a separate study, the porphyrin nitrogen content in the generated bitumens was compared to the bulk of organic nitrogen compounds in the fraction. The bulk nitrogen contents in the generated bitumens, the water phase and the residual organic matter was recorded to establish the distribution of nitrogen between the kerogen and product phases. Porphyrins as biomarkers were examined in naturally matured Kimmeridge clay source rocks (Upper Jurassic, Norway), and the use of porphyrins as general indicators of maturity was evaluated. Underlying maturity trends in the biomarker data was investigated by Partial Least Squares analysis. Porphyrin as indicators of depositional conditions was also addressed, where the correlations between the (amounts) abundance of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins were mapped together with other descriptors that are assumed to be indicative of redox depositional conditions. 252 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. A Study of Porphyrins in Petroleum Source Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huseby, Berit

    1996-12-31

    This thesis discusses several aspects of porphyrin geochemistry. Degradation experiments have been performed on the Messel oil shale (Eocene, Germany) to obtain information on porphyrins bound or incorporated into macromolecular structures. Thermal heating of the preextracted kerogen by hydrous pyrolysis was used to study the release of porphyrins and their temperature dependent changes during simulated diagenesis and catagenesis. Selective chemical degradation experiments were performed on the preextracted sediment to get more detailed information about porphyrins that are specifically bound to the macromolecular structures via ester bonds. From the heating experiments, in a separate study, the porphyrin nitrogen content in the generated bitumens was compared to the bulk of organic nitrogen compounds in the fraction. The bulk nitrogen contents in the generated bitumens, the water phase and the residual organic matter was recorded to establish the distribution of nitrogen between the kerogen and product phases. Porphyrins as biomarkers were examined in naturally matured Kimmeridge clay source rocks (Upper Jurassic, Norway), and the use of porphyrins as general indicators of maturity was evaluated. Underlying maturity trends in the biomarker data was investigated by Partial Least Squares analysis. Porphyrin as indicators of depositional conditions was also addressed, where the correlations between the (amounts) abundance of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins were mapped together with other descriptors that are assumed to be indicative of redox depositional conditions. 252 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Tectonic control in source rock maturation and oil migration in Trinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, K.M.; Talukdar, S.C.; Dow, W.G. (DGSI, The Woodlands, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Oil accumulation in Trinidad were sourced by the Upper Cretaceous calcareous shales deposited along the Cretaceous passive margin of northern South America. Maturation of these source rocks, oil generation, migration and re-migration occurred in a foreland basin setting that resulted from interaction between Caribbean and South American plates during Late Oligocene to recent times. During Middle Miocene-Recent times, the foreland basin experienced strong compressional events, which controlled generation, migration, and accumulation of oil in Trinidad. A series of mature source rock kitchens formed in Late Miocene-Recent times in the Southern and Colombus Basins to the east-southeast of the Central Range Thrust. This thrust and associated fratured developed around 12 m.y.b.p. and served as vertical migration paths for the oil generated in Late Miocene time. This oil migrated into submarine fans deposited in the foreland basin axis and older reservoirs deformed into structural traps. Further generation and migration of oil, and re-migration of earlier oil took place during Pliocene-Holocene times, when later thrusting and wrench faulting served as vertical migration paths. Extremely high sedimentation rates in Pliocene-Pleistocene time, concurrent with active faulting, was responsible for very rapid generation of oil and gas. Vertically migrating gas often mixed with earlier migrated oil in overlying reservoirs. This caused depletion of oil in light hydrocarbons with accompanied fractionation among hydrocarbon types resulting in heavier oil in lower reservoirs, enrichment of light hydrocarbons and accumulation of gas-condensates in upper reservoirs. This process led to an oil-gravity stratification within about 10,000 ft of section.

  10. Depositional environment and source rock potential of Cenomanian and Turonian sedimentary rocks of the Tarfaya Basin, Southwest Morocco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghassal, B.I.; Littke, R.; Sachse, V.; Sindern, S.; Schwarzbauer, J.

    2016-07-01

    Detailed organic and inorganic geochemical analyses were used to assess the depositional environment and source rock potential of the Cenomanian and Turonian oil shale deposits in the Tarfaya Basin. This study is based on core samples from the Tarfaya Sondage-4 well that penetrated over 300m of Mid Cretaceous organic matter-rich deposits. A total of 242 samples were analyzed for total organic and inorganic carbon and selected samples for total sulfur and major elements as well as for organic petrology, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Curie-Point-pyrolysis-gaschromatography-Mass-Spectrometry and molecular geochemistry of solvent extracts. Based on major elements the lower Cenomanian differs from the other intervals by higher silicate and lower carbonate contents. Moreover, the molecular geochemistry suggests anoxic bottom marine water conditions during the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary Event (CTBE; Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: OAE2). As a proxy for the Sorg/Corg ratio, the ratio total thiophenes/total benzenes compounds was calculated from pyrolysate compositions. The results suggest that Sorg/ Corg is low in the lower Cenomanian, moderate in the upper Cenomanian, very high in the CTBE (CenomanianTuronian Boundary Event) and high in the Turonian samples. Rock-Eval data reveal that the lower Cenomanian is a moderately organic carbon-rich source rock with good potential to generate oil and gas upon thermal maturation. On the other hand, the samples from the upper Cenomanian to Turonian exhibit higher organic carbon content and can be classified as oil-prone source rocks. Based on Tmax data, all rocks are thermally immature. The microscopic investigations suggest dominance of submicroscopic organic matter in all samples and different contents of bituminite and alginite. The lower Cenomanian samples have little visible organic matter and no bituminite. The upper Cenomanian and CTBE samples are poor in bituminite and have rare visible organic matter, whereas the Turonian samples change

  11. Geochemical Interaction of Middle Bakken Reservoir Rock and CO2 during CO2-Based Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, J. P.; Lu, J.; Mickler, P. J.; Ribeiro, L. H.; Darvari, R.

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geochemical interactions when CO2 is used to create the fractures necessary to produce hydrocarbons from low-permeability Middle Bakken sandstone. The primary objectives are to: (1) identify and understand the geochemical reactions related to CO2-based fracturing, and (2) assess potential changes of reservoir property. Three autoclave experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions exposing middle Bakken core fragments to supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) only and to CO2-saturated synthetic brine. Ion-milled core samples were examined before and after the reaction experiments using scanning electron microscope, which enabled us to image the reaction surface in extreme details and unambiguously identify mineral dissolution and precipitation. The most significant changes in the reacted rock samples exposed to the CO2-saturated brine is dissolution of the carbonate minerals, particularly calcite which displays severely corrosion. Dolomite grains were corroded to a lesser degree. Quartz and feldspars remained intact and some pyrite framboids underwent slight dissolution. Additionally, small amount of calcite precipitation took place as indicated by numerous small calcite crystals formed at the reaction surface and in the pores. The aqueous solution composition changes confirm these petrographic observations with increase in Ca and Mg and associated minor elements and very slight increase in Fe and sulfate. When exposed to sc-CO2 only, changes observed include etching of calcite grain surface and precipitation of salt crystals (halite and anhydrite) due to evaporation of residual pore water into the sc-CO2 phase. Dolomite and feldspars remained intact and pyrite grains were slightly altered. Mercury intrusion capillary pressure tests on reacted and unreacted samples shows an increase in porosity when an aqueous phase is present but no overall porosity change caused by sc-CO2. It also suggests an increase in permeability

  12. Organic richness and organic matter quality studies of source rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrocarbon potential of the Upper Cretaceous units (Maastrichtian Mamu Formation) exposed at Imiegba and environs of the Benin Flank, Western Anambra Basin was assessed by Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis Analyses. The investigated sections of the Mamu Formation consist of dark grey to ...

  13. Unzen volcanic rocks as heat source of geothermal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masao; Sugiyama, Hiromi

    1987-03-25

    Only a few radiometric ages have been reported so far for the Unzen volcanic rocks. In this connection, in order to clarify the relation between volcanism and geothermal activity, fission track ages of zircon seperated from the Unzen volcanic rocks in western Kyushu have been dated. Since all the rocks are thought to be young, the external surface re-etch method was adopted. The results are that the age and standard error of the basal volcaniclastic rocks of the Tatsuishi formation are 0.28 +- 0.05 Ma and 0.25 +- 0.05 Ma. The next oldest Takadake lavas range from 0.26 to 0.20 Ma. The Kusenbudake lavas fall in a narrow range from 0.19 to 0.17 Ma. The latest Fugendake lavas are younger than 0.07 Ma.In conclusion, the most promising site for geothermal power generation is the Unzen hot spring field because of its very high temperature. After that, comes the Obama hot spring field because of the considerable high temperature chemically estimated. In addition, the northwestern area of the Unzen volcanic region will be promising for electric power generation in spite of no geothermal manifestations, since its volcanos are younger than 0.2 Ma. (14 figs, 14 tabs, 22 refs)

  14. Research on supplying potential of uranium source from rocks in western provenance area of Hailaer basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Liu Hanbin; Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing

    2006-01-01

    Using U-Pb isotope composition evolution, this paper expounds the initial uranium content in volcanic rocks of provenance area of Xihulitu basin and in granites of provenance area of Kelulun sag, western Hailaer basin. The initial uranium content (U 0 ) in volcanic rocks of provenance area is higher, the average initial uranium content of volcanic rocks is 10.061 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -49.57%; the average initial uranium content of granites is 18.381 x 10 -6 , the average uranium variation coefficient (ΔU) is -80%. The results indicate that rocks in provenance area could provide the pre-enrichment of uranium in deposited sandstone. U-Ra equilibrium coefficients of rocks indicate that there is obvious U-Ra disequilibrium phenomenon in volcanic rocks, and the time when granites provided uranium source occurred 16000 a ago. (authors)

  15. Angola: source rock control for Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza Basin petroleum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burwood, R. [Fina Exploration Ltd, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of petroleum occurrence and provenance for the 1000 km West African Atlantic Margin from Cabinda to mid-Angola. Over this margin the Lower Congo Coastal and Kwanza provinces cumulatively account for reserves of c. 6 gigabarrels oil recoverable (GBOR). These are dominantly reservoired in Pinda carbonate traps of the former basin. However, with production from a range of aggradational wedge, carbonate platform and pre-salt reservoirs, a diversity in oil character presupposes complex hydrocarbon habitats charged by multiple sourcing. Each of these two major Atlantic margin salt basins constitutes a different, source rock driven, hydrocarbon habitat. As classic passive margin pull-apart basins, Early Cretaceous initiated rift events (Pre-rift, Syn-rift I, II, etc.) evolved into the drift phase opening of the southern Atlantic. A striking feature of this progression was widespread evaporite deposition of the Aptian Loeme salt. This separates two distinct sedimentary and tectonic domains of the Pre- and Post-Salt. The core Lower Congo Coastal habitat is dominated by the Pre-Salt Bucomazi Formation sourced 'poly' petroleum system. These lacustrine, often super-rich, sediments reveal considerable organofacies variation between their basin fill (Syn-rift I) and sheet drape (Syn-rift II) development, accounting for the compositional diversity in their progenic petroleums. Of crucial impact is a cognate diversity in their kerogen kinetic behaviour. This controls the conditions and timing of generation and realization of charge potential. With the Lower Congo Coastal habitat extending southwards towards the Ambriz Spur, the Bucomazi facies proper appears restricted to the northern and deeper proto-lake trend. Over the more weakly subsident margins such troughs host inferior sheet drape potential. Elswhere, Upper Cretaceous-Palaeogene marine clastic Iabe Formation sourced petroleum systems are hydrocarbon productive

  16. Quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ure, A.M.; Bacon, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental details are given of the quantitative determination of minor and trace elements in rocks and soils by spark source mass spectrometry. The effects of interfering species, and corrections that can be applied, are discussed. (U.K.)

  17. Geochemistry of Eagle Ford group source rocks and oils from the first shot field area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Janell D.; Pitman, Janet K.; Hammes, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Total organic carbon, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, and vitrinite reflectance analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group core and cuttings samples from the First Shot field area, Texas demonstrate these samples have sufficient quantity, quality, and maturity of organic matter to have generated oil. Furthermore, gas chromatography and biomarker analyses performed on Eagle Ford Group oils and source rock extracts as well as weight percent sulfur analyses on the oils indicate the source rock facies for most of the oils are fairly similar. Specifically, these source rock facies vary in lithology from shales to marls, contain elevated levels of sulfur, and were deposited in a marine environment under anoxic conditions. It is these First Shot Eagle Ford source facies that have generated the oils in the First Shot Field. However, in contrast to the generally similar source rock facies and organic matter, maturity varies from early oil window to late oil window in the study area, and these maturity variations have a pronounced effect on both the source rock and oil characteristics. Finally, most of the oils appear to have been generated locally and have not experienced long distance migration. 

  18. The strata and palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of neoproterozoic and development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Referred to the new recognition from petroleum exploration of the Sinian to Cambrian in South China, it could be considered that the distribution of the early Cambrian source rocks was controlled by the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in the Tarim Basin. Based on the zircon U-Pb dating of pyroclastic rock samples from the clastic rock stratum under the bottom of Cambrian carbonate rocks, the stratigraphic correlation of the Sinian to Cambrian was conducted to build the palaeo-geomorphology framework at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin. Lastly, according to the development mode of source rocks at the beginning of Cambrian, the distribution of source rocks was predicted initially through the division of seismic facies. The youngest zircon concordia age of pyroclastic rocks from the bottom of well Tong 1 is 707±8Ma. It was revealed by the strata framework of the Sinian to Cambrian, the palaeo-geomorphology at the end of Neoproterozoic in Tarim Basin was characterized by an uplift highland in Bachu-Tazhong area, the south north high-low, and the west is higher than the east. The distribution of source rocks in the bottom of the Cambrian on the palaeo-platform and slopes was coincident with the Upper Sinian dolomite basically. But the contemporaneous sediment happened to be absent or changed in sedimentary facies on the uplift and its edges. From the seismic facies of the strata under the bottom of Cambrian, it could be concluded that source rocks in the type of the Xishanbraque Group (∈1xs was limited in the Manjiaer Depression, while the source rocks in the type of the Yuertusi Group (∈1y are widely distributed in south of Tabei Uplift, east Awat Depression, and even the Maigt Slope. However, among the west Awat Depression and western Tanguzibasi Depression, and the middle area of the Bachu-Tazhong Uplifts, the contemporaneous source rocks may have changed into sedimentary facies of tidal flat and lagoon, instead of

  19. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704 749, 0.705 062, 0.708 771, 0.704 840 and 0.720 301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORB and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORB magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  20. Sr, Nd isotope geochemistry of volcanic rock series and its geological significance in the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪伟; 陈志华; 杜德文; 吴金龙

    2000-01-01

    There exists extensive basic-acidic volcanic rock series in the middle section of the Okinawa Trough. Different types of these volcanic rocks have their own average strontium ratios of 0.704749, 0.705062, 0.708771, 0.704840 and 0.720301 with average 143Nd/144Nd ratios of 0.512 820, 0.512 673, 0.512 413, 0.512 729 and 0.512 034. These ratios of Sr and Nd isotopes all fall on a theoretic hyperbolic curve of mixing between two end-members of MORE and rhyolitic magma. So we infer that these different kinds of volcanic rocks in the middle Okinawa Trough are the erupted product in different stages of formation and evolution of the trough crust. MORE magma, which had suffered assimilation, mixed with the early-formed crust-derived rhyolitic partial melt mass at different ratios; then, these mixed magma erupted and formed volcanic rock types of the trough. This study indicates that the Okinawa Trough is coming into a stage of submarine spreading from the stage of continental rift.

  1. Geophysical monitoring as an information source of rock massif behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Bláha

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical measurements are an integral part of engineering-geological investigation where theypresent a wide range of useful information about the tested geological medium and about its geotechnicalqualities. Lately, repeated geophysical measurements in different time intervals have been used to judgethe changes occurring in the rock massif. These measurements bear the characteristics of total monitoring.This total monitoring contains series of repeated measurements and further an integrated spectrum of linkedactivities including evaluation, comparison with the warning state and making a decision about takingprecautions. From the range of geophysical methods and methodologies used for monitoring in full sensewe may mention, for example, continuous seismoacoustic measurements in mining constructions; (whichmay result even in recalling of the personnel, and further, also seismic measurements in the surroundingsof atomic power stations and measurements considering the protection against radioactive elements and their decay components.As a full monitoring we may also classify measurements in dumping sites with the aid of repeated geoelectrical measurements in the system of fixed electrodes under impermeable foils.These measurements are mostly carried out from time to time followed by taking immediate action when the foil is found damaged. In practice the term monitoring is used, although not very correctly, for all periodically repeated measurements, which do not result in taking action or interference, but supply a wide range of information about the rock massif behavior in time.

  2. Source rock contributions to the Lower Cretaceous heavy oil accumulations in Alberta: a basin modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, Luiyin Alejandro; di Primio, Rolando; Anka, Zahie; Horsfield, Brian; Higley, Debra K.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of the immense oil sand deposits in Lower Cretaceous reservoirs of the Western Canada sedimentary basin is still a matter of debate, specifically with respect to the original in-place volumes and contributing source rocks. In this study, the contributions from the main source rocks were addressed using a three-dimensional petroleum system model calibrated to well data. A sensitivity analysis of source rock definition was performed in the case of the two main contributors, which are the Lower Jurassic Gordondale Member of the Fernie Group and the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Exshaw Formation. This sensitivity analysis included variations of assigned total organic carbon and hydrogen index for both source intervals, and in the case of the Exshaw Formation, variations of thickness in areas beneath the Rocky Mountains were also considered. All of the modeled source rocks reached the early or main oil generation stages by 60 Ma, before the onset of the Laramide orogeny. Reconstructed oil accumulations were initially modest because of limited trapping efficiency. This was improved by defining lateral stratigraphic seals within the carrier system. An additional sealing effect by biodegraded oil may have hindered the migration of petroleum in the northern areas, but not to the east of Athabasca. In the latter case, the main trapping controls are dominantly stratigraphic and structural. Our model, based on available data, identifies the Gordondale source rock as the contributor of more than 54% of the oil in the Athabasca and Peace River accumulations, followed by minor amounts from Exshaw (15%) and other Devonian to Lower Jurassic source rocks. The proposed strong contribution of petroleum from the Exshaw Formation source rock to the Athabasca oil sands is only reproduced by assuming 25 m (82 ft) of mature Exshaw in the kitchen areas, with original total organic carbon of 9% or more.

  3. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation.

  4. Lower Cretaceous Source Rock and its Implication for the Gulf of Guinea Petroleum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.; Griffith, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Current petroleum system models for the Gulf of Guinea propose Tertiary-age deltaic organic material as the principal source for the hydrocarbons found there. Although previous workers recognized numerous difficulties and inconsistencies, no alternative model has been resented to adequately explain the complete petroleum system. We propose that the principal source rock for the Gulf of Guinea system occurs in upper lower Cretaceous-age shales at the rift-drift transition. Tertiary loading and the consequent maturation of this lower Cretaceous source rock can explain the controls on tap formation, reservoir distribution and hydrocarbon types found in the Gulf of Guinea

  5. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks ...

  6. The search for a source rock for the giant Tar Sand triangle accumulation, southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntoon, J.E.; Hansley, P.L.; Naeser, N.D.

    1999-01-01

    A large proportion (about 36%) of the world's oil resource is contained in accumulations of heavy oil or tar. In these large deposits of degraded oil, the oil in place represents only a fraction of what was present at the time of accumulation. In many of these deposits, the source of the oil is unknown, and the oil is thought to have migrated over long distances to the reservoirs. The Tar Sand triangle in southeastern Utah contains the largest tar sand accumulation in the United States, with 6.3 billion bbl of heavy oil estimated to be in place. The deposit is thought to have originally contained 13-16 billion bbl prior to the biodegradation, water washing, and erosion that have taken place since the middle - late Tertiary. The source of the oil is unknown. The tar is primarily contained within the Lower Permian White Rim Sandstone, but extends into permeable parts of overlying and underlying beds. Oil is interpreted to have migrated into the White Rim sometime during the Tertiary when the formation was at a depth of approximately 3500 m. This conclusion is based on integration of fluid inclusion analysis, time-temperature reconstruction, and apatite fission-track modeling for the White Rim Sandstone. Homogenization temperatures cluster around 85-90??C for primary fluid inclusions in authigenic, nonferroan dolomite in the White Rim. The fluid inclusions are associated with fluorescent oil-bearing inclusions, indicating that dolomite precipitation was coeval with oil migration. Burial reconstruction suggests that the White Rim Sandstone reached its maximum burial depth from 60 to 24 Ma, and that maximum burial was followed by unroofing from 24 to 0 Ma. Time-temperature modeling indicates that the formation experienced temperatures of 85-90??C from about 35 to 40 Ma during maximum burial. Maximum formation temperatures of about 105-110??C were reached at about 24 Ma, just prior to unroofing. Thermal modeling is used to examine the history of potential source rocks

  7. On the source material of magmas - with special reference to Nd isotopic ratios of igneous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuto, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    In 1973, the Sm-Nd method was first used for the measurement of the absolute age of igneous rocks and meteorites. Subsequently in the following years, the research works by means of the Nd isotopic ratio in igneous rocks have been made strenuously in order to reveal the chemistry of the source materials of magma giving rise to the igneous rocks and further the evolution process of mantle and earth's crust. The fundamental items for the Sm-Nd method are explained. Then, the research results more important in the above connection are given. Finally, the ideas by the author concerning the source materials of magma are presented from the data available on the Nd isotopes in meteorites and igneous rocks. The following matters are described: the fundamentals of Sm-Nd method, the Nd content in seawater, the negative correlation between Nd and Sr isotopic ratios in igneous rocks, magma source materials and Nd isotopes, and considerations on magma source materials. (J.P.N.)

  8. Origin of a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir wildcat & geochemical correlation to some Muglad source rocks, Muglad basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadul Abul Gebbayin, Omer. I. M.; Zhong, Ningning; Ali Ibrahim, Gulfan; Ali Alzain, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Source rock screening analysis was performed on four stratigraphic units from the Muglad basin namely; Abu Gabra, Zarqa, Ghazal, and Baraka formations using pyrolysis and Vitrinite Reflectance (Ro). Results, integrated with the chromatographic and isotopic data from these rocks extracts and a Tertiary oil from El Mahafir-1 wild cat, were used to determine the origin of the oil. A good organic source within the Middle Abu Gabra Formation is observed in wells El Toor-6 and Neem Deep-1 (TOC, 1.0-2.0% & S2 5.0-10.0 mg C/g rock), with mixed kerogens I, II, & III, and thermally mature (% Ro = 0.74-0.94). The Campanian-Early Maastrichtian sequence, i.e. Zarqa and Ghazal formations are generally poor (TOC, diversity, both in space and time and is characterized by dominant algal input at some areas and or stratigraphic intervals [Elevated tricyclics, higher C29/C30 hopanes (0.5-1.14), and relatively low Gammacerane indices (4.6-14.4)], while mixed with abundant terrigenous material at others. A direct correlation between El Mahafir oil and the Abu Gabra extracts is thus inferred based on: its mixed organic source nature, oxic to sub-oxic depositional environment (Pr/Ph 1.22), relatively low C29/C30 hopanes (0.54), low C28 steranes (29%), and a high gammacerane index (20.5). This is largely supported by the maturity modeling results which suggest generation is only from the Abu Gabra at this location.

  9. Evaluation of the quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks in the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality, thermal maturity and distribution of potential source rocks within the Palaeozoic–Mesozoic succession of the Danish part of the Norwegian–Danish Basin have been evaluated on the basis of screening data from over 4000 samples from the pre-Upper Cretaceous succession in 33 wells. The Lower Palaeozoic in the basin is overmature and the Upper Cretaceous – Cenozoic strata have no petroleum generation potential, but the Toarcian marine shales of the Lower Jurassic Fjerritslev Formation (F-III, F-IV members and the uppermost Jurassic – lowermost Cretaceous shales of the Frederikshavn Formation may qualify as potential source rocks in parts of the basin. Neither of these potential source rocks has a basinwide distribution; the present occurrence of the Lower Jurassic shales was primarily determined by regional early Middle Jurassic uplift and erosion. The generation potential of these source rocks is highly variable. The F-III and F-IV members show significant lateral changes in generation capacity, the best-developed source rocks occurring in the basin centre. The combined F-III andF-IV members in the Haldager-1, Kvols-1 and Rønde-1 wells contain ‘net source-rock’ thicknesses (cumulative thickness of intervals with Hydrogen Index (HI >200 mg HC/g TOC of 40 m, 83 m, and 92 m, respectively, displaying average HI values of 294, 369 and 404 mg HC/g TOC. The Mors-1 well contains 123 m of ‘net source rock’ with an average HI of 221 mg HC/g TOC. Parts of the Frederikshavn Formation possess a petroleum generation potential in the Hyllebjerg-1, Skagen-2, Voldum-1 and Terne-1 wells, the latter well containing a c.160 m thick highly oil-prone interval with an average HI of 478 mg HC/g TOC and maximum HI values >500 mg HC/g TOC. The source-rock evaluation suggests that a Mesozoic petroleum system is the most likely in the study area. Two primary plays are possible: (1 the Upper Triassic – lowermost Jurassic Gassum play, and (2the

  10. A simple source preparation method for alpha-ray spectrometry of volcanic rock sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaomi; Kurihara, Yuichi; Sato, Jun

    2006-01-01

    A simple source preparation method was developed for the alpha-ray spectrometry to determine U and Th in volcanic rockes. Isolation of U and Th from volcanic rocks was made by use of UTEVA-Spec. resin, extraction chromatograph material. U and Th were extracted by TTA-benzene solution and organic phase was evaporated drop by drop on a hot stainless steel planchet to dryness. This method was found to be effective for the preparation of sources for alpha-ray spectrometry. (author)

  11. Geochemistry of crude oils, seepage oils and source rocks from Belize and Guatemala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, H.I.; Holland, B.; Nytoft, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    This study reviews the stratigraphy and the poorly documented petroleum geology of the Belize-Guatemala area in northern Central America. Guatemala is divided by the east-west trending La Libertad arch into the North and South Petén Basins. The arch is the westward continuation of the Maya...... generated from source rocks with similar thermal maturities. The crude oils were generated from marine carbonate source rocks and could be divided into three groups: Group 1 oils come from the North Petén Basin (Guatemala) and the western part of the Corozal Basin (Belize), and have a typical carbonate...

  12. Reexamination of the source material of acid igneous rocks, based on the selected Sr isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Shuto, Kenji; Gorai, Masao

    1975-01-01

    The relation between the ages and the initial strontium isotopic compositions obtained from acid igneous rocks by the whole-rock isochron method is re-examined, on the basis of the selected data. The points based on the data having high values of standard deviation (on the isochrons) show considerable scattering. This is probably ascribed to admixture of sialic materials, or secondary alteration and other geologic causes. The points based on the data having lower values of standard deviation (sigma value: 0.0001 - 0.0019), on the other hand, are evidently plotted within a narrow region just above the presumed Sr evolutional region of the source material of oceanic tholeiites. It is noteworthy that the former region meets the latter region at an earlier stage of the evolutional history of the earth (about 40 x 10 8 yrs. ago or older). It may be conceivable that the former region is the Sr evolutional region of the source material of acid igneous rocks. Considering from the inclination of the above Sr evolutional region, the source material of most of acid igneous rocks may possibly be a certain basic material, chemically similar to the continental tholeiitic basalts or basaltic andesites. On the other hand, the source material of a few acid igneous rocks with low initial strontium isotopic ratios may be a certain basic material resembling the oceanic tholeiites. Another possibility is that these acid igneous rocks and oceanic tholeiites may have been formed, under different physical conditions, directly from a certain common source material presumably of peridotitic composition. (auth.)

  13. Interpretation of Oil Seepage of Source Rock Based Magnetic Survey in Cipari Cilacap District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic survey had been conducted in Village of Cipari, District of Cipari, Region of  Cilacap to interpret to the location of the oil seepage source rock. Boundary of the research area is 108.75675°E – 108.77611°E and 7.42319°S – 7.43761°S. The observed total magnetic data is corrected and reducted to obtain the local magnetic anomaly data. The local magnetic anomaly data is applied to model the subsurface bodies anomalies based on the Mag2DC for Windows software. With be supported the geological information, the some bodies anomalies are interpreted as the basaltic igneous rock (c = 0.0051, the alternately of sandstone and claystone and insert of marl from Halang Formation (c = 0.0014, the breccia from Kumbang Formation (c = 0.0035, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0036, the claystone from Tapak Formation (c = 0.0015, the alternately of sandstones and claystone with insert of marl and compacted breccia from Halang Formation (c = 0.0030, and the alternately of sandstone and claystone from   Halang Formation (c = 0.0020. The plantonic foraminifer fossils as resources of oil seepage are estimated in the sedimentaries rocks, where the oil flows from those rocks into the         reservoir (source rock. Based on the interpretation results, the source rock is above basaltic igneous rock with the approximate position is 108.76164°W and 7.43089°S; and the depth is 132.09 meters below the average topographic.

  14. Restoration of Circum-Arctic Upper Jurassic source rock paleolatitude based on crude oil geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, K.E.; Ramos, L.S.; Zumberge, J.E.; Valin, Z.C.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Tectonic geochemical paleolatitude (TGP) models were developed to predict the paleolatitude of petroleum source rock from the geochemical composition of crude oil. The results validate studies designed to reconstruct ancient source rock depositional environments using oil chemistry and tectonic reconstruction of paleogeography from coordinates of the present day collection site. TGP models can also be used to corroborate tectonic paleolatitude in cases where the predicted paleogeography conflicts with the depositional setting predicted by the oil chemistry, or to predict paleolatitude when the present day collection locality is far removed from the source rock, as might occur due to long distance subsurface migration or transport of tarballs by ocean currents. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were measured for 496 crude oil samples inferred to originate from Upper Jurassic source rock in West Siberia, the North Sea and offshore Labrador. First, a unique, multi-tiered chemometric (multivariate statistics) decision tree was used to classify these samples into seven oil families and infer the type of organic matter, lithology and depositional environment of each organofacies of source rock [Peters, K.E., Ramos, L.S., Zumberge, J.E., Valin, Z.C., Scotese, C.R., Gautier, D.L., 2007. Circum-Arctic petroleum systems identified using decision-tree chemometrics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 91, 877-913]. Second, present day geographic locations for each sample were used to restore the tectonic paleolatitude of the source rock during Late Jurassic time (???150 Ma). Third, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to construct linear TGP models that relate tectonic and geochemical paleolatitude, where the latter is based on 19 source-related biomarker and isotope ratios for each oil family. The TGP models were calibrated using 70% of the samples in each family and the remaining 30% of samples were used for model validation. Positive

  15. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  16. Organic maturation levels, thermal history and hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Namurian rocks of the Clare Basin, Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodhue, Robbie; Clayton, Geoffrey [Trinity Coll., Dept. of Geology, Dublin (Ireland)

    1999-11-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from two inland cored boreholes confirm high maturation levels throughout the onshore part of the Irish Clare Basin and suggest erosion of 2 to 4 km of late Carboniferous cover and elevated palaeogeothermal gradients in the Carboniferous section. The observed maturation gradients are fully consistent with the published hypothesis of a late Carboniferous/Permian 'superplume' beneath Pangaea but local vertical reversals in gradients also suggest a complex thermal regime probably involving advective heating. The uppermost Visean--lower Namurian Clare Shale is laterally extensive and up to 300 m thick. Although this unit is post-mature, TOC values of up to 15% suggest that it could have considerable hydrocarbon source rock potential in any less mature offshore parts of the basin. (Author)

  17. Plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange, central Japan: Fragments of middle to lower crust of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Yuji; Ito, Hisatoshi; Hokanishi, Natsumi; Tamura, Akihiro; Arai, Shoji

    2017-06-01

    A Paleogene accretionary complex, the Mineoka-Setogawa Belt, is distributed around the Izu Collision Zone, central Japan. Plutonic rocks of gabbro, diorite and tonalite compositions are included as fragments and dykes in an ophiolitic mélange in this belt. Zircon U-Pb dating of the plutonic rocks indicates that they were formed at ca. 35 Ma simultaneously. These ages are consistent with Eocene-Oligocene tholeiite and calc-alkaline arc magmatism in the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) Arc and exclude several previous models for the origin of the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic rocks. The geochemical characteristics of these plutonic rocks are similar to those of the Eocene-Oligocene IBM tholeiite and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks as well as to the accreted middle crust of the IBM Arc, the Tanzawa Plutonic Complex. Moreover, their lithology is consistent with those of the middle and lower crust of the IBM Arc estimated from the seismic velocity structure. These lines of evidence strongly indicate that the plutonic rocks in the Mineoka-Setogawa ophiolitic mélange are fragments of the middle to lower crust of the IBM Arc. Additionally, the presence of the Mineoka-Setogawa intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks supports the hypothesis that intermediate magma can form continental crust in intra-oceanic arcs.

  18. Source rock potential of the organic rich Turonian - Upper Campanian carbonates of northern Lebanon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daher, S. Bou; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Nader, F.H. [IFP Energies nouvelles, Paris (France). Dept. of Sedimentology-Stratigraphy

    2013-08-01

    Upper Cretaceous chalks, marls, and shales are arguably the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the eastern Mediterranean region. 209 core samples from the Turonian - Upper Campanian rock succession in north Lebanon were collected and analyzed for their organic matter (OM) content, quality, and maturity. The total organic carbon (TOC) measurements revealed a very good source rock potential for a 150 m interval within the Upper Santonian - Upper Campanian, with an average of 2% TOC. High HI values (average 707 mg/g TOC) characterize these source rocks as type I kerogen and reflect a very good preservation of the organic matter. T{sub max} values (average 421 C) match the other maturity parameters such as vitrinite reflectance (average 0.35%), and all point towards immature organic matter. The equivalent Upper Cretaceous in the offshore Levant basin has enough overburden to have reached maturity. However, the accurate extrapolation of the organic matter quality and quantity to the offshore is yet a challenge with the data at hand. (orig.)

  19. Organic geochemical characterization of terrestrial source rocks of the Triassic Madygen formation (Southern Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Scheeder, G.; Kus, J. [Section Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, BGR, Hannover (Germany); Voigt, S.; Schneider, J.W. [Geological Inst., TU Bergakademic Freiberg (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Along the northern foothills of the Turkestan-Alai Range (SW Kyrgyzstan), a 1000 to 1500m thick succession of Mesozoic deposits is exposed recording regional changes of the paleo-landscape during Triassic to Cretaceous times. Detailed litho- and biofacies analyses, conducted by the TU Bergakademie Freiberg since 2006, provided for the first time a nearly complete columnar section of the continental Triassic Madygen Formation of Kyrgyzstan. Organic petrographical and organic geochemical methods (including RockEval pyrolyses, and biomarker analyses) have been applied to a suite of terrestrial sedimentary rocks of Triassic age with the intention to identify the depositional environment. Our investigations suggest that the potential source rocks of the terrestrial pluvial Madygen Formation might generate predominantly gaseous hydrocarbons at higher maturities. (orig.)

  20. Litho stratigraphy of precambrian rocks in middle Xingu river basin -Altamira, Para state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.V. dos; Sousa Filho, E.E. dos; Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The basement rocks from the Xingu river is divided into five litho stratigraphic units. They are broadly characterized by domains of ortho and para gneisses, volcano-sedimentary sequences, migmatites and by syntectonic and latetectonic granitoids. In addition acid to intermediate volcanics (Iriri formation) and several sub-volcanic granitic plutons (Maloquinha suite) also occur within the investigated area, as well as basic intrusions and minor arenous sediments covers, slightly metamorphosed. Geochronological studies carried out on the basement rocks and on the volcanics demonstrates an geologic evolution restricted to the trans Amazonian cycle (2.1 - 1.9 Ga). Sr isotopic evolution (high initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios) suggest that strong reworking of crustal material occurred at this time, in association with the tectonic evolution of the Maroni-Itacaiunas mobile belt related to the lower proterozoic, which borders the northern and northerneast part of the Archean central Amazonian province. (author)

  1. Learning the Language of Earth Science: Middle School Students' Explorations of Rocks and Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid-Griffin, Angelia

    2016-01-01

    The approaches and interpretations of a class of 6th graders and a class of 8th graders in a U.S. middle school asked to engage in tasks that involved using observations to describe and classify samples is the subject of this paper. Overall 8th graders were better able to perform the tasks, suggesting a developmental advantage aspect. However, the…

  2. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  3. Effects of Host-rock Fracturing on Elastic-deformation Source Models of Volcano Deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Sudhaus, Henriette; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Walsh, John J

    2017-09-08

    Volcanoes commonly inflate or deflate during episodes of unrest or eruption. Continuum mechanics models that assume linear elastic deformation of the Earth's crust are routinely used to invert the observed ground motions. The source(s) of deformation in such models are generally interpreted in terms of magma bodies or pathways, and thus form a basis for hazard assessment and mitigation. Using discontinuum mechanics models, we show how host-rock fracturing (i.e. non-elastic deformation) during drainage of a magma body can progressively change the shape and depth of an elastic-deformation source. We argue that this effect explains the marked spatio-temporal changes in source model attributes inferred for the March-April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion. We find that pronounced deflation-related host-rock fracturing can: (1) yield inclined source model geometries for a horizontal magma body; (2) cause significant upward migration of an elastic-deformation source, leading to underestimation of the true magma body depth and potentially to a misinterpretation of ascending magma; and (3) at least partly explain underestimation by elastic-deformation sources of changes in sub-surface magma volume.

  4. Characterizing the hypersiliceous rocks of Belgium used in (pre-)history: a case study on sourcing sedimentary quartzites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldeman, Isis; Baele, Jean-Marc; De Doncker, H W J A; Goemaere, Eric; Deceukelaire, Marleen; Dusar, Michiel

    2012-01-01

    Tracking raw material back to its extraction source is a crucial step for archaeologists when trying to deduce migration patterns and trade contacts in (pre-)history. Regarding stone artefacts, the main rock types encountered in the archaeological record of Belgium are hypersiliceous rocks. This is a newly introduced category of rock types comprising those rocks made of at least 90% silica. These are strongly silicified quartz sands or sedimentary quartzites, siliceous rocks of chemical and biochemical origin (e.g. flint), very pure metamorphic quartzites and siliceous volcanic rocks (e.g. obsidian). To be able to distinguish between different extraction sources, ongoing research was started to locate possible extraction sources of hypersiliceous rocks and to characterize rocks collected from these sources. Characterization of these hypersiliceous rocks is executed with the aid of optical polarizing microscopy, optical cold cathodoluminescence and scanning-electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry and with back-scatter electron imaging. In this paper, we focus on various sedimentary quartzites of Paleogene stratigraphical level. (paper)

  5. Crustal contamination versus an enriched mantle source for intracontinental mafic rocks: Insights from early Paleozoic mafic rocks of the South China Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjing; Xu, Xisheng; Zeng, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Several recent studies have documented that the silicic rocks (SiO2 > 65 wt.%) comprising Silicic Large Igneous Provinces are derived from partial melting of the crust facilitated by underplating/intraplating of "hidden" large igneous province-scale basaltic magmas. The early Paleozoic intracontinental magmatic rocks in the South China Block (SCB) are dominantly granitoids, which cover a combined area of 22,000 km2. In contrast, exposures of mafic rocks total only 45 km2. These mafic rocks have extremely heterogeneous isotopic signatures that range from depleted to enriched (whole rock initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7041-0.7102; εNd(t) = - 8.4 to + 1.8; weighted mean zircon εHf(t) = - 7.4 to + 5.2), show low Ce/Pb and Nb/U ratios (0.59-13.1 and 3.5-20.9, respectively), and variable Th/La ratios (0.11-0.51). The high-MgO mafic rocks (MgO > 10 wt.%) tend to have lower εNd(t) values (- 4) and Sm/Nd ratios (> 0.255). The differences in geochemistry between the high-MgO and low-MgO mafic rocks indicate greater modification of the compositions of high-MgO mafic magmas by crustal material. In addition, generally good negative correlations between εNd(t) and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, MgO, and K2O, along with the presence of inherited zircons in some plutons, indicate that the geochemical and isotopic compositions of the mafic rocks reflect significant crustal contamination, rather than an enriched mantle source. The results show that high-MgO mafic rocks with fertile isotopic compositions may be indicative of crustal contamination in addition to an enriched mantle source, and it is more likely that the lithospheric mantle beneath the SCB during the early Paleozoic was moderately depleted than enriched by ancient subduction processes.

  6. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlua, A., E-mail: geochemresearch@yahoo.com [Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C. [Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstr, 5, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-04-08

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  7. Microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlua, A.; Jochmann, M.A.; Laaks, J.; Ewert, A.; Schmidt, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and kinetic rates have significant effects on extraction yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock was 105 deg. C. The optimum extraction time for the aliphatic hydrocarbons was at 50 min. Concentration of the nonionic surfactant solution and irradiation power had significant effect on the yields of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The yields of the analytes were much higher using microwave assisted nonionic surfactant extraction than with Soxhlet extraction. The recoveries of the n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoid hydrocarbons for GC-MS analysis from the extractant nonionic surfactant solution by in-tube extraction (ITEX 2) with a TENAX TA adsorbent were found to be efficient. The results show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction (MANSE) is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock.

  8. Factors controlling leaching of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum source rock using nonionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinlua, Akinsehinwa [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Fossil Fuels and Environmental Geochemistry Group; Jochmann, Maik A.; Qian, Yuan; Schmidt, Torsten C. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Instrumental Analytical Chemistry; Sulkowski, Martin [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Inst. of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

    2012-03-15

    The extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from petroleum source rock by nonionic surfactants with the assistance of microwave irradiation was investigated and the conditions for maximum yield were determined. The results showed that the extraction temperatures and type of surfactant have significant effects on extraction yields of PAHs. Factors such as surfactant concentration, irradiation power, sample/solvent ratio and mixing surfactants (i.e., mixture of surfactant at specific ratio) also influence the extraction efficiencies for these compounds. The optimum temperature for microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction of PAHs from petroleum source rock was 120 C and the best suited surfactant was Brij 35. The new method showed extraction efficiencies comparable to those afforded by the Soxhlet extraction method, but a reduction of the extraction times and environmentally friendliness of the new nonionic surfactant extraction system are clear advantages. The results also show that microwave-assisted nonionic surfactant extraction is a good and efficient green analytical preparatory technique for geochemical evaluation of petroleum source rock. (orig.)

  9. Hydrocarbon Source Rock Potential of the Sinamar Formation, Muara Bungo, Jambi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Heri Hermiyanto Zajuli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.175The Oligocene Sinamar Formation consists of shale, claystone, mudstone, sandstone, conglomeratic sandstone, and intercalation of coal seams. The objective of study was to identify the hydrocarbon source rock potential of the Sinamar Formation based on geochemichal characteristics. The analyses were focused on fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation comprising shale, claystone, and mudstone. Primary data collected from the Sinamar Formation well and outcrops were analyzed according to TOC, pyrolisis analysis, and gas chromatography - mass spectometry of normal alkanes that include isoprenoids and sterane. The TOC value indicates a very well category. Based on TOC versus Pyrolysis Yields (PY diagram, the shales of Sinamar Formation are included into oil prone source rock potential with good to excellent categories. Fine sediments of the Sinamar Formation tend to produce oil and gas originated from kerogen types I and III. The shales tend to generate oil than claystone and mudstone and therefore they are included into a potential source rock

  10. Source rock evaluation and organic geochemistry of Belayim Marine Oil Field, Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Abu Al-Atta

    2014-09-01

    In general, TOC analyses showed that the Nubia-A and B formation sediments are fairly immature compared to good source rocks with very high Hydrogen Index indicative of kerogen type II. The geochemical investigations of two oil samples indicate that the Upper Rudeis oil of Belayim Marine was derived from a marine carbonate rich source, which is relatively rich in algal organic matter and has moderate sulfur content. The maturity of the analyzed oils (about 0.75% R0 falls short from the stage of peak hydrocarbon generation which is known to be reached at about 0.85% R0.

  11. Domestic energy sources urged as Middle East situation heats up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses the alternatives to foreign oil as an energy source for the US in the light of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq. Topics addressed include the responses of organizations representing various energy sources, the public response of the Department of Energy, the response of conservation advocates, and the Administration's reaction

  12. Osmium Isotopic Evolution of the Mantle Sources of Precambrian Ultramafic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, A.; Walker, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Os isotopic composition of the modern mantle, as recorded collectively by ocean island basalts, mid- oceanic ridge basalts (MORB) and abyssal peridotites, is evidently highly heterogeneous (γ Os(I) ranging from +25). One important question, therefore, is how and when the Earth's mantle developed such large-scale Os isotopic heterogeneities. Previous Os isotopic studies of ancient ultramafic systems, including komatiites and picrites, have shown that the Os isotopic heterogeneity of the terrestrial mantle can be traced as far back as the late-Archean (~ 2.7-2.8 Ga). This observation is based on the initial Os isotopic ratios obtained for the mantle sources of some of the ancient ultramafic rocks determined through analyses of numerous Os-rich whole-rock and/or mineral samples. In some cases, the closed-system behavior of these ancient ultramafic rocks was demonstrated via the generation of isochrons of precise ages, consistent with those obtained from other radiogenic isotopic systems. Thus, a compilation of the published initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios reported for the mantle sources of komatiitic and picritic rocks is now possible that covers a large range of geologic time spanning from the Mesozoic (ca. 89 Ma Gorgona komatiites) to the Mid-Archean (e.g., ca. 3.3 Ga Commondale komatiites), which provides a comprehensive picture of the Os isotopic evolution of their mantle sources through geologic time. Several Precambrian komatiite/picrite systems are characterized by suprachondritic initial ^{187}Os/^{188}Os ratios (e.g., Belingwe, Kostomuksha, Pechenga). Such long-term enrichments in ^{187}Os of the mantle sources for these rocks may be explained via recycling of old mafic oceanic crust or incorporation of putative suprachondritic outer core materials entrained into their mantle sources. The relative importance of the two processes for some modern mantle-derived systems (e.g., Hawaiian picrites) is an issue of substantial debate. Importantly, however, the

  13. Middle School Students' Science Self-Efficacy and Its Sources: Examination of Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and…

  14. Sources of Writing Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Elementary, Middle, and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajares, Frank; Johnson, Margaret J.; Usher, Ellen L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of Albert Bandura's four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy on students' writing self-efficacy beliefs (N = 1256) and to explore how these sources differ as a function of gender and academic level (elementary, middle, high). Consistent with the tenets of self-efficacy theory, each of the…

  15. Climate modeling - a tool for the assessment of the paleodistribution of source and reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, M.; Schneider, J.W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Referat Organische Geochemie/Kohlenwasserstoff-Forschung

    2008-10-23

    In an on-going project of BGR and TU Bergakademie Freiberg, numeric paleo-climate modeling is used as a tool for the assessment of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits as well as of reservoir rocks. This modeling approach is based on new ideas concerning the formation of the Pangea supercontinent. The new plate tectonic concept is supported by paleo- magnetic data as it fits the 95% confidence interval of published data. Six Permocarboniferous time slices (340, 320, 300, 290, 270, 255 Ma) were chosen within a first paleo-climate modeling approach as they represent the most important changes of the Late Paleozoic climate development. The digital maps have a resolution of 2.8 x 2.8 (T42), suitable for high-resolution climate modeling, using the PLASIM model. CO{sub 2} concentrations of the paleo-atmosphere and paleo-insolation values have been estimated by published methods. For the purpose of validation, quantitative model output, had to be transformed into qualitative parameters in order to be able to compare digital data with qualitative data of geologic indicators. The model output of surface temperatures and precipitation was therefore converted into climate zones. The reconstructed occurrences of geological indicators like aeolian sands, evaporites, reefs, coals, oil source rocks, tillites, phosphorites and cherts were then compared to the computed paleo-climate zones. Examples of the Permian Pangea show a very good agreement between model results and geological indicators. From the modeling approach we are able to identify climatic processes which lead to the deposition of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. The regional assessment of such atmospheric processes may be used for the identification of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits or rock types suitable to form hydrocarbon reservoirs. (orig.)

  16. Discovery and basic characteristics of high-quality source rocks found in the Yuertusi Formation of the Cambrian in Tarim Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Paleozoic strata of the Tarim Basin have abundant resources of marine oil and gas. In the Tahe area, Halahatang area, and Tazhong area of the basin, many large-scale oilfields have been found. These oilfields have a confirmed oil and gas reserves worth more than 2.5 billion tons and have completed the annual output of more than 14 million tons of marine oil and gas equivalent. The belief that the only main hydrocarbon source rocks are of the Cambrian or Ordovician is still controversial. Chemists have made significant progress and have effectively lead the oil and gas exploration in Tarim Basin. Due to the complexity of the basin and the limitation of samples, the research work, and fine contrast is restricted. In this article, we investigated the Cambrian strata outcrop of Tarim Basin in detail. By analyzing a lot of outcrops, high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks of Yuertusi Formation have been found in more than 10 outcrop points in Aksu region. The source rocks' lithology is black shale with total organic carbon (TOC content that ranges between 2% and 16%. Total organic carbon (TOC of the black shale layer could be as much as 4%–16%, especially in the outcrops of the Yutixi and Shiairike. This by far is the best marine hydrocarbon source rock that was found in China. The source rocks were distributed consistently in the Aksu region, the thickness of which is about 10–15 m. It was formed in a sedimentary environment of a middle gentle slope to a low gentle slope. Organic matter enrichment is controlled by the upwelling currents. The thick strata of dolostone that developed in the Xiaoerblak Formation are considered to be good reservoirs of the beach and microbial reef in the upper strata of Yuertusi Formation. No hydrocarbon source rocks have been found in the outcrop of Xiaoerblak Formation. The thick strata of gyprock and mudstone development are a set of satisfactory cap layer in the Lower Cambrian. This hydrocarbon

  17. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamrakar Naresh Kazi; Shresth Madhusudan Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  18. Organic geochemical characterization of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the upper Benue Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Pearson, M. J.; Suh, C. E.; Dada, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria is the northeastern most portion of the Benue rift structure that extends from the northern limit of the Niger Delta in the south to the southern limit of the Chad basin int he northeast. this portion of the trough is made up of two arms: the Gongola Arm and the Yola Arm. Stratigraphic sequence in the Gongola Arm comprises the continental Albian Bima Sandstone, the transitional Cenomanian Yolde Formation and the marine Turonian - Santonian Gongila, Pindiga, and Fika Formations. Overlying these are the continental Campane - Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone and the Tertiary Kerri - Kerri Formation. In the Yola Arm, the Turonian - Santonian sequence is replaced by the equally marine Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye Formations, Numanha Shale, and the Lamja Sandstone. Organic geochemical studies have been carried on outcrop sample form the Gongila, Pindiga, Dukul Formations, the Fika shale and the shaly units of the Gombe Sandstone, with the aim of assessing their source rock potential. Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (C - MS), and Rock Eval Pyrolysis were the major organic geochemical tools employed. Biomaker hydrocarbon signatures obtained from the GC - MS and the Rock Eval Pyrolysis results indicate that all he formations studied, except the Dukul formation, are immature and are all lean in organic matter

  19. Petrology and geochronology of metamorphosed volcanic rocks and a middle Cretaceous volcanic neck in the east-central Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, R.W.; Swanson, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Metamorphosed Mesozoic volcanic rocks from the E-central Sierra Nevada range in composition from basalt to rhyolite and have ages, based on whole rock Rb-Sr and U-Pb zircon dating, of about 237- 224, 185, 163, 134, and 100Ma. The major plutons of the batholith in this area are of Triassic (215-200Ma) and Cretaceous (94-80Ma) ages. Initial 87Sr/86Sr values for the metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the area are in the range from 0.7042 to 0.7058 and are generally different from the values for the surrounding batholithic rocks (0.7056-0.7066). A circular, zoned granitic pluton, with an outcrop area of 2.5km2, similar in appearance to a ring dike complex, was apparently a conduit for some or possibly all of the middle-Cretaceous metamorphosed volcanic rocks exposed about 5km to the S in the western part of the Ritter Range. Samples from the metamorphosed volcanic rocks and the pluton yield a Rb/Sr whole rock isochron age of 99.9+ or -2.2Ma with an intitial 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7048+ or -0.00001. Major element variation diagrams of the pluton and volcanic rocks define coincident compositional trends. The ages of volcanic events relative to the ages of the major intrusive epochs and the major element and isotopic compositions of the volcanic rocks relative to the major plutons indicate that the volcanic rocks are not simply or directly related to the major plutons in the Sierra Nevada. -from Authors

  20. Correlation of the Canol Formation source rock with oil from Norman Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, L.R.; Brooks, P.W.; Williams, G.K.; Goodarzi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The source of the oil at Norman Wells has long been assumed to have been the Canol Formation and/or the Bluefish Member of the Hare Indian Formation. These two units are stratigraphically above and below the Kee Scarp Formation reservoir unit respectively, and are both bituminous shales. A wide range of analytical techniques including Rock-Eval pyrolysis, solvent extraction and fractionation, capillary gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and white light and fluorescence microscopy has been used to characterize core samples of these two units and two samples of crude oil from the Norman Wells field. Most of the analytical techniques were insufficiently refined to either differentiate the extracts from each other or to make a definitive oil/source rock correlation. Collision activated decomposition coupled with multiple ion detection mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS) did provide sufficient chemical compositional detail of the oils and the two potential sources to demonstrate that the Canol Formation has been the effective source of the Normal Wells oil whereas the Bluefish Member has not. The level of thermal maturity of the core samples ranges from immature to moderately mature in the vicinity of the Norman Wells field to overmature for the samples obtained to the west and north of the field. The level of thermal maturity of the oil was observed to be somewhat higher than that of the samples of the source formation directly above the field. It was thus inferred that some lateral migration from more mature areas has occurred but the extent of this migration was not necessarily more than a few to tens of kilometers.

  1. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  2. Phosphate Rocks: Sustainable Secondary Source for Uranium and their Agricultural Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, P.C.; Harris, A.H.; Winston, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    -water systems. The potential resultant impact of this on plant life systems is and will continue to be subject to continuing research. In view of the environmental consequences of continued reliance on fossil fuels, the shift to the extensive development of nuclear power seems inevitable. Given the current national and international conditions, it's necessary to carefully examine the political and economic ramifications of such a shift. Competing alternatives of wind (cost and reliability), solar (cost and size), and hydro (at near capacity) will not even begin to substitute for the current fossil fuel usage (oil, coal, gas, tar sands, etc.). The only realistic source of utilizable energy, now and in the future, will have to be nuclear. The secondary extraction of uranium has long been a tantalizing prospect for developing a sustainable source of the metal. A number of phosphate rich nations have reassessed the prospect of such a development in Asia (e.g., China) North Africa, (e.g., Egypt) and the Middle East (Syria, Jordan). The development of a secondary industry involving extraction of uranium from phosphorite ores has a history of prior development in the United States with eight production plants in Florida and Louisiana. However as a result of a drop in the price of uranium (yellow cake), these plants were forced to close. If the sustainability of a uranium fuel supply is found to be a significant factor, the secondary recovery of uranium from phosphate processing provides a potential continuing source of the metal. The waste streams that result from the processes adapted for the secondary extraction of uranium from phosphate fertilizers also will require evaluation. This does not erase the potential and threatening political consequences involved in the potential illegal accumulation of available metal for clandestine and/or rogue military purposes. The primary sulfuric acid extraction process of phosphate rocks results in the accumulation of phosphogypsum. For every

  3. Geochemical investigation of petroleum source rocks by using Rock- Eval data in the Agha-Jari oilfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad khani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 40 drilling cutting of the Pabdeh, Gurpi, kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations from the Agha-Jari Oilfield were analyzed by using Rock-Eval pyrolysis. In order to recognizing sedimentary environmental conditions of studied Formations, they are divided to 4 zones which A (Kazhdumi Formation#187 and C (Kazhdumi Formation#140 zones show reduction conditions by presence of sea organic materials and B (Gadvan Formation #140 and D(Gadvan Formation#187 zones show oxidation conditions by presence of continental organic materials to basin. Based on the Rock-Eval pyrolysis data, the Pabeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations have variable hydrocarbon generative potential. HI vs. OI plot revealed that the kerogen type in this Formations is a mixed of types II & III. The intensity of matrix effect in the Pabdeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations was compared by using S2 vs. TOC plot and calculating its regression equation. The results show that the significant amount of S2 adsorption by matrix was happened in the Pabdeh (4.98-6.96 mg HC/gr rock in wells 113 and 121 and Gurpi Formations ‌(4.33 mg HC/gr rock in well 113 which is due to their low thermal maturity‌(Tmax

  4. Development of uniform hazard response spectra for rock sites considering line and point sources of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2001-12-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by normalised response spectral shapes and peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) used to computed for PGA only. It is shown that the MRI associated with such response spectra are not the same at all frequencies. The present work develops uniform hazard response spectra i.e. spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies for line and point sources of earthquakes by using a large number of strong motion accelerograms recorded on rock sites. Sensitivity of the number of the results to the changes in various parameters has also been presented. This work is an extension of an earlier work for aerial sources of earthquakes. These results will help to determine the seismic hazard at a given site and the associated uncertainities. (author)

  5. Organic compositions of lacustrine source rocks in Jiyang super-depression and its implication to petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The compositions of organic matter in four immature source rocks from Tertiary strata of Jiyang super-depression, the most typical continental rift subsidence basin in East China, have been studied by different extracting methods with CHCl3, MAC and CS2/NMP, respectively. The results suggest that there are great differences among the chemical compositions of organic matter in the source rocks derived from different depositional environments. About 79% of all the organic matter exists by non- covalent bond in the Es4 source rocks which were deposited under the saline lacustrine, indicating that its organic matter is not the real kerogen, but mainly composed of soluble organic matter which is easy to generate hydrocarbon at lower temperature. This is why the immature oils were derived from Es4 source rocks in Dongying depression. In contrast, around 60% of organic matter exists by covalent bond in Es3 source rocks which were deposited under the deep brackish-fresh lacustrine, showing that Es3 source rocks are mainly composed of kerogen producing mature hydrocarbon at higher temperature. The thermal simulation experiments, upon the remaining solid source rocks which were sequentially extracted by the three solvents, have been carried out. The chloroform extracts from the simulation product have been compared with the other three solvent extracts gained at room temperature. It is obvious that remarkable odd/even predominance (OEP) is mainly the characteristic of soluble organic matter; phytane mostly exists in the soluble organic matter by means of non-covalent bonds and characteristics of soluble organic matter are similar to these in immature oils produced in Jiyang super-depression.

  6. Source rock identification of sediments using trace element ratios and 13C isotope data - a case study from Pondicherry region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirumalesh, K.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Singh, Gursharan; Ramakumar, K.L.; Chidambaram, S.

    2012-01-01

    Compositional characteristics of source rocks are generally well recorded in sedimentary deposits and provide valuable information about nature of source rocks even though weathering, physical sorting and deposition environment influence the sediment geochemistry. In this paper we report major, trace element and 13 C isotope data of cutting samples collected from Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous formations in Pondicherry area. The distribution patterns and inter elemental correlations are used to identify source rock composition and carbon isotope compositions to understand the sediment deposition conditions. Mineralogy of the bulk sediment indicates presence of Quartz, K-feldspar, Calcite, Mg-calcite, Aragonite and Clay minerals. Compared to upper continental crust values most of these sediments show lower concentration of all elements except Ca and Zn at some depths. The depletion is probably associated with weathering of feldspar and removal of elements through solution. This also increases the proportion of quartz relative to source rock. The ratios of redox sensitive elements (Th/U) infer oxic weathering in shallow sediments. Elemental ratios (La/Sc, Th/Sc, Th/Cr, Th/Co) and ternary plots (La-Th-Sc and Th-Hf-Co) indicate contribution of felsic source rocks with varying degree of weathering. These plots also infer the inherent heterogeneity in the source rocks. Hafnium correlations with other trace elements suggest contribution of Tonalitic rocks in addition to granite to these sediments. The geochemical characteristics of the sediments are found to be similar to that of sediments belonging to similar geology in nearby regions. Presence of shallow marine condition during the sedimentation is inferred from the detrital index (DI) values, which is further supported by the presence of fibrous clay minerals in ESEM scans. This study also brings out the utility of δ 13 C information to reinforce the geochemical and mineralogical inferences. (author)

  7. Extraction of Iodine from Source Rock and Oil for Radioiodine Dating Final Report CRADA No. TC-1550-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summa, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    This was a collaborative effort between the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Exxon Production Research Company (EPR) to develop improved techniques for extracting, concentrating, and measuring iodine from large volumes of source rock and oil. The purpose of this project was to develop a technique for measuring total iodine extracted from rock, obtain isotopic ratios, and develop age models for samples provided by EPR.

  8. Shale characterization in mass transport complex as a potential source rock: An example from onshore West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. M. S.; Widiarti, R.; Kusumah, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study describes a deep-water slump facies shale of the Early Miocene Jatiluhur/Cibulakan Formation to understand its potential as a source rock in an active tectonic region, the onshore West Java. The formation is equivalent with the Gumai Formation, which has been well-known as another prolific source rock besides the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation in North West Java Basin, Indonesia. The equivalent shale formation is expected to have same potential source rock towards the onshore of Central Java. The shale samples were taken onshore, 150 km away from the basin. The shale must be rich of organic matter, have good quality of kerogen, and thermally matured to be categorized as a potential source rock. Investigations from petrography, X-Ray diffractions (XRD), and backscattered electron show heterogeneous mineralogy in the shales. The mineralogy consists of clay minerals, minor quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, and other weathered minerals. This composition makes the shale more brittle. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicate secondary porosities and microstructures. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) shows 0.8-1.1 wt%, compared to the basinal shale 1.5-8 wt%. The shale properties from this outcropped formation indicate a good potential source rock that can be found in the subsurface area with better quality and maturity.

  9. Water Sources for Cyanobacteria Below Desert Rocks in the Negev Desert Determined by Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community are consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm) the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  10. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M. [Centro de lnvestigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, 31109 Chihuahua, (Mexico); Rodriguez P, A. [World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Chihuahuan Desert Program, Coronado 1005, 31000 Chihuahua (Mexico); Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada 11, ETS Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes 2, 41012 Sevilla, (Spain); Crespo, T. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Av. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)]. e-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.mx

    2007-07-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  11. Characterization of source rocks and groundwater radioactivity at the Chihuahua valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria V, M.; Montero C, M.E.; Reyes C, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Valenzuela H, M.; Rodriguez P, A.; Manjon C, G.; Garcia T, R.; Crespo, T.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a scientific research project about alpha radioactivity in groundwater for human consumption at the Chihuahua City, the characterization of rock sources of radioactivity around de Chihuahua valley was developed. The radioactivity of groundwater and sediments was determined, too. The radioactivity of uranium- and thorium- series isotopes contained in rocks was obtained by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. Some representative values are 50 Bq/kg for the mean value of Bi-214 activity, and 121.5 Bq/kg for the highest value at West of the city. The activity of sediments, extracted during wells perforation, was determined using a Nal(TI) detector. A non-reported before uranium ore was localized at the San Marcos range formation. Its outcrops are inside the Chihuahua-Sacramento valley basin and its activity characterization was performed. Unusually high specific uranium activities, determined by alpha spectrometry, were obtained in water, plants, sediments and fish extracted at locations close to outcrops of uranium minerals. The activity of water of the San Marcos dam reached 7.7 Bq/L. The activity of fish, trapped at San Marcos dam, is 0.99 Bq/kg. Conclusions about the contamination of groundwater at North of Chihuahua City were obtained. (Author)

  12. Water sources for cyanobacteria below desert rocks in the Negev Desert determined by conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. McKay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present year round meteorological and conductivity measurements of colonized hypolithic rocks in the Arava Valley, Negev Desert, Israel. The data indicate that while dew is common in the Negev it is not an important source of moisture for hypolithic organisms at this site. The dominance of cyanobacteria in the hypolithic community is consistent with predictions that cyanobacteria are confined to habitats supplied by rain. To monitor the presence of liquid water under the small Negev rocks we developed and tested a simple field conductivity system based on two wires placed about 0.5 cm apart. Based on 21 replicates recorded for one year in the Negev we conclude that in natural rains (0.25 mm to 6 mm the variability between sensor readings is between 20 and 60% decreasing with increasing rain amount. We conclude that the simple small electrical conductivity system described here can be used effectively to monitor liquid water levels in lithic habitats. However, the natural variability of these sensors indicates that several replicates should be deployed. The results and method presented have use in arid desert reclamation programs.

  13. The origin of groundwater salinity in granitic rocks: identification and characterisation of chloride sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savoye, Sebastien

    1998-01-01

    This research thesis aims at clearly identifying the possible origins of chlorine in solution in underground waters in a granitic environment, and is thus a first step in the prediction of concentration of dissolved compounds in waters in crystalline environment, with respect to the geological context. In a first part, the author proposes a synthetic and critical overview of knowledge and previous studies: definition of the term 'salinity', presentation of geochemical tracers, presentation of available data on potential chlorine sources in granitic rocks. The author then describes the experimental protocols and studied sites, reports results of the characterisation of different chlorine tanks performed on samples from each studied site. Based on mass assessment calculations and on the use of tracers, the author finally discusses the contribution of each of the chlorine tanks to the salinity of underground waters [fr

  14. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.

    1985-10-01

    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  15. Convergent evidence for widespread rock nitrogen sources in Earth's surface environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, B Z; Morford, S L; Dahlgren, R A

    2018-04-06

    Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth's land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. Evidence drawn from the planet's nitrogen balance, geochemical proxies, and our spatial weathering model reveal that ~19 to 31 teragrams of nitrogen are mobilized from near-surface rocks annually. About 11 to 18 teragrams of this nitrogen are chemically weathered in situ, thereby increasing the unmanaged (preindustrial) terrestrial nitrogen balance from 8 to 26%. These findings provide a global perspective to reconcile Earth's nitrogen budget, with implications for nutrient-driven controls over the terrestrial carbon sink. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Convergent evidence for widespread rock nitrogen sources in Earth’s surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Morford, S. L.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    Nitrogen availability is a pivotal control on terrestrial carbon sequestration and global climate change. Historical and contemporary views assume that nitrogen enters Earth’s land-surface ecosystems from the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that bedrock is a nitrogen source that rivals atmospheric nitrogen inputs across major sectors of the global terrestrial environment. Evidence drawn from the planet’s nitrogen balance, geochemical proxies, and our spatial weathering model reveal that ~19 to 31 teragrams of nitrogen are mobilized from near-surface rocks annually. About 11 to 18 teragrams of this nitrogen are chemically weathered in situ, thereby increasing the unmanaged (preindustrial) terrestrial nitrogen balance from 8 to 26%. These findings provide a global perspective to reconcile Earth’s nitrogen budget, with implications for nutrient-driven controls over the terrestrial carbon sink.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Dibenzofuran, Alkyldibenzofurans, and Benzo[b]naphthofurans in crude oils and source rock extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijun Li,; Ellis, Geoffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Dibenzofuran (DBF), its alkylated homologues, and benzo[b]naphthofurans (BNFs) are common oxygen-heterocyclic aromatic compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. A series of positional isomers of alkyldibenzofuran and benzo[b]naphthofuran were identified in mass chromatograms by comparison with internal standards and standard retention indices. The response factors of dibenzofuran in relation to internal standards were obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of a set of mixed solutions with different concentration ratios. Perdeuterated dibenzofuran and dibenzothiophene are optimal internal standards for quantitative analyses of furan compounds in crude oils and source rock extracts. The average concentration of the total DBFs in oils derived from siliciclastic lacustrine rock extracts from the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea, was 518 μg/g, which is about 5 times that observed in the oils from carbonate source rocks in the Tarim Basin, Northwest China. The BNFs occur ubiquitously in source rock extracts and related oils of various origins. The results of this work suggest that the relative abundance of benzo[b]naphthofuran isomers, that is, the benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan/{benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan + benzo[b]naphtho[1,2-d]furan} ratio, may be a potential molecular geochemical parameter to indicate oil migration pathways and distances.

  18. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  19. Evaluation on occluded hydrocarbon in deep–ultra deep ancient source rocks and its cracked gas resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil-cracked gas, as the main type of high-over mature marine natural gas in China, is mainly derived from occluded hydrocarbon. So it is significant to carry out quantitative study on occluded hydrocarbon. In this paper, the occluded hydrocarbon volume of the main basins in China was calculated depending on their types, abundances and evolution stages by means of the forward method (experimental simulation and the inversion method (geologic profile dissection. And then, occluded hydrocarbon evolution models were established for five types of source rocks (sapropelic, sapropelic prone hybrid, humic prone hybrid, humic and coal. It is shown that the hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency of sapropelic and sapropelic prone hybrid excellent source rocks is lower than 30% at the low-maturity stage, 30%–60% at the principal oil generation stage, and 50%–80% at the high-maturity stage, which are all about 10% higher than that of humic prone hybrid and humic source rocks at the corresponding stages. The resource distribution and cracked gas expulsion of occluded hydrocarbon since the high-maturity stage of marine source rocks in the Sichuan Basin were preliminarily calculated on the basis of the evolution models. The cracked gas expulsion is 230.4 × 1012 m3 at the high evolution stage of occluded hydrocarbon of the Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Fm in this basin, and 12.3 × 1012 m3 from the source rocks of Sinian Doushantuo Fm, indicating good potential for natural gas resources. It is indicated that the favorable areas of occluded hydrocarbon cracked gas in the Qiongzhusi Fm source rocks in the Sichuan Basin include Gaoshiti–Moxi, Ziyang and Weiyuan, covering a favorable area of 4.3 × 104 km2.

  20. Growing Pebbles and Conceptual Prisms - Understanding the Source of Student Misconceptions about Rock Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnick, Judi

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes narrative essays--stories of rock formation--written by pre-service elementary school teachers. Reports startling misconceptions among preservice teachers on pebbles that grow, human involvement in rock formation, and sedimentary rocks forming as puddles as dry up, even though these students had completed a college level course on Earth…

  1. Gas projects surge in the Middle East as governments seek new revenue sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The rapid development of natural gas and condensate reserves in the Middle East results from a simple motivation: the desire of governments to earn revenues. For the past decade, Middle East governments have run budget deficits, which they funded by drawing down foreign assets and issuing debt. Now in the process of structural economic reform, they have begun to use an under-utilized resource--natural gas, of which Middle East governments own about one third of the world's reserves. Governments receive revenues from several sources in natural gas developments, which makes the projects very attractive. Revenue comes from the sale of the natural gas in the domestic market and, if exported, the international market; the sale of associated condensates; the additional exports of crude oil or refined products if natural gas is substituted for refined products in domestic markets; the increased sale of crude oil if natural gas is injected into reservoirs to maintain pressure; and the sale of petrochemicals where natural gas is used as feedstock. Large projects under way in the Middle East highlight the consequences of multiple revenue sources and interlinked costs of natural gas and condensate development. Other countries in the region are undertaking similar projects, so examples cited represent only a portion of what is occurring. The paper describes Abu Dhabi, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and Iran

  2. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  3. A comparison of geochemical features of extracts from coal-seams source rocks with different polarity solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianping; Deng, Chunping; Wang, Huitong

    2009-02-15

    There exists a great difference in group-type fractions and biomarker distributions of chloroform extracts from coals and coal-seams oils, which makes the source identification of coal-seams oils in sedimentary basins rather difficult. The experiment, in which four different polarity solvents, n-hexane, benzene, dichloromethane and chloroform, were used to extract 9 coal-seams source rocks and 3 typical lacustrine source rocks, showed that the yield of extracts increased gradually with increasing solvent polarity. The distribution features of their n-alkanes, isoprenoids and sterane and terpane biomarkers remained, in general, similar, showing no distinct enrichment or depletion for a certain fraction by any solvent. The compositional analysis on n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed that the absolute amount (concentration) of biomarkers was relatively low for the n-hexane extract but comparatively high for the chloroform extract, this difference became great among coal-seams source rocks but small among lacustrine mudstones. The statistical analysis on the relative amount of the 18 major biomarkers in n-hexane and chloroform extracts from 10 source rock samples showed that extracts with a proportional error for the same biomarker of less than 5% (including the analytical error) accounted for 84% while those with a proportional error over 10% amounted to below 5%. This suggested that the outcome of oil-source correlation made by these biomarkers will be independent of variations in amounts of saturates and biomarkers arising from solvent polarity. Therefore, biomarkers obtained from organic-rich source rocks including coals by the extraction with the commonly used chloroform solvent can be applied for the oilsource correlation of coal-seams petroliferous basins.

  4. Near-Infrared Imaging for Spatial Mapping of Organic Content in Petroleum Source Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmani, Y.; Burnham, A. K.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Tchelepi, H.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas from unconventional petroleum source rocks (shales) plays a key role in our transition towards sustainable low-carbon energy production. The potential for carbon storage (in adsorbed state) in these formations further aligns with efforts to mitigate climate change. Optimizing production and development from these resources requires knowledge of the hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of the rock, which are often strong functions of organic content. This work demonstrates the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectral imaging in mapping the spatial distribution of organic content with O(100µm) resolution on cores that can span several hundred feet in depth (Mehmani et al., 2017). We validate our approach for the immature oil shale of the Green River Formation (GRF), USA, and show its applicability potential in other formations. The method is a generalization of a previously developed optical approach specialized to the GRF (Mehmani et al., 2016a). The implications of this work for spatial mapping of hydro-thermo-mechanical properties of excavated cores, in particular thermal conductivity, are discussed (Mehmani et al., 2016b). References:Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, H. Tchelepi, "Quantification of organic content in shales via near-infrared imaging: Green River Formation." Fuel, (2017). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, M.D. Vanden Berg, F. Gelin, and H. Tchelepi. "Quantification of kerogen content in organic-rich shales from optical photographs." Fuel, (2016a). Mehmani, Y., A.K. Burnham, H. Tchelepi, "From optics to upscaled thermal conductivity: Green River oil shale." Fuel, (2016b).

  5. Using pattern classification and nuclear forensic signatures to link UOC to source rocks and purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.; Robel, M.; Borg, M.; Hutcheon, I.; Kristo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a scientific discipline interfacing law enforcement, nuclear science and nonproliferation. Information on the history and on the potential origin of unknown nuclear material can be obtained through nuclear forensic analysis. Using commonly available techniques of mass spectrometry, microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we have gained insight into the processing and origin of a suite of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples. We have applied chemometric techniques to investigate the relationships between uranium ore deposits and UOC samples in order to identify chemical and isotopic signatures of nuclear forensic importance. We developed multivariate signatures based on elemental concentrations and isotope ratios using a database of characteristics of UOC originating throughout the world. By introducing detailed and specific information about the source rock geology for each sample, we improved our understanding of the preservation of forensic signatures in UOC. Improved characterization of sample processing and provenance allows us to begin to assess the statistical significance of different groupings of samples and identify underlying patterns. Initial results indicate the concentration of uranium in the ore body, the geochemical conditions associated with uranium emplacement, and host rock petrogenesis exert controlling influences on the impurities preserved in UOC. Specific ore processing techniques, particularly those related to In-Situ Recovery, are also reflected in UOC impurity signatures. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry can be used in conjunction with rare earth element patterns and other characteristics to link UOCs to specific geologic deposits of origin. We will present a number of case studies illustrating the ways in which nuclear forensic analysis can provide insight into the ore geology and production and purification processes used to produce UOC. (author)

  6. Mass Dependent Fractionation of Hg Isotopes in Source Rocks, Mineral Deposits and Spring Waters of the California Coast Ranges, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C. N.; Kesler, S. E.; Blum, J. D.; Rytuba, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    We present here the first study of the isotopic composition of Hg in rocks, ore deposits, and active hydrothermal systems from the California Coast Ranges, one of Earth's largest Hg-depositing systems. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence, which form the bedrock in the California Coast Ranges, are intruded and overlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks including the Clear Lake Volcanic Sequence. These rocks contain two types of Hg deposits, hot-spring deposits that form at shallow depths (<300 m) and silica-carbonate deposits that extend to greater depths (200 to 1000 m), as well as active springs and geothermal systems that release Hg to the present surface. The Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence contain clastic sedimentary rocks with higher concentrations of Hg than volcanic rocks of the Clear Lake Volcanic Field. Mean Hg isotope compositions for all three rock units are similar, although the range of values in Franciscan Complex rocks is greater than in either Great Valley or Clear Lake rocks. Hot spring and silica-carbonate Hg deposits have similar average isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from averages for the three rock units, although δ202Hg values for the Hg deposits have a greater variance than the country rocks. Precipitates from dilute spring and saline thermal waters in the area have similarly large variance and a mean δ202Hg value that is significantly lower than the ore deposits and rocks. These observations indicate there is little or no isotopic fractionation during release of Hg from its source rocks into hydrothermal solutions. Isotopic fractionation does appear to take place during transport and concentration of Hg in deposits, especially in their uppermost parts. Boiling of hydrothermal fluids is likely the most important process causing of the observed Hg isotope fractionation. This should result in the release of Hg with low δ202Hg values into the atmosphere from the top of these hydrothermal systems and a

  7. Molecular isotopic characterisation of hydrocarbon biomarkers in Palaeocene-Eocene evaporitic, lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, Kliti; Schouten, S.; Peters, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    Immature organic matter in lacustrine source rocks from the Jianghan Basin, eastern China, was studied for distributions and stable carbon isotopic compositions (13C) of hydrocarbon biomarkers. All of the bitumens contain isorenieratane (13C ca. −17 ) indicating the presence of Chlorobiaceae, and

  8. Silurian and Devonian source rocks and crude oils from the western part of Libya: Organic geochemistry, palynology and carbon stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkelani, Mohamed M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Early Silurian “hot” shales and Late Devonian black shales are major regional oil and gas source rocks in North Africa. Their deposition probably played a major role in global carbon cycling in general because of the large areas of the ocean affected. Comparing the Libyan δ13C record with

  9. Study on performance of a simultaneous spectrometer of ICP emission source for the determination of the major elements in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of operational parameters of a simultaneous spectrometer coupled to an ICP excitation source in order to establish an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the major elements in rocks is studied. The mutual spectral interferences, calibration curves for the acid and saline matrix and the internal standard method with ytrium are analyzed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  10. Dust Storm over the Middle East: Retrieval Approach, Source Identification, and Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridnejad, A.; Karimi, N.; Ariya, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle East region has been considered to be responsible for approximately 25% of the Earth's global emissions of dust particles. By developing Middle East Dust Index (MEDI) and applying to 70 dust storms characterized on MODIS images and occurred during the period between 2001 and 2012, we herein present a new high resolution mapping of major atmospheric dust source points participating in this region. To assist environmental managers and decision maker in taking proper and prioritized measures, we then categorize identified sources in terms of intensity based on extracted indices for Deep Blue algorithm and also utilize frequency of occurrence approach to find the sensitive sources. In next step, by implementing the spectral mixture analysis on the Landsat TM images (1984 and 2012), a novel desertification map will be presented. The aim is to understand how human perturbations and land-use change have influenced the dust storm points in the region. Preliminary results of this study indicate for the first time that c.a., 39 % of all detected source points are located in this newly anthropogenically desertified area. A large number of low frequency sources are located within or close to the newly desertified areas. These severely desertified regions require immediate concern at a global scale. During next 6 months, further research will be performed to confirm these preliminary results.

  11. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  12. A REMAINING OPEN PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF PALEO-ASIAN OCEAN BY EARLY PERMIAN: PALEOMAGNETIC CONSTRAINTS FROM THE PERMIAN VOLCANIC ROCKS IN MIDDLE-EAST INNER MONGOLIA, NE CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a paleomagnetic investigation on Permian volcanic rocks in the middle-east Inner Mongolia, NE China, aiming to puzzle out the timing and position of the final closure of the eastern Paleo-Asian ocean (PAO and further to better understand tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. Two pre-folding characteristic components are isolated from the Sanmianjing and Elitu formations (~283–266 Ma in the northern margin of the North China block (NMNCB and the Dashizhai Formation (~280 Ma in the Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB, respectively.

  13. The origin, source and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka eKietäväinen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g. nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites.

  14. The origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep crystalline rock biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Purkamo, Lotta

    2015-01-01

    The emerging interest in using stable bedrock formations for industrial purposes, e.g., nuclear waste disposal, has increased the need for understanding microbiological and geochemical processes in deep crystalline rock environments, including the carbon cycle. Considering the origin and evolution of life on Earth, these environments may also serve as windows to the past. Various geological, chemical, and biological processes can influence the deep carbon cycle. Conditions of CH4 formation, available substrates and time scales can be drastically different from surface environments. This paper reviews the origin, source, and cycling of methane in deep terrestrial crystalline bedrock with an emphasis on microbiology. In addition to potential formation pathways of CH4, microbial consumption of CH4 is also discussed. Recent studies on the origin of CH4 in continental bedrock environments have shown that the traditional separation of biotic and abiotic CH4 by the isotopic composition can be misleading in substrate-limited environments, such as the deep crystalline bedrock. Despite of similarities between Precambrian continental sites in Fennoscandia, South Africa and North America, where deep methane cycling has been studied, common physicochemical properties which could explain the variation in the amount of CH4 and presence or absence of CH4 cycling microbes were not found. However, based on their preferred carbon metabolism, methanogenic microbes appeared to have similar spatial distribution among the different sites.

  15. Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks with carbonatite affinity in the Bohemian Massif: Their sources and magma generation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulrych, Jaromír; Štěpánková-Svobodová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, 1/2 (2014), s. 45-58 ISSN 0369-2086 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA300130902 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : alkaline volcanic rocks * melilitic rocks * carbonatites * magma generation * metasomatism * Cenozoic * Bohemian Massif Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  16. Petroleum source-rock potentials of the cretaceous transgressive-regressive sedimentary sequences of the Cauvery Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kuldeep; Philip, P. C.; Sridharan, P.; Chopra, V. S.; Rao, Brahmaji; Saha, P. K.

    The present work is an attempt to contribute to knowledge on the petroleum source-rock potentials of the marine claystones and shales of basins associated with passive continental margins where the source-rock developments are known to have been associated with the anoxic events in the Mesozoic era. Data on three key exploratory wells from three major depressions Ariyallur-Pondicherry, Thanjavur and Nagapattinam of the Cauvery Basin are described and discussed. The average total organic carbon contents of the transgressive Pre-Albian-Cinomanian and Coniacian/Santonian claystones/shales range from 1.44 and 1.16%, respectively. The transgressive/regressive Campanian/Maastrichtian claystones contain average total organic carbon varying from 0.62 to 1.19%. The kerogens in all the studied stratigraphic sequences are classified as type-III with Rock-Eval hydrogen indices varying from 30 to 275. The nearness of land masses to the depositional basin and the mainly clastic sedimentation resulted in accumulation and preservation of dominantly type-III kerogens. The Pre-Albian to Cinomanian sequences of peak transgressive zone deposited in deep marine environments have kerogens with a relatively greater proportion of type-II components with likely greater contribution of planktonic organic matters. The global anoxic event associated with the Albian-Cinomanian marine transgression, like in many other parts of the world, has pervaded the Cauvery Basin and favoured development of good source-rocks with type-III kerogens. The Coniacian-Campanian-Maastrichtian transgressive/regressive phase is identified to be relatively of lesser significance for development of good quality source-rocks.

  17. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  18. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): I. Indices of phosphate rock use opportunity (PRUOIS) and of phosphate rock suitability for direct use (PRSIDU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlan, Z.; Gavriluta, I.; Soare, M.; Stefanescu, D.; Alexandrescu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Several issues of phosphate rock (PR) use are discussed in this paper. Maize for green fodder (Zea mays L) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) were grown in 7 kg of dry soil and in small pots of 1.25 kg dry soil capacity, respectively, on several base unsaturated soils belonging to Hapludoll and Hapludalf soil groups. The amount of phosphate rock (PR) to apply was based on experimental data considering soil adsorbed acidity (Ah), humus content (H 2 ), cation exchange capacity (T), sum of exchangeable bases (SEB) and mobile (easily soluble) phosphate content (P A L) in the soil. The factors were combined in a rock phosphate use, opportunity index of the soil (PRUOIS): PRUOIS=(A h *H 2 *100)/SEB*10 0.0245*P AL Rock phosphate suitability for direct use was evaluated by means of the rate of PR-P dissolution (PRPRS) in a 0.6% ammonium heptamolybdate in 0.01M calcium chloride solution (ppm P) and by carbonate content (%CaCO 3 ) in PR. Both of these parameters combined provided a phosphate rock suitability index for direct use (PRSIDU): PRSIDU [ppmP/min]=PRPRS*(1-0.03*CaCO 3 ) Water insoluble P sources studied were PR from Kola-Russia, Morocco, Kneifiss-Siria, El Hassa-Jordan, Gafsa- Tunisia, North-Carolina (USA), and Arad-Israel. All PRs were compared with TSP applied at the same rate of P. Neither PRUOIS or PRSIDU considered separately could satisfactorily explain the variance of PR efficiency. An index obtained by multiplicative combination of PRUOIS x PRSIDU did correlate significantly with indices on the agronomic efficiency of PR. (author)

  19. Distribution of organic carbon and petroleum source rock potential of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary carbonates, South Florida Basin: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacas, James George

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 134 core samples from the South Florida Basin show that the carbonates of Comanchean age are relatively richer in average organic carbon (0.41 percent) than those of Coahuilan age (0.28 percent), Gulfian age (0.18 percent) and Paleocene age (0.20 percent). They are also nearly twice as rich as the average world, wide carbonate (average 0.24 percent). The majority of carbonates have organic carbons less than 0.30 percent but the presence of many relatively organic rich beds composed of highly bituminous, argillaceous, highly stylolitic, and algal-bearing limestones and dolomites accounts for the higher percentage of organic carbon in some of the stratigraphic units. Carbonate rocks that contain greater than 0.4 percent organic carbon and that might be considered as possible petroleum sources were noted in almost each subdivision of the Coahuilan and Comanchean Series but particularly the units of Fredericksburg 'B', Trinity 'A', Trinity 'F', and Upper Sunniland. Possible source rocks have been ascribed by others to the Lower Sunniland, but lack of sufficient samples precluded any firm assessment in this initial report. In the shallower section of the basin, organic-rich carbonates containing as much as 3.2 percent organic carbon were observed in the lowermost part of the Gulfian Series and carbonate rocks with oil staining or 'dead' and 'live oil' were noted by others in the uppermost Gulfian and upper Cedar Keys Formation. It is questionable whether these shallower rocks are of sufficient thermal maturity to have generated commercial oil. The South Florida basin is still sparsely drilled and produces only from the Sunniland Limestone at an average depth of 11,500 feet (3500 m). Because the Sunniland contains good reservoir rocks and apparently adequate source rocks, and because the success rate of new oil field discoveries has increased in recent years, the chances of finding additional oil reserves in the Sunniland are promising. Furthermore, the

  20. Geophysical Prediction Technology Based on Organic Carbon Content in Source Rocks of the Huizhou Sag, the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high exploration cost, limited number of wells for source rocks drilling and scarce test samples for the Total Organic Carbon Content (TOC in the Huizhou sag, the TOC prediction of source rocks in this area and the assessment of resource potentials of the basin are faced with great challenges. In the study of TOC prediction, predecessors usually adopted the logging assessment method, since the data is only confined to a “point” and the regional prediction of the source bed in the seismic profile largely depends on the recognition of seismic facies, making it difficult to quantify TOC. In this study, we combined source rock geological characteristics, logging and seismic response and built the mathematical relation between quasi TOC curve and seismic data based on the TOC logging date of a single well and its internal seismic attribute. The result suggested that it was not purely a linear relationship that was adhered to by predecessors, but was shown as a complicated non-linear relationship. Therefore, the neural network algorithm and SVMs were introduced to obtain the optimum relationship between the quasi TOC curve and the seismic attribute. Then the goal of TOC prediction can be realized with the method of seismic inversion.

  1. Middle School Students' Science Self-Efficacy and Its Sources: Examination of Gender Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıran, Dekant; Sungur, Semra

    2012-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate middle school students' science self-efficacy as well as its sources and outcomes as a function of gender. Bandura's hypothesized sources of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal) in addition to being inviting with self and inviting with others were examined as sources of self-efficacy, while cognitive and metacognitive strategy use was examined as an outcome of self-efficacy. A total of 1,932 students participated in the study and were administered self-report instruments. Results showed that the relationship between science self-efficacy and its proposed sources does not change as a function of gender. All proposed sources, except for vicarious experience, were found to be significantly related to students' scientific self-efficacy. Moreover, girls were found to experience significantly more emotional arousal and to send positive messages to others more than boys. On the other hand, no gender difference was found concerning science self-efficacy and strategy use. The findings also revealed a positive association between science self-efficacy and strategy use. Overall, findings supported Bandura's conception of self-efficacy and suggested invitations as additional sources of self-efficacy.

  2. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  3. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  4. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  5. REE enrichment in granite-derived regolith deposits of the southeast United States: Prospective source rocks and accumulation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.; Simandl, G.J.; Neetz, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Southeastern United States contains numerous anorogenic, or A-type, granites, which constitute promising source rocks for REE-enriched ion adsorption clay deposits due to their inherently high concentrations of REE. These granites have undergone a long history of chemical weathering, resulting in thick granite-derived regoliths, akin to those of South China, which supply virtually all heavy REE and Y, and a significant portion of light REE to global markets. Detailed comparisons of granite regolith profiles formed on the Stewartsville and Striped Rock plutons, and the Robertson River batholith (Virginia) indicate that REE are mobile and can attain grades comparable to those of deposits currently mined in China. A REE-enriched parent, either A-type or I-type (highly fractionated igneous type) granite, is thought to be critical for generating the high concentrations of REE in regolith profiles. One prominent feature we recognize in many granites and mineralized regoliths is the tetrad behaviour displayed in REE chondrite-normalized patterns. Tetrad patterns in granite and regolith result from processes that promote the redistribution, enrichment, and fractionation of REE, such as late- to post- magmatic alteration of granite and silicate hydrolysis in the regolith. Thus, REE patterns showing tetrad effects may be a key for discriminating highly prospective source rocks and regoliths with potential for REE ion adsorption clay deposits.

  6. Thermophysical properties of rocks: a perspective on data needs, sources and accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, H.P.; Sinnock, S.

    1979-01-01

    Recent emphasis on research in geologic isolation of nuclear wastes and geoenergy resource development has created a renewed demand for engineering thermophysical property data for rocks and other geologic materials at elevated pressures and temperatures. In contrast to fabricated engineering materials, with properties which can be specified, rocks used in engineering design are complex, naturally occurring materials having properties which must be characterized, rather than specified, for engineering studies. Much difficulty in measuring, reporting, and using thermophysical properties of rocks results from (1) rock inhomogeneity and anisotropy on both microscopic and macroscopic scales; (2) inclusion of pore fluids, such as water; and (3) measurement of laboratory properties under conditions quite different from those of in situ material. Because measurements on in situ materials are scarce, many analyses must depend on extrapolated values of uncertain accuracy. A survey of thermophysical property data available for geologic thermal transport studies indicates that caution must be taken to effectively match data abstracted from the literature with project objectives

  7. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  8. Organic petrology and geochemistry of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl, north-central Afghanistan: Depositional environment and source rock potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Sanfilipo, John

    2016-01-01

    Organic geochemistry and petrology of Eocene Suzak bituminous marl outcrop samples from Madr village in north-central Afghanistan were characterized via an integrated analytical approach to evaluate depositional environment and source rock potential. Multiple proxies suggest the organic-rich (TOC ∼6 wt.%) bituminous marls are ‘immature’ for oil generation (e.g., vitrinite Ro  1) indicating organic input from marine algae and/or bacterial biomass, and sterane/hopane ratios are low (0.12–0.14). Monoaromatic steroids are dominated by C28clearly indicating a marine setting. High gammacerane index values (∼0.9) are consistent with anoxia stratification and may indicate intermittent saline-hypersaline conditions. Stable C isotope ratios also suggest a marine depositional scenario for the Suzak samples, consistent with the presence of marine foraminifera including abundant planktic globigerinida(?) and rare benthic discocyclina(?) and nummulites(?). Biomarker 2α-methylhopane for photosynthetic cyanobacteria implies shallow photic zone deposition of Madr marls and 3β-methylhopane indicates presence of methanotrophic archaea in the microbial consortium. The data presented herein are consistent with deposition of Suzak bituminous marls in shallow stratified waters of a restricted marine basin associated with the southeastern incipient or proto-Paratethys. Geochemical proxies from Suzak rock extracts (S content, high polar content, C isotopes, normal (αααR) C27–29 steranes, and C29/C30 and C26/C25 hopane ratios) are similar to extant data from Paleogene oils produced to the north in the Afghan-Tajik Basin. This observation may indicate laterally equivalent strata are effective source rocks as suggested by previous workers; however, further work is needed to strengthen oil-source correlations.

  9. Geochemistry of coal-measure source rocks and natural gases in deep formations in Songliao Basin, NE China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Jingkui; Zhang, Shuichang; Hu, Guoyi; He, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Beijing (China); Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina (China); Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry, China National Petroleum Corp. (China)

    2010-12-01

    The natural gases developed in deep volcanic rock reservoirs of the Songliao Basin, NE China are characterized by enriched {delta}{sup 13}C value for methane and frequently reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern. Although many researchers consider such gas type as an abiogenic origin, we believe the natural gases have a biogenic origin mainly except little inorganic gases and the reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern of gases is caused by mixing of different origin gases. Methane carbon isotopic values for majority samples fall in the range from - 24 permille to - 32 permille, which is heavier than typical coal-type gases in other Chinese basins. There are several reasons caused heavy carbon isotope of methane: (1) Carbon isotopic values of source kerogen are 3-5 permille heavier than these from other basins; (2) Source rocks are at extremely high maturity stage with vitrinite reflectance mostly above 3.0%; (3) Portion of gas is derived from basement mudrock or slate with higher maturity. The observation on the organic from deep formation reveals that there is a relatively high content for liptinite, which reaches approximately 8 to 10%. The macerals component of source rock shows that the source rocks have some ability to generate oil. Small portion of oil was generated from high hydrogen content macerals in coals and shales as proof by oil found in microcrack and in micropore of coal and oil-bearing fluid inclusions grown in volcanic reservoir. The occurrence of pyrobitumen in volcanic reservoir indicates preexisted oil had been cracked into wet gas, and this kind of gas had also been found in gas pools. Heavy isotopic methane is derived from coal at extremely high maturity stage. There may be little inorganic alkane gases in deep layers for their geochemistry and special geological setting of Songliao Basin. Artificial mixing experiments of different origins gases confirm that inorganic gas such as gas from well FS1 mixed with other end members

  10. HEAVY MINERALS IN PLACER DEPOSIT IN SINGKAWANG WATERS, WEST Kalimantan, RELATED TO FELSIC SOURCE ROCK OF ITS COASTAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deny Setiady

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Placer deposits are physically accumulated by fluvial and marine processes in coastal area. Thirty six samples were selected from seventy seven samples of seafloor sediment of Singkawang waters. Those samples have been analyzed microscopically for heavy mineral contents. Based on this analysis, the heavy minerals can be divided into four groups: oxyde and hydroxyde, silicate, sulphide, and carbonate. The source of most heavy minerals in the study area is commonly formed by Felsic igneous rock and finally deposited on the seafloor sediments.

  11. Organic Geochemistry of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bahloul Formation Petroleum Source Rock, Central and Northern Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Affouri , Hassene; Montacer , Mabrouk; Disnar , Jean-Robert

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Total organic carbon (TOC) determination, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter content (EOM) fractionation, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, were carried out on 79 samples from eleven outcrop cross sections of the Bahloul Formation in central and northern Tunisia. The TOC content varied between 0.23 to 35.6%, the highest average values (18.73%, 8.46% and 4.02%) being at the east of the study area (at Ain Zakk...

  12. An analysis of natural gas exploration potential in the Qiongdongnan Basin by use of the theory of “joint control of source rocks and geothermal heat”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Gongcheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene Yacheng Fm contains the most important source rocks that have been confirmed by exploratory wells in the Qiongdongnan Basin. The efficiency of these source rocks is the key to the breakthrough in natural gas exploration in the study area. This paper analyzes the hydrocarbon potential of each sag in this basin from the perspective of control of both source rocks and geothermal heat. Two types of source rocks occur in the Yacheng Fm, namely mudstone of transitional facies and mudstone of neritic facies. Both of them are dominated by a kerogen of type-III, followed by type-II. Their organic matter abundances are controlled by the amount of continental clastic input. The mudstone of transitional facies is commonly higher in organic matter abundance, while that of neritic facies is lower. The coal-measure source rocks of transitional facies were mainly formed in such environments as delta plains, coastal plains and barrier tidal flat-marshes. Due to the control of Cenozoic lithosphere extension and influence of neotectonism, the geothermal gradient, terrestrial heat flow value (HFV and level of thermal evolution are generally high in deep water. The hot setting not only determines the predominance of gas generation in the deep-water sags, but can promote the shallow-buried source rocks in shallow water into oil window to generate oil. In addition to promoting the hydrocarbon generation of source rocks, the high geothermal and high heat flow value can also speed up the cracking of residual hydrocarbons, thus enhancing hydrocarbon generation efficiency and capacity. According to the theory of joint control of source quality and geothermal heat on hydrocarbon generation, we comprehensively evaluate and rank the exploration potentials of major sags in the Qiongdongnan Basin. These sags are divided into 3 types, of which type-I sags including Yanan, Lingshui, Baodao, Ledong and Huaguang are the highest in hydrocarbon exploration potential.

  13. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen

    1982-08-01

    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  14. 17,21-Secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids in source rocks and crude oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xueming Pan; Philp, R.P. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    The presence of three families of hopanoic acids, 17,21-secohopanoic acids, 25-norhopanoic acids, and 28-norhopanoic acids, is discussed. Oils from West Siberia and tar balls from the Seychelles Islands were found to contain relatively high proportions of 17,21-secohopanoic acids. These acids have not been previously reported in any oils or source rocks. A heavily biodegraded West Siberian oil, was found to contain an homologous series of 25-norhopanoic acids co-occurring with the 25-norhopanes as previously reported in only a small number of oils from Campos Basin, Brazil. 28-Norhopanoic acids have been reported in various sediments and extracts of the Monterey Shale, but in this study their occurrence has been extended to oils, degraded oils, and tar balls sourced from the Monterey Shale. The primary purpose herein is to report the occurrence of these acids and possible relationships between the acids and corresponding hydrocarbons. (Author)

  15. Middle and Later Stone Age chronology of Kisese II rockshelter (UNESCO World Heritage Kondoa Rock-Art Sites), Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranhorn, Kathryn L.; Kwekason, Amandus; Alex, Bridget; Laird, Myra F.; Marean, Curtis W.; Niespolo, Elizabeth; Nivens, Joelle; Mabulla, Audax Z. P.

    2018-01-01

    The archaeology of East Africa during the last ~65,000 years plays a central role in debates about the origins and dispersal of modern humans, Homo sapiens. Despite the historical importance of the region to these discussions, reliable chronologies for the nature, tempo, and timing of human behavioral changes seen among Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological assemblages are sparse. The Kisese II rockshelter in the Kondoa region of Tanzania, originally excavated in 1956, preserves a ≥ 6-m-thick archaeological succession that spans the MSA/LSA transition, with lithic artifacts such as Levallois and bladelet cores and backed microliths, the recurrent use of red ochre, and >5,000 ostrich eggshell beads and bead fragments. Twenty-nine radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshell carbonate make Kisese II one of the most robust chronological sequences for understanding archaeological change over the last ~47,000 years in East Africa. In particular, ostrich eggshell beads and backed microliths appear by 46–42 ka cal BP and occur throughout overlying Late Pleistocene and Holocene strata. Changes in lithic technology suggest an MSA/LSA transition that began 39–34.3 ka, with typical LSA technologies in place by the Last Glacial Maximum. The timing of these changes demonstrates the time-transgressive nature of behavioral innovations often linked to the origins of modern humans, even within a single region of Africa. PMID:29489827

  16. Middle and Later Stone Age chronology of Kisese II rockshelter (UNESCO World Heritage Kondoa Rock-Art Sites), Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; Lewis, Jason E; Ranhorn, Kathryn L; Kwekason, Amandus; Alex, Bridget; Laird, Myra F; Marean, Curtis W; Niespolo, Elizabeth; Nivens, Joelle; Mabulla, Audax Z P

    2018-01-01

    The archaeology of East Africa during the last ~65,000 years plays a central role in debates about the origins and dispersal of modern humans, Homo sapiens. Despite the historical importance of the region to these discussions, reliable chronologies for the nature, tempo, and timing of human behavioral changes seen among Middle Stone Age (MSA) and Later Stone Age (LSA) archaeological assemblages are sparse. The Kisese II rockshelter in the Kondoa region of Tanzania, originally excavated in 1956, preserves a ≥ 6-m-thick archaeological succession that spans the MSA/LSA transition, with lithic artifacts such as Levallois and bladelet cores and backed microliths, the recurrent use of red ochre, and >5,000 ostrich eggshell beads and bead fragments. Twenty-nine radiocarbon dates on ostrich eggshell carbonate make Kisese II one of the most robust chronological sequences for understanding archaeological change over the last ~47,000 years in East Africa. In particular, ostrich eggshell beads and backed microliths appear by 46-42 ka cal BP and occur throughout overlying Late Pleistocene and Holocene strata. Changes in lithic technology suggest an MSA/LSA transition that began 39-34.3 ka, with typical LSA technologies in place by the Last Glacial Maximum. The timing of these changes demonstrates the time-transgressive nature of behavioral innovations often linked to the origins of modern humans, even within a single region of Africa.

  17. Dating and source determination of volcanic rocks from Khunik area (South of Birjand, South Khorasan using Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Samiee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Khunik area is located in the south of Birjand, Khorasan province, in the eastern margin of Lut block. Tertiary volcanic rocks have andesite to trachy-andesite composition. Dating analyzing by Rb-Sr method on plagioclase and hornblende as well as whole-rock isochron method was performed on pyroxene-hornblende andesite rock unit. On this basis the emplacement age is Upper Paleocene (58±11 Ma. These rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd 0.7046-0.7049 and 2.16-3.12, respectively. According to isotopic data, volcanic rocks originated from depleted mantle and have the least crust contamination while it was fractionated. Geochemically, Khunik volcanic rocks have features typical of calk-alkaline to shoshonite and are metaluminous. Enrichment in LILEs and typical negative anomalies of Nb and Ti are evidences that the volcanic rocks formed in a subduction zone and active continental margin. Modeling suggests that these rocks were derived dominantly from 1–5% partial melting of a mainly spinel garnet lherzolite mantle source that is metasomatized by slab-derived fluid.

  18. Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Orogenic Gold Deposit Type as a Source of Langkowala Placer Gold, Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.114In 2008, placer gold was discovered in Langkowala area (Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, and more than 60,000 traditional gold miners in the early 2009 have been operating by digging vertical pits and panning active stream sediments. The grade of placer gold ranges from 50 to 140 g/t. Local geological framework indicates that the placer gold is not related to volcanic rock-related hydrothermal gold deposit, e.g. epithermal, skarn or porphyry. This paper describes a preliminary study on possible primary deposit type as a source of the Langkowala (Bombana secondary placer gold. A field study indicates that the Langkowala (Bombana placer/paleoplacer gold is possibly related to gold-bearing quartz veins/veinlets hosted by metamorphic rocks particularly mica schist and metasediments in the area. These quartz veins/veinlets are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Wumbubangka Mountains, a northern flank of Rumbia Mountain Range. Sheared, segmented quartz veins/veinlets are of 2 cm to 2 m in width and contain gold in a grade varying between 2 and 61 g/t. At least, there are two generations of the quartz veins. The first generation of quartz vein is parallel to foliation of mica schist and metasediments with general orientation of N 300oE/60o; the second quartz vein generation crosscut the first quartz vein and the foliation of the wallrock. The first quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, and occasionally sigmoidal, whereas the second quartz veins are relatively massive. The similar quartz veins/veinlets types are also probably present in Mendoke Mountain Range, in the northern side of Langkowala area. This primary gold deposit is called as ‘orogenic gold type’. The orogenic gold deposit could be a new target of gold exploration in Indonesia in the future.

  19. Isotopic assessment of soil phosphorus fertility and evaluation of rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants in subtropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.M.; Zhou, Z.G.; Feng, G.L.; Lu, R.K.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Soil phosphorus (P) deficiency is a major factor limiting crop productivity in many tropical and subtropical soils. Due to the acidic nature of these soils, rock phosphate (RP)-based P fertilizers that are cheaper than manufactured water-soluble P fertilizers can be an attractive alternative under certain conditions. Assessment of the efficacy of these alternative P fertilizers and a rational management of local P resources for sustainable agricultural production require an understanding of the dynamics of P in the soil-plant system and the interactions of various P sources in soils and monitoring of soil available P levels. The present work was conducted to test the applicability of the 32 P isotopic kinetic method to assess the soil P fertility status and evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of local rock phosphates in subtropical China. A series of experiments was carried out in the laboratory, greenhouse and field conditions with the following specific objectives: (a) to evaluate the suitability of this isotopic kinetic method in evaluating soil P fertility in 32 soil samples collected across southern China, (b) to test and further develop chemical extraction methods for routine soil P testing, (c) to monitor the dissolution kinetics of local low to medium grade rock phosphate sources and their effect on soil properties and (d) to evaluate their agronomic effectiveness in greenhouse and field experiments. Since most of the studied soils had very low concentrations of soluble P and high P-fixing capacities, the isotopic kinetic method was found unsuitable for evaluating soil P fertility and to predict plant P uptake. In contrast, the proposed chemical extraction method (NaHCO 3 -NH 4 F) predicted very well plant P uptake, suggesting that this extraction method can be routinely used to evaluate soil bioavailable P in similar soils in subtropical China. From the incubation study, it was found that although the local low to medium grade RPs were inferior to the

  20. Evaluation of the Catahoula Formation as a source rock for uranium mineralization, with emphasis on East Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash and, in the lower coastal plain, also stream-transported erosion detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent northern Mexico, the nearest source of appropriate age and chemical affinity. Pedogenic and shallow-burial alteration of the labile volcanic glass component of the sediment resulted in ubiquitous secondary montmorillonite and solubilization of elements which are mobile in a HCO 3 -rich, near-surface environment. Primary uranium present in the glass at 5 to 6 ppMU was similarly mobilized and, under favorable conditions, accumulated by precipitation of tetravalent uranium phases at sites of lower Eh. Known economic deposits are restricted to the lower coastal plain where there has been uranium production for more than twenty years. Although there are differences between the productive lower coastal plain and the middle and upper as to stratigraphy, mineralogical composition, and weathering history, labile volcaniclastic material and its alteration products are abundant throughout the Catahoula outcrop and shallow subsurface in Texas. To provide a geochemical basis of comparison, samples from the upper, middle, and lower Texas coastal plain and the Trans-Pecos source area were analyzed for uranium, thorium, potassium, rubidium, strontium, zirconium, and titanium. These include both labile and immobile elements. Typical levels of these elements in the source material and relatively unaltered Catahoula volcanic glass allows estimation of uranium loss from highly altered sections based on their immobile element content

  1. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  2. Eo-Oligocene Oil Shales of the Talawi, Lubuktaruk, and Kiliranjao Areas, West Sumatra: Are they potential source rocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.198To anticipate the increasing energy demand, additional data and information covering unconventional fossil fuels such as oil shale must be acquired to promote the usage of alternative energy sources to crude oil. The Talawi and Lubuktaruk regions situated within intra-montane Ombilin Basin, and the Kiliranjao assumed to be a small intra montane basin are occupied by Eo-Oligocene sediments of Sangkarewang and Kiliran Formations, respectively. Field activity, geochemical screening techniques, and organic petrographic analysis, supported by SEM mode, are methods used. Most of the oil shale sequence is typically of an organically rich-succession comprising predominantly well-bedded, laminated and fissile, brownish to dark grey organic-rich shale and mudstone rocks. The exinite macerals within oil shale comprise mainly Pediastrum-lamalginite with minor cutinite, resinite, liptodetrinite, sporinite, bituminite, and rare Botryococcus-telalginite. Therefore; the oil shale deposits can be described as “lamosites”. Minor vitrinite maceral is also recognized. TOC analysis on selected shale samples corresponds to a fair up to excellent category of source rock characterization. The hydrogen index (HI for all samples shows a range of values from 207 - 864, and pyrolysis yield (PY ranges from 2.67 to 79.72 mg HC/g rock. The kerogen is suggested to be of mixed Type II and Type I autochthonous materials such as alginite, with minor allochthonous substances. Oil samples collected appear to be positioned within more oil prone rather than gas prone. Thermal maturity of the oil shales gained from Tmax value and production index (PI tends to show immature to marginally/early mature stage. A consistency in the thermal maturity level results by using both Tmax and vitrinite reflectance value is recognized. On the basis of  SEM analysis, the oil shale has undergone a late eodiagenetic process. Thereby, overall, vitrinite reflectance

  3. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupoi, Jason S., E-mail: jlupoi@rjlg.com; Fritz, Luke P. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Parris, Thomas M. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hackley, Paul C. [UniversityS. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States); Solotky, Logan [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Schlaegle, Steve [RJ Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2017-09-27

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  4. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupoi, Jason S.; Fritz, Luke P.; Parris, Thomas M.; Hackley, Paul C.; Solotky, Logan; Eble, Cortland F.; Schlaegle, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo). VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM), and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral method to become an

  5. Assessment of Thermal Maturity Trends in Devonian–Mississippian Source Rocks Using Raman Spectroscopy: Limitations of Peak-Fitting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S. Lupoi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of shale is often measured by vitrinite reflectance (VRo. VRo measurements for the Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks evaluated herein predicted thermal immaturity in areas where associated reservoir rocks are oil-producing. This limitation of the VRo method led to the current evaluation of Raman spectroscopy as a suitable alternative for developing correlations between thermal maturity and Raman spectra. In this study, Raman spectra of Devonian–Mississippian black shale source rocks were regressed against measured VRo or sample-depth. Attempts were made to develop quantitative correlations of thermal maturity. Using sample-depth as a proxy for thermal maturity is not without limitations as thermal maturity as a function of depth depends on thermal gradient, which can vary through time, subsidence rate, uplift, lack of uplift, and faulting. Correlations between Raman data and vitrinite reflectance or sample-depth were quantified by peak-fitting the spectra. Various peak-fitting procedures were evaluated to determine the effects of the number of peaks and maximum peak widths on correlations between spectral metrics and thermal maturity. Correlations between D-frequency, G-band full width at half maximum (FWHM, and band separation between the G- and D-peaks and thermal maturity provided some degree of linearity throughout most peak-fitting assessments; however, these correlations and those calculated from the G-frequency, D/G FWHM ratio, and D/G peak area ratio also revealed a strong dependence on peak-fitting processes. This dependency on spectral analysis techniques raises questions about the validity of peak-fitting, particularly given the amount of subjective analyst involvement necessary to reconstruct spectra. This research shows how user interpretation and extrapolation affected the comparability of different samples, the accuracy of generated trends, and therefore, the potential of the Raman spectral

  6. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Yongqiang; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping

    2007-01-01

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition

  7. Compound-specific C- and H-isotope compositions of enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks: Implications for source identification of sedimentary organic matter and paleoenvironmental reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong Yongqiang [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)], E-mail: xiongyq@gig.ac.cn; Wang Yanmei; Wang Yongquan; Xu Shiping [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2007-11-15

    The Bohai Bay Basin is one of the most important oil-producing provinces in China. Molecular organic geochemical characteristics of Lower Paleozoic source rocks in this area have been investigated by analyzing chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts and acid-released organic matter from the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Jiyang Sub-basin of the Bohai Bay Basin. The results indicate that enclosed organic matter in carbonate rocks has not been recognizably altered by post-depositional processes. Two end-member compositions are suggested for early organic matter trapped in the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks: (1) a source dominated by aquatic organisms and deposited in a relatively deep marine environment and (2) a relatively high saline, evaporative marine depositional environment. In contrast, chemical and isotopic compositions of solvent extracts from these Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks are relatively complicated, not only inheriting original characteristics of their precursors, but also overprinted by various post-depositional alterations, such as thermal maturation, biodegradation and mixing. Therefore, the integration of both organic matter characteristics can provide more useful information on the origin of organic matter present in carbonate rocks and the environments of their deposition.

  8. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shand, P.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Love, A.J.; Edmunds, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  9. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shand, P., E-mail: paul.shand@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water/CRC LEME, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Darbyshire, D.P.F. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Love, A.J. [Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation, P.O. Box 2843, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Edmunds, W.M. [School of Geography, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, South Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  10. Strong-motion characteristics and source process during the Suruga Bay earthquake in 2009 through observed records on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Yoshiaki; Sato, Hiroaki; Kuriyama, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    On 11 August 2009, a moderate earthquake of M 6.5 occurred in the Suruga Bay region, south of Shizuoka prefecture. During this event, JMA Seismic Intensity reached 6 lower in several cities around the hypocenter, and at Hamaoka nuclear power plant of Chubu Electric Power reactors were automatically shutdown due to large ground motions. Though the epicenter is located at the eastern edge of source area for the assumed great Tokai earthquake of M 8, this event is classified into the intra-plate (intra-slab) earthquake, due to its focal depth lower than that of the plate boundary and fault geometry supposed from the moment tensor solution. Dense strong-motion observation network has been deployed mainly on the rock outcrops by our institute around the source area, and the waveform data of the main shock and several aftershocks were obtained at 13 stations within 100 km from the hypocenter. The observed peak ground motions and velocity response spectral amplitudes are both obviously larger than the empirical attenuation relations derived from the inland and plate-boundary earthquake data, which displays the characteristics of the intra-slab earthquake faulting. Estimated acceleration source spectra of the main shock also exhibit the short period level about 1.7 times larger than the average of those for past events, and it corresponds with the additional term in the attenuation curve of the peak ground acceleration for the intra-plate earthquake. Detailed source process of the main shock is inferred using the inversion technique. The initial source model is assumed to be composed of two distinct fault planes according to the minute aftershock distribution. Estimated source model shows that large slip occurred near the hypocenter and at the boundary region between two fault planes where the rupture transfers from primary to secondary fault. Furthermore the broadband source inversion using velocity motions in the frequency up to 5 Hz demonstrates the high effective

  11. Modeling tectonic heat flow and source rock maturity in the Rub' Al-Khali Basin (Saudi Arabia), with the help of GOCE satellite gravity data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Fattah, R.; Meekes, S.; Bouman, J.; Ebbing, J.; Haagmans, R.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D basin modeling study was carried out to reconstruct the regional heat flow and source rock maturity in the Rub'al-Khali basin. Gravity gradient data from the GOCE satellite were used to model deep structures, such as the Moho interface. Tectonic heat flow was modeled using the GOCE-based Moho

  12. Technical evaluation of the proposed changes in the technical specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, V.R.

    1979-12-01

    The technical evaluation is presented for the proposed changes to the Technical Specifications for emergency power sources for the Big Rock Point nuclear power plant. The criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the changes include those delineated in IEEE Std-308-1974, and IEEE Std-450-1975 as endorsed by US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.129

  13. Provenance, Source Rock Characteristics And Paleoweathering Conditions Of The Nearshore Continental Sediments Off Pondicherry, South East Coast Of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, T.; Seshachalam, S.; Ponniah, J.; Varadhan, R.; M, S.

    2008-05-01

    Geochemical studies, comprising major elements and trace elements, including the Rare Earth Elements (REE), have been carried out on the modern sediments of inner continental shelf representing nearshore marine environments. Concentrations were normalized with Chondrite and PAAS show LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with slight positive Eu anomaly which is due to the influence of feldspar rich source materials. The LREE enriched and flat HREE patterns with positive Eu anomaly have been considered as the typical character of post- Archaean Sediments. The La/Th ratio ranges from 1.66 to 8.84 with an average value of 4.09, which indicates a heterogenitic source for the sediments of the study area. The La-Th-Sc ternary plot suggests all the samples fall close to the field dominated by tonalite to granite and away from the basalt and komatiite compositions and appear to be derived from sources enriched in felsic components. The transition metal ratios such as Cr/V, Ni/CO and V/Ni indicate both Archaean and Post-Archaean nature to the sediments indicating that the sediments have been derived from heterogenitic sources. The ternary diagram plot of Th-Hf-Co and La-Th-Sc falls in the field of upper continental crust of post Archaean age. This clearly indicates the terrestrial source for the sediments from the nearby landmass. The data are slightly offset from the upper crustal composition away from the Hf apex. This is probably a result of Zircon concentration. Geochemical data have also helped in ascertaining the weathering trends. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) has been used to quantify the degree of weathering. The calculated CIA values for sediments demonstrate both low CIA values of less than 50 percent (low silicate weathering) and intermediate CIA values (60-70 percent) indicating that the sediments are possibly the product of sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks that have undergone intermediate chemical weathering. On an A—CN—K diagram, the data

  14. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  15. A new numerical model of the middle atmosphere. I - Dynamics and transport of tropospheric source gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.; Stordal, Frode; Solomon, Susan; Kiehl, Jeffrey T.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a new model of the middle atmosphere which includes, in addition to the equations governing the zonal mean state, a potential vorticity equation for a single planetary-scale Rossby wave, and an IR radiative transfer code for the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, which replaces the Newtonian cooling parameterization used previously. It is shown that explicit computation of the planetary-scale wave field yields a more realistic representation of the zonal mean dynamics and the distribution of trace chemical species. Wave breaking produces a well-mixed 'surf zone' equatorward of the polar night vortex and drives a meridional circulation with downwelling on the poleward side of the vortex. This combination of mixing and downwelling produces shallow meridional gradients of trace gases in the subtropics and middle latitudes, and very steep gradients at the edge of the polar vortex. Computed distributions of methane and nitrous oxide are shown to agree well with observations.

  16. Compositions, sources and depositional environments of organic matter from the Middle Jurassic clays of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marynowski, Leszek; Zaton, Michal; Simoneit, Bernd R.T.; Otto, Angelika; Jedrysek, Mariusz O.; Grelowski, Cezary; Kurkiewicz, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    The comprehensive biomarker characteristics from previously undescribed Middle Jurassic clays of Poland are presented. The molecular composition of the organic matter (OM) derived from clays of Aalenian to Callovian age has not changed significantly through time. High relative concentrations of many biomarkers typical for terrestrial material suggest a distinct dominance of OM derived from land plants. Increasing concentrations of C 29 -diaster-13(17)-enes towards the northern part of the basin indicate an increase in terrestrial input. This terrestrial material would have originated from the enhanced transport of organic matter from land situated at the northern bank of the basin, i.e., the Fennoscandian Shield. The organic matter was deposited in an oxic to suboxic environment, as indicated by relatively low concentrations of C 33 -C 35 homohopanes, moderate to high Pr/Ph ratio values, an absence of compounds characteristic for anoxia and water column stratification, such as isorenieratane, aryl isoprenoids and gammacerane, as well as common benthic fauna and burrows. δ 18 O measurements from calcitic rostra of belemnites suggest that the mean value of the Middle Jurassic sea-water temperature of the Polish Basin was 13.1 deg. C. It is suggested that this mirrored the temperature of the lower water column because belemnites are considered here to be necto-benthic. The organic matter from the Middle Jurassic basin of Poland is immature. This is clearly indicated by a large concentration of biomarkers with the biogenic configurations, such as ββ-hopanes, hop-13(18)-enes, hop-17(21)-enes, diasterenes and sterenes. The identification of preserved, unaltered biomolecules like ferruginol, 6,7-dehydroferruginol and sugiol in Protopodocarpoxylon wood samples from these sediments present particularly strong evidence for the presence of immature OM in the Middle Jurassic sediments. Moreover, the occurrence of these polar diterpenoids is important due to the fact that

  17. Water as a Source of Cooperation or Conflict in the Middle East,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-14

    supported Middle East study on "The Future of Islamic Fundementalism in the Arab World in the 1980’s," and find them very helpful. We will welcome...into an economic crisis that permitted no investment in industrial Infrastruc- ture. The austerity program and food rationing only ended in 1955. Jordan...agricultural facilities were installed in the 1970s, is already heavily invested in water-saving drip irrigation. Israel’s installation& installed earlier, are

  18. The subduction erosion and mantle source region contamination model of Andean arc magmatism: Isotopic evidence from igneous rocks of central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Charles R

    2001-01-01

    Continental crust may be incorporated in mantle-derived Andean magmas as these magmas rise through the crust (Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988), or alternatively, crust may be tectonically transported into the mantle by subduction of trench sediments and subduction erosion of the continental margin, and then added into the mantle source region of Andean magmas (Stern, 1991). Since the mantle has relatively low Sr, Nd, and Pb concentrations compared to continental crust, differences in the isotopic compositions of magmas erupted in different region of the Andes may be produced by relatively small differences in the amount of subducted crust added to the mantle source region of these magmas. By comparison, significantly larger amounts of crust must be assimilated by mantle-derived magmas to produce isotopic differences of similar magnitude. Therefore, constraining the process by which continental crust is incorporated in Andean magmas has important implications for understanding the chemical cycling that takes place in the Andean subduction-related magma factory. Isotopic data suggest the incorporation of a greater proportion of crust in Andean magmas erupted at the northern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of central Chile compared to those erupted in the southern portion of the Southern Volcanic Zone of south central Chile (SSVZ) (Stern et al., 1984; Futa and Stern, 1988; Hildreth and Moorbath, 1988). The NSVZ occurs just south of the current locus of the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge. The southward migration of the locus of subduction of this ridge has resulted in decreasing subduction angle below the NSVZ, the eastward migration of the volcanic front of the Andean arc, and an increase in the crustal thickness below the arc. These factors together have caused changes, since the middle Miocene, in the isotopic composition of Andean igneous rocks of central Chile. The data indicate a close chronologic relation between the southward migrations of the locus

  19. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Xiong Luo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied based on petrography and the “single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping” method. The Upper Permian Wujiaping Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks and clastic rocks, with lesser amounts of siliceous rocks, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic rocks and coal. The rocks can be divided into three types, including clastic rock, clastic rock–limestone and limestone–siliceous rock, and four fundamental ecological types and four fossil assemblages are recognized in the Wujiaping Stage. Based on a petrological and palaeoecological study, six single factors were selected, namely, thickness (m, content (% of marine rocks, content (% of shallow water carbonate rocks, content (% of biograins with limemud, content (% of thin-bedded siliceous rocks and content (% of deep water sedimentary rocks. Six single factors maps of the Wujiaping Stage and one lithofacies palaeogeography map of the Wujiaping Age were composed. Palaeogeographic units from west to east include an eroded area, an alluvial plain, a clastic rock platform, a carbonate rock platform where biocrowds developed, a slope and a basin. In addition, a clastic rock platform exists in the southeast of the study area. Hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir conditions were preliminarily analyzed based on lithofacies palaeogeography. Sedimentary environments have obvious controls over the development of the resource rocks. With regard to the abundance of organic matter, the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal swamp environment is the best, followed by the basin environment and the carbonate rock platform. The gas reservoir types of the Wujiaping Stage can be classified as conventional and unconventional gas reservoirs, like coal bed gas and shale gas; all of them have well exploration prospects.

  20. The P300 in middle cerebral artery strokes or hemorrhages: Outcome predictions and source localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Mana R; López Herrero, Carmen; Kastrup, Andreas; Hildebrandt, Helmut

    2015-08-01

    There are no reliable outcome predictors for severely impaired patients suffering from large infarctions or hemorrhages within the territory of the middle cerebral artery. This study investigated whether the amplitude of the event-related potential (ERP) component P300 predicts if a patient will be transferred to the next stage of rehabilitation (positive outcome) or to a nursing home (negative outcome). The second goal was to look for lesion locations determining the generation of the P300 amplitude. Forty-seven patients performed an auditory oddball task to elicit the P300 and were assessed with different scores for activities of daily living (ADL). Patients were divided in two groups according to their outcome. P300 amplitudes were compared between these groups controlling for age and gender. Post-hoc analyses were performed to analyse the relationship between P300 amplitude and neurological outcome scores. In addition, lesion overlaps were created to detect which lesion pattern affects P300 generation. Patients with a positive outcome showed higher P300 amplitudes at frontal electrode sites than those with a negative outcome. P300 amplitude correlated with ADL score difference. Lesions in the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal and prefrontal regions led to visibly diminished P300 amplitudes. The findings suggest that an impairment of attention (P300 amplitude reduction) negatively influences successful neurological rehabilitation. Left superior temporal lobe and the left premotor/prefrontal areas are essential brain areas for the generation of the P300. P300 amplitude may be used as an outcome predictor for severely impaired patients suffering from middle cerebral artery strokes or hemorrhages. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Source rock formation evaluation using TOC & Ro log model based on well-log data procesing: study case of Ngimbang formation, North East Java basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatahillah Yosar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ngimbang Formation is known as one major source of hydrocarbon supply in the North Eastern Java Basin. Aged Mid-Eocene, Ngimbang is dominated by sedimentary clastic rocks mostly shale, shaly sandstone, and thick layers of limestone (CD Limestone, with thin layers of coal. Although, laboratory analyses show the Ngimbang Formation to be a relatively rich source-rocks, such data are typically too limited to regionally quantify the distribution of organic matter. To adequately sample the formation both horizontally and vertically on a basin–wide scale, large number of costly and time consuming laboratory analyses would be required. Such analyses are prone to errors from a number of sources, and core data are frequently not available at key locations. In this paper, the authors established four TOC (Total Organic Carbon Content logging calculation models; Passey, Schmoker-Hester, Meyer-Nederloff, and Decker/Density Model by considering the geology of Ngimbang. Well data along with its available core data was used to determine the most suitable model to be applied in the well AFA-1, as well as to compare the accuracy of these TOC model values. The result shows good correlation using Decker (TOC Model and Mallick-Raju (Ro- Vitrinite Reflectance Model. Two source rocks potential zones were detected by these log models.

  2. Energy: Sources and Issues. Science Syllabus for Middle and Junior High Schools. Block I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Jane E.; O'Neil, Karen E.

    This syllabus provides a list of concepts and understandings related to four areas of energy. They are: (1) the nature of energy (an energy definition, basic categories of energy, forms of energy, laws of energy conversion, and measuring energy); (2) energy sources of the past and present (history of energy use and present major sources of…

  3. Application of uniaxial confining-core clamp with hydrous pyrolysis in petrophysical and geochemical studies of source rocks at various thermal maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Understanding changes in petrophysical and geochemical parameters during source rock thermal maturation is a critical component in evaluating source-rock petroleum accumulations. Natural core data are preferred, but obtaining cores that represent the same facies of a source rock at different thermal maturities is seldom possible. An alternative approach is to induce thermal maturity changes by laboratory pyrolysis on aliquots of a source-rock sample of a given facies of interest. Hydrous pyrolysis is an effective way to induce thermal maturity on source-rock cores and provide expelled oils that are similar in composition to natural crude oils. However, net-volume increases during bitumen and oil generation result in expanded cores due to opening of bedding-plane partings. Although meaningful geochemical measurements on expanded, recovered cores are possible, the utility of the core for measuring petrophysical properties relevant to natural subsurface cores is not suitable. This problem created during hydrous pyrolysis is alleviated by using a stainless steel uniaxial confinement clamp on rock cores cut perpendicular to bedding fabric. The clamp prevents expansion just as overburden does during natural petroleum formation in the subsurface. As a result, intact cores can be recovered at various thermal maturities for the measurement of petrophysical properties as well as for geochemical analyses. This approach has been applied to 1.7-inch diameter cores taken perpendicular to the bedding fabric of a 2.3- to 2.4-inch thick slab of Mahogany oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation. Cores were subjected to hydrous pyrolysis at 360 °C for 72 h, which represents near maximum oil generation. One core was heated unconfined and the other was heated in the uniaxial confinement clamp. The unconfined core developed open tensile fractures parallel to the bedding fabric that result in a 38 % vertical expansion of the core. These open fractures did not occur in the

  4. Pre-earthquake signals – Part I: Deviatoric stresses turn rocks into a source of electric currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes are feared because they often strike so suddenly. Yet, there are innumerable reports of pre-earthquake signals. Widespread disagreement exists in the geoscience community how these signals can be generated in the Earth's crust and whether they are early warning signs, related to the build-up of tectonic stresses before major seismic events. Progress in understanding and eventually using these signals has been slow because the underlying physical process or processes are basically not understood. This has changed with the discovery that, when igneous or high-grade metamorphic rocks are subjected to deviatoric stress, dormant electronic charge carriers are activated: electrons and defect electrons. The activation increases the number density of mobile charge carriers in the rocks and, hence, their electric conductivity. The defect electrons are associated with the oxygen anion sublattice and are known as positive holes or pholes for short. The boundary between stressed and unstressed rock acts a potential barrier that lets pholes pass but blocks electrons. Therefore, like electrons and ions in an electrochemical battery, the stress-activated electrons and pholes in the "rock battery" have to flow out in different directions. When the circuit is closed, the battery currents can flow. The discovery of such stress-activated currents in crustal rocks has far-reaching implications for understanding pre-earthquake signals.

  5. The Prevalence and Quality of Source Attribution in Middle and High School Science Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Michelle; Weaver, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism is a commonly cited problem in higher education, especially in scientific writing and assignments for science courses. Students may not intentionally plagiarize, but may instead be confused about what proper source attribution entails. Much of this confusion likely stems from high school, either from lack of or inconsistent instruction…

  6. NEW PALEOMAGNETIC DATA ON THE SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN SEDIMENTARY ROCKS FROM PODOLIA, SW UKRAINE, AND KINEMATICS OF THE EAST EUROPEAN PLATFORM IN THE MIDDLE PALEOZOIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bakhmutov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetic data are the priority source of information for global paleotectonic reconstructions representing horizontal movements of the crustal blocks. Upon receipt of new paleomagnetic data, kinematic models of the East European platform in the Paleozoic are regularly revised and improved. The article presents results of the paleomagnetic study of sedimentary gray-colored and red beds of the Silurian and Lower Devonian sequences located in the Dniester river basin, Podolia region, SW Ukraine. The study covered 17 outcrops that are stratigraphically correlated with the Wenlock, Ludlow, Pridoli states of the Sillurian and the Lochkovian stage of the Devon. Over 400 samples of grey limestone, argillite, dolomite, red limestone and sandstone were analyzed, and two components of natural remnant magnetization (NRM were revealed. The first component with SSW declination and negative inclination is revealed in the majority of the samples during AF- and T-magnetic cleaning. Its pole positions, that are calculated separately for each series, are trending to the Permian segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP published by Torsvik et al. [2012] for Baltica / Stable Europe. Considering its chemical origin, this NRM component is related to formation of authigenic minerals due to rock remagnetization. The second component is revealed only in some samples taken from the red beds (during thermal demagnetization in the range of unblocking temperatures from 590 to 690 °С and in few samples of grey limestone (in AF fields from 30 to 70 mT or in the range of unblocking temperatures from 300 to 460 °С. This component has SW declination and positive inclination, goes to the origin of coordinates of the diagrams, and has all the indicators of primary magnetization of sediments. Calculated positions of the poles (0 ºS and 329 ºE for grey limestone of the Tiverskaya series, 2.3 °S and 338.4 °E for red beds of the Dniestrovskaya series, etc. are well

  7. Pre-Messinian (Sub-Salt Source-Rock Potential on Back-Stop Basins of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Central Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravelis A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Greek part of the Mediterranean Ridge suggests, in terms of its hydrocarbon potential, further frontier exploration. The geological similarities between its prolific portions, within the Cyprus and Egyptian Exclusive Economic Zones, indicate possible recoverable natural gas reserves in its Greek portion. Nevertheless it lacks of systematic frontier exploration although direct petroleum indicators occur. Active mud volcanoes on the Mediterranean Ridge, still emitting concurrently gas and gas hydrates, have not been yet assessed even though are strongly related to hydrocarbon occurrence worldwide (Caspian Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Western African Basin, Trinidad-Tobago, the Nile Cone. For this reason, the source rock potential of the Late Miocene lacustrine deposits on a backstop basin of the Hellenic Trench System (Messara Basin, Crete, Greece, was studied. The obtained pyrolysis data indicate that the containing organic matter is present in sufficient abundance and with good enough quality to be regarded as potential source rocks. The observed type III kerogen suggests gas generation potential. Although indications of higher thermal evolution occur the studied rocks suggest low maturation levels. The biogenic gas seeps in the studied research well further demonstrate the regional gas generation potential.

  8. A study of light hydrocarbons (C{sub 4}-C{sub 1}3) in source rocks and petroleum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odden, Wenche

    2000-07-01

    This thesis consists of an introduction and five included papers. Of these, four papers are published in international journals and the fifth was submitted for review in April 2000. Emphasis has been placed on both naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons in petroleum fluids and their proposed source rocks as well as direct application of light hydrocarbons to oil/source rock correlations. Collectively, these papers describe a strategy for interpreting the source of the light hydrocarbons in original oils and condensates as well as the source of the asphaltene fractions from the reservoir fluids. The influence of maturity on light hydrocarbon composition has also been evaluated. The papers include (1) compositional data on the light hydrocarbons from thermal extracts and kerogen pyrolysates of sediment samples, (2) light hydrocarbon data of oils and condensates as well as the pyrolysis products of the asphaltenes from these fluids, (3) assessment of compositional alteration effects, such as selective losses of light hydrocarbons due to evaporation, thermal maturity, phase fractionation and biodegradation, (4) comparison of naturally and artificially generated light hydrocarbons, and (5) compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of the whole range of hydrocarbons of all sample types. (author)

  9. Mechanical study of the Chartreuse Fold-and-Thrust Belt: relationships between fluids overpressure and decollement within the Toarcian source-rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelon, Josselin; Sassi, William; Burov, Evgueni

    2016-04-01

    Many source-rocks are shale and constitute potential detachment levels in Fold-and-Thrust Belts (FTB): the toarcian Schistes-Cartons in the French Chartreuse FTB for example. Their mechanical properties can change during their burial and thermal maturation, as for example when large amount of hydrocarbon fluids are generated. A structural reconstruction of the Chartreuse FTB geo-history places the Toarcian Formation as the major decollement horizon. In this work, a mechanical analysis integrating the fluids overpressuring development is proposed to discuss on the validity of the structural interpretation. At first, an analogue of the Chartreuse Toarcian Fm, the albanian Posidonia Schist, is documented as it can provide insights on its initial properties and composition of its kerogen content. Laboratory characterisation documents the vertical evolution of the mineralogical, geochemical and mechanical parameters of this potential decollement layer. These physical parameters (i.e. Total Organic Carbon (TOC), porosity/permeability relationship, friction coefficient) are used to address overpressure buildup in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB with TEMISFlow Arctem Basin modelling approach (Faille et al, 2014) and the structural emplacement of the Chartreuse thrust units using the FLAMAR thermo-mechanical model (Burov et al, 2014). The hydro-mechanical modeling results highlight the calendar, distribution and magnitude of the overpressure that developed within the source-rock in the footwall of a simple fault-bend fold structure localized in the frontal part of the Chartreuse FTB. Several key geological conditions are required to create an overpressure able to fracture the shale-rocks and induce a significant change in the rheological behaviour: high TOC, low permeability, favourable structural evolution. These models highlight the importance of modeling the impact of a diffuse natural hydraulic fracturing to explain fluids propagation toward the foreland within

  10. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  11. Water-rock-tailings interactions and sources of sulfur and metals in the subtropical mining region of Taxco, Guerrero (southern Mexico): A multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquin; Díaz Villaseñor, Elvia; Ramírez Guzmán, Alejandro; Cortés, Alejandra; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Dótor Almazán, Azucena; Rivera Bustos, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-isotope (H, O, S, Sr, Pb) systems coupled with conventional (major and trace element) hydrogeochemical analysis were applied to determine the origin of water, to model water-rock-tailings interactions and for source apportionment of sulfur and associated toxic metals in the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico. Oxygen and H isotopes indicate that meteoric water in the zone is rainwater undergoing varying degrees of isotopic fractionation by atmospheric evaporation whereas Sr isotopes trace the interaction of pristine water from volcanics of the regional recharge zone and subsequently flowing through sandstone and shale to spring points. Leachates form from two distinctive sources (spring water and surface water) having differential interactions with bedrocks prior to entering the tailings. Compared to pristine water, leachates are enriched in sulfate, metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloids (e.g. As). The sulfur isotopic composition of ore-sulfides, leachates, secondary precipitates, regional surface water and hypogenic sulfates is described in terms of a two-component mixing model with shale of Mexcala and limestone of Morelos formations representing the light and heavy end-members, respectively, whereas Sr isotopic composition is bracketed combining three lithogenic (Mexcala/Morelos, Tilzapotla and Taxco Schist) sources. Finally, leachates have a mixture of lead from ore-sulfides and Taxco Schist Formation (Family I) or from ore-sulfides alone (Family II). The application of multiple environmental isotopic techniques is an outstanding tool for elucidating complex interactions of water with bedrocks and tailings and for determining the source of sulfur and toxic metal from mining and other metal polluted environments. - Highlights: • We applied multi-isotope techniques to model water-bedrocks-tailings interaction. • Spring water records fractionation by evaporation and interaction with local rocks. • The sulfur cycle is modeled in

  12. Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Orogenic Gold Deposit Type as a Source of Langkowala Placer Gold, Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Idrus, Arifudin; Nur, I; Warmada, I. W; Fadlin, Fadlin

    2011-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.114In 2008, placer gold was discovered in Langkowala area (Bombana Regency), Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, and more than 60,000 traditional gold miners in the early 2009 have been operating by digging vertical pits and panning active stream sediments. The grade of placer gold ranges from 50 to 140 g/t. Local geological framework indicates that the placer gold is not related to volcanic rock-related hydrothermal gold deposit, e.g. epithermal, skarn or porphyry. This pa...

  13. U-Pb La-ICP-ms geochronology and regional correlation of middle Jurassic intrusive rocks from the Garzon Massif, Upper Magdalena Valley and central cordillera, southern Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Camilo; Cardona, Agustin; Bayona, German; Mora, Andres; Valencia, Victor; Gehrels, George; Vervoort, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    New U-Pb zircon geochronology from four granitic units sampled along a southeast-northwest transect between the Garzon massif and the Serrania de las Minas (central cordillera), records a middle Jurassic magmatic activity with two different spatio-temporal domains at ca. 189 ma and 180-173 ma. Reconnaissance data suggest that the four granitoids are characterized by mineralogical and geochemical characteristics akin to a continental magmatic arc setting. The new results suggest that the southern Colombian continental margin includes remnants of tectonomagmatic elements formed by the subduction of the Farallon plate under the South American continental margin. This middle Jurassic arc magmatism is part of the broader Andean scale arc province, and is significant for understanding the tectonic and paleogeographic scenario that characterized the Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the northern Andes.

  14. Tomographic imaging of rock conditions ahead of mining using the shearer as a seismic source - A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, X.; King, A.; Van de Werken, M. [CSIRO, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Roof falls due to poor rock conditions in a coal longwall panel may threaten miner's life and cause significant interruption to mine production. There has been a requirement for technologies that are capable of imaging the rock conditions in longwall coal mining, ahead of the working face and without any interruption to production. A feasibility study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of seismic signals generated by the continuous coal cutter (shearer) and recorded by geophone arrays deployed ahead of the working face, for the purpose of seismic tomographic imaging of roof strata condition before mining. Two experiments were conducted at a coal mine using two arrays of geophones. The experiments have demonstrated that the longwall shearer generates strong and low-frequency (similar to 40 Hz) seismic energy that can be adequately detected by geophones deployed in shallow boreholes along the roadways as far as 300 m from the face. Using noise filtering and signal cross correlation techniques, the seismic arrival times associated with the shearer cutting can be reliably determined. It has proved the concept that velocity variations ahead of the face can be mapped out using tomographic techniques while mining is in progress.

  15. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  16. Tectono-thermal Evolution of the Lower Paleozoic Petroleum Source Rocks in the Southern Lublin Trough: Implications for Shale Gas Exploration from Maturity Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botor, Dariusz

    2018-03-01

    The Lower Paleozoic basins of eastern Poland have recently been the focus of intensive exploration for shale gas. In the Lublin Basin potential unconventional play is related to Lower Silurian source rocks. In order to assess petroleum charge history of these shale gas reservoirs, 1-D maturity modeling has been performed. In the Łopiennik IG-1 well, which is the only well that penetrated Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area, the uniform vitrinite reflectance values within the Paleozoic section are interpreted as being mainly the result of higher heat flow in the Late Carboniferous to Early Permian times and 3500 m thick overburden eroded due to the Variscan inversion. Moreover, our model has been supported by zircon helium and apatite fission track dating. The Lower Paleozoic strata in the study area reached maximum temperature in the Late Carboniferous time. Accomplished tectono-thermal model allowed establishing that petroleum generation in the Lower Silurian source rocks developed mainly in the Devonian - Carboniferous period. Whereas, during Mesozoic burial, hydrocarbon generation processes did not develop again. This has negative influence on potential durability of shale gas reservoirs.

  17. Evaluation of host rocks and background lithologies as secondary contributors to the uranium and rare-earth element source-term at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyslop, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites in the UK as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic database and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes a study of the distributions of uranium (U) and the rare-earth elements (REE) in the vicinity of pitchblende veins outcropping in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coats, SW Scotland. This report improves the information available on the secondary source-terms of U and REE. The minerals in the country rocks are thought to be supplying only minor amounts of these elements to the groundwaters flowing into the Merse silts within the detailed study area close to the mineralisation in the cliff. The pitchblende veins are the principal source-term for U migrating into the Merse silts at the foot of the cliff. (author)

  18. Determined Initial lead for South Of Isua (SOI) terrain suggests a single homogeneous source for it and possibly other archaean rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tera, F.

    2011-12-01

    other rocks from Isua Greenstone Belt (1) and Amîtsoq gneiss (4) fall inside the TULIP triangle of SOI, suggesting potential derivation of these Archaean rocks from the same homogeneous source.

  19. The mineralogy and petrology of I-type cosmic spherules: Implications for their sources, origins and identification in sedimentary rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genge, Matthew J.; Davies, Bridie; Suttle, Martin D.; van Ginneken, Matthias; Tomkins, Andrew G.

    2017-12-01

    I-type cosmic spherules are micrometeorites that formed by melting during atmospheric entry and consist mainly of iron oxides and FeNi metal. I-types are important because they can readily be recovered from sedimentary rocks allowing study of solar system events over geological time. We report the results of a study of the mineralogy and petrology of 88 I-type cosmic spherules recovered from Antarctica in order to evaluate how they formed and evolved during atmospheric entry, to constrain the nature of their precursors and to establish rigorous criteria by which they may be conclusively identified within sediments and sedimentary rocks. Two textural types of I-type cosmic spherule are recognised: (1) metal bead-bearing (MET) spherules dominated by Ni-poor (100 and suggest that metal from H-group ordinary, CM, CR and iron meteorites may form the majority of particles. Oxidation during entry heating increases in the series MET 80 wt% Ni comprising a particle mass fraction of exchange of Ni between wüstite and metal, and magnetite and wüstite are suggested as proxies for the rate of oxidation and cooling rate respectively. Variations in magnetite and wüstite crystal sizes are also suggested to relate to cooling rate allowing relative entry angle of particles to be evaluated. The formation of secondary metal in the form of sub-micron Ni-rich or Pt-group nuggets and as symplectite with magnetite was also identified and suggested to occur largely due to the exsolution of metallic alloys during decomposition of non-stoichiometric wüstite. Weathering is restricted to replacement of metal by iron hydroxides. The following criteria are recommended for the conclusive identification of I-type spherules within sediments and sedimentary rocks: (i) spherical particle morphologies, (ii) dendritic crystal morphologies, (iii) the presence of wüstite and magnetite, (iv) Ni-bearing wüstite and magnetite, and (v) the presence of relict FeNi metal.

  20. Detrital Zircons From the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer, Western Australia: Geochronological, Morphological, and Geochemical Evidence for Diverse >4000 Ma Source Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J. L.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.; Cox, R. A.

    2004-05-01

    Detrital zircons from all major clastic units in the Jack Hills and Mount Narryer metasedimentary belts, Western Australia, were analyzed for morphology, internal zoning, inclusion mineralogy, age, and trace element concentrations (latter two obtained by laser-ablation microprobe ICPMS). The results show that zircons were derived from a wide diversity of rocks, including previously described, >4000 Ma grains that are older than any known terrestrial rocks. In three metaconglomerate samples from the western Jack Hills, 4200-3800 Ma zircons ("old grains") comprise 14% of the population, 3800-3600 Ma grains form only 2%, and 3550-3250 Ma zircons ("young grains") are dominant with a significant peak at 3380 Ma. Old and young grains are interpreted as being from similar rock types because they are indistinguishable in trace element concentrations, size (several hundred microns), morphology (subequant, typically fragmented), internal zoning (typically both oscillatory and sector), and U concentration (50-200 ppm). Many of these properties suggest an intermediate plutonic source, whereas an evolved granitic source was previously interpreted from rare-earth element and oxygen isotope data. Detrital zircons in quartzites and metaconglomerates at Mount Narryer differ significantly from zircons from the western Jack Hills. Old grains comprise only 3% (most of which are 4200-4100 Ma), 3800-3600 Ma zircons form 31%, and there are peaks at 3650, 3600, and 3500 Ma. Old and young grains have similar properties that suggest granitic sources, such as elongate prismatic morphology, oscillatory zoning, high U concentrations (100-600 ppm), and xenotime and monazite inclusions. Trace element concentrations are broadly similar to those in Jack Hills zircons, with notable exceptions being generally higher U, smaller Ce and Eu anomalies, and lower Nb/Ta. It is considered unlikely that Jack Hills zircons were derived from granitic gneisses that surround the metasedimentary belts because

  1. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  2. Comparative efficiency of high (trip super phosphate) and low (rock phosphate) grade p nutrition source enriched with organic amendment in maize crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabah, N.U.; Sarwar, G.; Tahir, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan falls under arid to semi-arid climate and therefore, Pakistani soils are sufferer of phosphorus deficiency. Costly phosphatic commercial fertilizers and their unavailability at the time of crop demand is the burning issue in Pakistan. Under such circumstances, use of locally available rock phosphate (RP) grasps the interest of researchers now a day. Pakistan has blessed with considerable quantity of cheaper low grade RP in Abbottabad and Hazara districts of KPK province. Due to this scenario, a pot experiment was carried out to evaluate growth efficiency of maize crop by adding organic manure fortified with RP in comparison with TSP in normal soil (pHs= 8.15, ECe= 1.28 dSm-1, SAR = 4.77 mmol L-1, saturation percentage = 29% and sandy clay loam texture). The study was comprised of 7 treatments replicated three times including: T1 = Control (0 P); T2 = Recommended NK + organic material; T3 = Recommended NK + RRP; T4 = Recommended NK + RRP + OM; T5 = Recommended NK + TSP; T6 = Recommended NK + TSP + OM and T7 = N + K + TSP + 0.5 Organic manure. It was concluded that integrated use of organic amendment with RP (Local Hazara Red Rock Phosphate) and TSP proved superior as compared to their sole use on maize crop growth. A significant increase in available P concentration of the growth medium was observed due to addition of organic material along with TSP as a source of P. Addition of organic material also enhanced the soil carbon level as compared to control. It can be concluded that rock phosphate (RP) could be an effective and economic substitution for TSP when it is integrated with suitable organic amendment with specific size. (author)

  3. Average contents of uranium and thorium in the most important types of rocks of the Ukrainian shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belevtsev, Ya.N.; Egorov, Yu.P.; Titov, V.K.; Sukhinin, A.M.; Grechishnikova, Z. M.; Zayats, V.B.; Tikhonenko, V.A.; Zhukova, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    The data given concern uranium and thorium contents in the most important rock types of the Ukraina shield. The smallest quantities of uranium are characteristic for the vulcanic rocks of basic and ultrabasic rocks. Archean formations, whose source materials were mainly basic and ultrabasic vulcanites, are marked by this low uranium content. The highest uranium content is observed in the clastogenic rocks of low Proterozoic. The average uranium content is observed in silty argellite rocks represented by crystal slates and paragneissis. Rheomorphic and metasomatic granites and granosyenites of low and middle Proterozoic are also characterized by an increased content of uranium. The platform precipitation rocks of high Proterozoic possess a relatively low uranium content. Thorium concentrations with low thorium-uranium proportions in granites, syenites and granosyenites prove their enrichment in uranium

  4. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Youbin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the petrological study, according to single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method, the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage of the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied. The Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks; in addition, clastic and siliceous rocks occur with rare coals and pyroclastic rocks. Lithofacies can be divided into five types, including clastic rock assemblage, clastic rock–limestone assemblage, limestone assemblage, limestone–siliceous rock assemblage, and siliceous rock–clastic rock assemblage. Four fundamental ecological types and five fossil assemblages were recognized in the Changxing Stage. On the basis of the petrological and palaeoecological study, eight single factors were chosen including thickness, content of marine rocks, content of shallow water carbonate rocks, content of bioclasts with limemud matrix, content of bioclasts with sparry cement, distribution of reefs, content of thin bedded siliceous rocks and content of deep water sedimentary rocks. And eight single factor maps and one lithofacies paleogeographic map of the Changxing Stage were compiled. Paleoenvironments from west to east include an erosional area, fluvial plain, clastic platform, carbonate platform and reefs that developed there, slope and basin, low energy organic banks, and high energy organic banks. Sedimentary environments have an obvious control on the development of the source rocks, and the excellent source rocks are developed in the Dalong Formation. Changxing Stage reservoirs should be dominated by the reef and platform surrounding the Guangyuan–Liangping Basin rim area, and is the most favorable exploration area of the reef petroleum reservoirs of the Changxing Formation.

  5. Tracing the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain, India: a source identification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Kumar, Manish; Ramanathan, A L; Tsujimura, Maki

    2010-04-01

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is of increasing concern because of its high toxicity and widespread occurrence. This study is an effort to trace the factors responsible for arsenic enrichment in groundwater of the middle Gangetic Plain of India through major ion chemistry, arsenic speciation, sediment grain-size analyses, and multivariate statistical techniques. The study focuses on the distinction between the contributions of natural weathering and anthropogenic inputs of arsenic with its spatial distribution and seasonal variations in the plain of the state Bihar of India. Thirty-six groundwater and one sediment core samples were collected in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Various graphical plots and statistical analysis were carried out using chemical data to enable hydrochemical evaluation of the aquifer system based on the ionic constituents, water types, hydrochemical facies, and factors controlling groundwater quality. Results suggest that the groundwater is characterized by slightly alkaline pH with moderate to strong reducing nature. The general trend of various ions was found to be Ca(2+) > Na(+) > Mg(2+) > K(+) > NH(4) (+); and HCO(3) (-) > Cl(-) > SO(4) (2-) > NO(3) (-) > PO(4) (3-) > F(-) in both seasons. Spatial and temporal variations showed a slightly higher arsenic concentration in the pre-monsoon period (118 microg/L) than in the post-monsoon period (114 microg/L). Results of correlation analyses indicate that arsenic contamination is strongly associated with high concentrations of Fe, PO(4) (3-), and NH(4) (+) but relatively low Mn concentrations. Further, the enrichment of arsenic is more prevalent in the proximity of the Ganges River, indicating that fluvial input is the main source of arsenic. Grain size analyses of sediment core samples revealed clay (fine-grained) strata between 4.5 and 7.5 m deep that govern the vertical distribution of arsenic. The weathering of carbonate and silicate minerals along with surface

  6. Evaluation of phosphate rock as a p-source in the cropping system of upland rice - soybean - mungbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasyid, Havid; Sisworo, Elsye L.; Siswoyo, Wijang H.

    1998-01-01

    A seri of pot fertilizer experiments has ben carried out in the cropping system of upland rice - soybean - mungbean by using Red Yellow podsolic soil from Batumerta, South Sumatra. Three phosphate rock (PR) with 3 different sizes and 2 levels of tsp were used as a check and were applied in this study. The results showed that fertilization with PR could increase weight of day plant, % total-P, and total-P uptake . The contribution of P-derived from PR and TSP was determined using the dilution method 32 P isotope. the values for P-derived from PR or TSP raged from 26. % to 89.4 % efficiency of was from 0.15 % to 1.66%, and for TSP it ranged from 1.78 % to 20.0%. Increasing the levels of P-fertilizer either PR or TSP will decrease the P efficiency. Where the order for plants are : efficiency of P upland rice >soybean > mungbean. (author)

  7. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  8. Novel maturity parameters for mature to over-mature source rocks and oils based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Two additional novel and an optimized maturation parameters based on the distribution of phenanthrene series compounds are proposed and their relationships to EasyRo% (x are established: log(MPs/P = 0.19x + 0.08 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 2.1%; log(MPs/P = 0.64x − 0.86 (2.1% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(DMPs/TMPs = 0.71x − 0.55 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%; log(MTR = 0.84x − 0.75 (0.9% < EasyRo% < 3.4%. These significant positive correlations are strong argument for using log(MPs/P, log(DMPs/TMPs and log(MTR as maturity parameters, especially for mature to over-mature source rocks.

  9. Organic-rich shales from internal Betic basins (SE Spain): potential source rocks analogs for the pre-Messinian Salt play in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Permanyer, A.; Jorge, R.; Baudino, R.; Gilbert, L.

    2016-07-01

    Southeastern Spain has a large number of Late Neogene basins with substantial evaporitic deposits that developed under an overall NNW-SSE compressional regime related to the African-European tectonic plates collision. Located in the Betic Cordillera, they can be considered as marginal Mediterranean basins that became gradually isolated during the Tortonian and Early Messinian due to tectonic uplift. Different evaporitic units accumulated in these basins during isolation and, in several cases, evaporitic conditions were associated to episodes of important organic matter accumulation. Results obtained from Late Tortonian to Early Messinian shales collected from boreholes, mines and outcrops in the internal Betic basins of Las Minas de Hellín, Cenajo and Socovos are presented. The organic matter was studied under fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the main geochemical characteristics defined. They show a relation between organic-rich intervals with high potential of hydrocarbon generation, native sulfur, bio-induced dolomite and evaporitic deposits. These organicrich shales can be found before, during and after the evaporitic episodes. Results from the present study are compared with those previously obtained in the pre-evaporitic deposits of the Lorca Basin that showed high oil generation potential, a restricted-marine origin of the organic matter and a low degree of maturity. The occurrence of such potential source rocks in several basins points to a broad regional distribution. At a larger scale, in the Mediterranean Basin, organic-rich sediments were deposited before and during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The studied examples could represent analogs for potential source rocks of the pre-Messinian salt play in the Western Mediterranean. (Author)

  10. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  11. Fundamental observations concerning hysteresis in the deformation of intact and jointed rock with applications to nonlinear attenuation in the near source region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boitnott, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    In order to estimate yields of large underground explosions, it is important that we have a clear understanding of the near source phenomena and their effects on regional and teleseismic signals. While it is generally accepted that a considerable amount of attenuation and resultant waveform distortion occurs due to nonlinear deformation near the source, an area that has received little attention is the broad enveloping region where moderate stress perturbations occur. In this region, where strain perturbation amplitudes range from microstrains to a few millistrains, the resulting deformation of rock is inelastic and nonlinear but little to no permanent deformation results. Owing to its great extent, the moderate strain regime has the potential to influence the entire frequency band of the regional and teleseismic signals and thus may be central to the problem of inferring source characteristics from far field signals. Detailed rheological descriptions are required in order to understand the effects of the nonlinearities on the spectral content of regional and teleseismic signals

  12. STRAIN LOCALIZATION PECULIARITIES AND DISTRIBUTION OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SOURCES IN ROCK SAMPLES TESTED BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION AND EXPOSED TO ELECTRIC PULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mubassarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of uniaxial compression tests of rock samples in electromagnetic fields are presented. The experiments were performed in the Laboratory of Basic Physics of Strength, Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS (ICMM. Deformation of samples was studied, and acoustic emission (AE signals were recorded. During the tests, loads varied by stages. Specimens of granite from the Kainda deposit in Kyrgyzstan (similar to samples tested at the Research Station of RAS, hereafter RS RAS were subject to electric pulses at specified levels of compression load. The electric pulses supply was galvanic; two graphite electrodes were fixed at opposite sides of each specimen. The multichannel Amsy-5 Vallen System was used to record AE signals in the six-channel mode, which provided for determination of spatial locations of AE sources. Strain of the specimens was studied with application of original methods of strain computation based on analyses of optical images of deformed specimen surfaces in LaVISION Strain Master System.Acoustic emission experiment data were interpreted on the basis of analyses of the AE activity in time, i.e. the number of AE events per second, and analyses of signals’ energy and AE sources’ locations, i.e. defects.The experiment was conducted at ICMM with the use of the set of equipment with advanced diagnostic capabilities (as compared to earlier experiments described in [Zakupin et al., 2006a, 2006b; Bogomolov et al., 2004]. It can provide new information on properties of acoustic emission and deformation responses of loaded rock specimens to external electric pulses.The research task also included verification of reproducibility of the effect (AE activity when fracturing rates responded to electrical pulses, which was revealed earlier in studies conducted at RS RAS. In terms of the principle of randomization, such verification is methodologically significant as new effects, i.e. physical laws, can be considered

  13. Identification of multiple detrital sources for Otway Supergroup sedimentary rocks: implications for basin models and chronostratigraphic correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Correlation of apatite chlorine content (wt%) with apatite fission track age (Ma) from Lower Cretaceous Otway Supergroup sediments at present-day low temperatures, allows identification of two characteristic detrital source regions. Apatites from eroded Palaeozoic basement terrains yield low Cl content (generally 0.5 wt%) and syndepositional fission track ages. Where post-depositional thermal annealing ( > 70 degree C) has significantly reduced the fission track age, provenance information is preserved in the apatite Cl composition alone. In the Otway Supergroup, evidence for contemporaneous volcanism was found in both the Eumeralla Formation (Albian-Aptian), and Crayfish Group (Aptian-Berriasian) in samples located towards the central rift, where less sandy facies dominate. Results suggest that Crayfish Group sediments deposited along the northern margin of the basin were predominantly derived from eroding basement material, while the section located towards the central rift contains a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus. Evidence from this study suggests that volcanogenic detritus was a distal sediment source throughout the entire early rift phase, prior to the main influx of arc-related volcanogenic material during deposition of the Eumeralla Formation. As diagenesis of volcanogenic sediments significantly reduces porosity and permeability of the sandstones, reservoir quality and petroleum potential may be significantly reduced in the Crayfish Group in deeper parts of the basin where a greater proportion of volcanogenic detritus is suggested. The results presented here provide important information regarding Lower Cretaceous Otway Basin stratigraphy and clearly indicate that this methodology may have wider application. (authors)

  14. Isotopic feature and uranium dating of the volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Volcanic rocks from the northern and middle Okinawa Trough were dated by uranium-series dating method. Differential fractions using magnetic procedure were designed to separate samples. New report on the ages and isotopic data of rocks in the northern trough (especially black pumice) was discussed. Based on the uranium dates and Sr-Nd isotopic ratio, magmatic evolution process of the Okinawa Trough was noted. Firstly, there have been wide silicic volcanic activities in the Okinawa Trough from late Pleistocene to present, and the volcanic rocks can be divided into three subgroups. Secondly, magma generally came from PREMA source area under the Okinawa Trough. Magmatic evolution in the northern trough was similar to the middle, but different to the south. Finally, volcanic activities indicated that opening of the southern Okinawa Trough did not happen due to the collision between Luson Arc and Eurasian Plate until the early Pleistocene.

  15. Water and rock geochemistry, geologic cross sections, geochemical modeling, and groundwater flow modeling for identifying the source of groundwater to Montezuma Well, a natural spring in central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; DeWitt, Ed; Wirt, Laurie; Arnold, L. Rick; Horton, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) seeks additional information to better understand the source(s) of groundwater and associated groundwater flow paths to Montezuma Well in Montezuma Castle National Monument, central Arizona. The source of water to Montezuma Well, a flowing sinkhole in a desert setting, is poorly understood. Water emerges from the middle limestone facies of the lacustrine Verde Formation, but the precise origin of the water and its travel path are largely unknown. Some have proposed artesian flow to Montezuma Well through the Supai Formation, which is exposed along the eastern margin of the Verde Valley and underlies the Verde Formation. The groundwater recharge zone likely lies above the floor of the Verde Valley somewhere to the north or east of Montezuma Well, where precipitation is more abundant. Additional data from groundwater, surface water, and bedrock geology are required for Montezuma Well and the surrounding region to test the current conceptual ideas, to provide new details on the groundwater flow in the area, and to assist in future management decisions. The results of this research will provide information for long-term water resource management and the protection of water rights.

  16. Characterization of coal-derived hydrocarbons and source-rock potential of coal beds, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, D.D.; Clayton, J.L.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Coal beds are considered to be a major source of nonassociated gas in the Rocky Mountain basins of the United States. In the San Juan basin of northwestern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado, significant quantities of natural gas are being produced from coal beds of the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and from adjacent sandstone reservoirs. Analysis of gas samples from the various gas-producing intervals provided a means of determining their origin and of evaluating coal beds as source rocks. The rank of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation in the central part of the San Juan basin, where major gas production occurs, increases to the northeast and ranges from high-volatile B bituminous coal to medium-volatile bituminous coal (Rm values range from 0.70 to 1.45%). On the basis of chemical, isotopic and coal-rank data, the gases are interpreted to be thermogenic. Gases from the coal beds show little isotopic variation (??13C1 values range -43.6 to -40.5 ppt), are chemically dry (C1/C1-5 values are > 0.99), and contain significant amounts of CO2 (as much as 6%). These gases are interpreted to have resulted from devolatilization of the humic-type bituminous coal that is composed mainly of vitrinite. The primary products of this process are CH4, CO2 and H2O. The coal-generated, methane-rich gas is usually contained in the coal beds of the Fruitland Formation, and has not been expelled and has not migrated into the adjacent sandstone reservoirs. In addition, the coal-bed reservoirs produce a distinctive bicarbonate-type connate water and have higher reservoir pressures than adjacent sandstones. The combination of these factors indicates that coal beds are a closed reservoir system created by the gases, waters, and associated pressures in the micropore coal structure. In contrast, gases produced from overlying sandstones in the Fruitland Formation and underlying Pictured Cliffs Sandstone have a wider range of isotopic values (??13C1 values range from -43.5 to -38

  17. 2D seismic interpretation and characterization of the Hauterivian-Early Barremian source rock in Al Baraka oil field, Komombo Basin, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moamen; Darwish, M.; Essa, Mahmoud A.; Abdelhady, A.

    2018-03-01

    Komombo Basin is located in Upper Egypt about 570 km southeast of Cairo; it is an asymmetrical half graben and the first oil producing basin in Upper Egypt. The Six Hills Formation is of Early Cretaceous age and subdivided into seven members from base to top (A-G); meanwhile the B member is of Hauterivian-Early Barremian and it is the only source rock of Komombo Basin. Therefore, a detailed study of the SR should be carried out, which includes the determination of the main structural elements, thickness, facies distribution and characterization of the B member SR which has not been conducted previously in the study area. Twenty 2D seismic lines were interpreted with three vertical seismic profiles (VSP) to construct the depth structure-tectonic map on the top of the B member and to highlight the major structural elements. The interpretation of depth structure contour map shows two main fault trends directed towards the NW-SE and NE to ENE directions. The NW-SE trend is the dominant one, creating a major half-graben system. Also the depth values range from -8400 ft at the depocenter in the eastern part to -4800 ft at the shoulder of the basin in the northwestern part of the study area. Meanwhile the Isopach contour map of the B member shows a variable thickness ranging between 300 ft to 750 ft. The facies model shows that the B member SR is composed mainly of shale with some sandstone streaks. The B member rock samples were collected from Al Baraka-1 and Al Baraka SE-1 in the eastern part of Komombo Basin. The results indicate that the organic matter content (TOC) has mainly good to very good (1-3.36 wt %), The B member samples have HI values in the range 157-365 (mg HC/g TOC) and dominated by Type II/III kerogen, and is thus considered to be oil-gas prone based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Tmax values between 442° and 456° C therefore interpreted to be mature for hydrocarbon generation. Based on the measured vitrinite equivalent reflectance values, the B member SR

  18. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a co-ordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in SW Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the 'source-term' and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humidified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated an important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. (author)

  19. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-west Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the source-term and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated the important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL; CHEMTARD 5 figs.; 64 plates; 37 refs

  20. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  1. The origin of groundwater salinity in granitic rocks: identification and characterisation of chloride sources; Origine de la salinite des eaux souterraines en milieu granitique: identification et caracterisation des sources de chlorure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S.

    1998-04-29

    Hydrogeological research in crystalline rocks, developed either in geothermics or in feasibility studies for geological disposal of radioactive waste, points out a wide range of chloride contents in associated groundwaters. The aim of this dissertation is to identify the possible origins of chloride in groundwaters within different geological conditions. The three possible chloride reservoirs (chloride-bearing minerals, fluid inclusions, micro-porosity) located in rock have been characterised by studying samples from eight granitic sites with different technical approaches (electronic microbeam, alkaline fusion, micro-thermometry, crush-leaching, diffusion experiment). Firstly, this allows the definition of a new typology of the sites, by considering not only hydrogeological features but also occurrence of salt-rich fluid inclusions with sedimentary origin. Secondly, the use of tracers (such as Cl/Br ratio, {delta}{sup 37}Cl) and mass balance calculations shows that the contribution of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz and chloride-bearing minerals cannot account for the high salinity of groundwater. In this case, the chloride origin could be of sedimentary type. Chloride would be stored in micro-porosity and in fluid inclusions trapped in carbonates. Thirdly, we have pointed out the importance of micro-porosity, acting more as a sieve and a buffer than as a source. Finally, we have shown that the low salinity of groundwaters has not always an internal origin. (author) 187 refs.

  2. Upper Devonian (Frasnian) non-calcified, algae, Alberta: Geological relevance to Leduc platforms and petroleum source rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dix, G.R. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    Several types of non-calcified fossil algae comparable to extant brown and green benithic macrophytes occur abundantly on two bedding planes in drill core from argillaceous slope carbonates of the Ireton Formation in northern Alberta. Fossiliferous strata abruptly overlie part of a stepped-back margin of the Sturgeon Lake carbonate platform (Leduc Formation), southeast of the Peace River Arch. Fossils are flattened organic fragments, some representing nearly complete specimens. Tentative comparisons are made with some Paleozoic algae; some of the Sturgeon Lake flora may be new species or genera. Preliminary examination of selected cores from the Ireton Formation and organic-rich Duvernay Formation in central Alberta indicates a widespread distribution of algal-derived organic matter within Upper Devonian basinal strata. The geological relevance of non-calcified algae to Devonian carbonate platforms and basins is postulated in three cases. Their presence in slope sediments may indicate that algal lawns flourished in muddy, upper slope environments. Fossils accumulated either in situ, or were ripped up and quickly buried within downshope resedimented deposits. All or some algal fragments may have been swept from the adjacent carbonate platform during storms. Prolific shallow water algal growth may have occurred simultaneously with oceanic crises when shallow water carbonate production either decreased or was shut down. The present position of fossil algae, therefore, would mark a bedding surface that is stratigraphically equivalent to an intraplatform disconformity. Regardless of the original environment, a sufficient accumulation of non-calcified algae in slope strata represents a viable petroleum source proximal to carbonate platforms. 46 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Catalytic generation of methane at 60-100 °C and 0.1-300 MPa from source rocks containing kerogen Types I, II, and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lin; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Mastalerz, Maria; Lahann, Richard W.; Sauer, Peter E.; Drobniak, Agnieszka; Strąpoć, Dariusz; Mango, Frank D.

    2018-06-01

    Low temperature (60 and 100 °C) and long-term (6 months to 5 years) heating of pre-evacuated and sterilized shales and coals containing kerogen Types I (Mahogany Shale), II (Mowry Shale and New Albany Shale), and III (Springfield Coal and Wilcox Lignite) with low initial maturities (vitrinite reflectance Ro 0.39-0.62%) demonstrates that catalytically generated hydrocarbons may explain the occurrence of some non-biogenic natural gas accumulations where insufficient thermal maturity contradicts the conventional thermal cracking paradigm. Extrapolation of the observed rate of catalytic methanogenesis in the laboratory suggests that significant amounts of sedimentary organic carbon can be converted to relatively dry natural gas over tens of thousands of years in sedimentary basins at temperatures as low as 60 °C. Our laboratory experiments utilized source rock (shale and coal) chips sealed in gold and Pyrex® glass tubes in the presence of hydrogen-isotopically contrasting waters. Parallel heating experiments applied hydrostatic pressures from 0.1 to 300 MPa. Control experiments constrained the influence of pre-existing and residual methane in closed pores of rock chips that was unrelated to newly generated methane. This study's experimental methane yields at 60 and 100 °C are 5-11 orders of magnitude higher than the theoretically predicted yields from kinetic models of thermogenic methane generation, which strongly suggests a contribution of catalytic methanogenesis. Higher temperature, longer heating time, and lower hydrostatic pressure enhanced catalytic methanogenesis. No clear relationships were observed between kerogen type or total organic carbon content and methane yields via catalysis. Catalytic methanogenesis was strongest in Mowry Shale where methane yields at 60 °C amounted to ∼2.5 μmol per gram of organic carbon after one year of hydrous heating at ambient pressure. In stark contrast to the earlier findings of hydrogen isotopic exchange between

  4. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  5. A COMPARISON OF MAJOR ELEMENTS BETWEEN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND IGNEOUS ROCKS: AS A BASIC DETERMINATION OF THE SEDIMENT SOURCE AT UJUNG PENYUSUK WATERS, NORTH BANGKA,BANGKA BELITUNG PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Three igneous rock samples from the coast and five sediments from the marine of Ujung Penyusuk Waters have been used for chemistry analysis as the basic determination of sediment source. The result of chemistry analysis shows that the major element with relatively same pattern. In the igneous rock samples, the result of chemistry analysis shows the SiO2 ranges between 72.3 - 76.8%, Al2O3 (9.64 - 11.64%, and Fe2O3 ( 2.08 - 2.18%. In the marine sediment, the content of SiO2 is between 62.2 and 66.5%, Al2O3 (2.93 - 3.63% and Fe2O3 (21.19 - 24.40%. Other elements such as CaO, MgO, K2O, Na2O and TiO2 are relatively similar values in all samples. The difference of element content in marine sediment and coastal igneous rock occurs in Al2O3 and Fe2O3. The Al2O3 is small in marine sediment while the Fe2O3 is higher compared to igneous rocks. Decreasing of the Al2O3 (kaolinite in the marine sediment is caused by the character of the Al2O3 that was derived from quartz rich of igneous rocks forming kaolinite. It was than deposited in the sea floor. Increasing of the Fe2O3 in marine sediment is caused by addition reaction of the Fe from the sea. Generally, the content of the SiO2 (quartz in igneous rock and marine sediment belongs to the same group source that is acid igneous rock. The SiO2 in the sediment belongs to a group of granitoid.

  6. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  7. Gravel size matters: Early Middle Palaeolithic artefacts made from local Rhine and Meuse deposits in the central Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Biggelaar, D.F.A.M.; van Balen, R.T.; Kluiving, S.J.; Verpoorte, A.; Alink, A

    2016-01-01

    The artefact size of the Early Middle Palaeolithic (EMP) assemblages in ice-pushed Rhine–Meuse deposits in the central Netherlands decreases northwestward. This trend correlates to the downstream fining direction of the Rhine–Meuse fluvial system, the source of the rock material, showing that

  8. Cyclic Sequences, Events and Evolution of the Sino-Korean Plate,with a Discussion on the Evolution of Molar-tooth Carbonates,Phosphorites and Source Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianghua; GE Ming

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an account of the research that the authors conducted on the cyclic sequences, events and evolutionary history from Proterozoic to Meso-Cenozoic in the Sino-Korean plate based on the principle of the Cosmos-Earth System. The authors divided this plate into 20 super-cyclic or super-mega-cyclic periods and more than 100 Oort periods. The research focused on important sea flooding events, uplift interruption events, tilting movement events, molar-tooth carbonate events, thermal events, polarity reversal events, karst events, volcanic explosion events and storm events, as well as types of resource areas and paleotectonic evolution. By means of the isochronous theory of the Cosmos-Earth System periodicity and based on long-excentricity and periodicity, the authors elaborately studied the paleogeographic evolution of the aulacogen of the Sino-Korean plate, the oolitic beach platform formation, the development of foreland basin and continental rift valley basin, and reconstructed the evolution of tectonic paleogeography and stratigraphic framework in the Sino-Korean plate in terms of evolutionary maps. Finally, the authors gave a profound discussion on the formation and development of molar-tooth carbonates, phosphorites and source rocks.

  9. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  10. Seasonal characterization of submicron aerosol chemical composition and organic aerosol sources in the southeastern United States: Atlanta, Georgia,and Look Rock, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Budisulistiorini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A year-long near-real-time characterization of non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1 was conducted at an urban (Atlanta, Georgia, in 2012 and rural (Look Rock, Tennessee, in 2013 site in the southeastern US using the Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM collocated with established air-monitoring network measurements. Seasonal variations in organic aerosol (OA and inorganic aerosol species are attributed to meteorological conditions as well as anthropogenic and biogenic emissions in this region. The highest concentrations of NR-PM1 were observed during winter and fall seasons at the urban site and during spring and summer at the rural site. Across all seasons and at both sites, NR-PM1 was composed largely of OA (up to 76 % and sulfate (up to 31 %. Six distinct OA sources were resolved by positive matrix factorization applied to the ACSM organic mass spectral data collected from the two sites over the 1 year of near-continuous measurements at each site: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA, biomass burning OA (BBOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA, isoprene-derived epoxydiols (IEPOX OA (IEPOX-OA and 91Fac (a factor dominated by a distinct ion at m∕z 91 fragment ion previously observed in biogenic influenced areas. LV-OOA was observed throughout the year at both sites and contributed up to 66 % of total OA mass. HOA was observed during the entire year only at the urban site (on average 21 % of OA mass. BBOA (15–33 % of OA mass was observed during winter and fall, likely dominated by local residential wood burning emission. Although SV-OOA contributes quite significantly ( ∼  27 %, it was observed only at the urban site during colder seasons. IEPOX-OA was a major component (27–41 % of OA at both sites, particularly in spring and summer. An ion fragment at m∕z 75 is well correlated with the m∕z 82 ion associated with the aerosol mass spectrum of IEPOX

  11. Origin of middle rare earth element enrichments in acid waters of a Canadian high Arctic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kevin H.; Zhou, Xiaoping

    1999-01-01

    -Middle rare earth element (MREE) enriched rock-normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns of a dilute acidic lake (Colour Lake) in the Canadian High Arctic, were investigated by quantifying whole-rock REE concentrations of rock samples collected from the catchment basin, as well as determining the acid leachable REE fraction of these rocks. An aliquot of each rock sample was leached with 1 N HNO 3 to examine the readily leachable REE fraction of each rock, and an additional aliquot was leached with a 0.04 M NH 2OH · HCl in 25% (v/v) CH 3COOH solution, designed specifically to reduce Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides. Rare earth elements associated with the leachates that reacted with clastic sedimentary rock samples containing petrographically identifiable Fe-Mn oxide/oxyhydroxide cements and/or minerals/amorphous phases, exhibited whole-rock-normalized REE patterns similar to the lake waters, whereas whole-rock-normalized leachates from mafic igneous rocks and other clastic sedimentary rocks from the catchment basin differed substantially from the lake waters. The whole-rock, leachates, and lake water REE data support acid leaching or dissolution of MREE enriched Fe-Mn oxides/oxyhydroxides contained and identified within some of the catchment basin sedimentary rocks as the likely source of the unique lake water REE patterns. Solution complexation modelling of the REEs in the inflow streams and lake waters indicate that free metal ions (e.g., Ln 3+, where Ln = any REE) and sulfate complexes (LnSO 4+) are the dominant forms of dissolved REEs. Consequently, solution complexation reactions involving the REEs during weathering, transport to the lake, or within the lake, cannot be invoked to explain the MREE enrichments observed in the lake waters.

  12. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-12-01

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  13. Applications of isotope techniques for the assessment of soil phosphorus status and evaluation of rock phosphates as phosphorus sources for plants in subtropical China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, L.M.; Zhou, Z.G.; Feng, G.L.; Lu, R.K.; Fardeau, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to assess current soil phosphorus status and evaluate the effectiveness of local rock phosphates in subtropical China, nearly 40 representative soil samples from this region were collected and characterized by using 32 P isotope and chemical extraction techniques. Pot experiments, incubation studies and field trials were conducted to investigate the interaction of rock phosphates and water-soluble phosphates as well as the effects of rock phosphate on soil chemical properties in selected soils. Results indicated that these soils were generally low in available phosphorus and high in P-fixing capacity. The soil characteristics dictated that the employed isotope kinetic model was less successful in predicting plant P uptake than the chemical procedures tested. A new chemical extraction method consisting of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium fluoride was proposed to evaluate available P in these Solis. Data on available P generated with the proposed method gave the best prediction of plant uptake amongst all methods compared. In a pot experiment, the combined application of soluble P fertilizer with local rock phosphate significantly enhanced plant growth and increased P uptake. This positive interaction was attributed to the improved soil chemical properties due to the application of low-grade rock phosphates, as demonstrated in incubation studies. These results suggest that rock phosphate-based fertilizers should be good alternative fertilizers for plants in similar acidic soils in southern China. (author)

  14. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  15. Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied the positive matrix factorization model to two large data sets collected during two intensive measurement campaigns (summer 2011 and winter 2012 at a sub-urban site in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to identify NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons sources and quantify their contribution to ambient levels. Six factors were identified in winter and five factors in summer. PMF-resolved source profiles were consistent with source profiles established by near-field measurements. The major sources were traffic-related emissions (combustion and gasoline evaporation in winter and in summer accounting for 51 and 74 wt %, respectively, in agreement with the national emission inventory. The gasoline evaporation related to traffic source had a significant contribution regardless of the season (22 wt % in winter and 30 wt % in summer. The NMHC emissions from road transport are estimated from observations and PMF results, and compared to local and global emission inventories. The PMF analysis finds reasonable differences on emission rates, of 20–39 % higher than the national road transport inventory. However, global inventories (ACCMIP, EDGAR, MACCity underestimate the emissions up to a factor of 10 for the transportation sector. When combining emission inventory to our results, there is strong evidence that control measures in Lebanon should be targeted on mitigating the NMHC emissions from the traffic-related sources. From a global perspective, an assessment of VOC (volatile organic compounds anthropogenic emission inventories for the Middle East region as a whole seems necessary as these emissions could be much higher than expected at least from the road transport sector.

  16. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  17. "There Was a Great Collision in the Stock Market": Middle School Students, Online Primary Sources, and Historical Sense Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frances Jacobson

    2002-01-01

    Describes an exploratory study of eighth-grade students and their use of online primary sources for an oral history unit on family farming. Highlights include using photographs from the Depression era to write stories; use of bibliographic information; higher level thinking skills; use of humor; and implications for secondary social studies and…

  18. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J K; Arjmandi, B H; Claypool, P L; Perkins-Veazie, P; Baker, R A; Clevidence, B A

    2004-09-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants. Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment) or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA), plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP). Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis. Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration. The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.

  19. Lycopene from two food sources does not affect antioxidant or cholesterol status of middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker RA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have reported associations between reduced cardiovascular disease and diets rich in tomato and/or lycopene. Intervention studies have shown that lycopene-containing foods may reduce cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, factors implicated in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether consumption of lycopene rich foods conferred cardiovascular protection to middle-aged adults as indicated by plasma lipid concentrations and measures of ex vivo antioxidants. Methods Ten healthy men and women consumed a low lycopene diet with no added lycopene (control treatment or supplemented with watermelon or tomato juice each containing 20 mg lycopene. Subjects consumed each treatment for three weeks in a crossover design. Plasma, collected weekly was analyzed for total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations and for the antioxidant biomarkers of malondialdehyde formation products (MDA, plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPX and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed Procedure and associations between antioxidant and lipid measures were identified by Pearson's product moment correlation analysis. Results Compared to the control diet, the lycopene-containing foods did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant biomarkers. Women had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations than did the men. Total cholesterol was positively correlated to MDA and FRAP while HDL-C was positively correlated to MDA and GPX. GPX was negatively correlated to triglyceride concentration. Conclusions The inclusion of watermelon or tomato juice containing 20 mg lycopene did not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant status of healthy subjects. However, plasma cholesterol levels impacted the results of MDA and FRAP antioxidant tests.

  20. Identification and characterization of fine and coarse particulate matter sources in a middle-European urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Zs.; Szoboszlai, Z.; Angyal, A.; Dobos, E.; Borbely-Kiss, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this work a source apportionment study is presented which aimed to characterize the PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 sources in the urban area of Debrecen, East-Hungary by using streaker samples, IBA methods and positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. Samples of fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 2.5-10 ) urban particulate matter were collected with 2 h time resolution in the frame of five sampling campaigns during 2007-2009 in different seasons in the downtown of Debrecen. Elemental concentrations from Al to Pb of over 1000 samples were obtained by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE); concentrations of black carbon (BC) were determined with a smoke stain reflectometer. On this data base source apportionment was carried out by using the PMF method. Seven factors were identified for both size fractions, including soil dust, traffic, secondary aerosol - sulphates, domestic heating, oil combustion, agriculture and an unknown factor enriched with chlorine. Seasonal and daily variation of the different factors was studied as well as their dependence on meteorological parameters. Besides determining the time patterns characteristic to the city, several emission episodes were identified including a Saharan dust intrusion on 21st-24th May, 2008.

  1. Pollution Assessment and Sources Identification of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from the Nantaizi Lake, Middle China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlong; Li, Fei; Jia, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jingdong

    2018-01-01

    The total contents of heavy metal elements including Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and As were investigated in sediments from the Nantaizi Lake in Hanyang district of Wuhan. The heavy metal pollution level of Nantaizi Lake was calculated by potential ecological risk index and the main sources of pollutants were researched by correlation analysis and principal component analysis. The results show that heavy metal concentration of Nantaizi Lake sediments is within the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995) level-II standard limitation. According to the result of potential ecological risk index, ecological hazard rank of heavy metal element of Nantaizi Lake sediments is: Cd>Cu>As>Pb>Zn>Cr, and whole water environment of lake is slightly polluted. Through correlation analysis and principal component analysis, it is found that industrial sewage and domestic wastewater in human activities are the main contributors to heavy metal sources of Nantaizi Lake, and chemical processes, such as endogenous microbial activities of lake etc., also affect heavy metal sources in sediments simultaneously.

  2. Source Areas for the Early Immigration of Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae) at Xiushan in the Middle Reach of Yangtze River of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C X; Chen, X L; Bi, J C; Li, J J; Xiao, X H; Li, Q; Wang, H J; Yang, Q F

    2015-12-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of source areas for the early immigration of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Horvάth), at Xiushan in the middle reach of Yangtze River of China, was analyzed with HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) and ArcGIS 10.0. The analysis was based on light trap data collected during April-July in 2000-2012. The synoptic meteorology backgrounds during the immigration periods were analyzed by GrADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). The light trap catches of S. furcifera varied monthly and annually. S. furcifera started immigration in Xiushan in early April to early May, whereas the main immigration period was in July. The distribution of the source areas varied monthly, and the core was moved from the south to the north gradually. The main source areas of S. furcifera in May were in southwestern Guangxi and northern Vietnam. The source areas of S. furcifera in June were located in southwestern Guangxi and western Hunan. Additionally, some of the pests were from southeastern Yunnan. The source areas in July were in northwestern Guangxi, southwestern Guizhou, eastern Yunnan, and the transitional parts of Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan. The sum frequencies of southwest and south winds on the 850 hPa isobaric surface of Xiushan of May-July in heavy occurrence years were more than the light occurrence years. The key meteorological factors were suggested to be vertical perturbation, precipitation, and wind shear during S. furcifera immigration periods. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  4. Art Rocks!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Erika

    2008-01-01

    Though people may like different types of music, everyone likes music. In middle school, music and art are of key importance for students to express and define what kind of person they are. In this article, the author presents an art project where students are asked to create their own guitars. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  5. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Concentrations, sources and health effects of parent, oxygenated- and nitrated- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in middle-school air in Xi'an, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingzhi; Xu, Hongmei; Guinot, Benjamin; Li, Lijuan; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Liu, Suixin; Li, Xiaoping; Cao, Junji

    2017-08-01

    Indoor and outdoor concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated-PAHs (OPAHs), and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) associated with PM2.5 particles were monitored in a middle-school classroom from 8 to 22 March 2012 in Xi'an, China. The total PAHs ranged from 49.6 to 140.0 ng/m3 in outdoors and 50.3 to 111.6 ng/m3 in indoors, while OPAHs and NPAHs showed averages of 19.1 and 16.4 ng/m3, 0.1039 and 0.0785 ng/m3 for outdoor and indoor air, respectively. Strong correlations were found between indoor (I) and outdoor (O), and the I/O ratios were school in Xi'an. Indoor pollutants were mostly influenced by outdoor air. Biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission were main sources for PAHs. Secondary formation was the main source for OPAHs and NPAHs. Inhalation cancer risks assessment of PAHs showed there were potential health risks for students during sampling time.

  7. Sources of household air pollution: The association with lung function and respiratory symptoms in middle-aged adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devien, Laurent; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Cuny, Damien; Matran, Régis; Amouyel, Philippe; Hulo, Sébastien; Edmé, Jean Louis; Dauchet, Luc

    2018-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sources of household air pollution, respiratory symptoms and lung function. 3039 adults aged from 40 to 65 participated in the 2011-2013 ELISABET cross-sectional survey in northern France. Lung function was measured using spirometry. During a structured interview, respiratory symptoms, household fuels, exposure to moulds, and use of ventilation were recorded on a questionnaire. The self-reported presence of mould in at least two rooms (not including the bathroom and the kitchen) was associated with a 2.5% lower predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (95% confidence interval, -4.7 to -0.29; p-trend respiratory disease. Our results suggest that the presence of mould (known to be associated with more severe asthma symptoms) could also have an impact on respiratory symptoms and lung function in the general population and in populations without known respiratory disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. ) Organic Facies Variations in the Middle Cretaceous Black Shales of the Abakaliki Fold Belt, South-East, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Badejoko, T.A.; Ekweozor, C.M.; Adebowale, K. O.

    2003-01-01

    An assessment, based on organic facies characteristics, have been carried out on the middle Cretaceous black shales, in order to determine their hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, and depositional environments. The methods employed include evaluation of organic carbon content, rockeval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter, maceral composition and biomarker distributions.Organic facies criteria such as TOC, HI, Tmax, liptinite content, SOMIFOC and SHC/AHC indicate that Albian to middle Cenomanian shales are could only generate gas. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian shales are characterized by Type I/II kerogen, mature and could generate both oil and characterized by Type III kerogen, immature and could generate gas with little oil. The biomarker distributions indicate immature to mature source rock, moderately biodegraded and with reduced marine environment prevailing during the deposition of the lack shales. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian black shales show the highest source-rock potential

  10. Effects of explosions in hard rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.; Walton, O.R.; Maddix, D.M.; Shaffer, R.J.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    This work relates to explosions in hard rocks (ex: basalt, granite, limestone...). Hard rock masses typically have a blocky structure created by the existence of geologic discontinuities such as bedding contacts, faults, and joints. At very high pressure - hundreds of kilobars and above - these discontinuities do not act separately, and the rock appears to be an equivalent continuous medium. At stress of a few tens of kilobars and below, the geologic discontinuities control the kinematics of the rock masses. Hence, the simulation of rock dynamics, anywhere but in the very-near source region, should account for those kinematics

  11. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  12. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  13. Mesozoic–Cenozoic Climate and Neotectonic Events as Factors in Reconstructing the Thermal History of the Source-Rock Bazhenov Formation, Arctic Region, West Siberia, by the Example of the Yamal Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaev, V. I.; Iskorkina, A. A.; Lobova, G. A.; Starostenko, V. I.; Tikhotskii, S. A.; Fomin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Schemes and criteria are developed for using the measured and modeled geotemperatures for studying the thermal regime of the source rock formations, as well as the tectonic and sedimentary history of sedimentary basins, by the example of the oil fields of the Yamal Peninsula. The method of paleotemperature modeling based on the numerical solution of the heat conduction equation for a horizontally layered solid with a movable upper boundary is used. The mathematical model directly includes the climatic secular trend of the Earth's surface temperature as the boundary condition and the paleotemperatures determined from the vitrinite reflectance as the measurement data. The method does not require a priori information about the nature and intensities of the heat flow from the Earth's interior; the flow is determined by solving the inverse problem of geothermy with a parametric description of the of the sedimentation history and the history of the thermophysical properties of the sedimentary stratum. The rate of sedimentation is allowed to be zero and negative which provides the possibility to take into account the gaps in sedimentation and denudation. The formation, existence, and degradation of the permafrost stratum and ice cover are taken into account as dynamical lithological-stratigraphic complexes with anomalously high thermal conductivity. It is established that disregarding the paleoclimatic factors precludes an adequate reconstruction of thermal history of the source-rock deposits. Revealing and taking into account the Late Eocene regression provided the computationally optimal and richest thermal history of the source-rock Bazhenov Formation, which led to more correct volumetric-genetic estimates of the reserves. For estimating the hydrocarbon reserves in the land territories of the Arctic region of West Siberia by the volumetric-genetic technique, it is recommended to use the Arctic secular trend of temperatures and take into account the dynamics of the

  14. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  15. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  16. Occurrences, sources and risk assessment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), one class of hydrophobic and toxic compounds, are easily adsorbed into sediments and then pose potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. However, few researches on short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in sediments have been performed. In order to comprehensively investigate the spatial distributions, sources, and ecological risks of CPs, sediments collected from the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 11.6 to 9.76 × 10 3  ng/g dry weight (dw) and from 8.33 to 168 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC) and CP concentrations (P > 0.05). The spatial distributions showed that contamination levels of CPs were relevant to human activities. In addition, two types of sediment samples were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and results indicated the predominant congener groups were C 10 Cl 6-7 for SCCPs and C 14 Cl 7-8 for MCCPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that SCCPs and MCCPs in the sediments may have different sources, and SCCPs are likely to come from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Moreover, complex environmental processes, including long-range transportation via the atmosphere and/or river, deposition and degradation of CPs, resulted in increased abundances of short chain and low chlorinated congeners in sediment samples compared with commercial mixtures, and different homolog patterns among samples. The significant negative correlation between SCCP concentrations and MCCP/SCCP ratios could be related to long-range transport of CPs. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs at current levels posed no significant ecological risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling the Rock Glacier Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. S.; Anderson, L. S.

    2016-12-01

    Rock glaciers are common in many mountain ranges in which the ELA lies above the peaks. They represent some of the most identifiable components of today's cryosphere in these settings. Their oversteepened snouts pose often-overlooked hazards to travel in alpine terrain. Rock glaciers are supported by avalanches and by rockfall from steep headwalls. The winter's avalanche cone must be sufficiently thick not to melt entirely in the summer. The spatial distribution of rock glaciers reflects this dependence on avalanche sources; they are most common on lee sides of ridges where wind-blown snow augments the avalanche source. In the absence of rockfall, this would support a short, cirque glacier. Depending on the relationship between rockfall and avalanche patterns, "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers are possible. Talus-derived: If the spatial distribution of rock delivery is similar to the avalanche pattern, the rock-ice mixture will travel an englacial path that is downward through the short accumulation zone before turning upward in the ablation zone. Advected debris is then delivered to the base of a growing surface debris layer that reduces the ice melt rate. The physics is identical to the debris-covered glacier case. Glacier-derived: If on the other hand rockfall from the headwall rolls beyond the avalanche cone, it is added directly to the ablation zone of the glacier. The avalanche accumulation zone then supports a pure ice core to the rock glacier. We have developed numerical models designed to capture the full range of glacier to debris-covered glacier to rock glacier behavior. The hundreds of meter lengths, tens of meters thicknesses, and meter per year speeds of rock glaciers are well described by the models. The model can capture both "talus-derived" and "glacier-derived" rock glaciers. We explore the dependence of glacier behavior on climate histories. As climate warms, a pure ice debris-covered glacier can transform to a much shorter rock

  18. The Bolivian Source Rocks. Sub Andean Zone. Madre de Dios. Chaco Les roches mères de Bolivie. Subandin. Madre de Dios. Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Martinez E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete study of source-rock geochemical data has been carried out for the Bolivian foothills and foreland (Sub Andean Zone, Chaco and Madre de Dios in order to quantify the petroleum potential of the area. Overall available data have been compiled in a database, and a synthesis of the results is presented here. Besides the classical mid-Devonian source rocks (Tequeje Fm in the north, Limoncito Fm in the center and Los Monos Fm in the south, others may be just as important : theTomachi Fm (late Devonian in the north of the country and the Copacabana Fm. (late Carboniferous-early Permian in the northern Sub Andean Zone. Both present an excellent potential with S2 up to 40 mg HC/g and average values larger than 10 mg HC/g on few hundred meters. The latest Cretaceous (Flora Fm in the northern Sub Andean Zone also presents locally a high potential but has almost no influence, its thickness being quite reduced. Almost all the source rocks matured during the Neogene due to the subsidence in the Andean foreland and, locally, in the piggyback basins, and are thus involved in the current petroleum system. Silurian and Lower Paleozoic units also contain thick shale beds, but these source rocks were mature before the Jurassic in most of the country, except in the Chaco, the Boomerang and the central Sub Andean Zone, where the Silurian is not nowadays overmature and may play an important role. The different zones are compared based on their Source Potential Index (SPI which indicates that the richest areas are the northern Sub Andean Zone and the Madre de Dios basin with SPI greater than 10 t/m². Since these two areas remain almost unexplored and, at least for the northern Sub Andean zone, present very large structures, these results allow to be optimistic about the possibilities for future exploration. Une base de données géochimiques a été mise en place entre 1994 et 1995 à YPFB (Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales Bolivianos afin de regrouper les

  19. Heat production in granitic rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Jakobsen, Kiki

    2017-01-01

    Granitic rocks play special role in the dynamics and evolution of the Earth and its thermal regime. First, their compositional variability, reflected in the distribution of concentrations of radiogenic elements, provides constraints on global differentiation processes and large scale planetary...... evolution, where emplacement of granites is considered a particularly important process for the formation of continental crust. Second, heat production by radioactive decay is among the main heat sources in the Earth. Therefore knowledge of heat production in granitic rocks is pivotal for thermal modelling...... of the continental lithosphere, given that most radiogenic elements are concentrated in granitic rocks of the upper continental crust whereas heat production in rocks of the lower crust and lithospheric mantle is negligible. We present and analyze a new global database GRANITE2017 (with about 500 entries...

  20. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  1. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic.

  2. Decoupling of unpolluted temperate forests from rock nutrient sources revealed by natural 87Sr/86Sr and 84Sr tracer addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin J.; Hedin, Lars O.; Derry, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental tracer addition of 84Sr to an unpolluted temperate forest site in southern Chile, as well as the natural variation of 87Sr/86Sr within plants and soils, indicates that mechanisms in shallow soil organic horizons are of key importance for retaining and recycling atmospheric cation inputs at scales of decades or less. The dominant tree species Nothofagus nitida feeds nearly exclusively (>90%) on cations of atmospheric origin, despite strong variations in tree size and location in the forest landscape. Our results illustrate that (i) unpolluted temperate forests can become nutritionally decoupled from deeper weathering processes, virtually functioning as atmospherically fed ecosystems, and (ii) base cation turnover times are considerably more rapid than previously recognized in the plant available pool of soil. These results challenge the prevalent paradigm that plants largely feed on rock-derived cations and have important implications for understanding sensitivity of forests to air pollution. PMID:12119394

  3. Advanced investigation on the change in the streamflow into the water source of the middle route of China's water diversion project

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Dunxian; Xia, Jun; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Gu, Huanghe

    2017-07-01

    To alleviate water shortage in northern China, the middle route of the South to North Water Diversion Project (MRP) was constructed by the Chinese government. A dramatic reduction in the annual streamflow into Danjiangkou Reservoir (ASDR), the water source of MRP, during 1990 has raised some concerns on the MRP's operation. This paper employed an advanced segmented regression model with more recent data to have a clear picture and understand the changing pattern of the ASDR. Our study first revealed a zigzag changing pattern (decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing) of ASDR during 1960-2013, which was supported by statistical criteria compared with a monotonic or single abrupt change. Particularly, the significantly decreasing trend from 1990s was reversed after 2000, and such change may relieve the concern about the water availability in the future. Sensitivity analysis showed that changes in streamflow were largely influenced by the combined effects of precipitation (P) and potential evapotranspiration (ET0) and were more sensitive to P than ET0. As ET0 is estimated from other primary variables, further analysis was conducted to understand the sensitivities of ET0 to its primary driving variables (wind speed, actual vapor pressure, temperature, and sunshine duration) and indicated that ET0 is mostly sensitive to actual vapor pressure during 1960-2013. The findings will assist the MRP's operation and management. Moreover, the results in this study also indicate that an adaptive water diversion plan, rather than the current plan with a constant annual amount of diversion water, might be a better option in the MRP's operation.

  4. Changing characteristics of land use and ecological service value in the water source region of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Zhai, Wenliang; Cao, Huiqun

    2017-08-01

    Research on changing characteristics of land use and ecological service value (ESV) can guide the regional land use planning and promote the rational use of environmental resources. On the basis of four phases of land-use data (2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015), this research analysed the changing characteristics of land use and ESV in the water source region of the Middle Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project (SRMRP). The results showed that forest, grassland and cultivated land were the major land-use types in the SRMRP. During 2000∼2015, forest, grassland, farmland and wetland decreased. Construction land and bare land had increased, and the annual increase rates reached 3.6% and 8%, respectively. After the implementation of the water transfer project in 2003, water area was also increasing. The total ESV in the SRMRP is about 196 billion CNY, and mainly comes from the contributions of forest, grassland and farmland. During 2000∼2015, farmland shrinks leaded to the declines in value from supply service. With increasing in water and construction land, value from entertainment and cultural service increased. During the early stage of the water transfer project, value from regulation and support services increased due to the increase in water. With the decreasing in wetland and the increasing in construction land, the negative effects on the regulation and support services were increasing, and value from regulation and support services were therefore decreasing. During the process of resource exploitation and management, more attentions should be paid to the total control of construction land and wetland protection in the SRMRP.

  5. Look! It's Rock'n'roll!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja

    2007-01-01

    , and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. (2007). Look! it's rock'n'roll! how television participated in shaping the visual genre conventions of popular music...... to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Anja Mølle Lindelof. "Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping the visual genre....... Pay special attention to personal names, capitalization, and dates. Consult your library or click here for more information on citing sources. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- TY - JOUR T1 - Look! It's Rock'n'roll! How television participated in shaping...

  6. Lead isotopes in archaean plutonic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    Archaean intrusive rocks have initial Pb isotopic compositions which show a varied and complex history for the source regions of the rocks. Even the oldest rocks from Greenland indicate heterogenous U and Pb distribution prior to 3800 m.y. ago. Source regions with μ values less than 7 must have played a significant role in the early history of the earth. By late Archaean time U/Pb ratios of source regions had increased substantially. Data from Australia and North America show distinct regional differences, both within and between continents. (Auth.)

  7. In-situ assaying for uranium in rock formations and method of undirectly monitoring the output of a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Givens, W.W.; Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method of assaying for uranium in the formations traversed by a borehole, which comprises: 1) locating a pulsed neutron source and a neutron detector in a borehole at the level of a formation of interest suspected of containing uranium; 2) operating the neutron source cyclically with the time between each neutron burst being sufficient to allow neutrons from the source to disappear but being long enough to allow the delayed neutrons resulting from the neutron fission of uranium to appear at the detector; 3) detecting neutrons with the detector, as a result of the irradiation of the formations with the neutrons from the source, and obtaining measurements of the quantity of neutrons detected between neutron bursts only at a time period when neutrons from the source have disappeared but, while delayed fission neutrons from uranium may be emitted. (author)

  8. Location-Related Differences in Weathering Behaviors and Populations of Culturable Rock-Weathering Bacteria Along a Hillside of a Rock Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Rongrong; He, Linyan; Sheng, Xiafang

    2017-05-01

    Bacteria play important roles in rock weathering, elemental cycling, and soil formation. However, little is known about the weathering potential and population of bacteria inhabiting surfaces of rocks. In this study, we isolated bacteria from the top, middle, and bottom rock samples along a hillside of a rock (trachyte) mountain as well as adjacent soils and characterized rock-weathering behaviors and populations of the bacteria. Per gram of rock or surface soil, 10 6 -10 7 colony forming units were obtained and total 192 bacteria were isolated. Laboratory rock dissolution experiments indicated that the proportions of the highly effective Fe (ranging from 67 to 92 %), Al (ranging from 40 to 48 %), and Cu (ranging from 54 to 81 %) solubilizers were significantly higher in the top rock and soil samples, while the proportion of the highly effective Si (56 %) solubilizers was significantly higher in the middle rock samples. Furthermore, 78, 96, and 6 % of bacteria from the top rocks, soils, and middle rocks, respectively, significantly acidified the culture medium (pH bacteria (79 %) from the rocks were different to those from the soils and most of them (species level) have not been previously reported. Furthermore, location-specific rock-weathering bacterial populations were found and Bacillus species were the most (66 %) frequently isolated rock-weathering bacteria in the rocks based on cultivation methods. Notably, the top rocks and soils had the highest and lowest diversity of rock-weathering bacterial populations, respectively. The results suggested location-related differences in element (Si, Al, Fe, and Cu) releasing effectiveness and communities of rock-weathering bacteria along the hillside of the rock mountain.

  9. Petrography and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Rodeio Velho Member, Ordovician of the Camaqua basin (RS-Brazil): preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Delia del Pilar M. de; Lopes, Ricardo da C.; Gomes, Cristiane H.; Lima, Larissa de.

    2000-01-01

    A geochemical study based in REE, minor elements and petrographic analyses from the volcanic rocks pertaining to the Rodeio Velho Member, comprising lava flows and epizonal intrusive bodies, both corresponding to andesites, subalkaline and alkaline basalts and trachyandesites; and stratified pyroclastic deposits, showed that fractional crystallization of deep source magma is the fundamental mechanism controlling the relationships among these rocks. This igneous event occurred in an alkaline intraplate environment, associated to a widespread extension tectonics, probably corresponding to a final stage of the Pan African - Brasiliano Orogeny during the Middle Ordovician. (author)

  10. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  11. Geochemical evaluation of the middle Magdalena basing Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramon, J.C; Dzou, L; Giraldo, B

    1997-01-01

    The chemical composition of 25 crude oils from Tertiary reservoirs and 12 rock extracts from five organic-rich Cretaceous formations in the middle Magdalena Basin, Colombia were studied in detail by geochemical methods in order to understand their genetic relationships. The oils have been geochemically classified into four main groups based on the sulfur content, pristane/phytane, dibenzothiophene /phenanthrene, concentrations of oleanane and terpane distributions. Each group occurs in different geographic locations. Oils were mainly derived from calcareous, siliciclastic and mixture of these two facies of the Upper Cretaceous La Luna Formation. Source-oil correlation is supported by sterane and terpane distributions of and carbon isotope ratios. Some oils in the eastern margin contain relatively higher concentrations of higher plant indicators than the remaining oil samples. The molecular compositions of the oils observed in this study appear to be consistent with the inferred depositional sequence of anoxic marine/pelagic carbonate facies in the north/western sector of the Middle Magdalena, while the eastern sector received a higher proportion of clastic input. This documentation supports the interpretation that the Middle Magdalena oils have been generated 'locally', as opposed to have migrated from the region of the Eastern Cordillera. Biomarker maturity parameters indicate that the majority of oils were generated in the early thermal maturity oil window except the Colorado-38 oil, which was generated in the middle thermal maturity oil window. Oil maturity data also supports the short migration distances of oils from the early-mature source rocks to the reservoir rocks. The composition of some oils (e.g., La Cira, Infantas, Conde and Bonanza) is unusual in that gas chromatographic data contains an n-alkane and isoprenoid distribution normally associated with moderately degraded oils, but they also contain a relatively high abundance of gasoline hydrocarbons

  12. Source and fractionation controls on subduction-related plutons and dike swarms in southern Patagonia (Torres del Paine area) and the low Nb/Ta of upper crustal igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, Othmar; Ewing, Tanya; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Manzini, Mélina; Roux, Thibaud; Pellaud, Pierre; Allemann, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The subduction system in southern Patagonia provides direct evidence for the variability of the position of an active continental arc with respect to the subducting plate through time, but the consequences on the arc magmatic record are less well studied. Here we present a geochemical and geochronological study on small plutons and dykes from the upper crust of the southern Patagonian Andes at 51°S, which formed as a result of the subduction of the Nazca and Antarctic plates beneath the South American continent. In situ U-Pb geochronology on zircons and bulk rock geochemical data of plutonic and dyke rocks are used to constrain the magmatic evolution of the retro-arc over the last 30 Ma. We demonstrate that these combined U-Pb and geochemical data for magmatic rocks track the temporal and spatial migration of the active arc, and associated retro-arc magmatism. Our dataset indicates that the rear-arc area is characterized by small volumes of alkaline basaltic magmas at 29-30 Ma that are characterized by low La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios with negligible arc signatures. Subsequent progressive eastward migration of the active arc culminated with the emplacement of calc-alkaline plutons and dikes 17-16 Ma with elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb ratios and typical subduction signatures constraining the easternmost position of the southern Patagonian batholith at that time. Geochemical data on the post-16 Ma igneous rocks including the Torres del Paine laccolith indicate an evolution to transitional K-rich calc-alkaline magmatism at 12.5 ± 0.2 Ma. We show that trace element ratios such as Nb/Ta and Dy/Yb systematically decrease with increasing SiO2, for both the 17-16 Ma calc-alkaline and the 12-13 Ma K-rich transitional magmatism. In contrast, Th/Nb and La/Nb monitor the changes in the source composition of these magmas. We suggest that the transition from the common calc-alkaline to K-rich transitional magmatism involves a change in the source component, while the trace element ratios

  13. Detrital mode and whole-rock geochemistry of the fluvial succession, Pishin Belt, Pakistan: Implications on provenance and source area weathering in periferal foreland basins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasi, Aimal Khan; Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Friis, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Detrital mode and geochemical composition of sandstones and mudstones of the Miocene Dasht Murgha Group (DMG) and Pliocene Malthanai Formation (MF) of the Pishin Belt, north-western Pakistan have been examined to identify their provenance and source area weathering. Sandstones of the Dasht Murgha...... Group and Malthanai Formation are lithic to sublith- arenites, rich in quartz, and metamorphic and sedimentary lithic fragments, indicating a recycled orogenic source. LmLvLs plots show that the Dasht Murgha Group is rich in sedimentary and metamorphic lithic fragments (Lm35Lv18Ls47), while samples...... of the Malthanai Formation are overwhelmingly rich in sedimentary fragments (Lm14Lv10Ls76). Eocene Nisai Formation and Oligocene Khojak Formation within the Pishin Belt were mainly providing the sedimentary/metasedimentary detritus. High content of monocrystalline quartz (DMG: 28.21%; MF: 30.7), and higher SiO2/Al...

  14. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  15. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  16. Climate induced changes in the circulation and dispersal patterns of the fluvial sources during late Quaternary in the middle Bengal Fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.; Vogelsang, E.

    From a transact along 15˚N latitude in the middle Bengal Fan, temporal and spatial variations in the granulometric parameters and clay minerals in 14C dated box cores from the eastern, the central and the western regions were studied to determine...

  17. A Middle-Upper Miocene fluvial-lacustrine rift sequence in the Song Ba Rift, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lars H., Nielsen; Henrik I., Petersen; Nguyen D., Dau

    2007-01-01

    The small Neogene Krong Pa graben is situated within the continental Song Ba Rift, which is bounded by strike-slip faults that were reactivated as extensional faults in Middle Miocene time. The 500 m thick graben-fill shows an overall depositional development reflecting the structural evolution...... subsidence rate and possibly a higher influx of water from the axial river systems the general water level in the graben rose and deep lakes formed. High organic preservation in the lakes prompted the formation of two excellent oil-prone lacustrine source-rock units. In the late phase of the graben...... as carrier beds, whereas the braided fluvial sandstones and conglomerates along the graben margins may form reservoirs. The Krong Pa graben thus contains oil-prone lacustrine source rocks, effective conduits for generated hydrocarbons and reservoir sandstones side-sealed by the graben faults toward...

  18. What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Esther Duflo

    2008-01-01

    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  19. U-Th-Pb systematics of some granitoids from the northeastern Yilgarn Block, Western Australia and implications for uranium source rock potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuckless, J S; Nkomo, I T [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA); Bunting, J A [Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth

    1981-11-01

    The Mount Boreas-type granite and spatially associated syenitic granitoid of Western Australia yield Pb-Pb ages of 2370 +- 100 Ma and 2760 +- 210 Ma, respectively. Th-Pb ages, although less precise, are concordant with these ages, and therefore the apparent ages are interpreted to be the crystallisation ages for these two units. U-Pb ages are variable and for the most part anomalously old, which suggests a Cainozoic uranium loss. However, this loss is generally small (3..mu..g/g); therefore, neither granitoid in its fresh state provides a good source for nearby calcrete-hosted uranium deposits. The possibility remains that the Mount Boreas-type granite that has been completely weathered during the Tertiary could have been a source for the calcrete-type uranium deposits in W.A. Although the Mount Boreas-type granite is highly fractionated, it does not bear a strong geochemical imprint of a sedimentary precursor. This feature contrasts it with apparently fresh granitoids from other parts of the world that have lost large amounts of uranium (approx. 20..mu..g/g) and are associated with large roll-type and other low temperature-type uranium deposits.

  20. Isotopic clues to magmatic source regions for neogene Andean volcanic rocks in the El Teniente area near 38oS latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Suzanne Mahlburg; Kurtz, A.C

    2001-01-01

    The origin of isotopic variations in Central Andean arc lavas is a long-standing problem that involves identifying mantle and crustal source regions. Advances have come from analyzing temporal and spatial variations in constrained tectonic settings. The purpose here is to highlight the similarities of temporal variations in an east-west transect of Neogene magmatic units near 34 O S latitude with those from a south-north transect along the modern Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, e.g. Hildreth and Moorbath 1988, Tormey et al. 1991). The comparison shows the importance of crustal thickening processes associated with compressional shortening and of lithospheric scale adjustments associated with eastward migration of the arc front on magma sources. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic analyses of 27 Neogene volcanic and plutonic samples from the El Teniente area are presented in Table 1 and plotted along with some analyses from Skewes and Stern (1994) and Stern and Skewes (1995) in Figure 2. The data show a clear progression from older samples with more 'depleted' isotopic signatures (lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and Pb isotopic ratios, higher εNd) to younger samples with more 'enriched' signatures (higher 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and Pb isotopic ratios, lower εNd). In detail, four temporal and spatial groups marked by discontinuities in isotopic trends can be defined. Within each group, εNd tends to decrease and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios to increase with SiO2 concentration (au)

  1. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  2. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  3. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  4. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  5. Emission Inventory Development and Application Based On an Atmospheric Emission Source Priority Control Classification Technology Method, a Case Study in the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Cheng, S.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to investigate the emission source control of the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River Urban Agglomerations (MRYRUA), one of the national urban agglomerations in China. An emission inventory of the MRYRUA was the first time to be developed as inputs to the CAMx model based on county-level activity data obtained by full-coverage investigation and source-based spatial surrogates. The emission inventory was proved to be acceptable owing to the atmospheric modeling verification. A classification technology method for atmospheric pollution source priority control was the first time to be introduced and applied in the MRYRUA for the evaluation of the emission sources control on the region-scale and city-scale. MICAPS (Meteorological Information comprehensive Analysis and Processing System) was applied for the regional meteorological condition and sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrated that the emission sources in the Hefei-center Urban Agglomerations contributed biggest on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA and should be taken the priority to control. The emission sources in the Ma'anshan city, Xiangtan city, Hefei city and Wuhan city were the bigger contributors on the mean PM2.5 concentrations of the MRYRUA among the cities and should be taken the priority to control. In addition, the cities along the Yangtze River and the tributary should be given the special attention for the regional air quality target attainments. This study provide a valuable preference for policy makers to develop effective air pollution control strategies.

  6. Fine-scale heat flow, shallow heat sources, and decoupled circulation systems at two sea-floor hydrothermal sites, Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J. S.; Fisher, A. T.; Langseth, M.; Jin, W.; Iturrino, G.; Davis, E.

    1998-12-01

    Fine-scale heat-flow patterns at two areas of active venting in Middle Valley, a sedimented rift on the northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, provide thermal evidence of shallow hydrothermal reservoirs beneath the vent fields. The extreme variability of heat flow is explained by conductive heating immediately adjacent to vents and shallow circulation within sediments above the reservoir. This secondary circulation is hydrologically separated from the deeper system feeding the vents by a shallow conductive lid within the sediments. A similar separation of shallow and deep circulation may also occur at sediment-free ridge-crest hydrothermal environments.

  7. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional ...

  8. Middle Class Youth: Myth or Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U V Goliusova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Many researches both in Russia and abroad are concerned with the question of whether middle class exists in Russia and, if so, what its distinctive features are. The problem of particular interest is the sources of recruiting to that social group. One of its source clusters is youth. The article considers main traits of middle class youth, their self-identification and their perception of Russian middle class.

  9. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks from the Gravina-Nutzotin belt, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Norman J; Berg, Henry C.; Haffty, Joseph

    1977-01-01

    The Gravina-Nutzotin belt of Middle (?) Jurassic to middle Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks in south and southeastern Alaska includes concentrically zoned ultramafic complexes known to contain platinum-group metals. Previous isotopic, petrologic, and geologic studies suggested a close relation in time and space between the volcanic rocks and the ultramafic complexes. Interpretation of 40 analyses for platinum, palladium, and rhodium in volcanic and plutonic rocks of the belt indicates a strong geochemical correlation between the two groups of rocks and is in support of their being cogenetic either from directly connected magma chambers and flows or indirectly by selective concentration processes from similar mantle material.

  10. Petrogenesis of siliceous high-Mg series rocks as exemplified by the Early Paleoproterozoic mafic volcanic rocks of the Eastern Baltic Shield: enriched mantle versus crustal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogina, Maria; Zlobin, Valeriy; Sharkov, Evgenii; Chistyakov, Alexeii

    2015-04-01

    The Early Paleoproterozoic stage in the Earth's evolution was marked by the initiation of global rift systems, the tectonic nature of which was determined by plume geodynamics. These processes caused the voluminous emplacement of mantle melts with the formation of dike swarms, mafic-ultramafic layered intrusions, and volcanic rocks. All these rocks are usually considered as derivatives of SHMS (siliceous high-magnesian series). Within the Eastern Baltic Shield, the SHMS volcanic rocks are localized in the domains with different crustal history: in the Vodlozero block of the Karelian craton with the oldest (Middle Archean) crust, in the Central Block of the same craton with the Neoarchean crust, and in the Kola Craton with a heterogeneous crust. At the same time, these rocks are characterized by sufficiently close geochemical characteristics: high REE fractionation ((La/Yb)N = 4.9-11.7, (La/Sm)N=2.3-3.6, (Gd/Yb)N =1.66-2.74)), LILE enrichment, negative Nb anomaly, low to moderate Ti content, and sufficiently narrow variations in Nd isotope composition from -2.0 to -0.4 epsilon units. The tectonomagmatic interpretation of these rocks was ambiguous, because such characteristics may be produced by both crustal contamination of depleted mantle melts, and by generation from a mantle source metasomatized during previous subduction event. Similar REE patterns and overlapping Nd isotope compositions indicate that the studied basaltic rocks were formed from similar sources. If crustal contamination en route to the surface would play a significant role in the formation of the studied basalts, then almost equal amounts of contaminant of similar composition are required to produce the mafic rocks with similar geochemical signatures and close Nd isotopic compositions, which is hardly possible for the rocks spaced far apart in a heterogeneous crust. This conclusion is consistent with analysis of some relations between incompatible elements and their ratios. In particular, the

  11. Microglia and macrophages are major sources of locally produced transforming growth factor-beta1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Kiefer, R; Christensen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The potentially neurotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is locally expressed following human stroke and experimental ischemic lesions, but the cellular source(s) and profile of induction have so far not been established in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. This stud...

  12. Metamorphism and plutonism around the middle and south forks of the Feather River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Anna Martta

    1976-01-01

    The area around the Middle and South Forks of the Feather River provides information on metamorphic and igneous processes that bear on the origin of andesitic and granitic magmas in general and on the variation of their potassium content in particular. In the north, the area joins the Pulga and Bucks Lake quadrangles studied previously. Tectonically, this area is situated in the southern part of an arcuate segment of the Nevadan orogenic belt in the northwestern Sierra Nevada. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed calcalkaline island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite with interbedded tuff layers (the Franklin Canyon Formation), all probably correlative with Devonian rocks in the Klamath Mountains. Younger rocks form a sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks including some limestone (The Horseshoe Bend Formation), probably Permian in age. All the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were folded and recrystallized to the greenschist facies during the Nevadan (Jurassic) orogeny and were invaded by monzotonalitic magmas shortly thereafter. A second lineation and metamorphism to the epidote-amphibolite facies developed in a narrow zone around the plutons. In light of the concept of plate tectonics, it is suggested that the early (Devonian?) island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite (the Franklin Canyon Formation) were derived from the mantle above a Benioff zone by partial melting of peridotite in hydrous conditions. The water was probably derived from an oceanic plate descending to the mantle. Later (Permian?) magmas were mainly basaltic; some discontinuous layers of potassium-rich rhyolite indicate a change into anhydrous conditions and a deeper level of magma generation. The plutonic magmas that invaded the metamorphic rocks at the end of the Jurassic may contain material from the mantle, the subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the downfolded metamorphic rocks. The ratio of partial melts from these three sources may have changed with time

  13. U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions of zircons in plutonic rocks from the central Famatinian arc, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otamendi, Juan E.; Ducea, Mihai N.; Cristofolini, Eber A.; Tibaldi, Alina M.; Camilletti, Giuliano C.; Bergantz, George W.

    2017-07-01

    The Famatinian arc formed around the South Iapetus rim during the Ordovician, when oceanic lithosphere subducted beneath the West Gondwana margin. We present combined in situ U-Th-Pb and Lu-Hf isotope analyses for zircon to gain insights into the origin and evolution of Famatinian magmatism. Zircon crystals sampled from four intermediate and silicic plutonic rocks confirm previous observations showing that voluminous magmatism took place during a relatively short pulse between the Early and Middle Ordovician (472-465 Ma). The entire zircon population for the four plutonic rocks yields coherent εHf negative values and spreads over several ranges of initial εHf(t) units (-0.3 to -8.0). The range of εHf units in detrital zircons of Famatinian metasedimentary rocks reflects a prolonged history of the cratonic sources during the Proterozoic to the earliest Phanerozoic. Typical tonalites and granodiorites that contain zircons with evolved Hf isotopic compositions formed upon incorporating (meta)sedimentary materials into calc-alkaline metaluminous magmas. The evolved Hf isotope ratios of zircons in the subduction related plutonic rocks strongly reflect the Hf isotopic character of the metasedimentary contaminant, even though the linked differentiation and growth of the Famatinian arc crust was driven by ascending and evolving mantle magmas. Geochronology and Hf isotope systematics in plutonic zircons allow us understanding the petrogenesis of igneous series and the provenance of magma sources. However, these data could be inadequate for computing model ages and supporting models of crustal evolution.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of alternative phosphate rocks used in animal nutrition; Analise por ativacao neutronica por fontes alternativas de fosforo para a nutricao animal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canella, Artur A.; Ferreira, Walter M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Veterinaria]. E-mail: avelara@ufmg.br; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    Since 1980's, Bovine Sponghiform Encephalophaty has insidiously created a fierce battleground between farmers, scientists, environmentalists and consumers. The use of meat and bone meals is currently prohibited in ruminant feeds throughout the world. Some inorganic sources offer the combination of high phosphorus content and acceptable animal digestibility make them options as supplemental phosphorus, for instance phosphate rocks, general term applied to minerals valued chiefly for their phosphorus content. However, phosphate rocks are long been known containing hazardous elements, make them sometimes unsuitable for animal nutrition. Neutron Activation Analysis has been supportive to the mineral evaluation of alternative phosphate rocks. This evaluation is subject of on-going doctoral thesis which has been carried-out by the main author. The NAA method has been very efficient due to its highly sensitive and multi-elemental nature. In this paper results of Vanadium content from three different phosphate rocks are presented. Their values have been pointed out that Brazilian phosphate rocks present hazardous elements at the same levels of phosphate rocks from some countries of Africa, North America and Middle East, data from our study (Brazilian data) and FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization (others countries). (author)

  15. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  16. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  17. Determination of osmium concentrations and (187)Os/(188)Os of crude oils and source rocks by coupling high-pressure, high-temperature digestion with sparging OsO(4) into a multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Indra S; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard

    2014-03-18

    The (187)Os/(188)Os ratio that is based on the β(-)-decay of (187)Re to (187)Os (t1/2 = 41.6 billion years) is widely used to investigate petroleum system processes. Despite its broad applicability to studies of hydrocarbon deposits worldwide, a suitable matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis does not exist. In this study, a method that enables Os isotope measurement of crude oil with in-line Os separation and purification from the sample matrix is proposed. The method to analyze Os concentration and (187)Os/(187)Os involves sample digestion under high pressure and high temperature using a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar), sparging of volatile osmium tetroxide from the sample solution, and measurements using multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). This methods significantly reduced the total procedural time compared to conventional Carius tube digestion followed by Os separation and purification using solvent extraction, microdistillation and N-TIMS analysis. The method yields Os concentration (28 ± 4 pg g(-1)) and (187)Os/(188)Os (1.62 ± 0.15) of commercially available crude oil reference material NIST 8505 (1 S.D., n = 6). The reference material NIST 8505 is homogeneous with respect to Os concentration at a test portion size of 0.2 g. Therefore, (187)Os/(188)Os composition and Os concentration of NIST 8505 can serve as a matrix-matched reference material for Os analysis. Data quality was assessed by repeated measurements of the USGS shale reference material SCo-1 (sample matrix similar to petroleum source rock) and the widely used Liquid Os Standard solution (LOsSt). The within-laboratory reproducibility of (187)Os/(188)Os for a 5 pg of LOsSt solution, analyzed with this method over a period of 12 months was ∼1.4% (1 S.D., n = 26), respectively.

  18. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. Harnischrödel as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Regula

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, it concentrates on information pertaining to the type and quality of an average urban soldier’s gear. Although the results of this analysis are only preliminary – at this point, it is not possible to produce methodologically sound statistics –, the value of the lists as sources is readily evident, as only a smattering of the once massive quantity of actual objects has survived down to the present time.

  19. PSR J2030+364I: Radio Discovery and Gamma-ray Study of a Middle-aged Pulsar in the Now Identified Fermi-LAT Source 1FGL J2030.0+3641

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, F.; Kerr, M.; Ray, P. S.; Ransom, S. M.; Johnston, S.; Romani, R. W.; Parent, D.; Decesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Donato, D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In a radio search with the Green Bank Telescope of three unidentified low Galactic latitude Fermi-LAT sources, we have discovered the middle-aged pulsar J2030+3641, associated with IFGL J2030.0+3641 (2FGL J2030.0+3640). Following the detection of gamma-ray pulsations using a radio ephemeris, we have obtained a phase-coherent timing solution based on gamma-ray and radio pulse arrival times that spans the entire Fermi mission. With a rotation period of 0.28, spin-down luminosity of 3 x 10(exp 34) erg/s, and characteristic age of 0.5 Myr, PSR J2030+3641 is a middle-aged neutron star with spin parameters similar to those of the exceedingly gamma-ray-bright and radio-undetected Geminga. Its gamma-ray flux is 1 % that of Geminga, primarily because of its much larger distance, as suggested by the large integrated column density of free electrons, DM = 246 pc/cu cm. We fit the gamma-ray light curve, along with limited radio polarimetric constraints, to four geometrical models of magnetospheric emission, and while none of the fits have high significance some are encouraging and suggest that further refinements of these models may be worthwhile. We argue that not many more non-millisecond radio pulsars may be detected along the Galactic plane that are responsible for LAT sources, but that modified methods to search for gamma-ray pulsations should be productive - PSR J2030+364 I would have been found blindly in gamma rays if only > or approx. 0.8 GeV photons had been considered, owing to its relatively flat spectrum and location in a region of high soft background.

  20. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  1. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  2. Evaluation of geochemical mobility of heavy metals in the dump mine rocks Western Donbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatsechko N.Y.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Typification of turn mine rocks of Western Donbas is conducted after a size acid-lye the index of water-soluble complex. It is set that exactly rocks with the low value of it an index characterized the most sizes of middle content of water-soluble forms of heavy metals. It is well-proven that exactly mine dumps are the generating source of contamination of objects of environment of this region by heavy metals. The significant impact on the environment inflicted not only directly in the process of coal mining, but for many years after its completion. The source of contamination of environmental objects are dumps that occupy large areas of fertile land. Every year in the dumps is stored about 40 million. m3 moldboard mine rock. Most of the waste coal industry have potential toxic and mutagenic properties as containing a significant amount of heavy metals, which are practically not biodegradable in the environment and is therefore especially dangerous for living organisms paramount importance score geochemical mobility of heavy metals, ie their property to move from solid to liquid phase, migrate to the natural landscape and absorbed by vegetation. This applies particularly to water-soluble forms of metals, as in warehousing surface mine dump piles of rocks, the priority factor that regulates the processes of migration of heavy metals are leaching precipitation of solid phase wastes. It is the existence and content of heavy metals in water-soluble complex characterized by their solubility and migration activity and can be used to assess the real extent of possible contamination of the hydrosphere.

  3. Musical Structure as Narrative in Rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fernando Encarnacao

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to take a fresh look at the analysis of form in rock music, this paper uses Susan McClary’s (2000 idea of ‘quest narrative’ in Western art music as a starting point. While much pop and rock adheres to the basic structure of the establishment of a home territory, episodes or adventures away, and then a return, my study suggests three categories of rock music form that provide alternatives to common combinations of verses, choruses and bridges through which the quest narrative is delivered. Labyrinth forms present more than the usual number of sections to confound our sense of ‘home’, and consequently of ‘quest’. Single-cell forms use repetition to suggest either a kind of stasis or to disrupt our expectations of beginning, middle and end. Immersive forms blur sectional divisions and invite more sensual and participatory responses to the recorded text. With regard to all of these alternative approaches to structure, Judy Lochhead’s (1992 concept of ‘forming’ is called upon to underline rock music forms that unfold as process, rather than map received formal constructs. Central to the argument are a couple of crucial definitions. Following Theodore Gracyk (1996, it is not songs, as such, but particular recordings that constitute rock music texts. Additionally, narrative is understood not in (direct relation to the lyrics of a song, nor in terms of artists’ biographies or the trajectories of musical styles, but considered in terms of musical structure. It is hoped that this outline of non-narrative musical structures in rock may have applications not only to other types of music, but to other time-based art forms.

  4. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. Harnischrödel as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid Regula

    2017-01-01

    The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, ...

  5. The armour of the common soldier in the late middle ages. "Harnischrödel" as sources for the history of urban martial culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Regula

    2017-01-01

    The designation Harnischrödel (rolls of armour) lumps together different kinds of urban inventories. They list the names of citizens and inhabitants together with the armour they owned, were compelled to acquire within their civic obligations, or were obliged to lend to able-bodied men. This contribution systematically introduces Harnischrödel of the 14th and 15th c. as important sources for the history of urban martial culture. On the basis of lists preserved in the archives of Swiss towns, ...

  6. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  7. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  8. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  9. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  10. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  11. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  12. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  13. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  14. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  15. O rock desligado de Lóki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the documentary Loki: ArnaldoBaptista (2009, direct by Paulo Henrique Fontenelle. This analysis investigates thehistorical research and biographical approach, examining in particular the enhancement oforal memory and musical performances from different sources to put into perspective thehistory of Brazilian rock on movie screens and television.

  16. Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of Baird Mountains Quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1985-04-01

    Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Baird Mountains quadrangle form a relatively thin (about 550 m), chiefly shallow-water succession that has been imbricately thrust and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Middle and Upper Cambrian rocks - the first reported from the western Brooks Range - occur in the northeastern quarter of the quadrangle, south of Angayukaqsraq (formerly Hub) Mountain. They consist of marble grading upward into thin-bedded marble/dolostone couplets and contain pelagiellid mollusks, acetretid brachiopods, and agnostid trilobites. Sedimentologic features and the Pelagiellas indicate a shallow-water depositional environment. Overlying these rocks are Lower and Middle Ordovician marble and phyllite containing graptolites and conodonts of midshelf to basinal aspect. Upper Ordovician rocks in this area are bioturbated to laminated dolostone containing warm, shallow-water conodonts. In the Omar and Squirrel Rivers areas to the west, the Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks show striking differences in lithofacies, biofacies, and thickness. Here they are mainly dolostone with locally well-developed fenestral fabric and evaporite molds, and bioturbated to laminated orange- and gray-weathering dolomitic marble. Upper Silurian dolostone, found near Angayukaqsraq Mountain and on the central Squirrel River, contains locally abundant corals and stronmatoporoids. Devonian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the Baird Mountains quadrangle; at least two distinct sequences have been identified. In the Omar area, Lower and Middle Devonian dolostone and marble are locally cherty and rich in megafossils. In the north-central (Nakolik River) area, Middle and Upper Devonian marble is interlayered with planar to cross-laminated quartz-carbonate metasandstone and phyllite.

  17. Remarks on some rock neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A method to calculate the thermal neutron parameters of rocks is given in the paper. It is based on a proper energy averaging of cross-sections for all rock matrix and rock saturating liquid constituents. The diffusion lengths in different lithologies in function of the variable rock porosity have been calculated. An influence of the thermal neutron spectrum on the shape of the porosity calibration curves for the dual spacing neutron method is shown. Magmatic rocks as a possible source of geothermal energy are now becoming a target of neutron loggings for the porosity determination. Here the knowledge of the slowing-down lengths is of great importance in the problem of the estimation of the calibration curves. A semi-analytical approach to get this parameter is given in the paper. It was found, as far as concerns the slowing-down of fast neutrons, that all magmatic rocks behave as sandstone with, however, different content of bound water in the rock matrix and different rock matrix density. Some neutron methods are based on the detection of epithermal neutrons. For theoretical considerations it is important to know the physical meaning of the registered signal. From the discussion of experimental data reported in the literature it seems that it is the slowing-down density that is the physical quantity being measured. This conclusion has a very important practical implication - the porosity calibration curves depend upon the slowing-down length alone and are independent of the slowing-down cross-section for epithermal neutrons

  18. Geosites inventory of the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Wartiti, Mohamed; Malaki, Amina; Zahraoui, Mohamed; El Ghannouchi, Abdelilah; di Gregorio, Felice

    2008-07-01

    Across the northwestern Tabular Middle Atlas of Morocco there are many examples of landscapes, rocks and fossils that provide key evidence of a particular moment or period in Earth history. Such Earth heritage sites are important for educating the general public in environmental matters. They also serve as tools for demonstrating sustainable development and for illustrating methods of site conservation as well as remembering that rocks, minerals, fossils, soils, landforms form an integral part of the natural world. The significance of certain sites for aesthetic or tourism reasons is obvious. There are numerous geosites, which could contribute to effective exploitation of geotourism, often in conjunction with ecotourism. The strategy employed to such sites involves close consultation with all communities in the vicinity of the respective geosite and is not only aimed at tourism and education, but also at sustainable improvement of the infrastructure of the people of this area. Geological heritage sites, properly managed, can generate employment and new economic activities, especially in regions in need of new or additional sources of income.

  19. Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum linked to continental arc flare-up in Iran?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; Kuiper, K.; van der Ploeg, R.; Cramwinckel, M.; Honarmand, M.; Sluijs, A.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.

    2017-12-01

    A 500 kyr episode of 3-5 °C gradual global climate warming, some 40 Myr ago, has been termed the Middle Eocene climatic optimum (MECO). It has been associated with a rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the source of this carbon remains enigmatic. We show, based on new Ar-Ar ages of volcanic rocks in Iran and Azerbaijan, that the time interval spanning the MECO was associated with a massive increase in continental arc volcanism. We also collected almost 300 Ar-Ar and U-Pb ages from literature. Typically, U-Pb ages from the Eocene are slightly younger, by 3 Myr, than Ar-Ar ages. We observed that U-Pb ages are obtained mostly from intrusive rocks and therefore must reflect an intrusive stage that post-dated extrusive volcanism. Combining all ages for extrusive rocks, we show that they cluster around 40.2 Ma, exactly within the time span of the MECO (40.5-40.0 Ma). We estimate volumes of volcanism based on a shapefile of outcrops and average thickness of the sequences. We calculate CO2 estimates using a relation volcanism-CO2 that was earlier used for the Deccan traps (Tobin et al., 2017). Our calculations indicate that the volume of the Iranian middle Eocene volcanic rocks (estimated at 37000 km3) is sufficient to explain the CO2 rise during the MECO. We conclude that continental arc flare-up in the Neotethys subduction zone is a plausible candidate for causing the MECO.

  20. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  1. Rock-fall Hazard In The Yosemite Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzetti, F.; Reichenbach, P.; Wieczorek, G. F.

    Rock slides and rock falls are the most frequent slope movements in Yosemite Na- tional Park, California. In historical time (1851-2001), more than 400 rock falls and rock slides have been documented in the valley, and some of them have been mapped in detail. We present the preliminary results of an attempt to assess rockfall hazard in the Yosemite Valley using STONE, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. The software computes 3-dimensional rock-fall trajectories starting from a digital terrain model (DTM), the location of rock-fall release points (source areas), and maps of the dynamic rolling coefficient and of the coefficients of normal and tan- gential energy restitution. For each DTM cell the software also calculates the number of rock falls passing through the cell, the maximum rock-fall velocity and the maxi- mum flying height. For the Yosemite Valley, a DTM with a ground resolution of 10 x 10 m was prepared using topographic contour lines from USGS 1:24,000-scale maps. Rock-fall release points were identified as DTM cells having a slope steeper than 60 degrees, an assumption based on the location of historical rock falls. Maps of the nor- mal and tangential energy restitution coefficients and of the rolling friction coefficient were produced from a surficial geologic map. The availability of historical rock falls mapped in detail allowed us to check the computer program performance and to cali- brate the model parameters. Visual and statistical comparison of the model results with the mapped rock falls confirmed the accuracy of the model. The model results are also compared with a geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazard based on potential energy referred to as a "shadow angle" approach, recently completed for the Yosemite Valley.

  2. Excess europium content in Precambrian sedimentary rocks and continental evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, P.; Taylor, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    It is proposed that the europium excess in Precambrian sedimentary rocks, relative to those of younger age, is derived from volcanic rocks of ancient island arcs, which were the source materials for the sediments. Precambrian sedimentary rocks and present-day volcanic rocks of island arcs have similar REE patterns, total REE abundances, and excess Eu, relative to the North American shale composite. The present upper crustal REE pattern, as exemplified by that of sediments, is depleted in Eu, relative to chondrites. This depletion is considered to be a consequence of development of a granodioritic upper crust by partial melting in the lower crust, which selectively retains europium.

  3. Interim rock mass properties and conditions for analyses of a repository in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammemagi, H.Y.; Chieslar, J.D.

    1985-03-01

    A summary of rock properties for generic crystalline rock is compiled from literature sources to provide the input data for analyses of a conceptual repository in crystalline rock. Frequency histograms, mean values and ranges of physical, mechanical, thermal, and thermomechanical properties, and the dependence of these properties on temperature are described. A description of the hydrogeologic properties of a crystalline rock mass and their dependence on depth is provided. In addition, the temperature gradients, mean annual surface temperature, and in situ stress conditions are summarized for the three regions of the United States currently under consideration to host a crystalline repository; i.e., the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern. Brief descriptions of the regional geology are also presented. Large-scale underground experiments in crystalline rock at Stripa, Sweden, and in Climax Stock in Nevada, are reviewed to assess whether the rock properties presented in this report are representative of in situ conditions. The suitability of each rock property and the sufficiency of its data base are described. 110 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Petrography and geochemistry of the Middle Miocene Gebel El ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir M Zaid

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... felsic-granitic source rocks and deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The inferred .... tribution show that they began accumulation as piedmont boulders bed ...... the source rocks to the study areas can be identified ..... Petrol. 34 625–632. El-Akkad S and Dardir A A 1966 Geology of the Red Sea.

  5. Establishment of land model at the Shika Nuclear Power Plant. Mainly, on rock board classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagawa, Hideki; Hashimoto, Toru; Hirano, Shuji

    1999-01-01

    In order to grasp engineering properties of basic land of constructions, there is rock board classification as a method to classify whole of rock board to some groups considerable to be nearly equal on its properties. Among the method, various methods in response to its aim and characteristics are devised, and for a classification to hard rock board, the Denken type rock board classification considering degree of weathering to its main element and so forth are well known. The basic rock board of the Shika Nuclear Power Plant is composed of middle and hard types of rock, and its weathering is limited to its shallow portion, most of which are held at fresh condition. For such land, a new classification standard in response to characteristics of land was established. Here were introduced on a progress to establish a new classification standard, its application results and rock board properties. (G.K.)

  6. Waste-rock interactions and bedrock reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    The experimental program is designed to discover possible reactions between shale repository rocks and radioactive wastes. The canister can be regarded in three ways: (a) As a source of heat that modifies the mineralogy and therefore the physical properties of the surrounding rock (dry heat). (b) As a source of heat that activates reactions between minerals in the surrounding rock and slowly percolating ground water. (c) As a source of reaction materials of different composition from the surrounding rock and which therefore may react to form completely new ''minerals'' in a contact aureole around the canister. The matrix of interactions contains two composition axes. The waste compositions are defined by the various prototype waste forms usually investigated: glass, calcine, ''spent fuel'' and the ceramic supercalcine. The temperatures and pressures at which these reactions take place must be investigated. Thus each node on the ''wiring diagram'' is itself a matrix of experiments in which the T and to some extent P are varied. Experiments at higher pressure and temperature allow reactions to take place on a laboratory time scale and thus identify what could happen. These reactions are then followed downward in temperature to determine both phase boundaries and kinetic cut-offs below which equilibrium cannot be achieved on a laboratory time scale

  7. Numerical modelling of fluid-rock interactions: Lessons learnt from carbonate rocks diagenesis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Fadi; Bachaud, Pierre; Michel, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    contribution is based on several studies that were undertaken on carbonate rocks diagenesis in some of the major reservoir rocks in the Middle East and outcrop analogues in Europe. Here, the main processes at hand are related to fracture-related dolomitization and carbonate dissolution. We would like to present the workflows we have followed and the questioning that resulted for a series of case studies. The way forward, seems evident as the integration of workflows and numerical modelling tools at different scales, bringing better constrains on the boundary data and less uncertainty.

  8. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  9. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  10. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  11. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  13. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  14. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  15. Rock-brine chemical interactions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The results of experimental interaction of powdered volcanic rock with aqueous solutions are presented at temperatures from 200 to 400/sup 0/C, 500 to 1000 bars fluid pressure, with reaction durations of approximately 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. The aim of this research is to develop data on the kinetics and equilibria of rock solution interactions that will provide insight into the complex geochemical processes attending geothermal reservoir development, stimulation, and reinjection. The research was done in the Stanford Hydrothermal Lab using gold cell equipment of the Dickson design. This equipment inverts the solution rock mixture several times a minute to ensure thorough mixing. Solution samples were periodically withdrawn without interruption of the experimental conditions. The data from these experiments suggests a path dependent series of reactions by which geothermal fluids might evolve from meteoric or magmatic sources.

  16. Petrogenesis of volcanic rocks that host the world-class Agsbnd Pb Navidad District, North Patagonian Massif: Comparison with the Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province of Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhier, Verónica E.; Franchini, Marta B.; Caffe, Pablo J.; Maydagán, Laura; Rapela, Carlos W.; Paolini, Marcelo

    2017-05-01

    We present the first study of the volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation that host the Navidad world-class Ag + Pb epithermal district located in the North Patagonian Massif, Patagonia, Argentina. These volcanic and sedimentary rocks were deposited in a lacustrine environment during an extensional tectonic regime associated with the breakup of Gondwana and represent the mafic to intermediate counterparts of the mainly silicic Jurassic Chon Aike Volcanic Province. Lava flows surrounded by autobrecciated carapace were extruded in subaerial conditions, whereas hyaloclastite and peperite facies suggest contemporaneous subaqueous volcanism and sedimentation. LA-ICPMS Usbnd Pb ages of zircon crystals from the volcanic units yielded Middle Jurassic ages of 173.9 ± 1.9 Ma and 170.8 ± 3 Ma. In the Navidad district, volcanic rocks of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation show arc-like signatures including high-K basaltic-andesite to high-K dacite compositions, Rb, Ba and Th enrichment relative to the less mobile HFS elements (Nb, Ta), enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE), Ysbnd Ti depletion, and high Zr contents. These characteristics could be explained by assimilation of crustal rocks in the Jurassic magmas, which is also supported by the presence of zircon xenocrysts with Permian and Middle-Upper Triassic ages (281.3 Ma, 246.5, 218.1, and 201.3 Ma) and quartz xenocrysts recognized in these volcanic units. Furthermore, Sr and Nd isotope compositions suggest a contribution of crustal components in these Middle Jurassic magmas. High-K basaltic andesite has initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70416-0.70658 and ξNd(t) values of -5.3 and -4. High-K dacite and andesite have initial 87Sr/86Sr compositions of 0.70584-0.70601 and ξNd(t) values of -4,1 and -3,2. The range of Pb isotope values (206Pb/204Pb = 18.28-18.37, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.61-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.26-38.43) of Navidad volcanic rocks and ore minerals suggest mixing Pb sources with contributions of

  17. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  18. Nitrogen in rock: Occurrences and biogeochemical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of bedrock in global nitrogen cycling and potential for increased ecosystem sensitivity to human impacts in terrains with elevated background nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen-bearing rocks are globally distributed and comprise a potentially large pool of nitrogen in nutrient cycling that is frequently neglected because of a lack of routine analytical methods for quantification. Nitrogen in rock originates as organically bound nitrogen associated with sediment, or in thermal waters representing a mixture of sedimentary, mantle, and meteoric sources of nitrogen. Rock nitrogen concentrations range from trace levels (>200 mg N kg -1) in granites to ecologically significant concentrations exceeding 1000 mg N kg -1 in some sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks. Nitrate deposits accumulated in arid and semi-arid regions are also a large potential pool. Nitrogen in rock has a potentially significant impact on localized nitrogen cycles. Elevated nitrogen concentrations in water and soil have been attributed to weathering of bedrock nitrogen. In some environments, nitrogen released from bedrock may contribute to nitrogen saturation of terrestrial ecosystems (more nitrogen available than required by biota). Nitrogen saturation results in leaching of nitrate to surface and groundwaters, and, where soils are formed from ammonium-rich bedrock, the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate may result in soil acidification, inhibiting revegetation in certain ecosystems. Collectively, studies presented in this article reveal that geologic nitrogen may be a large and reactive pool with potential for amplification of human impacts on nitrogen cycling in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  19. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  1. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  2. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  3. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  4. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  5. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  6. Rock mass mechanical property estimations for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Bauer, S.J.

    1993-06-01

    Rock mass mechanical properties are important in the design of drifts and ramps. These properties are used in evaluations of the impacts of thermomechanical loading of potential host rock within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Representative intact rock and joint mechanical properties were selected for welded and nonwelded tuffs from the currently available data sources. Rock mass qualities were then estimated using both the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (Q) and Geomechanics Rating (RMR) systems. Rock mass mechanical properties were developed based on estimates of rock mass quality, the current knowledge of intact properties, and fracture/joint characteristics. Empirical relationships developed to correlate the rock mass quality indices and the rock mass mechanical properties were then used to estimate the range of rock mass mechanical properties

  7. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  8. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  9. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  10. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  11. The determination of maturity levels in source rocks of the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela, based on convention geochemical parameters and asphaltenes; Determinacao do grau de maturacao em rochas geradoras de petroleo, formacao La Luna, Bacia de Maracaibo, Venezuela: parametros geoquimicos convencionais e asfaltenos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, L.P. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Pesquisas sobre o Armazenamento de Carbono; Franco, N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Lopez, L.; Lo Monaco, S.; Escobar, G. [Universidad Central de Venezuela (UCV), Caracas (Venezuela); Kalkreuth, W. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Analises de Carvao e Rochas Geradoras de Petroleo

    2008-07-01

    The La Luna Formation, main source rock of the Maracaibo Basin was studied by conventional geochemical parameters, used to determine the maturity, and they were compared with the physic-chemical and molecular properties of the asphaltenes present in the bitumen of the rocks. Three wells were studied (A, B and C) with a total of 13 samples. Based on Rock-Eval results the organic matter in well A (455 deg C Tmax) shows a relatively high level of maturation (top of the oil window), whereas the organic matter in well B (435 - 436 deg C Tmax) is in the beginning of the oil window. Tmax values in well C (438 - 446 deg C) and well C suggest an intermediate maturity level. The biomarkers identified in well B and C show ratios indicating an equilibrium state in the maturity level. A good correlation was found comparing the conventional analytical data with the determination of maturity level obtained from the asphaltenes precipitated from the bitumen of the samples. With increased maturity levels the H1 NMR analysis showed enrichment in aromatic molecules in relation to aliphatic, due to the bitumen aromatization process. Similarly, the asphaltenes molecular weight has higher values in samples characterized by elevated maturity levels. This confirms earlier studies that showed that asphaltenes may be utilized as maturity parameter of organic matter. (author)

  12. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...

  13. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.

    2001-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  14. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  15. Pore Type Classification on Carbonate Reservoir in Offshore Sarawak using Rock Physics Model and Rock Digital Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, L A; Harith, Z Z T

    2014-01-01

    It has been recognized that carbonate reservoirs are one of the biggest sources of hydrocarbon. Clearly, the evaluation of these reservoirs is important and critical. For rigorous reservoir characterization and performance prediction from geophysical measurements, the exact interpretation of geophysical response of different carbonate pore types is crucial. Yet, the characterization of carbonate reservoir rocks is difficult due to their complex pore systems. The significant diagenesis process and complex depositional environment makes pore systems in carbonates far more complicated than in clastics. Therefore, it is difficult to establish rock physics model for carbonate rock type. In this paper, we evaluate the possible rock physics model of 20 core plugs of a Miocene carbonate platform in Central Luconia, Sarawak. The published laboratory data of this area were used as an input to create the carbonate rock physics models. The elastic properties were analyzed to examine the validity of an existing analytical carbonate rock physics model. We integrate the Xu-Payne Differential Effective Medium (DEM) Model and the elastic modulus which was simulated from a digital carbonate rock image using Finite Element Modeling. The results of this integration matched well for the separation of carbonate pore types and sonic P-wave velocity obtained from laboratory measurement. Thus, the results of this study show that the integration of rock digital image and theoretical rock physics might improve the elastic properties prediction and useful for more advance geophysical techniques (e.g. Seismic Inversion) of carbonate reservoir in Sarawak

  16. Mont Terri Project - Heater experiment : rock and bentonite thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in the near field of a thermal source for development of deep underground high level radioactive waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, I.; Alheid, H.-J.; Kaufhold, St.; Naumann, M.; Pletsch, Th.; Plischke, I.; Schnier, H.; Schuster, K.; Sprado, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Meyer, T.; Miehe, R.; Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Braunschweig (Germany); Mayor, J.C. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sineriz, J.; Rey, M. [Asociacion para la Investigacion y Desarollo Industrial de los Recursos Naturales (AITEMIN), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, E.; Lloret, A.; Munoz, J.J. [Centre Internacional de Metodos Numerics en Ingenyeria (CIMNE), Barcelona (Spain); Weber, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen (Switzerland); Ploetze, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Geotechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Klubertanz, G. [Colenco Power Engineering Ltd, Baden (Switzerland); Ammon, Ch. [Rothpletz Lienhard und Cie AG, Aarau (Switzerland); Graf, A.; Nussbaum, Ch.; Zingg, A. [Goetechnical Institute Ltd, Saint-Ursanne (Switzerland); Bossart, P. [Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo), Wabern (Switzerland); Buehler, Ch.; Kech, M.; Trick, Th. [Solexperts AG, Moenchaltorf (Switzerland); Emmerich, K. [ITC-WGT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Fernandez, A. M. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The long-term safety of underground permanent repositories for radioactive waste relies on a combination of several engineered and geological barriers. The interactions between a host rock formation of the type 'Opalinus Clay' and an engineered barrier of the type 'bentonite buffer' are observed in the Heater Experiment (HE) during a hydration and a heating phase. The objective of the experiment is an improved understanding of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in a host rock-buffer system achieved by experimental observations as well as numerical modelling. The basic objectives are in detail: a) Long-term monitoring in the vicinity of the heater during hydration and heating; especially observation and study of coupled THM processes in the near field, i.e. continuous measurements of temperatures, pore pressures, displacements, electric conductivity, and analysis of the gases and water released into the rock by effect of heating; b) Determination of the properties of barrier and host rock done mainly by laboratory and in situ experiments, i.e. general mechanical and mineralogical properties, mechanical state in-situ, and changes induced by the experiment; c) Study of the interaction between host rock and bentonite buffer as well as validation and refinement of existing tools for modelling THM processes; d) Study of the behaviour and reliability of instrumentation and measuring techniques, i.e. inspection of sensors after dismantling the experimental setting. To achieve the objectives, the experiment was accompanied by an extensive programme of continuous monitoring, experimental investigations on-site as well as in laboratories, and numerical modelling of the coupled THM processes. Finally, the experiment was dismantled to provide laboratory specimens of post-heating buffer and host rock material. The continuous monitoring of the experiment by a multitude of sensors (for temperature, pore pressure, total pressure, relative

  17. Reflection seismic methods applied to locating fracture zones in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, C.

    1998-01-01

    The reflection seismic method is a potentially powerful tool for identifying and localising fracture zones in crystalline rock if used properly. Borehole sonic logs across fracture zones show that they have reduced P-wave velocities compared to the surrounding intact rock. Diagnostically important S-wave velocity log information across the fracture zones is generally lacking. Generation of synthetic reflection seismic data and subsequent processing of these data show that structures dipping up towards 70 degrees from horizontal can be reliably imaged using surface seismic methods. Two real case studies where seismic reflection methods have been used to image fracture zones in crystalline rock are presented. Two examples using reflection seismic are presented. The first is from the 5354 m deep SG-4 borehole in the Middle Urals, Russia where strong seismic reflectors dipping from 25 to 50 degrees are observed on surface seismic reflection data crossing over the borehole. On vertical seismic profile data acquired in the borehole, the observed P-wave reflectivity is weak from these zones, however, strong converted P to S waves are observed. This can be explained by the source of the reflectors being fracture zones with a high P wave to S wave velocity ratio compared to the surrounding rock resulting in a high dependence on the angle of incidence for the reflection coefficient. A high P wave to S wave velocity ratio (high Poisson's ratio) is to be expected in fluid filled fractured rock. The second case is from Aevroe, SE Sweden, where two 1 km long crossing high resolution seismic reflection lines were acquired in October 1996. An E-W line was shot with 5 m geophone and shotpoint spacing and a N-S one with 10 m geophone and shotpoint spacing. An explosive source with a charge size of 100 grams was used along both lines. The data clearly image three major dipping reflectors in the upper 200 ms (600 m). The dipping ones intersect or project to the surface at/or close to

  18. Rock burst governance of working face under igneous rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenxing; Yu, Yue

    2017-01-01

    As a typical failure phenomenon, rock burst occurs in many mines. It can not only cause the working face to cease production, but also cause serious damage to production equipment, and even result in casualties. To explore how to govern rock burst of working face under igneous rock, the 10416 working face in some mine is taken as engineering background. The supports damaged extensively and rock burst took place when the working face advanced. This paper establishes the mechanical model and conducts theoretical analysis and calculation to predict the fracture and migration mechanism and energy release of the thick hard igneous rock above the working face, and to obtain the advancing distance of the working face when the igneous rock fractures and critical value of the energy when rock burst occurs. Based on the specific conditions of the mine, this paper put forward three kinds of governance measures, which are borehole pressure relief, coal seam water injection and blasting pressure relief.

  19. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential

  20. Rock solidification method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Iwao; Murakami, Tadashi; Miyake, Takafumi; Funakoshi, Toshio; Inagaki, Yuzo; Hashimoto, Yasuhide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To convert radioactive wastes into the final state for storage (artificial rocks) in a short period of time. Method: Radioactive burnable wastes such as spent papers, cloths and oils and activated carbons are burnt into ashes in a burning furnace, while radioactive liquid wastes such as liquid wastes of boric acid, exhausted cleaning water and decontaminating liquid wastes are powderized in a drying furnace or calcining furnace. These powders are joined with silicates as such as white clay, silica and glass powder and a liquid alkali such as NaOH or Ca(OH) 2 and transferred to a solidifying vessel. Then, the vessel is set to a hydrothermal reactor, heated and pressurized, then taken out about 20 min after and tightly sealed. In this way, radioactive wastes are converted through the hydrothermal reactions into aqueous rock stable for a long period of time to obtain solidification products insoluble to water and with an extremely low leaching rate. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  2. Rock and mineral magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    O’Reilly, W

    1984-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a revolution in the earth sciences. The quantitative, instrument-based measurements and physical models of. geophysics, together with advances in technology, have radically transformed the way in which the Earth, and especially its crust, is described. The study of the magnetism of the rocks of the Earth's crust has played a major part in this transformation. Rocks, or more specifically their constituent magnetic minerals, can be regarded as a measuring instrument provided by nature, which can be employed in the service of the earth sciences. Thus magnetic minerals are a recording magnetometer; a goniometer or protractor, recording the directions of flows, fields and forces; a clock; a recording thermometer; a position recorder; astrain gauge; an instrument for geo­ logical surveying; a tracer in climatology and hydrology; a tool in petrology. No instrument is linear, or free from noise and systematic errors, and the performance of nature's instrument must be assessed and ...

  3. On Family, Friendship, Love and Caring for a Child with Autism--The Story of Rock Harmon and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Joseph M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Timmy Harmon, Cathy and Rock Harmon's middle child, is a wonderful young man. He has a smile that is infectious and seems continuously happy. Timmy also has autism. This is a story about Timmy and what he is able do because Rock and Cathy provide the kind of nurturing, care, and love that is so vitally important to Timmy. This article presents the…

  4. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  5. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  6. Physical modeling of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheney, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The problems of statisfying similarity between a physical model and the prototype in rock wherein fissures and cracks place a role in physical behavior is explored. The need for models of large physical dimensions is explained but also testing of models of the same prototype over a wide range of scales is needed to ascertain the influence of lack of similitude of particular parameters between prototype and model. A large capacity centrifuge would be useful in that respect

  7. Rock disposal problems identified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, R

    1978-06-01

    Mathematical models are the only way of examining the return of radioactivity from nuclear waste to the environment over long periods of time. Work in Britain has helped identify areas where more basic data is required, but initial results look very promising for final disposal of high level waste in hard rock repositories. A report by the National Radiological Protection Board of a recent study, is examined.

  8. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix C to Attachment 3, Calculations. Final

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains calculations for: Slick Rock processing sites background ground water quality; Slick Rock processing sites lysimeter water quality; Slick Rock processing sites on-site and downgradient ground water quality; Slick Rock disposal site background water quality; Burro Canyon disposal site, Slick Rock, Colorado, average hydraulic gradients and average liner ground water velocities in the upper, middle, and lower sandstone units of the Burro Canyon formation; Slick Rock--Burro Canyon disposal site, Burro Canyon pumping and slug tests--analyses; water balance and surface contours--Burro Canyon disposal cell; and analytical calculation of drawdown in a hypothetical well completed in the upper sandstone unit of the Burro Canyon formation

  9. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  10. The Rock Characterization Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1989, UK Nirex began a programme of surface-based characterization of the geology and hydrogeology of a site at Sellafield to evaluate its suitability to host a deep repository for radioactive waste. The next major stage in site characterization will be the construction and operation of a Rock Characterization Facility (RCF). It will be designed to provide rock characterization information and scope for model validation to permit firmer assessment of long-term safety. It will also provide information needed to decide the detailed location, design and orientation of a repository and to inform repository construction methods. A three-phase programme is planned for the RCF. During each phase, testwork will steadily improve our geological, hydrogeological and geotechnical understanding of the site. The first phase will involve sinking two shafts. That will be preceded by the establishment of a network of monitoring boreholes to ensure that the impact of shaft sinking can be measured. This will provide valuable data for model validation. In phase two, initial galleries will be excavated, probably at a depth of 650 m below Ordnance datum, which will host a comprehensive suite of experiments. These galleries will be extended in phase three to permit access to most of the rock volume that would host the repository. (Author)

  11. Factors controlling Li concentration and isotopic composition in formation waters and host rocks of Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thai T.; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W.; Macpherson, Gwen; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hammack, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, water and whole rock samples from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale (Middle Devonian), and water from conventional wells producing from Upper Devonian sandstones were analyzed for lithium concentrations and isotope ratios (δ7Li). The distribution of lithium concentrations in different mineral groups was determined using sequential extraction. Structurally bound Li, predominantly in clays, accounted for 75-91 wt. % of total Li, whereas exchangeable sites and carbonate cement contain negligible Li (< 3%). Up to 20% of the Li is present in the oxidizable fraction (organic matter and sulfides). The δ7Li values for whole rock shale in Greene Co., Pennsylvania, and Tioga Co., New York, ranged from -2.3 to + 4.3‰, similar to values reported for other shales in the literature. The δ7Li values in shale rocks with stratigraphic depth record progressive weathering of the source region; the most weathered and clay-rich strata with isotopically light Li are found closest to the top of the stratigraphic section. Diagenetic illite-smectite transition could also have partially affected the bulk Li content and isotope ratios of the Marcellus Shale.

  12. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Li isotopic characteristics of volcanic rocks from the Okinawa Trough: Implications for the influence of subduction components and the contamination of crustal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kun; Zhai, Shikui; Yu, Zenghui; Wang, Shujie; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2018-04-01

    The Okinawa Trough is an infant back-arc basin developed along the Ryukyu arc. This paper provides new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Li isotope data of volcanic rocks in the Okinawa Trough and combines the published geochemical data to discuss the composition of magma source, the influence of subduction component, and the contamination of crustal materials, and calculate the contribution between subduction sediment and altered oceanic crust in the subduction component. The results showed that there are 97% DM and 3% EMI component in the mantle source in middle trough (MS), which have been influenced by subduction sediment. The Li-Nd isotopes indicate that the contribution of subduction sediment and altered oceanic crust in subduction component are 4 and 96%, respectively. The intermediate-acidic rocks suffer from contamination of continental crust material in shallow magma chamber during fractional crystallization. The acidic rocks in south trough have experienced more contamination of crustal material than those from the middle and north trough segments.

  13. Rock in Rio: forever young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ferreira Freitas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of Rock in Rio: The Musical, as herald of megafestival Rock in Rio. Driven by the success that musicals have reached in Brazil, we believe that the design of this spectacle of music, dance and staging renews the brand of the rock festival, once it adds the force of young and healthy bodies to its concept. Moreover, the musical provides Rock in Rio with some distance from the controversal trilogy of sex, drugs and rock and roll, a strong mark of past festivals around the world. Thus, the musical expands the possibilities of growth for the brand.

  14. Paleochannel and paleohydrology of a Middle Siwalik (Pliocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Late Cenozoic fresh water molasses sediments (+6000 m thick) deposited all along the length of the. Himalayan fore deep, form the Siwalik Supergroup. This paper reports the results of the paleodrainage and paleohydrology of the Middle Siwalik subgroup of rocks, deposited in non-marine basins adjacent to a rising ...

  15. Development of artificial soft rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kiyoshi

    1995-01-01

    When foundation base rocks are deeper than the level of installing structures or there exist weathered rocks and crushed rocks in a part of base rocks, often sound artificial base rocks are made by substituting the part with concrete. But in the construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station of Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., the foundation base rocks consist of mudstone, and the stiffness of concrete is large as compared with the surrounding base rocks. As the quality of the substituting material, the nearly same stiffness as that of the surrounding soft rocks and long term stability are suitable, and the excellent workability and economical efficiency are required, therefore, artificial soft rocks were developed. As the substituting material, the soil mortar that can obtain the physical property values in stable form, which are similar to those of Nishiyama mudstone, was selected. The mechanism of its hardening and the long term stability, and the manufacturing plant are reported. As for its application to the base rocks of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, the verification test at the site and the application to the base rocks for No. 7 plant reactor building and other places are described. (K.I.)

  16. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the hydrogeological characteristics of rock in Japan in order to assess the performance of geosphere. This report summarizes the hydrogeological characteristics of various rock types obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields experiments at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at the Tono mine in central Japan. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -8 m/s, whereas the hydraulic conductivity of fault zone ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -3 m/s. It is also found that the hydraulic conductivity tends to decrease with depth. Therefore, the hydraulic conductivity of rock mass at the depth of a repository will be smaller than above values. From the investigations at outcrops and galleries throughout the country, fractures are observed as potential pathways in all rock types. All kinds of crystalline rocks and pre-Neogene sedimentary rocks are classified as fractured media where fracture flow is dominant. Among these rocks, granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media. On the other hand, andesite, tuff and Neogene sedimentary rocks are considered as intermediate between fractured media and porous media where flow in fractures as well as in rock matrix are significant. (author)

  17. Paleocene-middle Miocene flexural-margin migration of the non marine llanos Foreland basin of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayona, German; Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton; Reyes Harker, Andres; Torres, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A foreland basin is a dynamic system whose depositional systems migrate in response to changes in tectonic uplift patterns, sedimentary filling processes and isostatic rebound of the lithosphere. The Paleocene-middle Miocene foreland system of the llanos foothills and llanos basin of Colombia includes regional unconformities, abrupt changes in lithology/stacking patterns and flooding surfaces bounding reservoir and seal units. Here we integrate a systematic biostratigraphic study, strata architecture and tectonic subsidence analyses, regional seismic profiles, and provenance data to define the diachronism of such surfaces and to document the direction of migration of foreland depozones. Line a flexural-deformed basin, sandstone composition, rates of accommodation and sediment supply vary across and along the basin. we show how a coeval depositional profile in the llanos foothills-llanos foreland basin consists of lithoranites inter b edded with mudstones (seal rock, supplied from the orogenic front to the west) that correlate craton ward with organic-rich mudstones and coal (source rock), and to amalgamated fluvial-estuarine quartzarenites (reservoir rock, supplied from the craton to the east) adjacent to a sub-aerial fore-bulge (unconformity). This system migrated northward and eastward during the Paleocene, westward during the early-middle Eocene, and eastward during the Oligocene. In the lower-middle Miocene succession of the llanos basin, identification of flooding events indicates a westward encroaching of a shallow-water lacustrine system that covered an eastward-directed fluvial-deltaic system. A similar process has been documented in other basins in Venezuela and Bolivia, indicating the regional extent of such flooding event may be related to the onset of Andean-scale mountain-building processes

  18. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  19. Petrology, Geochemistry and Tectonomagmatic Setting of Farmahin Volcanic Rocks (North of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2018-04-01

    fractional crystallization (AFC were the dominant processes in the genesis of the studied volcanic rocks. As a conclusion and according to field evidence and geochemical characteristics presented in this article, the studied area is composed of lava flows and pyroclastic rocks such as andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, ignimbrite, tuff and tuffits that cross cut by younger dykes and belong to the middle to late Eocene age (middle to upper Lutetien. According to Sm/Yb vs. Sm diagram (Aldanmaz et al., 2000, all the studied samples in terms of composition are similar to enriched mantle-derived melts that are generated by varying degrees of partial melting (10% - 20% from a spinel lherzolite to spinel-garnet lherzolite source. Considering the evidences, all rocks in the studied area belong to the subduction zone and the parent magma originated from mantle and was contaminated with continental crust during eruption and rising. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank the Journal Manager and reviewers who critically reviewed the manuscript and made valuable suggestions for its improvement. References Aldanmaz, E., Pearce, J.A., Thirlwall, M.F. and Mitchell, J.G., 2000. Petrogenetic evolution of late Cenozoic, post-collision volcanism in western Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 102(1–2: 67–95. Ghasemi, A. and Talbot, C.J., 2006. A new scenario for the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 26 (6: 683–693. Hajian, J., 1970. Geological map of Farmahin, scale1:100000. Geological Survey of Iran. Irvine, T.N. and Baragar, W.R.A., 1971. A guide to the chemical classification of the common volcanic rocks. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 8(5: 523–548. Le Bas, M.J., Le Maitre, R.W., Streckeisen, A. and Zanettin, B., 1986. A chemical classification of volcanic rocks based on the total alkali silica diagram. Journal of Petrology, 27 (3:745–750. Morimoto, N., Fabrise, J., Ferguson, A., Ginzburg, I.V., Ross, M., Seifert, F

  20. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radium ({sup 226}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087±19 Bq/m{sup 3}, which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  1. The Stability of Metasedimentary Rock in Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Abd Rahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.5.1.23-31The aim of this paper is to determine the stability of slopes and to propose preliminary rock cut slope protection and stabilization measures for Paleocene to Middle Eocene Trusmadi Formation along Marakau-Kigiok in Ranau, Sabah, Malaysia. The rock of Trusmadi Formation is slightly metamorphosed and dominated by interbeds of sandstone with quartz vein (metagreywacke, metamudstone, shale, slate, sheared sandstone, and mudstone. The rock unit can be divided into four geotechnical units namely arenaceous unit, argillaceous unit, interbedded unit, and sheared unit. Twelve slopes were selected for this study. Geological mapping, discontinuity survey, kinematic analysis, and prescriptive measure were used in this study. Results of this study conclude that the potential modes of failures are planar and wedge. Terrace, surface drainage, weep holes, horizontal drain, vegetation cover, wire mesh, slope reprofiling, and retaining structure were proposed protection and stabilization measures for the slopes in the studied area.

  2. Studies on the radiation absorption characteristics of various rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, K.N.; Abdullah, S.A.; Gazzaz, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Radiation absorption characteristics of nine different rocks, namely, ferrugenous quartz, metabasalt, larvikite, coarse grained diorite, coarse grained granite, coarse grained alkali granite, marble, quartz mica schist, and metamorphosed rock are studied. The rocks were collected from Jeddah, Makkah, Mina and Taif areas. Special attention was given on the availability, compactness, physical formation and uniform composition in selecting the rocks. The rocks were identified by optical method and their elemental composition determined by chemical analysis. The data were used to calculate the effective atomic numbers, half value layers mass and linear attenuation coefficients. The half value layers and the linear attenuation coefficientsof these rocks were determined experimentally using Am-241, Cs-137,and Co-60 sources. The results are compared with those obtained by theoretical calculations and agrre within 10%. Most of the rocks show much higher radiation attenuation characteristics than the standard concrete. Rocks containing higher percentage of Fe, Ca, Ti, and Mn show much higher radiation absorption characteristics than concrete. Only granites are found to be almost equivalent to concrete. 12 Ref

  3. Ore potential of basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reino, J.; Ekberg, M.; Heinonen, P.; Karppanen, T.; Hakapaeae, A.; Sandberg, E.

    1993-02-01

    The report is associated with a study programme on basic rocks, which has the aim to complement the preliminary site investigations on repository for TVO's (Teollisuuden Voima Oy) spent nuclear fuel. The report comprises a mining enterprise's view of the ore potential of basic plutonic rocks in Finland. The ores associated with basic plutonic rocks are globally known and constitute a significant share of the global mining industry. The ores comprise chromium, vanadium-titanium-iron, nickel-copper and platinum group element ores. The resources of the metals in question and their mining industry are examined globally. A review of the use of these metals in the industry is presented as well. General factors affecting the mining industry, such as metal prices, political conjunctures, transport facilities, environmental requirements and raw material sources for the Finnish smelters have been observed from the point of view of their future effect on exploration activity and industrial development in Finland. Information on ores and mineralizations associated with Finnish basic rocks have been compiled in the report. The file comprises 4 chromium occurrences, 8 vanadium-titanium-iron occurrences, 13 PGE occurrences and 38 nickel-copper occurrences

  4. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  5. Natural sources of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Natural sources of ionizing radiations are described in detail. The sources are subdivided into sources of extraterrestrial origin (cosmic radiation) and sources of terrestrial origin. Data on the concentration of different nuclides in rocks, various soils, ground waters, atmospheric air, tissues of plants and animals, various food stuffs are presented. The content of natural radionuclides in environmental objects, related to human activities, is discussed

  6. Experimental studies on the effects of bolt parameters on the bearing characteristics of reinforced rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Roadways supported by bolts contain support structures that are built into the rock surrounding the roadway, referred to as reinforced rocks in this paper. Using physical model simulation, the paper investigates the bearing characteristics of the reinforced rock under different bolt parameters with incrementally increased load. The experimental results show that the stress at the measurement point inside the structure varies with the kinetic pressure. The stress increases slowly as the load is initially applied, displays accelerated growth in the middle of the loading application, and decreases or remains constant in the later stage of the loading application. The change in displacement of the surrounding rock exhibits the following characteristics: a slow increase when the load is first applied, accelerated growth in the middle stage, and violent growth in the later stage. There is a good correlation between the change in the measured stress and the change in the surrounding rock displacement. Increasing the density of the bolt support and the length and diameter of the bolt improves the load-bearing performance of the reinforced rock, including its strength, internal peak stress, and residual stress. Bolting improves the internal structure of the surrounding rocks, and the deterioration of the surrounding rock decreases with the distance between the bolt supports.

  7. Rock mechanics for hard rock nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-09-01

    The mined geologic burial of high level nuclear waste is now the favored option for disposal. The US National Waste Terminal Storage Program designed to achieve this disposal includes an extensive rock mechanics component related to the design of the wastes repositories. The plan currently considers five candidate rock types. This paper deals with the three hard rocks among them: basalt, granite, and tuff. Their behavior is governed by geological discontinuities. Salt and shale, which exhibit behavior closer to that of a continuum, are not considered here. This paper discusses both the generic rock mechanics R and D, which are required for repository design, as well as examples of projects related to hard rock waste storage. The examples include programs in basalt (Hanford/Washington), in granitic rocks (Climax/Nevada Test Site, Idaho Springs/Colorado, Pinawa/Canada, Oracle/Arizona, and Stripa/Sweden), and in tuff

  8. Rock stress investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, St.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-04-01

    On the research project 'Rock Stress Mesurements' the BGR has developed and tested several methods for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m. Indirect stress measurements using overcoring methods with BGR-probes and CSIR-triaxial cells as well as direct stress measurements using the hydraulic-fracturing method were made. To determine in-situ rock deformation behavior borehole deformation tests, using a BGR-dilatometer, were performed. Two types of the BGR-probe were applied: a four-component-probe to determine horizontal stresses and a five-component-probe to determine a quasi three-dimensional stress field. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on low cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (author) 4 tabs., 76 figs., 31 refs

  9. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  10. Questa baseline and premining ground-water quality investigation. 8. Lake-sediment geochemical record from 1960 to 2002, Eagle Rock and Fawn Lakes, Taos County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, S.E.; Fey, D.L.; Marot, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Geochemical studies of lake sediment from Eagle Rock Lake and upper Fawn Lake were conducted to evaluate the effect of mining at the Molycorp Questa porphyry molybdenum deposit located immediately north of the Red River. Two cores were taken, one from each lake near the outlet where the sediment was thinnest, and they were sampled at 1-cm intervals to provide geochemical data at less than 1-year resolution. Samples from the core intervals were digested and analyzed for 34 elements using ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry). The activity of 137Cs has been used to establish the beginning of sedimentation in the two lakes. Correlation of the geochemistry of heavy-mineral suites in the cores from both Fawn and Eagle Rock Lakes has been used to develop a sedimentation model to date the intervals sampled. The core from upper Fawn Lake, located upstream of the deposit, provided an annual sedimentary record of the geochemical baseline for material being transported in the Red River, whereas the core from Eagle Rock Lake, located downstream of the deposit, provided an annual record of the effect of mining at the Questa mine on the sediment in the Red River. Abrupt changes in the concentrations of many lithophile and deposit-related metals occur in the middle of the Eagle Rock Lake core, which we correlate with the major flood-of-record recorded at the Questa gage at Eagle Rock Lake in 1979. Sediment from the Red River collected at low flow in 2002 is a poor match for the geochemical data from the sediment core in Eagle Rock Lake. The change in sediment geochemistry in Eagle Rock Lake in the post-1979 interval is dramatic and requires that a new source of sediment be identified that has substantially different geochemistry from that in the pre-1979 core interval. Loss of mill tailings from pipeline breaks are most likely responsible for some of the spikes in trace-element concentrations in the Eagle Rock Lake core. Enrichment of Al2O3, Cu, and Zn

  11. Petrology, mineral chemistry and tectono-magmatic setting of volcanic rocks from northeast Farmahin, north of Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Zarei Sahamieh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is a small part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar structural zone in the Markazi province, located in the northeastern part of the Farmahin, north of Arak (Hajian, 1970. The volcanic rocks studied from the area include andesite, dacite, rhyodacite, ignimbrite and tuff of Middle to Late Eocene age (middle Lutetian to upper Lutetian (Ameri et al., 2009. It seems that folding and faulting is caused in sedimentary basin and volcanic activities. On the other hand, except of orogeny maybe rifting had rule in eruption so that this case has seen in the other area such as Taft and Khezrabad in central Iran (Zarei Sahamieh et al., 2008. The oldest formation in the studied area is Triassic limestones. The dominant textures of these rocks are porphyritic, microlite porphyritic, microlitic and rarely sieve-texture. Sieve texture and dusty texture (dusty plagioclases indicates magma mixing. Mineralogically, they contain plagioclases, clinopyroxenes, amphiboles, quartz and biotite as the main constituents and zircon, apatite, and opaque minerals as accessories. Plagioclases in the andesitic and basaltic- andesite rocks are labradorite, bytownite and anorthite (based on electron microprobe .Moreover, plagioclases in andesitic rocks show that H2O is lesser than 2.5 precent. Amphibole is found in both plagioclases and groundmass. Materials and methods In this article are used different analyses methods such as XRF, ICP-MS and EPMA. Whole-rock major and trace element analyses were determined with ICP-MS method. The major and trace element composition of some rock was determined by electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA using a Cameca SX100 instrument in Iran Mineral Processing Research Center (IMPRC. Moreover, whole-rock major and some trace element analyses for some samples were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF, using an ARL Advant-XP automated X-ray spectrometer. Results Chemical data based on electron micro probe studies of minerals indicate

  12. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    is characterized by dark gray slate or phyllite, alternating with thin layers of light gray siltstone or sandstone . Table 1 summarizes the primary...sedimentary rocks of the Newark Basin. Competent rocks are primarily mudstones and sandstones of the Lockatong and Stockton Formations. Fill, weathered silt... sandstone , and characterized by water bearing bedding plane fractures. An array of open boreholes in the source area that were drilled for the 2002

  13. Evidence of Middle Jurassic magmatism within the Seychelles microcontinent: Implications for the breakup of Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Chiu, H.-Y.; Lee, Y.-H.; Wong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The breakup of East and West Gondwana occurred during the Jurassic, but the exact timing is uncertain due to the limited exposure of rocks suitable for radioisotopic dating. Trachytic rocks from Silhouette Island, Seychelles, yielded a range of zircon ages from Paleoproterozoic to Cenozoic. The 206Pb/238U age of the trachyte is 64.9 ± 1.6 Ma (Danian) but the majority of zircons yielded an age of 163.8 ± 1.8 Ma (Callovian) with a small subset yielding an age of 147.7 ± 4.5 Ma (Tithonian). The Hf isotopes of the Callovian (ɛHf(t) = +4.1 to +13.4) and Danian (ɛHf(t) = +1.9 to +7.1) zircons indicate that they were derived from moderately depleted mantle sources whereas the Tithonian zircons (ɛHf(t) = -7.0 to -7.3) were derived from an enriched source. The identification of middle Jurassic zircons indicates that rifting and magmatism were likely contemporaneous during the initial separation of East and West Gondwana.

  14. A smart rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressel, Phil

    2014-12-01

    This project was to design and build a protective weapon for a group of associations that believed in aliens and UFO's. They collected enough contributions from societies and individuals to be able to sponsor and totally fund the design, fabrication and testing of this equipment. The location of this facility is classified. It also eventually was redesigned by the Quartus Engineering Company for use at a major amusement park as a "shoot at targets facility." The challenge of this project was to design a "smart rock," namely an infrared bullet (the size of a gallon can of paint) that could be shot from the ground to intercept a UFO or any incoming suspicious item heading towards the earth. Some of the challenges to design this weapon were to feed cryogenic helium at 5 degrees Kelvin from an inair environment through a unique rotary coupling and air-vacuum seal while spinning the bullet at 1500 rpm and maintain its dynamic stability (wobble) about its spin axis to less than 10 micro-radians (2 arc seconds) while it operated in a vacuum. Precision optics monitored the dynamic motion of the "smart rock."

  15. Rock critics as 'Mouldy Modernists'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Shepherd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary rock criticism appears to be firmly tied to the past. The specialist music press valorise rock music of the 1960s and 1970s, and new emerging artists are championed for their ‘retro’ sounding music by journalists who compare the sound of these new artists with those included in the established ‘canon’ of rock music. This article examines the narrative tropes of authenticity and nostalgia that frame the retrospective focus of this contemporary rock writing, and most significantly, the maintenance of the rock canon within contemporary popular culture. The article concludes by suggesting that while contemporary rock criticism is predominately characterised by nostalgia, this nostalgia is not simply a passive romanticism of the past. Rather, this nostalgia fuels a process of active recontextualisation within contemporary popular culture.

  16. Elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries among sport rock climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D

    1996-07-01

    Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.

  17. Rock.XML - Towards a library of rock physics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Erling Hugo; Hauge, Ragnar; Ulvmoen, Marit; Johansen, Tor Arne; Drottning, Åsmund

    2016-08-01

    Rock physics modelling provides tools for correlating physical properties of rocks and their constituents to the geophysical observations we measure on a larger scale. Many different theoretical and empirical models exist, to cover the range of different types of rocks. However, upon reviewing these, we see that they are all built around a few main concepts. Based on this observation, we propose a format for digitally storing the specifications for rock physics models which we have named Rock.XML. It does not only contain data about the various constituents, but also the theories and how they are used to combine these building blocks to make a representative model for a particular rock. The format is based on the Extensible Markup Language XML, making it flexible enough to handle complex models as well as scalable towards extending it with new theories and models. This technology has great advantages as far as documenting and exchanging models in an unambiguous way between people and between software. Rock.XML can become a platform for creating a library of rock physics models; making them more accessible to everyone.

  18. Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing: Failure in soft versus hard rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksans, J.; Koehn, D.; Toussaint, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we discuss the dynamic development of hydraulic fractures, their evolution and the resulting seismicity during fluid injection in a coupled numerical model. The model describes coupling between a solid that can fracture dynamically and a compressible fluid that can push back at the rock and open fractures. With a series of numerical simulations we show how the fracture pattern and seismicity change depending on changes in depth, injection rate, Young's Modulus and breaking strength. Our simulations indicate that the Young's Modulus has the largest influence on the fracture dynamics and also the related seismicity. Simulations of rocks with a Young's modulus smaller than 10 GPa show dominant mode I failure and a growth of fracture aperture with a decrease in Young's modulus. Simulations of rocks with a higher Young's modulus than 10 GPa show fractures with a constant aperture and fracture growth that is mainly governed by a growth in crack length and an increasing amount of mode II failure. We propose that two distinct failure regimes are observed in the simulations, above 10 GPa rocks break with a constant critical stress intensity factor whereas below 10 GPa they break reaching a critical cohesion, i.e. a critical tensile strength. These results are very important for the prediction of fracture dynamics and seismicity during fluid injection, especially since we see a transition from one failure regime to another at around 10 GPa, a Young's modulus that lies in the middle of possible values for natural shale rocks.

  19. Rocks under pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-05-01

    Physicists have used nuclear magnetic resonance to investigate the destructive effects of the crystallization of salt. Salt-weathering is one of the main causes of rock disintegration in nature, particularly in deserts, polar regions and along coastlines. However, it is also a very widespread cause of damage to man-made constructions. Bridges, for example, are attacked by de-icing salts, and cities such as Bahrain, Abu Dhabi and Adelaide are affected by rising damp from high ground-water levels. Indeed, many examples of cultural heritage, including the Islamic sites of Bokhara and Petra in Jordan and the Sphinx in Egypt, may ultimately be destroyed due to the effects of salt-weathering. Now Lourens Rijniers and colleagues at Eindhoven University in the Netherlands have developed a way to observe the solubility of various salts inside porous materials directly (Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 075503). (U.K.)

  20. Rock the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Created in 2005, the Swiss rock band "Wind of Change" is now candidate for the Eurovision Song Contest 2011 with a new song " Night & Light " with the music video filmed at CERN.   With over 20 gigs under their belt and two albums already released, the five members of the band (Alex Büchi, vocals; Arthur Spierer, drums; David Gantner, bass; Romain Mage and Yannick Gaudy, guitar) continue to excite audiences. For their latest composition "Night & Light", the group filmed their music video in the Globe of Science and Innovation. Winning the Eurovision contest would be a springboard in their artistic career for these young musicians. The selection results will be available December 11, 2010.      

  1. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  2. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  3. STUDY ON THE BLASTING SEISMIC DAMAGE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR SMALL SPACING SOFT ROCK TUNNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chengzhong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With a lot construction of transportation infrastructure in Chinese mountainous area, because of its unique advantages such as less land occupation, beautiful appearance and convenient route planning, small spacing tunnels are widely used. The shallow buried tunnel with small spacing, the blasting excavation will lead to tunnel surrounding rock especially in the middle rock wall damage and reduce the self-bearing capacity of surrounding rock. Through detecting and analyzing by the geological radar of the excavated red layer soft rock tunnel surrounding rock found that the middle rock wall loose circle thickness of the tunnel reaches to 1.8 m, the vault and sidewall loose circle thickness is about 1.2 m. Through selection of rational strengthening measures and blasting design scheme to improve drilling parameters and methods, as far as possible to protect the integrity and self-bearing capacity of the surrounding rock, the deformation and vibration of the tunnel would be controlled in reasonable limits and ensure the safety of tunnel construction.

  4. Rock Art in Kurdistan Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Lahafian

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kurdistan, with great potential and prehistoric resources, has numerous petroglyphs in different areas of the province. During the last 14 years of extensive field study, more than 30 sites of rock art have been identified and introduced by the author. In this article, we summarize these rock art areas in Iranian Kurdistan.

  5. Rockin' around the Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frack, Susan; Blanchard, Scott Alan

    2005-01-01

    In this activity students will simulate how sedimentary rocks can be changed into metamorphic rocks by intense pressure. The materials needed are two small pieces of white bread, one piece of wheat bread, and one piece of a dark bread (such as pumpernickel or dark rye) per student, two pieces of waxed paper, scissors, a ruler, and heavy books.…

  6. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  7. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEwen, T. (ed.) [McEwen Consulting, Leicester (United Kingdom); Kapyaho, A. [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Hella, P. [Saanio and Riekkola, Helsinki (Finland); Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-15

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel.

  8. Rock suitability classification RSC 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, T.; Kapyaho, A.; Hella, P.; Aro, S.; Kosunen, P.; Mattila, J.; Pere, T.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents Posiva's Rock Suitability Classification (RSC) system, developed for locating suitable rock volumes for repository design and construction. The RSC system comprises both the revised rock suitability criteria and the procedure for the suitability classification during the construction of the repository. The aim of the classification is to avoid such features of the host rock that may be detrimental to the favourable conditions within the repository, either initially or in the long term. This report also discusses the implications of applying the RSC system for the fulfilment of the regulatory requirements concerning the host rock as a natural barrier and the site's overall suitability for hosting a final repository of spent nuclear fuel

  9. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  10. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  11. Lidar-Based Rock-Fall Hazard Characterization of Cliffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Greg M.Stock,

    2017-01-01

    Rock falls from cliffs and other steep slopes present numerous challenges for detailed geological characterization. In steep terrain, rock-fall source areas are both dangerous and difficult to access, severely limiting the ability to make detailed structural and volumetric measurements necessary for hazard assessment. Airborne and terrestrial lidar survey methods can provide high-resolution data needed for volumetric, structural, and deformation analyses of rock falls, potentially making these analyses straightforward and routine. However, specific methods to collect, process, and analyze lidar data of steep cliffs are needed to maximize analytical accuracy and efficiency. This paper presents observations showing how lidar data sets should be collected, filtered, registered, and georeferenced to tailor their use in rock fall characterization. Additional observations concerning surface model construction, volumetric calculations, and deformation analysis are also provided.

  12. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements (especially uranium).

  13. Uranium mineralization in fluorine-enriched volcanic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, D.M.; Sheridan, M.F.; Bikun, J.; Christiansen, E.; Correa, B.; Murphy, B.; Self, S.

    1980-09-01

    Several uranium and other lithophile element deposits are located within or adjacent to small middle to late Cenozoic, fluorine-rich rhyolitic dome complexes. Examples studied include Spor Mountain, Utah (Be-U-F), the Honeycomb Hills, Utah (Be-U), the Wah Wah Mountains, Utah (U-F), and the Black Range-Sierra Cuchillo, New Mexico (Sn-Be-W-F). The formation of these and similar deposits begins with the emplacement of a rhyolitic magma, enriched in lithophile metals and complexing fluorine, that rises to a shallow crustal level, where its roof zone may become further enriched in volatiles and the ore elements. During initial explosive volcanic activity, aprons of lithicrich tuffs are erupted around the vents. These early pyroclastic deposits commonly host the mineralization, due to their initial enrichment in the lithophile elements, their permeability, and the reactivity of their foreign lithic inclusions (particularly carbonate rocks). The pyroclastics are capped and preserved by thick topaz rhyolite domes and flows that can serve as a source of heat and of additional quantities of ore elements. Devitrification, vapor-phase crystallization, or fumarolic alteration may free the ore elements from the glassy matrix and place them in a form readily leached by percolating meteoric waters. Heat from the rhyolitic sheets drives such waters through the system, generally into and up the vents and out through the early tuffs. Secondary alteration zones (K-feldspar, sericite, silica, clays, fluorite, carbonate, and zeolites) and economic mineral concentrations may form in response to this low temperature (less than 200 C) circulation. After cooling, meteoric water continues to migrate through the system, modifying the distribution and concentration of the ore elements

  14. Tectonic setting of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Wallace M.

    1975-01-01

    Lower and middle Eocene abyssal and Hawaiian type tholeiitic basalts form two accumulations that apparently were once far out on the east flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, within the Juan de Fuca plate. One of these (more than 15 km thick) is near the eastern and southeastern periphery of the Olympic Peninsula, and the other (about 5 km thick) is on the north. The tholeiites stratigraphically overlie and interfinger with Paleocene(?) and lower and middle Eocene marine turbidites and shales; one flow includes boulders that, like clasts in the sediments, were derived from the North American continental plate immediately to the east. The basalts are overlain stratigraphically by middle Eocene to middle Miocene clastic marine sedimentary rocks, which are in turn overlapped unconformably on the south and west by upper Miocene (?) and Pliocene, chiefly shallow-marine clastic rocks. These various peripheral rocks flank a middle or late Miocene structurally complex dome, or orocline convex to the east, in which originally east dipping and low angle late Eocene to late Miocene underthrusts are flexed. The outermost underthrust of the complex separates the chiefly volcanic peripheral rocks to the north, east, and south from stratigraphically correlative and comparable, though predominantly sedimentary, core rocks arranged in northwest trending arcuate belts or packets bounded by fault zones. Before underthrusting, and perhaps oroclinal folding connected with doming, the pre-middle Miocene section was possibly 150 to 200 km wide compared with the present Olympic Peninsula which is 120 km wide. The section accumulated on the ocean floor near the western margin of the continent, before and during subduction of the oceanic crust.

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  16. Middle East - future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lior, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Facts concerning the basic features of Tlatelolco Treaty are discussed in comparison with the Middle East situation which is described as a special case. Countries in the Middle East should attain political, social and ideological maturity necessary for the adoption of negotiating strategies suitable for this particular region

  17. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy

    2010-02-01

    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Some clastic rocks as parent rocks in beech forests of Brezovica - Južni Kučaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the large forest areas, where the measures of soil quality improvement are absent or rarely undertaken, the rocks are the sources of a great number of elements in plant nutrition and one of the factors affecting the contents of some elements in plants. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, Pb and Cr in the beech leaves developed in the same climate conditions, on morphologically similar terrains, composed of different types of sedimentary rocks. This paper presents the study results of the contents of the above elements in argillites, sandstones (grauwackes and microconglomerates occurring as the parent rocks in high beech forests in the region of GJ Bogovina (Brezovica Južni Kučaj and in the leaves of beech developed on these rocks.

  19. Sedimentary facies analysis of the Mesozoic clastic rocks in Southern Peru (Tacna, 18°S): Towards a paleoenvironmental Redefinition and stratigraphic Reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alván, Aldo; Jacay, Javier; Caracciolo, Luca; Sánchez, Elvis; Trinidad, Inés

    2018-07-01

    The Mesozoic rocks of southern Peru comprise a Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary sequence deposited during a time interval of approximately 34 Myr. In Tacna, these rocks are detrital and constitute the Yura Group (Callovian to Tithonian) and the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian). Basing on robust interpretation of facies and petrographic analysis, we reconstruct the depositional settings of such units and provide a refined stratigraphic framework. Accordingly, nine types of sedimentary facies and six architectural elements are defined. They preserve the record of a progradational fluvial system, in which two styless regulated the dispersion of sediments: (i) a high-to moderate-sinuosity meandering setting (Yura Group), and a later (ii) incipient braided setting (Hualhuani Formation). The Yura Group (Callovian-Tithonian) represents the onset of floodplain deposits and lateral accretion of point-bar deposits sited on a semi-flat topography. Nonetheless, the progradational sequence was affected by at least two rapid marine ingressions occurred during Middle Callovian and Tithonian times. Such marine ingressions reveal the proximity of a shallow marine setting and incipient carbonate deposition. In response to increase in topographic gradient, the Hualhuani Formation (Berriasian) deposited as extensive multistory sandy channels. The mineralogy of the Mesozoic sediments suggests sediment supplies and intense recycling from a craton interior (i.e. Amazon Craton and/or plutonic sources) located eastward of the study area.

  20. The effects of bacteria on crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Many reactions involving inorganic minerals at water-rock interfaces have now been recognized to be bacterially mediated; these reactions could have a significant effect in the excavation of vaults for toxic and radioactive waste disposal. To investigate the role that bacteria play in the natural aqueous environment of crystalline rock the microbial growth factors of nutrition, energy and environment are described. Microbial activity has been investigated in Atomic Energy of Canada's Underground Research Laboratory (URL), situated in the Archean granitic Lac du Bonnet Batholith, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Faults, initiated in the Early Proterozoic, and later-formed fractures, provide ground-water pathways. Planktonic bacteria, free-swimming in the groundwater, have been observed in over 100 underground borehole samples. The number of bacteria varied from 10 3 to 10 5 mL -1 and appeared to decrease with depth and with increased salinity of the water. However, in the natural environment of deep (100-500 m) crystalline rocks, where nutrition is limited, formation of biofilms by sessile bacteria is a successful survival strategy. Natural biofilms at the URL and biofilms grown in bioreactors have been studied. The biofilms can accumulate different elements, depending upon the local environment. Precipitates of iron have been found in all the biofilms studied, where they are either passively accumulated or utilized as an energy source. Within the biofilm active and extensive biogeochemical immobilization of dissolved elements is controlled by distinct bacterial activities which are sufficiently discrete for hematite and siderite to be precipitated in close proximity

  1. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  2. Geochemistry of the Oruatemanu Formation, Arrow Rocks, Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, R.S.; Higuchi, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Maeda, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks from the Upper Permian - Middle Triassic Oruatemanu Formation on Arrow Rocks, Waipapa Terrane, New Zealand. The sedimentary rocks consist of limestone, tuffaceous shale, vari-coloured bedded chert, hemipelagic shale and green siliceous mudstone (= green argillite), in ascending order, a typical oceanic plate sequence. Shale and green argillite have higher Zr/Nb ratios than do chert and tuffaceous shales, and show similar REE patterns to PAAS (Post-Archean average Australian shale). In contrast, chert sequences from the basal part and intercalated tuff layers have high TiO 2 contents and Zr/Nb ratios similar to those of basaltic rocks from Arrow Rocks. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the sedimentary environment of the Oruatemanu Formation changed upward, from an open sea setting to the continental margin of Gondwanaland. Chemical compositions of bedded cherts from Arrow Rocks indicate a mixing of biogenic silica, detritus from continents and basaltic materials. In the interval from Upper Permian to Lower Middle Triassic this mixing shows remarkable secular variations. We detected geochemical signals of two Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), one at the Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary, and the other at the middle Upper Induan level. We name them the OAEα (P/T OAE) and OAEβ (Upper Induan OAE). These OAE horizons are enriched in S, U and other heavy metals (e.g. Mo and Cr), and also have high V/(V+Ni) ratios. Based on a comparison between enrichment factors of Cr and other redox-sensitive trace elements (e.g. Zn, Pb, Co, Cu), the Upper Induan OAEβ is considered to be more intense than the P/T boundary OAEα. This result is not in agreement with the superanoxia model previously proposed. In addition, OAEβ corresponds well with the radiolarian faunal turnover from Permian to Triassic forms documented from the Oruatemanu Formation in this volume. These results may suggest that peak time and

  3. They will rock you!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On 30 September, CERN will be the venue for one of the most prestigious events of the year: the concert for the Bosons&More event, the Organization’s celebration of the remarkable performance of the LHC and all its technical systems, as well as the recent fundamental discoveries. Topping the bill will be the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, the CERN Choir, the Zürcher Sing-Akademie and the Alan Parsons Live Project rock group, who have joined forces to create an unforgettable evening’s entertainment.   The Orchestre de la Suisse Romande, directed by Maestro Neeme Järvi, artistic and musical director of the OSR. (Image: Grégory Maillot). >>> From the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande… Henk Swinnen, General Manager of the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande (OSR), answers some questions for the CERN Bulletin, just a few days before the event. How did this project come about? When CERN invited us to take part in the B...

  4. Rock salt constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Serata model is the best operational model available today because it incorporates: (1) a yield function to demarcate between viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior of rock salt; (2) a pressure and temperature dependence for yield stresses; and (3) a standard linear solid, which can be readily extended into the non-linear regime, to represent creep behavior. Its only deficiencies appear to be the lack of secondary creep behavior (a free dashpot) and some unsettling arbitrariness about the Poisson's ratio (ν → 0.5) argument for viscoplasticity. The Sandia/WIPP model will have good primary and secondary creep capability, but lacks the viscoplastic behavior. In some cases, estimated inelastic strains may be underpredicted. If a creep acceleration mechanism associated with brine inclusions is observed, this model may require extensive revision. Most of the other models available (SAI, RE-SPEC, etc.) are only useful for short-term calculations, because they employ temporal power law (t/sup n/) primary creep representations. These models are unsatisfactory because they cannot represent dual mechanisms with differing characteristic times. An approach based upon combined creep and plasticity is recommended in order to remove the remaining deficiency in the Serata model. DOE/Sandia/WIPP should be encouraged to move aggressively in this regard

  5. Research into basic rocks types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) has carried out research into basic rock types in Finland. The research programme has been implemented in parallel with the preliminary site investigations for radioactive waste disposal in 1991-1993. The program contained two main objectives: firstly, to study the properties of the basic rock types and compare those with the other rock types under the investigation; secondly, to carry out an inventory of rock formations consisting of basic rock types and suitable in question for final disposal. A study of environmental factors important to know regarding the final disposal was made of formations identified. In total 159 formations exceeding the size of 4 km 2 were identified in the inventory. Of these formations 97 were intrusive igneous rock types and 62 originally extrusive volcanic rock types. Deposits consisting of ore minerals, industrial minerals or building stones related to these formations were studied. Environmental factors like natural resources, protected areas or potential for restrictions in land use were also studied

  6. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  7. Fault rocks and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou.

    1991-01-01

    The types of fault rocks, microstructural characteristics of fault tectonite and their relationship with uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area are discussed. According to the synthetic analysis on nature of stress, extent of crack and microstructural characteristics of fault rocks, they can be classified into five groups and sixteen subgroups. The author especially emphasizes the control of cataclasite group and fault breccia group over uranium mineralization in the uranium-productive granite area. It is considered that more effective study should be made on the macrostructure and microstructure of fault rocks. It is of an important practical significance in uranium exploration

  8. Test procedures for salt rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Potash mining, salt mining, design of solution caverns in salt rocks, disposal of waste in salt repositories, and the use of granular halite backfill in underground salt rock mines are all mining activities which are practised or contemplated for the near future. Whatever the purpose, the need for high quality design parameters is evident. The authors have been testing salt rocks in the laboratory in a number of configurations for some time. Great care has been given to the quality of sample preparation and test methodology. This paper describes the methods, presents the elements of equipment design, and shows some typical results

  9. Petrography, geochemistry and tectonic setting of Salmabad Tertiary volcanic rocks, southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Goodarzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area reviewed and studied in this paper is located 5 km southeast of Sarbisheh city at eastern border of the Lut block (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012 in eastern Iran between 59° 47′ and 59° 53′ E longitude and 32°30′ and 32°34′ N latitude. The magmatic activity in the Lut block began in middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in Tertiary (Jung et al., 1983. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of Tertiary age cover over half of Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Camp and Griffis, 1982; Tirrul et al., 1983; Berberianet et al., 1982. Most of magmatic activity in the Lut block formed in middle Eocene (Karimpour et al., 2011 The andesitic volcanics were erupted together with the dacites and rhyodacites during a time interval of some 50 Ma from early Cretaceous to early Neogene. It can be assumed that the intensity of the volcanic activity was varying significantly during this time span (Jung et al., 1983.Tertiary volcanic rocks (Eocene-Oligocene to Pliocene with intermediate composition associated with pyroclastic rocks cropped out in eastern parts of Salmabad village, southeast of Sarbisheh. The main purpose of this paper is better understand the tectono-magmatic setting of the Tertiary volcanic rocks in southeast of Sarbisheh, eastern Iran based on geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Eleven samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the SGS Laboratories, Toronto, Canada. Results In the Salmabad area, Tertiary volcanic rocks with mainly intermediate (andesitic composition are exposed associated with pyroclastic deposits such as tuff, breccia and agglomerate

  10. Strontium isotopic geochemistry of intrusive rocks, Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.M.; Kesler, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    The strontium isotope geochemistry is given for three Puerto Rican intrusive rocks: the granodioritic Morovis and San Lorenzo plutons and the Rio Blanco stock of quartz dioritic composition. The average calculated initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are 0.70370, 0.70355 and 0.70408, respectively. In addition, the San Lorenzo data establish a whole-rock isochron of 71 +- 2 m.y., which agrees with the previously reported K-Ar age of 73 m.y. Similarity of most of the intrusive rocks in the Greater Antilles with respect to their strontium isotopic geochemistry regardless of their major element composition indicates that intrusive magmas with a wide range of composition can be derived from a single source material. The most likely source material, in view of the available isotopic data, is the mantle wedge overlying the subduction zone. (orig.)

  11. Comments to Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, A.G.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper proposing an early (mid-Miocene) closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS), Montes et al. 2015 (1) disregard existing paleogeographic data that invalidate Panama as a source for zircons, and inappropriately ignore the evidence for trans-isthmian marine connections until 4-3 Ma. They also fail to cite previous work (2, 3), that had reconstructed the Central American arc already docked with South America by 12 Ma. Montes et al. 2015 (1) (Fig. 1) disregard the Atrato-San Juan sedimentary basin (3), a shallowing Oligocene to Pliocene, Pacific to Caribbean seaway (3, 4, 5). This deep graben (6) is filled with thousands of meters of Pre-Pliocene marine sediments (3, 5, 6) that now occupy a lowland between the Baudo uplift to the west and the Western Cordillera to the east. The Mande Batholith and numerous Eocene and younger volcanic rocks (4), the most proximal source of the zircons, are situated to the east of this seaway and would have shed zircons eastward towards the Cordillera Central. There is no evidence for any rivers crossing the seaway (3, 5), and thus no Panamanian source of zircons. Instead this seaway is evidence of a significant marine connection between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans into the Pliocene. The authors assume that the middle Miocene closure of the CAS effectively creates a continuous land bridge connecting North and South America and separating the Atlantic from the Pacific. They acknowledge, but then discount, marine connections across the Isthmus until 4-3 Ma even though these satisfactorily explain (Coates and Stallard, 2014 (6)) the oceanographic, molecular and Great American Biological Interchange events ignore unexplained by Montes et al. 2015. Only by conspicuously ignoring these events can they imply that the Isthmus was formed at 15-13 Ma. References 1. C. Montes et al., Middle Miocene closure of the Central American Seaway. Science 348, 226-229 (2015). 2. A. G. Coates, R. F. Stallard, How old is the Isthmus of

  12. Fluid and rock interaction in permeable volcanic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, J.I.

    1985-01-01

    Four types of interrelated changes -geochemical, mineralogic, isotopic, and physical - occur in Oligocene volcanic units of the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field, New Mexico. These changes resulted from the operation of a geothermal system that, through fluid-rock interaction, affected 5 rhyolite ash-flow tuffs and an intercalated basaltic andesite lava flow causing a potassium metasomatism type of alteration. (1) Previous studies have shown enrichment of rocks in K 2 O as much as 130% of their original values at the expense of Na 2 O and CaO with an accompanying increase in Rb and decreases in MgO and Sr. (2) X-ray diffraction results of this study show that phenocrystic plagioclase and groundmass feldspar have been replaced with pure potassium feldspar and quartz in altered rock. Phenocrystic potassium feldspar, biotite, and quartz are unaffected. Pyroxene in basaltic andesite is replaced by iron oxide. (3) delta 18 O increases for rhyolitic units from values of 8-10 permil, typical of unaltered rock, to 13-15 permil, typical of altered rock. Basaltic andesite, however, shows opposite behavior with a delta 18 of 9 permil in unaltered rock and 6 permit in altered. (4) Alteration results in a density decrease. SEM revealed that replacement of plagioclase by fine-grained quartz and potassium feldspar is not a volume for volume replacement. Secondary porosity is created in the volcanics by the chaotic arrangement of secondary crystals

  13. The December 2008 Crammont rock avalanche, Mont Blanc massif area, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Deline

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 0.5 Mm3 rock avalanche that occurred in 2008 in the western Alps and discuss possible roles of controlling factors in the context of current climate change. The source is located between 2410 m and 2653 m a.s.l. on Mont Crammont and is controlled by a densely fractured rock structure. The main part of the collapsed rock mass deposited at the foot of the rock wall. A smaller part travelled much farther, reaching horizontal and vertical travel distances of 3050 m and 1560 m, respectively. The mobility of the rock mass was enhanced by channelization and snow. The rock-avalanche volume was calculated by comparison of pre- and post-event DTMs, and geomechanical characterization of the detachment zone was extracted from LiDAR point cloud processing. Back analysis of the rock-avalanche runout suggests a two stage event.

    There was no previous rock avalanche activity from the Mont Crammont ridge during the Holocene. The 2008 rock avalanche may have resulted from permafrost degradation in the steep rock wall, as suggested by seepage water in the scar after the collapse in spite of negative air temperatures, and modelling of rock temperatures that indicate warm permafrost (T > −2 °C.

  14. On middle cube graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dalfo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of graphs related to the $n$-cube. The middle cube graph of parameter k is the subgraph of $Q_{2k-1}$ induced by the set of vertices whose binary representation has either $k-1$ or $k$ number of ones. The middle cube graphs can be obtained from the well-known odd graphs by doubling their vertex set. Here we study some of the properties of the middle cube graphs in the light of the theory of distance-regular graphs. In particular, we completely determine their spectra (eigenvalues and their multiplicities, and associated eigenvectors.

  15. Beach rock from Goa Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    constituents of beach rock found along Goa coast is dealt with in detail. While discussing the various views on its origin, it is emphasized that the process of cementation is chiefly controlled by ground water evaporation, inorganic precipitation and optimum...

  16. The Chronology of Rock Art

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such phases are tentatively ascribed to different archaeological cultures on the basis of the contextual availability, stylistic similarities and so on. Ethnographic analogies are also attempted in the dating of rock art .

  17. Chemical methods of rock analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffery, P. G; Hutchison, D

    1981-01-01

    A practical guide to the methods in general use for the complete analysis of silicate rock material and for the determination of all those elements present in major, minor or trace amounts in silicate...

  18. Defending dreamer’s rock

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Günter U.

    2007-01-01

    Defending dreamer’s rock : Geschichte, Geschichtsbewusstsein und Geschichtskultur im Native drama der USA und Kanadas. - Trier : WVT Wiss. Verl. Trier, 2007. - 445 S. - (CDE - Studies ; 14). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2006

  19. Predicting rock bursts in mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, H.

    1979-01-01

    In terms of lives lost, rock bursts in underground mines can be as hazardous as earthquakes on the surface. So it is not surprising that fo the last 40 years the U.S Bureau of Mines has been using seismic methods for detecting areas in underground mines where there is a high differential stress which could lead to structural instability of the rock mass being excavated.

  20. Generation of Anomalous Internal Pressures in Source Rocks and Its Role in Driving Petroleum Migration La genèse de pressions internes anormales dans les roches mères et son rôle de poussée dans la migration du pétrole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available High pressures generated within shales probably have an important role in driving the expulsion of oil and gas. The rising temperature that accompanies increasing depth of burial and drives the generation process causes thermal expansion of the water and in an isolated pore aquathermal pressuringcan lead to high overpressures. In addition, the generation process itself seems to proceed with a volume increase that can cause very high overpressures. These mechanisms have been discussed previously only for liquid-filled systems. The presence of gas leads to very different behaviour and pores in source rocks become subnormally pressured on burial unless there is sufficient generation from the organic matter to offset this. In the absence of continuing generation (e. g. for biogenic methane gas steadily dissolves and pressures fall considerably below hydrostatic. Conversely, on uplift gas-bearing systems tend to overpressure and the pressure can rise to the rock load for the depth when fracturing must occur. Thermal cracking of the bitumens that remain in a source rock as it is buried goes with a volume increase, and in an isolated pore system pressures rise to high values. Only about one percent of oil-like butimen needs to be cracked to gas for the pressure to reach the rock load with fracturing as an inevitable consequence. Les pressions élevées générées dans les argiles jouent probablement un rôle important dans l'expulsion de l'huile et du gaz. L'augmentation de température, qui accompagne l'enfouissement et contrôle les processus de genèse, est la cause d'une dilatation thermique de l'eau et, dans un pore isolé, l'aquathermal pressuring peut amener des surpressions élevées. De plus, le processus de genèse lui-même semble être accompagné d'une augmentation de volume pouvant être également la cause de surpressions élevées. Ces mécanismes ont déjà fait l'objet d'études, mais seulement pour des systèmes imbibés de liquides

  1. Iconography in Bradshaw rock art: breaking the circularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jack

    2011-09-01

    Interpreting the symbols found in the rock art of an extinct culture is hampered by the fact that such symbols are culturally determined. How does one break the circularity inherent in the fact that the knowledge of both the symbols and the culture comes from the same source? In this study, the circularity is broken for the Bradshaw rock art of the Kimberley by seeking anchors from outside the culture. Bradshaw rock art in the Kimberley region of Australia and Sandawe rock art in the Kolo region of Eastern Tanzania were surveyed in six visits on foot, by vehicle, by helicopter and from published or shared images, as well as from the published and online images of Khoisan rock art. Uniquely shared images between Bradshaw and Sandawe art, such as the 'mushroom head' symbol of psilocybin use, link the two cultures and indicate that they were shamanistic. Therefore, many mysterious features in the art can be understood in terms of trance visualisations. A number of other features uniquely link Bradshaw and Sandawe cultures, such as a special affinity for small mammals. There are also many references to baobabs in early Bradshaw art but not later. This can be explained in the context of the Toba super-volcano, the likely human transport of baobabs to the Kimberley and the extraordinary utility of the baobab. Many more mysterious symbols in Bradshaw rock art might await interpretation using the approaches adopted here. © 2011 The Author. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2011 Optometrists Association Australia.

  2. The variability and controls of rock strength along rocky coasts of central Spitsbergen, High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Mateusz Czesław

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the Schmidt Hammer Rock Tests (SHRTs) across a range of rocky coastal landforms. Northern Billefjorden (central Spitsbergen), represents typical High Arctic microtidal fjord environment. Sheltered location and prolonged sea-ice conditions limit wave action. Coastal cliffs, shore platforms and skerries are developed in various rock types including limestone, sandstone, anhydrite/gypsum, dolomite and metamorphic outcrops. SHRT demonstrated a broad variety of relationships between rock strength and distance from shoreline, presence of sediment cover, distribution of snow patches and icefoot, and accumulations of seaweed and driftwood. In general, rock cliff surfaces were the most resistant in their lower and middle zones, that are thermally insulated by thick winter snowdrifts. More exposed cliff tops were fractured and weathered. The differences in rock strength observed along the shore platforms were highly dependent on thickness of sediment cover and shoreline configuration promoting stronger rock surfaces in areas exposed to the longest wave fetch and washed from gravel deposits. Rock strength of skerry islands is influenced by tidal action controlling the duration of tide inundation and movement of sea-ice scratching boulder surfaces. The results presented in this paper emphasize the richness of rock coast geomorphology and processes operating in High Arctic settings.

  3. Experimental leaching of uranium from tuffaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodell, P.C.; Trentham, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    The premise to be tested in this work is that felsic volcanic rocks particularly ash-flow tuffs, can serve as source rocks for certain uranium deposits. The applicability of this idea to several geologic environments is investigated. A genetic model is developed dealing with the behavior of uranium during and subsequent to ash-flow tuff deposition. It is based upon previously described investigations, geologic logic, data presented here, and speculation. Ash-flow tuff sequences described in the literature show significant alkali element variation, particularly in thick tuff units. Some variation is attributed to initial magma variations, whereas additional change may be produced during cooling and degassing of the tuff. Uranium variations have been documented in tuff sequences which are assumed to represent magmatic compositions. Uranium may be released during the initial degassing, during hydrothermal alteration, and/or during later diagenesis. Experimental studies have been designed and carried out to simulate natural leaching conditions such as might occur during diagenesis. Synthetic ground waters have been pumped through pulverized uraniferous vitrophyres. Major and minor element contents have been determined. The most significant chemical changes take place quickly, within a matter of days. Several starting and product leachant solutions were analyzed fluorimetrically for uranium. They show significant increases in uranium contents, from less than 1 ppB at the start to greater than 10 ppB maximu. Such leachant solutions might be significant transport agents of uranium given geologic time. Leaching at low temperatures appears to involve a thin surface reaction and diffusion layer. Both dissolution and ion exchange influence the leachant composition. It is also concluded that glassy ash-flow tuffs may serve as uranium source rocks during low temperature diagenetic changes

  4. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, M.; Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L.; Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-01

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the brittle

  5. Thermally induced rock stress increment and rock reinforcement response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakala, M. [KMS Hakala Oy, Nokia (Finland); Stroem, J.; Nujiten, G.; Uotinen, L. [Rockplan, Helsinki (Finland); Siren, T.; Suikkanen, J.

    2014-07-15

    This report describes a detailed study of the effect of thermal heating by the spent nuclear fuel containers on the in situ rock stress, any potential rock failure, and associated rock reinforcement strategies for the Olkiluoto underground repository. The modelling approach and input data are presented together repository layout diagrams. The numerical codes used to establish the effects of heating on the in situ stress field are outlined, together with the rock mass parameters, in situ stress values, radiogenic temperatures and reinforcement structures. This is followed by a study of the temperature and stress evolution during the repository's operational period and the effect of the heating on the reinforcement structures. It is found that, during excavation, the maximum principal stress is concentrated at the transition areas where the profile changes and that, due to the heating from the deposition of spent nuclear fuel, the maximum principal stress rises significantly in the tunnel arch area of NW/SW oriented central tunnels. However, it is predicted that the rock's crack damage (CD, short term strength) value of 99 MPa will not be exceeded anywhere within the model. Loads onto the reinforcement structures will come from damaged and loosened rock which is assumed in the modelling as a free rock wedge - but this is very much a worst case scenario because there is no guarantee that rock cracking would form a free rock block. The structural capacity of the reinforcement structures is described and it is predicted that the current quantity of the rock reinforcement is strong enough to provide a stable tunnel opening during the peak of the long term stress state, with damage predicted on the sprayed concrete liner. However, the long term stability and safety can be improved through the implementation of the principles of the Observational Method. The effect of ventilation is also considered and an additional study of the radiogenic heating effect on the

  6. Suprasubduction volcanic rocks of the Char ophiolite belt, East Kazakhstan: new geochemical and first geochronological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, Inna; Simonov, Vladimir; Seltmann, Reimar; Yamamoto, Shinji; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    -1530°C and 14-26 kbar and crystallized at 1150-1190°C (Simonov et al., 2010). All these features are indicative of a supra-subduction origin of rocks. The age of gabbro, dolerite, andesite and tonalite was determined by LA ICP MS U-Pb zircon dating performed in the University of Kyoto, Japan. The andesites and tonalites yielded Carboniferous ages of ca. 322-336 Ma and the gabbro and dolerite appeared Devonian (387-395 Ma). Thus, the Char volcanic rocks possess geochemical signatures of supra-subduction magmas and could be derived at high degree melting of relatively shallow mantle sources. The volcanic units probably formed at one or two island-arcs or at an intra-oceanic arc and continental margin arc during the Middle Devonian - Mississippian. Later, the island-arc units were probably accreted to the active margin of the Kazakhstan continent. The work was supported by RFBR Project no. 16-05-00313. Contribution to IGCP#592 of UNESCO-IUGS. Safonova, I.Yu., Simonov V.A., Kurganskaya E.V., Obut O.T., Romer R.L., Seltmann R., 2012. Late Paleozoic oceanic basalts hosted by the Char suture-shear zone, East Kazakhstan: geological position, geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 49, 20-39. Simonov V.A., Safonova I.Yu., Kovyazin S.V., 2010. Petrogenesis of island-arc complexes of the Char zone, East Kazakhstan. Petrology 18, 59-72.

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of the Black Rock Fungus Knufia petricola and Its Spontaneous Nonmelanized Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Tesei, Donatella; Tafer, Hakim; Poyntner, Caroline; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Sterflinger, Katja

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fungal genus Knufia mostly comprises extremotolerant species from environmental sources, especially rock surfaces. The draft genome sequence of the rock fungus Knufia petricola presented here is the first whole-genome sequence of the only species among black fungi known to have a nonmelanized spontaneous mutant.

  8. Rock 'n' Roll Heroes: Letter to President Eisenhower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jean W., Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This primary source document can be used to teach secondary students about the rock 'n' roll era that emerged in the 1950's. The document is a letter written in 1958 by three teenagers to President Eisenhower concerning the induction of Elvis Presley into the U.S. Army. Class activities are also suggested. (RM)

  9. Adrenarche and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C

    2011-09-01

    Middle childhood, the period from 6 to 12 years of age, is defined socially by increasing autonomy and emotional regulation, somatically by the development of anatomical structures for subsistence, and endocrinologically by adrenarche, the adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here I suggest that DHEA plays a key role in the coordinated development of the brain and body beginning with middle childhood, via energetic allocation. I argue that with adrenarche, increasing levels of circulating DHEA act to down-regulate the release of glucose into circulation and hence limit the supply of glucose which is needed by the brain for synaptogenesis. Furthermore, I suggest the antioxidant properties of DHEA may be important in maintaining synaptic plasticity throughout middle childhood within slow-developing areas of the cortex, including the insula, thamalus, and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, DHEA may play a role in the development of body odor as a reliable social signal of behavioral changes associated with middle childhood.

  10. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  11. Middle-State Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  12. Conditions promoting and restraining agronomic effectiveness of water-insoluble phosphate sources, in particular phosphate rock (PR): IV. Characterization of mobile P status of soils treated with PR using conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlan, Z.; Stefanescu, D.; Gavriluta, I.; Soare, M.; Alexandrescu, A.

    2002-01-01

    Determining plant-available P through chemical extraction procedures is a real challenge in soil chemistry because 'mimicking' the plant abilities to take up phosphorus from soil and other natural and manufactured P sources is complex. Indeed, the idea of 'mimicking' complex physiological processes like P absorption and translocation in plants by a chemical dissolution process seems unrealistic. Nevertheless data on mobile soil P are needed to assess the soil P status and thus provide adequate P fertilizer recommendations to ensure normal plant growth and good yields. In this paper the appraisal of several mobile P extracting methods was made through statistical correlation with P accumulated in plants over a limited period of time. Based on plant, PR and soil correlation studies conducted from 1994 through 1997 the ammonium heptamolybdate 0.3 and 0.6% in calcium chloride 0.01 M at pH 4.3 methods have both performed better the other tested extraction methods. (author)

  13. Factors controlling Li concentration and isotopic composition in formation waters and host rocks of Marcellus Shale, Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thai T.; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W.; Macpherson, Gwen; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hammack, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, water and whole rock samples from hydraulically fractured wells in the Marcellus Shale (Middle Devonian), and water from conventional wells producing from Upper Devonian sandstones were analyzed for lithium concentrations and isotope ratios (δ7Li). The distribution of lithium concentrations in different mineral groups was determined using sequential extraction. Structurally bound Li, predominantly in clays, accounted for 75-91 wt. % of total Li, whereas exchangeable sites and carbonate cement contain negligible Li (shale in Greene Co., Pennsylvania, and Tioga Co., New York, ranged from -2.3 to + 4.3‰, similar to values reported for other shales in the literature. The δ7Li values in shale rocks with stratigraphic depth record progressive weathering of the source region; the most weathered and clay-rich strata with isotopically light Li are found closest to the top of the stratigraphic section. Diagenetic illite-smectite transition could also have partially affected the bulk Li content and isotope ratios of the Marcellus Shale.

  14. Natural analogue for storage of radwaste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Cohen, L.H.; Wollenberg, H.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Bryan-Eldora stock (Colorado) intruded the Precambrian Idaho Springs Formation metamorphic rocks 58 million years ago. Geochronologic-geochemical work by Hart et al. [S.R. Hart et al., in Radiometric Dating for Geologists, E.I. Hamilton, R.S. Farquhar, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1968) pp. 73-110] has demonstrated that the heat from the cooling intrusive rocks was sufficient to affect mineral isotopic systematics up to 2000 m from the contact, and the nature of these isotopic perturbations can be explained by a simple diffusion model in turn based on various heat flow models. Our new studies are focused on elemental exchange between stock and intruded rock as a function of distance from the contact; the assumption is made that the stock is a very large, high heat source analogous to a waste form emplaced in the metamorphic rocks without benefit of canister or engineered backfill. Data for U, Th and the REE indicate actinide and lanthanide immobility except perhaps in the 0 to 2m contact zone where some infiltration of the country rocks by stock-derived fluids occurred. Beyond 4m no stock-derived U, Th, REE or *Pb are noted. Further, whole rock Rb-Sr and stable O isotopic data indicate conductive cooling as opposed to convective, water-induced cooling. The intruded rocks possess low porosity and permeability; this helped prevent elemental migration during the 10 5 to 10 6 years of stock crystallization. The petrographic and geochemical studies show that the Idaho Springs (or equivalent) metamorphic rocks are well suited for radwaste storage. 1 figure, 1 table

  15. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  16. Rb-Sr measurements on metamorphic rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Barro Alto Complex comprises a highly deformed and metamorphosed association of plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks exposed in a 150 x 25 Km boomerang-like strip in Central Goias, Brazil. It is the southernmost tip of an extensive yet discontinuous belt of granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks which include the Niquelandia and Cana Brava complexes to the north. Two rock associations are distinguished within the granulite belt. The first one comprises a sequence of fine-grained mafic granulite, hypersthene-quartz-feldspar granulite, garnet quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and magnetite-rich iron formation. The second association comprises medium-to coarse-grained mafic rocks. The medium-grade rocks of the western/northern portion (Barro Alto Complex) comprise both layered mafic rocks and a volcanic-sedimentary sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions. The fine-grained amphibolite form the basal part of the Juscelandia meta volcanic-sedimentary sequence. A geochronologic investigation by the Rb-Sr method has been carried out mainly on felsic rocks from the granulite belt and gneisses of the Juscelandia sequence. The analytical results for the Juscelandia sequence are presented. Isotope results for rocks from different outcrops along the gneiss layer near Juscelandia are also presented. In conclusion, Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that the Barro Alto rocks have undergone at least one important metamorphic event during Middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Juscelandia sequence, as well as the underlying gabbro-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. (author)

  17. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  18. Sedimentary environments and hydrocarbon potential of cretaceous rocks of indus basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.A.; Naseem, S.

    1999-01-01

    Cretaceous rocks of Indus Basin of Pakistan are dominated by clastics with subordinate limestone towards the top. These rocks represent shelf facies and were deposited in deltaic to reducing marine conditions at variable depths. Indications of a silled basin with restricted circulation are also present. Cretaceous fine clastics/carbonates have good source and reservoir qualities. Variable geothermal gradients in different parts of basin have placed these rocks at different maturity levels; i.e. from oil to condensate and to gas. The potential of these rocks has been proved by several oil and gas discoveries particularly in the Central and Southern provinces of Indus Basin. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Rock Bolt Support for Polish Hard Rock Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    The article presents different types of rock bolt support used in Polish ore mining. Individual point resin and expansion rock bolt support were characterized. The roof classes for zinc and lead and copper ore mines were presented. Furthermore, in the article laboratory tests of point resin rock bolt support in a geometric scale of 1:1 with minimal fixing length of 0.6 m were made. Static testing of point resin rock bolt support were carried out on a laboratory test facility of Department of Underground Mining which simulate mine conditions for Polish ore and hard coal mining. Laboratory tests of point resin bolts were carried out, especially for the ZGH Bolesław, zinc and lead "Olkusz - Pomorzany" mine. The primary aim of the research was to check whether at the anchoring point length of 0.6 m by means of one and a half resin cartridge, the type bolt "Olkusz - 20A" is able to overcome the load.The second purpose of the study was to obtain load - displacement characteristic with determination of the elastic and plastic range of the bolt. For the best simulation of mine conditions the station steel cylinders with an external diameter of 0.1 m and a length of 0.6 m with a core of rock from the roof of the underground excavations were used.

  20. Seismic response of rock joints and jointed rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Hsiung, S.M.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1996-06-01

    Long-term stability of emplacement drifts and potential near-field fluid flow resulting from coupled effects are among the concerns for safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW). A number of factors can induce drift instability or change the near-field flow patterns. Repetitive seismic loads from earthquakes and thermal loads generated by the decay of emplaced waste are two significant factors. One of two key technical uncertainties (KTU) that can potentially pose a high risk of noncompliance with the performance objectives of 10 CFR Part 60 is the prediction of thermal-mechanical (including repetitive seismic load) effects on stability of emplacement drifts and the engineered barrier system. The second KTU of concern is the prediction of thermal-mechanical-hydrological (including repetitive seismic load) effects on the host rock surrounding the engineered barrier system. The Rock Mechanics research project being conducted at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) is intended to address certain specific technical issues associated with these two KTUs. This research project has two major components: (i) seismic response of rock joints and a jointed rock mass and (ii) coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological (TMH) response of a jointed rock mass surrounding the engineered barrier system (EBS). This final report summarizes the research activities concerned with the repetitive seismic load aspect of both these KTUs

  1. 30 CFR 57.3461 - Rock bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rock bursts. 57.3461 Section 57.3461 Mineral...-Underground Only § 57.3461 Rock bursts. (a) Operators of mines which have experienced a rock burst shall— (1) Within twenty four hours report to the nearest MSHA office each rock burst which: (i) Causes persons to...

  2. Potential siliceous sources during Prehistory: Results of prospecting in the East margin of the Ebro Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of prospecting in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula, with the aim of identifying the  siliceous sources potentially used by the populations that occupied the marginal basins of the Ebro depression during the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic.We intend to define the main characteristics of the cherts in the region studied, taking into account the palaeoenvironment in which silicifications are mainly formed, and the premise that siliceous rocks acquire the attributes of enclosing rocks.The cherts studied are the products of early diagenesis by replacement of carbonate and evaporite sediments. Petrological analyses show that they are made up of microquartz, with high proportion of fibrous forms silica, carbonates, ferric oxides and evaporite relicts. In the future, these characteristics will be useful for ascribing archaeological materials in both geological and geographical terms.

  3. The organic petrology and thermal maturity of Lower Carboniferous and Upper Devonian source rocks in the Liard Basin, at Jackfish Gap-Yohin Ridge and North Beaver River, northern Canada: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, J. (Univ. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)); Richards, B.C.; Goodarzi, G. (Geological Survey, Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    Basinal shales of the Besa River Fm. have TOC values ranging from 1 to 4% and contain abundant type II, dominantly amorphous, kerogen of marine origin. Shales in the Yohin, Clausen, Prophet, and Golata Formations are of mixed maring and terrestrial origins and yield TOC values of 1 to 3%. Kerogen in the Golata and Yohin Formations are dominated by terrestrial components, while the Clausen and Flett kerogen comprises marine liptinites and bitumens. Kerogen from the deltaic Mattson shales at Jackfish Gap are types II and III, having mixed marine and terrestrial origins consistent with shallow, nearshore, subtidal environments. The coals are sapropelic and probably lacustrine in origin. Algal laminites associated with coals in the Upper Mattson have >10% TOC values, while non-laminite shales contain between 2 and 5% TOC. Comparable measured and calculated vitrinite reflectance data indicate that kerogen in the Lower Carboniferous at Jackfish Gap is mature. Kerogen in correlative formations in the subsurface at North Beaver River is more marine. Vitrinites are rate and oxidized, but four populations of bitumens are distinguished on the basis of relative reflectivity and morphological or petrophysical associations. Types A and B bitumens are primary and by-products of hydrocarbon generation from type II (algal and amorphous) kerogens. Correlations between depth and reflectance of bitumens A and B are very good. Vitrinite reflectance data calculated from bitumen reflectance measurements for the Besa River, Prophet, and Golata indicate that they are potential sources of catagenic gas. The Mattson kerogen is mature, oil and gas-prone.

  4. The Eocene Rusayl Formation, Oman, carbonaceous rocks in calcareous shelf sediments: Environment of deposition, alteration and hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dill, H.G.; Wehner, H.; Kus, J. [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 510163, D-30631 Hannover (Germany); Botz, R. [University Kiel, Geological-Paleontological Department, Olshausenstrasse 40-60, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Berner, Z.; Stueben, D. [Technical University Karlsruhe, Institute for Mineralogy and Geochemistry, Fritz-Haber-Weg 2, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Al-Sayigh, A. [Sultan Qaboos University, Geological Dept. PO Box 36, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2007-10-01

    incursions make up a greater deal of the sedimentary record than mangrove swamps. Terra rossa paleosols mark the end of accumulation of organic material (OM) and herald supratidal conditions at the passage of Rusayl Formation into the overlying Seeb Formation. In the subtidal-supratidal cycles of lithofacies unit VIII the terra rossa horizons are thining upwards and become gradually substituted for by deep-water middle ramp sediments of lithofacies unit IX. Framboidal pyrite, (ferroan) dolomite with very little siderite are indicative of an early diagenetic alteration stage I under rather moderate temperatures of formation. During a subsequent stage II, an increase in the temperature of alteration was partly induced by burial and a high heat flow from the underlying Semail Ophiolite. Type-III kerogen originating from higher plants and, in addition, some marine biota gave rise to the generation of small amounts of soluble organic matter during this stage of diagenesis. The average reflectance of humic particles marks the beginning of the oil window and the production index reveals the existence of free hydrocarbons. Further uplift of the Eocene strata and oxidation during stage IIII caused veins of satin spar to form from organic sulfur and pyrite in the carbonaceous material. Lowering of the pH value of the pore fluid led to the precipitation of jarosite and a set of hydrated aluminum sulfates dependant upon the cations present in the wall rocks. AMD minerals (= acid mine drainage) are not very widespread in this carbonaceous series intercalated among calcareous rocks owing to the buffering effect of carbonate minerals. These carbonate-hosted carbonaceous rocks are below an economic level as far as the mining of coal is concerned, but deserves particular attention as source rocks for hydrocarbons in the Middle East, provided a higher stage of maturity is reached. (author)

  5. MIDDLE TRIASSIC AUTOCLASTIC DEPOSITS FROM SOUTHWESTERN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duje Smirčić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have been recognized at several localities near Bosansko Grahovo, in southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the External Dinarides. Peculiar types of autoclastic rocks were investigated. These are peperites and hyaloclastites. Regarding specific structures, mineral composition and micropetrographic characteristics it was possible to further differentiate hyaloclastites into in situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites that represent genetic succession. All rock types occurred in a deep sea troughs that formed as a consequence of Middle Triassic extensional tectonic and rift related wrench faulting. In situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites were formed due to quenching at the contact of lava effusions with sea water. Genesis of peperites is related to lava emplacement in unconsolidated water saturated lime mudstones that were deposited in deep sea basin. All investigated rock types represent first findings of autoclastic deposits in the External Dinarides. Biostratigraphic constraints achieved by means of conodont species Neogondolella excentrica, Paragondolella excelsa, Paragondolella trammeri and Gladigondolella tethydis indicate Late Anisian to Early Ladinian interval of the autoclastic deposits from Bosansko Grahovo.

  6. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  7. Mineral chemistry of clinopyroxene: guidance on geo- thermobarometry and tectonomagmatic setting of Nabar volcanic rocks, South of Kashan

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvan Mehvari; Moussa Noghreyan; Mortaza Sharifi; Mohammad Ali Mackizadeh; Seyed Hassan Tabatabaei; Ghodrat Torabi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Nabar area that is a part of the Urumieh- Dokhtar volcano- plutonic belt is located in the south of Kashan. Research works such as Emami (Emami, 1993) and Abbasi (Abbasi, 2012) have been done about the geology of this area. Rock units in the study area contain middle- upper Eocene intermediate to acidic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, green marl, shale and sandy marls of Oligo- Miocene, limestones of Qom formation, intrusive granitoids with Oligo- Miocene age and quaternar...

  8. Evaluation of the instability problems in rock slopes surrounding historical Safranbolu by kinematic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnan Keskin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Safranbolu which has high probability for slope-induced disasters is a very worthwhile settlement for our country and also for the world with its historical and cultural heritage. Finding out potential hazards that may affect the wealth of this world heritage city is very crucial. The historic Safranbolu is surrounded by very steep rock slopes, and occasionally instability occurs in the rock mass that forms these slopes. The rock blocks that are relaesed in various causes and shapes can damage the historic town living spaces by creating a source for the rock fallings and moving down the slope in these very steep slopes. The rock slopes were evaluated by kinematic analysis in order to reduce the mentioned damages and to reveal potential hazards. In the study, characteristics of mass that causes rock fallings are analysed, kinematic controlled instability types are determined considering the obtained data and characteristic of slopes.

  9. Sr-Nd isotope systematics of xenoliths in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagami, Hiroo; Iwata, Masatoshi; Iizumi, Shigeru; Nureki, Terukazu.

    1993-01-01

    Based on new and previously published Sr and Nd isotope data, we examined the petrogenetic relationship between deep crust- and upper mantle-derived xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks and Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan. The deep crust- and upper mantle-derived mafic to ultramafic xenoliths contained in Cenozoic volcanic rocks from SW Japan have comparable initial Sr and Nd isotope ratios to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in their respective districts. This may suggest that these xenoliths were genetically related to the Cretaceous-Paleogene granitoid rocks in SW Japan, and that regional variations in Sr and Nd isotope ratios observed in the granitoid rocks are attributed to differences in the geochemistry of the magma sources. (author)

  10. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 19. Leaching characteristics of composited materials from mine waste-rock piles and naturally altered areas near Questa, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Hageman, Philip L.; Briggs, Paul H.; Sutley, Stephen J.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Livo, K. Eric; Verplanck, Philip L.; Adams, Monique G.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    waste-rock piles. As pH increased in the waste-pile leachates, concentrations of several metals decreased with increasing time and agitation. Similar pH-dependent reactions may take place upon migration of the leachates in the waste-rock piles. Bulk chemistry, mineralogy, and leachate sulfur-isotope data indicate that the Capulin and Sugar Shack West waste-rock piles are compositionally different from the younger Sugar Shack South, Sugar Shack Middle, and Old Sulphur Gulch piles. The Capulin and Sugar Shack West piles have the lowest-pH leachates (pH 3.0-4.1) of the waste-pile samples, and the source material for the Capulin and Sugar Shack West piles appears to be similar to the source material for the erosional-scar areas. Calcite dissolution, in addition to gypsum dissolution, appears to produce the calcium and sulfate concentrations in leachates from the Sugar Shack South, Sugar Shack Middle, and Old Sulphur Gulch piles.

  11. Rock Rb-Sr ages from Bananal region - Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Neto, C.M.; Tassinari, C.G.C.; Silva, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    New Rb-Sr whole rock isochron ages have been determined for the main lithological units that occur in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States. These rocks belong to Serra do Mar domain. The purpose of this work is to characterize the sequence of the geological events as well as the possible relationship between the different rocks. The geochronological data suggest that the paragneisses and the basement rocks, represented by ortho gneisses nuclei, were generated under amphibolite conditions around 700 Ma. At the same time the leucogranites were generated by partial melting processes and injected into both gneiss types. Tarditectonic granitic magmatic activities took place within ductile shear zones. One of the granites, the Getulandia granite, yielded an age of 514 Ma, falling in the range of the late Brasiliano Cycle which extended into the Middle Cambrian. (author). 9 figs., 1 tab

  12. Modelling of nuclear explosions in hard rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunish, W.M.; App, F.N.

    1993-01-01

    This study represents part of a larger effort to systematically model the effects of differing source region properties on ground motion from underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site. In previous work by the authors the primary emphasis was on alluvium and both saturated and unsaturated tuff. We have attempted to model events on Pahute Mesa, where either the working point medium, or some of the layers above the working point, or both, are hard rock. The complex layering at these sites, however, has prevented us from drawing unambiguous conclusions about modelling hard rock

  13. Theory and technology of rock excavation for civil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Dingxiang

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the technical advances in recent decades and the various theories on rock excavation raised by scholars from different countries, including China and Russia. It not only focuses on rock blasting but also illustrates a number of non-blasting methods, such as mechanical excavation in detail. The book consists of 3 parts: Basic Knowledge, Surface Excavation and Underground Excavation. It presents a variety of technical methods and data from diverse sources in the book, making it a valuable theoretical and practical reference resource for engineers, researchers and postgraduates alike.

  14. Determination of radioactivity in Chinese phosphate rock and fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingjian; Zhu Yongyi; Yang Juncheng

    1993-01-01

    The presented paper reported the radioactivity of U-238, Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in Chinese phosphate rocks by gamma spectrographic analysis during 1985-1990. The results showed that the decay chain of U-238-Ra-226 was the main source of radionuclides in phosphate rocks. The radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer differed from the forms of phosphate fertilizer. U-238 was the most important radionuclide in phosphoric compound fertilizer. The transfer rate of radionuclides was also estimated. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  15. Determining the Accuracy of Paleomagnetic Remanence and High-Resolution Chronostratigraphy for Sedimentary Rocks using Rock Magnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The talk will consider two broad topics in rock magnetism and paleomagnetism: the accuracy of paleomagnetic remanence and the use of rock magnetics to measure geologic time in sedimentary sequences. The accuracy of the inclination recorded by sedimentary rocks is crucial to paleogeographic reconstructions. Laboratory compaction experiments show that inclination shallows on the order of 10˚-15˚. Corrections to the inclination can be made using the effects of compaction on the directional distribution of secular variation recorded by sediments or the anisotropy of the magnetic grains carrying the ancient remanence. A summary of all the compaction correction studies as of 2012 shows that 85% of sedimentary rocks studied have enjoyed some amount of inclination shallowing. Future work should also consider the effect of grain-scale strain on paleomagnetic remanence. High resolution chronostratigraphy can be assigned to a sedimentary sequence using rock magnetics to detect astronomically-forced climate cycles. The power of the technique is relatively quick, non-destructive measurements, the objective identification of the cycles compared to facies interpretations, and the sensitivity of rock magnetics to subtle changes in sedimentary source. An example of this technique comes from using rock magnetics to identify astronomically-forced climate cycles in three globally distributed occurrences of the Shuram carbon isotope excursion. The Shuram excursion may record the oxidation of the world ocean in the Ediacaran, just before the Cambrian explosion of metazoans. Using rock magnetic cyclostratigraphy, the excursion is shown to have the same duration (8-9 Myr) in southern California, south China and south Australia. Magnetostratigraphy of the rocks carrying the excursion in California and Australia shows a reversed to normal geomagnetic field polarity transition at the excursion's nadir, thus supporting the synchroneity of the excursion globally. Both results point to a

  16. Rock Pore Structure as Main Reason of Rock Deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrášik Martin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Crashed or dimensional rocks have been used as natural construction material, decoration stone or as material for artistic sculptures. Especially old historical towns not only in Slovakia have had experiences with use of stones for construction purposes for centuries. The whole buildings were made from dimensional stone, like sandstone, limestone or rhyolite. Pavements were made especially from basalt, andesite, rhyolite or granite. Also the most common modern construction material - concrete includes large amounts of crashed rock, especially limestone, dolostone and andesite.

  17. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  18. Pop Music's Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Surveys important music styles that preceded the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s. Included are swing, bebop, rhythm and blues, country-western, gospel, and urban folk music. Lists of selected readings and recordings are appended. Part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  19. Petrogenesis of the postcollisional Middle Devonian monzonitic to granitic magmatism of the Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Siegesmund, Siegfried; Wemmer, Klaus; Nolte, Nicole

    2017-09-01

    Middle Devonian granitoids intruded the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas basement ca. 600 km east of the inferred proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana along which a ca. 390 Ma collisional event developed. In the Sierra de San Luis, voluminous Middle Devonian (393-382 Ma) batholiths are composed of I- to A-type hybrid Monzonite and Granite suites. Shoshonite and subordinated high-K series, stocks, synplutonic dikes and enclaves make up the Monzonite Suite; rocks are metaluminous alkali-calcic magnesian porphyritic or equigranular monzonite, quartz monzonite, monzodiorite and scarce monzogabbro. High-K and subordinated shoshonite series metaluminous to mildly peraluminous magnesian alkali-calcic to calc-alkalic porphyritic or equigranular quartz monzonite, granodiorite, monzogranite and equigranular leucomonzogranites make up the Granite Suite plutons and batholiths. Only a small group of highly evolved granites are ferroan. SiO2 (46-62%), Cr, Ni, V, Sc, LILE, LREE, Th, Zr and variable, Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N and (Tb/Yb)N, smooth Eu/Eu*, moderate Na2O (ca 3.5), and troughs at Nb and Ta for Monzonite Suite rocks suggest an subduction-related enriched lithospheric mantle source. Sm-Nd data (TDM 0.98-1.08 Ga, εNd(380 Ma) 0.66-1.47) and 87Sr/86Sri (0.703520-0.704203) are compatible with an enriched mantle source. The metaluminous porphyritic quartz monzonite-monzogranite and the mildly peraluminous equigranular biotite monzogranites of the Granite Suite are characterized by relatively moderate Al2O3, CaO, and 87Sr/86Sri, high LILE, Cr, variable Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N and Eu/Eu* and low Rb/Sr ( 1.5, ASI 1.05-1.18, and Ga/Al 2.6-3.9, εNd(380 Ma) - 3.74 to - 3.95 and (87Sr/86Sr)i 0.710743-0.712955 which would point to metasedimentary or felsic igneous crustal sources. Nevertheless their TDM 1.36-1.38 Ga is considerably younger than the mean 1.8-1.6 Ga Eastern Sierras Pampeanas crustal residence age and less radiogenic. Middle Devonian magmatism would record an episode of crustal growth by enriched

  20. Thermal expansion of granite rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1978-04-01

    The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine

  1. Geometrical and hydrogeological impact on the behaviour of deep-seated rock slides during reservoir impoundment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Heidrun; Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Given that there are still uncertainties regarding the deformation and failure mechanisms of deep-seated rock slides this study concentrates on key factors that influence the behaviour of rock slides in the surrounding of reservoirs. The focus is placed on the slope geometry, hydrogeology and kinematics. Based on numerous generic rock slide models the impacts of the (i) rock slide geometry, (ii) reservoir impoundment and level fluctuations, (iii) seepage and buoyancy forces and (iv) hydraulic conductivity of the rock slide mass and the basal shear zone are examined using limit equilibrium approaches. The geometry of many deep-seated rock slides in metamorphic rocks is often influenced by geological structures, e.g. fault zones, joints, foliation, bedding planes and others. With downslope displacement the rock slide undergoes a change in shape. Several observed rock slides in an advanced stage show a convex, bulge-like topography at the foot of the slope and a concave topography in the middle to upper part. Especially, the situation of the slope toe plays an important role for stability. A potentially critical situation can result from a partially submerged flat slope toe because the uplift due to water pressure destabilizes the rock slide. Furthermore, it is essential if the basal shear zone daylights at the foot of the slope or encounters alluvial or glacial deposits at the bottom of the valley, the latter having a buttressing effect. In this study generic rock slide models with a shear zone outcropping at the slope toe are established and systematically analysed using limit equilibrium calculations. Two different kinematic types are modelled: (i) a translational or planar and (ii) a rotational movement behaviour. Questions concerning the impact of buoyancy and pore pressure forces that develop during first time impoundment are of key interest. Given that an adverse effect on the rock slide stability is expected due to reservoir impoundment the extent of

  2. Analysis of Western Australian zebra rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.; Cashion, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Zebra rock is a striking rock from the Ord River area of Western Australia which contains regularly spaced white and red-brown bands or rods. Its ease of working has made it popular for use in ornaments and costume jewellery. However, the mechanism for its formation has been a source of controversy for 75 years and is still not settled. Possible mechanisms proposed include slow sedimentation with regular addition of hydrated iron oxides, leaching of a reddish mudstone, post-depositional mobilisation and subsequent rhythmic precipitation of iron oxides from groundwaters, and accumulation of iron-containing minerals in ripple troughs. Loughnan and Roberts suggested a more detailed explanation and from a detailed mineralogical examination, including XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM, they concluded that the only major difference between the two coloured bands was the presence of hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 . In an attempt to throw more light on the problem, we have taken 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of samples from the two different coloured regions. As expected, the white coloured material contained little iron, giving a weak, broad single line spectrum at room temperature. At 78 K, the spectrum has split into a magnetic sextet which has not yet been positively identified. As expected from the XRD, the spectrum of the red part principally consists of a strong sextet due to hematite, although there is also a weak component from the phase in the white material. It is hoped that further analysis will help us to eliminate at least some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of zebra rock

  3. Stability of bentonite gels in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1983-02-01

    The present, extended study comprises a derivation of a simple rock model as a basis for calculation of the penetration rate of bentonite and of the groundwater flow rate, which is a determinant of the erodibility of the protruding clay film. This model, which is representative of a gross permeability of about 10 -8 - 10 -9 m/s, implies a spectrum of slot-shaped joints with apertures ranging between 0.1 and 0.5 mm. It is concluded that less than 2percent of the highly compacted bentonite will be lost into traversing joints in 10 6 years. A closer analysis, in which also Poiseuille retardation and short-term experiments were taken into account, even suggests that the penetration into the considered joints will be less than that. The penetration rate is expected to be 1 decimeter in a few hundred years. The risk of erosion by flowing groundwater was estimated by comparing clay particle bond strength, evaluated from viscometer tests, and theoretically derived drag forces, the conclusion being that the maximum expected water flow rate in the widest joints of the rock model (4 times 10 -4 m/s) is not sufficient to disrupt the gel front or the large individual clay flocs that may exist at this front. The experiments support the conclusion that erosion will not be a source of bentonite loss. A worst case scenario with a shear zone being developed across deposition holes is finally considered and in addition to this, the conditions in the fracture-rich tunnel floor at the upper end of the deposition holes are also analysed. This study shows that even if the rock is much more fractured than normal conditions would imply, the bentonite loss is expected to be very moderate and without substantial effect on the barrier functions of the remaining clay cores in the deposition holes. (author)

  4. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, Andrea E.; Schnug, Ewald; Prasser, Horst-Michael; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured

  5. Uranium deposits in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimori, R.K.; Ragland, P.C.; Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is a review of published data bearing on the geology and origin of uranium deposits in granitic, pegmatitic and migmatitic rocks with the aim of assisting in the development of predictive criteria for the search for similar deposits in the U.S. Efforts were concentrated on the so-called ''porphyry'' uranium deposits. Two types of uranium deposits are primarily considered: deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in gneiss terrains, and disseminations of uranium in high-level granites. In Chapter 1 of this report, the general data on the distribution of uranium in igneous and metamorphic rocks are reviewed. Chapter 2 contains some comments on the classification of uranium deposits associated with igneous rocks and a summary of the main features of the geology of uranium deposits in granites. General concepts of the behavior of uranium in granites during crustal evolution are reviewed in Chapter 3. Also included is a discussion of the relationship of uranium mineralization in granites to the general evolution of mobile belts, plus the influence of magmatic and post-magmatic processes on the distribution of uranium in igneous rocks and related ore deposits. Chapter 4 relates the results of experimental studies on the crystallization of granites to some of the geologic features of uranium deposits in pegmatites and alaskites in high-grade metamorphic terrains. Potential or favorable areas for igneous uranium deposits in the U.S.A. are delineated in Chapter 5. Data on the geology of specific uranium deposits in granitic rocks are contained in Appendix 1. A compilation of igneous rock formations containing greater than 10 ppM uranium is included in Appendix 2. Appendix 3 is a report on the results of a visit to the Roessing area. Appendix 4 is a report on a field excursion to eastern Canada

  6. Uranium endowments in phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Andrea E., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@env.ethz.ch [Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Natural and Social Science Interface, ETH Zurich Universitässtrasse 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland); Schnug, Ewald, E-mail: e.schnug@tu-braunschweig.de [Department of Life Sciences, Technical University of Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 14, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Prasser, Horst-Michael, E-mail: prasser@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [Institute of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Frossard, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.frossard@usys.ethz.ch [Institute for Agricultural Sciences, Plant Nutrition, ETH Zurich, Eschikon 33, 8315 Lindau (Switzerland)

    2014-04-01

    This study seeks to identify and specify the components that make up the prospects of U recovery from phosphate rock. A systems approach is taken. The assessment includes i) reviewing past recovery experience and lessons learned; ii) identifying factors that determine recovery; and iii) establishing a contemporary evaluation of U endowments in phosphate rock reserves, as well as the available and recoverable amounts from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production. We find that in the past, recovery did not fulfill its potential and that the breakup of the Soviet Union worsened then-favorable recovery market conditions in the 1990s. We find that an estimated 5.7 million tU may be recoverable from phosphate rock reserves. In 2010, the recoverable tU from phosphate rock and phosphoric acid production may have been 15,000 tU and 11,000 tU, respectively. This could have filled the world U supply-demand gap for nuclear energy production. The results suggest that the U.S., Morocco, Tunisia, and Russia would be particularly well-suited to recover U, taking infrastructural considerations into account. We demonstrate future research needs, as well as sustainability orientations. We conclude that in order to promote investment and production, it seems necessary to establish long-term contracts at guaranteed prices, ensuring profitability for phosphoric acid producers. - Highlights: • We identify components that underlie the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock. • We estimate that 11,000 tU may have been recoverable from phosphoric acid in 2010. • Recovery is a resource conservation and environmental pollution control strategy. • To ensure investment in recovery technology, profitability needs to be secured.

  7. Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases. This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators.

  8. Ultrasonically assisted drilling of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, N. V.; Onawumi, P. Y.; Roy, A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Conventional drilling of rocks can generate significant damage in the drilled material; a material layer is often split off a back surface of a sample during drilling, negatively affecting its strength. To improve finish quality, ultrasonically assisted drilling (UAD) was employed in two rocks - sandstone and marble. Damage areas in both materials were reduced in UAD when compared to conventional drilling. Reductions in a thrust force and a torque reduction were observed only for UAD in marble; ultrasonic assistance in sandstone drilling did not result in improvements in this regard.

  9. Rock mechanics studies for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems capable of storing thousands of MWh develop tremendous magnetically induced forces when charged. To prevent rutpure of the magnets these forces must be confined. Bedrock offers a practical and relatively inexpensive magnet containment structure. This paper examines the need for rock mechanics research in connection with the construction and use of SMES rock caverns; the unique problems related to housing superconducting magnets in bedrock; site investigations of granite, quartzite and dolomite deposits in Wisconsin; and cavern design requirements to assure cavern stability and limited deformation under the expected mechanical leads. Recommendations are made for siting SMES caverns

  10. Rock mechanics related to Jurassic underburden at Valdemar oil field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels

    1999-01-01

    .It has been initiated as a feasibility study of the North Jens-1 core 12 taken in the top Jurassic clay shale as a test specimens for integrated petrological, mineralogical and rock mechanical studies. Following topics are studied:(1) Pore pressure generation due to conversion of organic matter...... and deformation properties of the clay shale using the actual core material or outcrop equivalents.(3) Flushing mechanisms for oil and gas from source rocks due to possibly very high pore water pressure creating unstable conditions in deeply burried sedimentsThere seems to be a need for integrating the knowledge...... in a number of geosciences to the benefit of common understanding of important reservoir mechanisms. Rock mechanics and geotechnical modelling might be key points for this understanding of reservoir geology and these may constitute a platform for future research in the maturing and migration from the Jurassic...

  11. Rocking convex array used for 3D synthetic aperture focusing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Henrik; Nikolov, Svetoslav; Pedersen, M M

    2008-01-01

    Volumetric imaging can be performed using 1D arrays in combination with mechanical motion. Outside the elevation focus of the array, the resolution and contrast quickly degrade compared to the azimuth plane, because of the fixed transducer focus. The purpose of this paper is to use synthetic...... aperture focusing (SAF) for enhancing the elevation focusing for a convex rocking array, to obtain a more isotropic point spread function. This paper presents further development of the SAF method, which can be used with curved array combined with a rocking motion. The method uses a virtual source (VS...... Kretztechnik, Zipf, Austria). The array has an elevation focus at 60 mm of depth, and the angular rocking velocity is up to 140deg/s. The scan sequence uses an fprf of 4500 - 7000 Hz allowing up to 15 cm of penetration. The full width at half max (FWHM) and main-lobe to side-lobe ratio (MLSL) is used...

  12. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  13. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  14. Hydrology of some deep mines in Precambrian rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, D.H.

    1975-10-01

    A number of underground mines were investigated during the summer of 1975. All of them are in Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior region. They represent a variety of geologic settings. The purpose of the investigations was to make a preliminary study of the dryness, or lack of dryness of these rocks at depth. In other words, to see if water was entering the deeper workings through the unmined rock by some means such as fracture or fault zones, joints or permeable zones. Water entering through old mine workings extending to, or very near to the surface, or from the drilling equipment, was of interest only insofar as it might mask any water whose source was through the hanging or footwall rocks. No evidence of running, seeping or moving water was seen or reported at depths exceeding 3,000 feet. At depths of 3,000 feet or less, water seepages do occur in some of the mines, usually in minor quantities but increased amounts occur as depth becomes less. Others are dry at 2,000 feet of depth. Rock movements associated with extensive mining should increase the local secondary permeability of the rocks adjoining the mined out zones. Also most ore bodies are located where there has been a more than average amount of faulting, fracturing, and folding during the geologic past. They tend to cluster along crustal flows. In general, Precambrian rocks of similar geology, to those seen, well away from zones that have been disturbed by extensive deep mining, and well away from the zones of more intense geologic activity ought to be even less permeable than their equivalents in a mining district.

  15. Hydrology of some deep mines in Precambrian rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yardley, D.H.

    1975-10-01

    A number of underground mines were investigated during the summer of 1975. All of them are in Precambrian rocks of the Lake Superior region. They represent a variety of geologic settings. The purpose of the investigations was to make a preliminary study of the dryness, or lack of dryness of these rocks at depth. In other words, to see if water was entering the deeper workings through the unmined rock by some means such as fracture or fault zones, joints or permeable zones. Water entering through old mine workings extending to, or very near to the surface, or from the drilling equipment, was of interest only insofar as it might mask any water whose source was through the hanging or footwall rocks. No evidence of running, seeping or moving water was seen or reported at depths exceeding 3,000 feet. At depths of 3,000 feet or less, water seepages do occur in some of the mines, usually in minor quantities but increased amounts occur as depth becomes less. Others are dry at 2,000 feet of depth. Rock movements associated with extensive mining should increase the local secondary permeability of the rocks adjoining the mined out zones. Also most ore bodies are located where there has been a more than average amount of faulting, fracturing, and folding during the geologic past. They tend to cluster along crustal flows. In general, Precambrian rocks of similar geology, to those seen, well away from zones that have been disturbed by extensive deep mining, and well away from the zones of more intense geologic activity ought to be even less permeable than their equivalents in a mining district

  16. Numerical Simulation of Blast Vibration and Crack Forming Effect of Rock-Anchored Beam Excavation in Deep Underground Caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XinPing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock-anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station. Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions. Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing.

  17. Review on the prevailing methods for the prediction of potential rock burst / rock spalling in tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta

    2017-01-01

    Rock burst / rock spalling is among the prevailing stability challenges, which can be met while tunneling through hard rock mass. Especially, this is very relevant for the mountainous country like Norway where hard rock is dominating and many road, railway and hydropower tunnels have to be aligned deep into the mountain with steep valley slope topography. Tunnels passing beneath deep rock cover (overburden), in general, are subjected to high in-situ stresses. If the rock mass is relatively un...

  18. Waste-rock interactions in the immediate repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.

    1977-01-01

    The high level wastes (HLW's) to be placed underground in rock formations will contain significant amounts of radioactive decay heat for the first hundred-or-so years of isolation. Several physical-chemical changes analogous to natural geochemical processes can occur during this ''thermal period.'' The waste canister can act as a heat source and cause changes in the mineralogy and properties of the surrounding rocks. Geochemically, this is ''contact metamorphism.'' In the event that the canister is corroded and breached, chemical reactions can occur between the HLW, the surrounding rock and possibly the remains of the canister. In a dry repository which has not been backfilled (and thus pressurized) these interactions could be slow at best and with rates decreasing rapidly as the HLW cools. However, significant interactions can occur in years, months or even days under hydrothermal conditions. These conditions could be created by the combination of HLW heat, overburden pressure and water mobilized from the rocks or derived from groundwater intrusion. At the end of the thermal period these interaction products would constitute the actual HLW form (or ''source term'') subject to the low temperature leaching and migration processes under investigation in other laboratories. It is quite possible that these interaction product waste forms will have superior properties compared to the original HLW. Experimental programs initiated at Penn State during the last year aim at determining the nature of any chemical or mineralogical changes in, or interactions between, HLW solids and host rocks under various repository ambients. The accompanying figures describe the simulated HLW forms and the experimental approach and techniques. Studies with basalts as the repository rock are supported by Rockwell Hanford Operations and with shales by the Office of Waste Isolation

  19. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  20. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.

    2009-04-01

    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important

  1. Correlation of basement rocks from Waka Nui-1 and Awhitu-1, and the Jurassic regional geology of Zealandia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortimer, N.; Raine, J.I.; Cook, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Core and cuttings of sandstone and mudstone from Waka Nui-1, an offshore oil exploration well west of Northland, and from Awhitu-1, a water bore in western Auckland, add to the growing number of samples retrieved from otherwise inaccessible basement of the Zealandia continent. On the basis of pollen and spores, the sedimentary rocks at the bottom of Waka Nui-1 are dated as Early-Middle Jurassic, and rocks from Awhitu-1 are Late Jurassic. On the basis of age, sandstone petrology, and geographic position, a correlation of rocks in both wells with Murihiku Terrane is probable. In New Zealand, Jurassic sedimentary rocks have usually been interpreted in a tectonostratigraphic terrane context. An alternative way to look at the New Zealand Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous sedimentary rocks is as potentially interconnected forearc, intra-arc, back-arc, and intracontinental basins that evolved adjacent to an active margin. (author). 47 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Relationship of oil seep in Kudat Peninsula with surrounding rocks based on geochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Azman, Nurul; Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation of oil seepage at Sikuati area with the structural and petroleum system of Kudat Peninsula. The abundance of highly carbonaceous rocks with presence of lamination in the Sikuati Member outcrop at Kudat Peninsula may give an idea on the presence of oil seepage in this area. A detailed geochemical analysis of source rock sample and oil seepage from Sikuati area was carried out for their characterization and correlation. Hydrocarbon propectivity of Sikuati Member source rock is poor to good with Total Organic Carbon (TOC) value of 0.11% to 1.48%. and also categorized as immature to early mature oil window with Vitrinite Reflectance (VRo) value of 0.43% to 0.50 %Ro. Based on biomarker distribution, from Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, source rock sample shows Pr/Ph, CPI and WI of 2.22 to 2.68, 2.17 to 2.19 and 2.46 to 2.74 respectively indicates the source rock is immature and coming from terrestrial environment. The source rock might be rich in carbonaceous material organic matter resulting from planktonic/bacterial activity which occurs at fluvial to fluvio-deltaic environment. Overall, the source rock from outcrop level of Kudat Peninsula is moderately prolific in term of prospectivity and maturity. However, as go far deeper beneath the surface, we can expect more activity of mature source rock that generate and expulse hydrocarbon from the subsurface then migrating through deep-seated fault beneath the Sikuati area.

  3. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  4. Simulation of rock deformation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Я. И. Рудаев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A task of simulating the deformation behavior of geomaterials under compression with account of over-extreme branch has been addressed. The physical nature of rock properties variability as initially inhomogeneous material is explained by superposition of deformation and structural transformations of evolutionary type within open nonequilibrium systems. Due to this the description of deformation and failure of rock is related to hierarchy of instabilities within the system being far from thermodynamic equilibrium. It is generally recognized, that the energy function of the current stress-strain state is a superposition of potential component and disturbance, which includes the imperfection parameter accounting for defects not only existing in the initial state, but also appearing under load. The equation of state has been obtained by minimizing the energy function by the order parameter. The imperfection parameter is expressed through the strength deterioration, which is viewed as the internal parameter of state. The evolution of strength deterioration has been studied with the help of Fokker – Planck equation, which steady form corresponds to rock statical stressing. Here the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant, while the function reflecting internal sliding and loosening of the geomaterials is assumed as an antigradient of elementary integration catastrophe. Thus the equation of state is supplemented with a correlation establishing relationship between parameters of imperfection and strength deterioration. While deformation process is identified with the change of dissipative media, coupled with irreversible structural fluctuations. Theoretical studies are proven with experimental data obtained by subjecting certain rock specimens to compression.

  5. Los abuelos de nuestro rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Celnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Yetis. Una bomba atómica a go go. La historia de los abuelos de nuestro rock. Diego Londoño; Pulso & Letra Editores, Instituto para el Desarrollo de Antioquia, Instituto de Cultura y Patrimonio de Antioquia, 2014, 98 págs., fotografías.

  6. Gas migration in argillaceous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E. E.; Olivella, S.

    2007-01-01

    The intrinsic gas permeability of fractured argillaceous rocks depends on the current structure of micro-cracks and fissures of the rock. They are a consequence of the initial state and the subsequent deformations induced by stress and gas pressure changes. Stresses are also coupled with fluid pressures and, therefore, gas flow and mechanical behaviour are intensely coupled. Laboratory experiments, aimed at determining intrinsic permeability, show the relevant effect of volumetric deformations induced by isotropic, as well as deviatoric stress changes. The relevance, in practice, of the flow-mechanical coupling is illustrated by means of some results obtained during the performance of the drift scale test (DST) in fractured tuff in the Yucca Mountain facility. The technique of embedding discontinuities in continuum thermo-hydro-mechanical elements is capable of reproducing observed features of gas flow migration in clayey rocks. An example is described. It is believed that the developed approach provides a powerful computational procedure to handle complex gas phenomena in clayey rocks. (author)

  7. Middle Level Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Richard M., Jr.; Young, Katherine A.; Sliger, Bruce; Kafi, Patricia; Singer, Alan; Lamme, Linda Leonard

    1998-01-01

    Presents five brief articles related to middle-level learning. The articles are, "Using Children's Diaries to Teach the Oregon Trail"; "Living the Geography of Joseph and Temperance Brown"; "The ABCs of Small Grant Acquisition for Social Studies"; "Isomo Loruko: The Yoruba Naming Ceremony"; and "Child…

  8. Middle ear effusion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJSR

    Bone scan showed a hot spot in the right mastoid. Magnetic resonance imaging of the petrous ridges showed an irregular enhancing mass eroding and occupying the middle and inferior aspects of the right petrous temporal bone. This extended into the adjacent occipital bone, occipital condyle and the posterior cranial ...

  9. Utopia Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    The following excerpt allows the reader to briefly peer into an ideal school setting: For the purposes of this paper, the fictitious school will be named Utopia Middle School or U.M.S. U.M.S embodies and exemplifies the perfect school. At U.M.S., the campus administrators perform at a level of excellence that motivates, empowers and supports all…

  10. The Middle Income Squeeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Steve

    1978-01-01

    Complaints about a middle income family's hardships in sending their children to private colleges and universities are examined. The difficulty may be attributable to a progressive College Scholarship Service (CSS) taxation rate schedule that causes larger proportionate reductions in the standard of living for some families than others.…

  11. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  12. Middle East political stability

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Henry Siegman asks whether the next US President can rescue a two-state solution to the Israel–Palestine conflict; Lakhdar Brahimi discusses Iran – war or peace in the Middle East?; Eric Rouleau assesses the Iranian nuclear threat; Walid Khadduri looks at concerns over the future of Iraq and regional implications.

  13. Middle Schoolers Go Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Mark; McTighe, Jay

    2017-01-01

    From global hunger to the world's water crisis, middle school students at New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District spend the last few days of the school year problem solving about the planet's most dire issues. With the Global Challenge, the school district's administrators not only want to implement an interesting and dynamic…

  14. Microbial Leaching of Some Valuable Elements From Egyptian Phosphate Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, H.M.; Hassanein, R.A.; Mahdy, H.M.A.; Mahmoud, K.F.; Abouzeid, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Four phosphate rock samples representing different phosphate mineralization modes in Egypt were selected from Abu Tartar, Nile valley and Red sea areas. Factors affecting the phosphate rock solubilization and some of the contained valuable elements by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Pseudomonas fluorescence, were studied with especial orientation towards the completion of phosphate rock samples solubilization especially die low grade one. Effect of nitrogen source type on leaching efficiency by Aspergillus niger when two nitrogen sources on the phosphate bioleaching efficiency, it is clear that the ammonium chloride is more favorable as nitrogen source than sodium nitrate in the bioleaching of phosphate rocks. When Aspergillus niger was applied under die following conditions: 50 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source, 0.1 N of ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source, 10 days incubation period, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE and - 270 mesh of grain size. The optimum leaching of P 2 O 5 , U and REE from phosphate rock samples reached (23.27%, 17.4%, 11.4%, respectively), while at -60 mesh they reached to 16.58%, 28.9%, 30.2% respectively. The optimum conditions for the maximal leaching efficiencies of P 2 O 5 , U and REE when applying the Penicillium sp. from the phosphate rock samples were: 100 g/1 of sucrose as a carbon source for P 2 O 5 and U and 10 g/1 for REE, 7,15 and 10 days incubation period for P 2 O 5 , U and REE, respectively, 0.5% solid: liquid ratio for P 2 O 5 and 5% for U and REE. Finally, the application of phosphate rock samples grinded to -270 mesh of grain size for P 2 O 5 and (-60 to -140) for U and REE. The studied leaching efficiency of P 2 O 5 , U and REE gave at -270 mesh 33.66%, 24.3%, 15.9% respectively, while at -60 mesh they gave 33.76%, 26.7%, 17.8% and at -140 mesh gave 31.32%, 27.9%, 17.6%, respectively.The optimum conditions for the P 2 O 5 leaching efficiency when applying the Pseudomonas fluorescence were

  15. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Wieczorek

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent rock falls, mapping of rock debris, and simulations of rock fall runouts beneath the Staircase Falls detachment area suggest that rock-fall hazard zones extend farther downslope than the extent previously defined by mapped surface talus deposits.

  16. Investigation and hazard assessment of the 2003 and 2007 Staircase Falls rock falls, Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, G. F.; Stock, G. M.; Reichenbach, P.; Snyder, J. B.; Borchers, J. W.; Godt, J. W.

    2008-05-01

    Since 1857 more than 600 rock falls, rock slides, debris slides, and debris flows have been documented in Yosemite National Park, with rock falls in Yosemite Valley representing the majority of the events. On 26 December 2003, a rock fall originating from west of Glacier Point sent approximately 200 m3 of rock debris down a series of joint-controlled ledges to the floor of Yosemite Valley. The debris impacted talus near the base of Staircase Falls, producing fragments of flying rock that struck occupied cabins in Curry Village. Several years later on 9 June 2007, and again on 26 July 2007, smaller rock falls originated from the same source area. The 26 December 2003 event coincided with a severe winter storm and was likely triggered by precipitation and/or frost wedging, but the 9 June and 26 July 2007 events lack recognizable triggering mechanisms. We investigated the geologic and hydrologic factors contributing to the Staircase Falls rock falls, including bedrock lithology, weathering, joint spacing and orientations, and hydrologic processes affecting slope stability. We improved upon previous geomorphic assessment of rock-fall hazards, based on a shadow angle approach, by using STONE, a three-dimensional rock-fall simulation computer program. STONE produced simulated rock-fall runout patterns similar to the mapped extent of the 2003 and 2007 events, allowing us to simulate potential future rock falls from the Staircase Falls detachment area. Observations of recent