WorldWideScience

Sample records for source review nsr

  1. California State Implementation Plan; Butte County Air Quality Management District; New Source Review (NSR) Permitting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) portion of the California SIP concerning the District's New Source Review (NSR) permitting program for new and modified sources of air pollution.

  2. New Source Review (NSR) Air Permitting and Energy Efficiency for Industrial Projects, IECA Manufacturers for Energy Efficiency Coalition Meeting (Presentation) – April 18, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation provides information about major new source review (NSR), including recent improvement changes and court rulings, flexible air permits rule, significant deterioration rules, and energy efficiency considerations.

  3. 78 FR 8076 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... advertisement in the area affected. EPA recognizes a state's ability to tailor the scope of its Minor NSR... potential to influence the regulation. This action is not subject to Executive Order 13045 because it...

  4. 78 FR 59250 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... to introductory paragraph. 30 TAC Chapter 116--Control of Air Pollution by Permits for New... minor NSR permitting requirements where prompt actions are necessary in response to a catastrophe. BCCA... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide...

  5. 75 FR 19567 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ...\\ Memorandum from John Rasnic, Director, Stationary Source Compliance Division, OAQPS, to George Czerniak..., Federal & Delegated Air Programs Unit, EPA Region 10, to Grant Cooper et al., Frederickson Power L.P. (Oct...

  6. 77 FR 36964 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov your email address will be... State Failed To Include Specific Definitions of Continuous Emissions Monitoring System (CEMS... Predictive Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS) C. Other Concerns With the Major NSR Reform Program With...

  7. 75 FR 41311 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    .... Despite commenters contentions there are no express terms or requirements within the cited rules that... following terms have the meanings described below: ``we,'' ``us,'' and ``our'' refer to EPA. ``Act'' and... Permit Terms and Conditions 6. Protection of the NAAQS Attainment Under Major NSR D. Whether the Flexible...

  8. Applicability of NSR Review Circumvention Guidance to 3M - Maplewood, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Functionality of Sea Ice Data Sources on the NSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Pastusiak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The functionality of available official sources of sea ice data for the Northern Sea Route to date is low. In recent years a large number of new publicly available sources have appeared. Their functionality for purposes of route planning has yet to be evaluated. This study presents results of qualitative and expert analyses of various sources. It is proposed to use new indicators to enable comparison of functionality of data sources. New sources provide the technical progress that is instrumental in reducing the amount of effort and influence of the human factor in the decision-making system. The study also presents solutions to the problem of limited bandwidth available at high latitudes with Iridium satellite system. Presented solutions can be used on any vessel by any company or navigator to implement or design the decision support system related to route planning in ice in accordance with the requirements of the ISM Code and concept of e-Navigation.

  10. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    The Clean Air Act established a pair of programsâ€"known as New Source Review (NSR)â€"that regulate large stationary sources of air pollution, such as factories and electricity-generating facilities...

  11. NSR superstring measures revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Review of remarkable progress in evaluation of NSR superstring measures, originated by E.D'Hoker and D.Phong. These recent results are presented in the old-fashioned form, what allows to highlight the options which have been overlooked in original considerations in late 1980's.

  12. Chaparral Commerce Center Proposed Tribal Minor NSR Permit Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal Minor New Source Review (NSR) Permit application for the two emergency diesel-fired generators (1,500 kW each) to be installed at the Chaparral Commerce Center in the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC) in Scottsdale, Arizona.

  13. Up in smoke: regulatory immortality for 'grandfathered' power plants under the NSR rule changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad G. Schneider [Clean Air Task Force (USA)

    2004-01-01

    The US New Source Review (NSR) program requires power plant owners to install modern pollution control whenever they upgrade their plants in a way that will cause more pollution. The Clean Air Task Force and other environmental organizations and dozens of states and municipalities have challenged changes to the NSR rule change exempting grandfathered power plants under certain conditions. The author discussed this legislation and whether the Clear Skies Act will be effective. 9 refs.

  14. Averting Regulatory Enforcement: Evidence from New Source Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keohane, N.O.; Mansur, E.T.; Voynov, A. [Yale University, New York, NY (USA)

    2009-09-15

    This paper explores firms' response to regulatory enforcement. New Source Review (NSR), a provision of the Clean Air Act, imposes stringent emissions limitations on significantly modified older power plants. In 1999, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sued owners of 46 plants for NSR violations. We study how electricity companies respond to both the perceived threat of future action, and the action itself. A discrete choice model estimates plants likelihood of being named in lawsuits increases with large historic emissions and investments. On the eve of the lawsuits, emissions at plants with a one standard deviation greater probability of being sued fell approximately 10%.

  15. Treatment of Aluminum Die Casting Operations for the Purposes of NSR Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. New Source Review and coal plant efficiency gains: How new and forthcoming air regulations affect outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Sarah K.; Hoppock, David C.; Monast, Jonas J.

    2014-01-01

    Forthcoming carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regulations for existing power plants in the United States have heightened interest in thermal efficiency gains for coal-fired power plants. Plant modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger New Source Review (NSR), a Clean Air Act requirement to adopt of state-of-the-art pollution controls. This article explores whether existing coal plants would likely face additional pollution control requirements if they undertake modifications that trigger NSR. Despite emissions controls that are or will be installed under the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (MATS) and Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) or its replacement, 80% of coal units (76% of capacity) that are expected to remain in operation are not projected to meet the minimum NSR requirements for at least one pollutant: nitrogen oxides or sulfur dioxide. This is an important consideration for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and state policymakers as they determine the extent to which CO 2 regulation will rely on unit-by-unit thermal efficiency gains versus potential flexible compliance strategies such as averaging, trading, energy efficiency, and renewable energy. NSR would likely delay and add cost to thermal efficiency projects at a majority of coal units, including projects undertaken to comply with forthcoming CO 2 regulation. - Highlights: • We explore the status of the U.S. coal-fired fleet relative to New Source Review (NSR) requirements. • Modifications to improve thermal efficiency can trigger NSR. • Thermal efficiency gains may also be an important strategy for forthcoming CO 2 regulation. • 80% Of non-retiring coal-fired units are projected not to meet minimum NSR requirements. • NSR is an important consideration for the design of CO 2 regulations for existing plants

  18. The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database and Web Retrieval System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Betak, E.; Kellett, M.A.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 200,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr).

  19. NSR Rules Which Apply to the Conversion to Coal at the Hibbard Station Units 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. 77 FR 20582 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Florida: New Source Review Prevention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... quality planning and air pollution control technology requirements. The CAA NSR program is comprised of... protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Oxides of nitrogen, Recordkeeping and... preconstruction review program for the construction and modification of any stationary source of air pollution to...

  1. Modeling the effects of changes in new source review on national SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Evans; Benjamin F. Hobbs; Craig Oren; Karen L. Palmer [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2008-01-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to construction or modification of major stationary sources. In 2002 and 2003, EPA revised its rules to narrow NSR's coverage of renovations. Congress mandated a National Research Council study of the revisions' impacts. In that study, we used an electricity-sector model to explore possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change directed at power plants. We find that, assuming implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), tight enforcement of the prerevision NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. However, emissions might shift forward in time because the previous NSR rules would depress allowance prices, discouraging banking and encouraging allowance use. Only under the most aggressive prerevision NSR enforcement scenario, in which essentially all coal capacity is compelled to retrofit controls by 2020, do NOx emissions fall below ERP levels. Even then, total 2007-2020 SO{sub 2} emissions are unaffected. Further decreases in national emissions could be accomplished more cheaply by tighter emissions caps than through NSR because caps provide incentives for efficient operating strategies, such as fuel switching, as well as retrofits. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Modeling the effects of changes in new source review on national SO2 and NOx emissions from electricity-generating units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David A; Hobbs, Benjamin F; Oren, Craig; Palmer, Karen L

    2008-01-15

    The Clean Air Act establishes New Source Review (NSR) programs that apply to construction or modification of major stationary sources. In 2002 and 2003, EPA revised its rules to narrow NSR's coverage of renovations. Congress mandated a National Research Council study of the revisions' impacts. In that study, we used an electricity-sector model to explore possible effects of the equipment replacement provision (ERP), the principal NSR change directed at power plants. We find that, assuming implementation of the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), tight enforcement of the prerevision NSR rules would likely lead to no or limited decreases in national emissions compared to policies such as ERP. However, emissions might shift forward in time because the previous NSR rules would depress allowance prices, discouraging banking and encouraging allowance use. Only under the most aggressive prerevision NSR enforcement scenario, in which essentially all coal capacity is compelled to retrofit controls by 2020, do NOx emissions fall below ERP levels. Even then, total 2007-2020 SO2 emissions are unaffected. Further decreases in national emissions could be accomplished more cheaply by tighter emissions caps than through NSR because caps provide incentives for efficient operating strategies, such as fuel switching, as well as retrofits.

  3. 77 FR 35273 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Minor New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... industrial classification code 0724 (cotton ginning) and the North American industrial standard... practices in the rule. All burr hoppers must be completely enclosed. There can be no visible fugitive...

  4. 76 FR 17548 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ...; (vi) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants; (vii) Primary copper smelters; (viii) Municipal... acid plants; (x) Petroleum refineries; (xi) Lime plants; (xii) Phosphate rock processing plants; (xiii... smelters; (e) Iron and steel mills; (f) Primary aluminum ore reduction plants; (g) Primary copper smelters...

  5. 75 FR 27643 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... once the delay is no longer necessary. ADDRESSES: Docket: The final rule, the petition for...): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Delay of effective date. SUMMARY: EPA is delaying the effective date of the final rule titled ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and...

  6. 77 FR 71145 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the... renumbering of several existing sections and formatting changes that were made throughout the entire Part...

  7. 75 FR 16012 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government, as specified in EO 13132... of the EO has the potential to influence the regulation. This action is not subject to EO 13045... acid plants; (x) Petroleum refineries; (xi) Lime plants; (xii) Phosphate rock processing plants; (xiii...

  8. 76 FR 28646 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ........... 32552, 32592, 32591, 325182, 32551. Natural gas liquids 211112. Natural gas transport 48621, 22121. Pulp... cardiovascular disease (as indicated by increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, absences from school or work, and restricted activity days), lung disease, decreased lung function, asthma attacks, and...

  9. 75 FR 6827 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-11

    ... 48621, 22121. Pulp and paper mills 32211, 322121, 322122, 32213. Paper mills 322121, 322122. Automobile... include aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (as indicated by increased hospital admissions, emergency room visits, absences from school or work, and restricted activity days), lung disease...

  10. 75 FR 56423 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... disapprove the submitted six portions of the State submittals does not trigger a sanctions or Federal..., and this is not a rational basis to justify disapproving the State's rules. Response: EPA disagrees...

  11. 75 FR 19467 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Rules Revisions; 112(g) Revisions (Rule Project No. 98001-116-AI). Under the Settlement Agreement in... provisions that either prohibit future increases at the Qualified Facility, or ensure that any future... commenters do not want coal to stand in the way of a clean energy future in Texas. Strong rules are needed to...

  12. 77 FR 15656 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... 5e, to measure the filterable PM and the total organic carbon portion of the impinger catch. See 50..., 325182, 211112, 325998, 331311, 325188 Industrial organic chemicals 32511, 325132, 325192, 325188, 325193... (NSPS) for PM and the corresponding compliance test method, only the filterable fraction had been...

  13. 77 FR 65107 - Implementation of the New Source Review (NSR) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ... 5e, to measure the filterable PM and the total organic carbon portion of the impinger catch. See 50..., 32512, 325131, 325182, 211112, 325998, 331311, 325188. Industrial organic chemicals 32511, 325132... emissions'' must include the condensable PM fraction in all cases. As described in more detail in section IV...

  14. 77 FR 65119 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Texas; Revisions to the New Source Review (NSR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-25

    ...), Continuous Parameter Monitoring System (CPMS), and Predictive Emissions Monitoring System (PEMS). [cir... record (and in some cases report) emissions events, which include unscheduled maintenance, startup, and... shutdown activities'' with ``emissions from planned maintenance, startup, or shutdown activities,'' which...

  15. California Air Quality State Implementation Plans; Final Approval; Butte County Air Quality Management District; Stationary Source Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is taking final action to approve a revision to the Butte County Air Quality Management District (BCAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). This revision concerns the District's New Source Review (NSR) permitting program.

  16. Response to Question Concerning whether the Requirements for Preconstruction Review of New or Modified Air Pollution Sources Apply to the Relocation of an Existing Asphalt Concrete Plant when such Relocation does not Result in any Increase in Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Anomalies in Witten's NSR superstring field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'eva, I.Ya.; Medvedev, P.B.

    1988-01-01

    The action of Witten's NSR superstring field theory if shown to depend on the regularization being choosen to define its value on non-smooth states that are generated by supertransformation. The necessity of additional regularization originates from the appearance of products of picture-changing operators in coincident points. Two different regularization are described, one corresponding to Witten's scheme and the other to the scheme based on the notion of truncated fields

  18. GPC Single Source Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. New source review for stationary sources of air pollution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Changes in New Source Review Programs for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution, National Research Council

    2006-01-01

    .... Congress then asked the National Research Council to estimate the effects of NSR rule changes made in 2002 and 2003 in terms of the effects on emissions and human health, and changes in operating efficiency...

  20. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  1. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  2. 76 FR 80747 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon: New Source Review/Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ..., Definitions; Rule 0300, Excess Emissions and Emergency Provision, Purpose and Applicability; Rule 0310, Excess... GHG emissions under Oregon's NSR/PSD program. Oregon's definition of ``federal major source'' is almost identical to EPA's definition of ``major stationary source'' and as such, Oregon has tailored its...

  3. Summit Petroleum Corporation Single Source Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Single Source Determination for General Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Review of available power sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Klystrons and triodes have been the accepted choice for particle accelerators because they produce high power RF and offer high gain (60 dB) with efficiencies of ∼50%. Although fairly new to the market, inductive output tubes (IOTs) have become available at L-band frequencies and have maintained their high efficiency. The development of superconducting RF at the L-band frequency allows IOTs to become the choice for future accelerator programs. Due to the operational nature of SRF technology in energy recovery mode, there is no longer the requirement for large amounts of RF power from single sources. This report reviews some of the developments in RF power sources suitable for energy recovery linacs (ERLs)

  6. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions in Major Source Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Northeast Hub Partners and United Salts Single Source Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. Single Source Determination for Coors/TriGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. 78 FR 44886 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee: New Source Review-Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... ): Amendment to the Definition of `Regulated NSR Pollutant' Concerning Condensable Particulate Matter, Final... the term ``particulate matter emissions'' from Tennessee's state law definition of ``regulated NSR... that included the term ``particulate matter emissions'' in the definition of ``regulated NSR pollutant...

  10. Some tree-level string amplitudes in the NSR formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie; Melnikov, Ilarion V.; Robbins, Daniel; Royston, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    We calculate tree level scattering amplitudes for open strings using the NSR formalism. We present a streamlined symmetry-based and pedagogical approach to the computations, which we first develop by checking two-, three-, and four-point functions involving bosons and fermions. We calculate the five-point amplitude for massless gluons and find agreement with an earlier result by Brandt, Machado and Medina. We then compute the five-point amplitudes involving two and four fermions respectively, the general form of which has not been previously obtained in the NSR formalism. The results nicely confirm expectations from the supersymmetric F 4 effective action. Finally we use the prescription of Kawai, Lewellen and Tye (KLT) to compute the amplitudes for the closed string sector.

  11. Recent Administrative and Judicial Decisions Regarding Consideration of Source Separation in Determining BACT Under PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Single Source Applicability Determination for Environmental Wood Supply, LLC and District Energy St. Paul, Inc

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Source Definition Issue for KN Power - Front Range Energy Associates, LLC/PSCo Generating Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Applicablitiy Determinations on the PSD 100 tpy Major Source Threshold Catergory for Fossil Fuel Boilers Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Alcoa Massena Modernization Project and Request for a Single Source Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. BP American Production Company's Florida River Compression Facility Single Source Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Single Source Determination for Gallitan Steel Co. and Heckett MultiServ

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. PSD Applicability Determination for Multiple Owner/Operator Point Sources Within a Single Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Single Source Evaluation for the Hartford Working Group and Premcor Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. 77 FR 62200 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to the New Source Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... applicant must demonstrate that emissions from the proposed construction and operation of a facility ``will... source undergoing a physical change or change in the method of operation that does not trigger major NSR... of identified PM 2.5 precursors based on an approved interprecursor trading hierarchy and ratio in...

  1. Institute for Clean Energy Technology Mississippi State University NSR&D Aged HEPA Filter Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacks, Robert [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Stormo, Julie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rose, Coralie [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Rickert, Jaime [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Waggoner, Charles A. [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2017-03-22

    Data have demonstrated that filter media lose tensile strength and the ability to resist the effects of moisture as a function of age. Testing of new and aged filters needs to be conducted to correlate reduction of physical strength of HEPA media to the ability of filters to withstand upset conditions. Appendix C of the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook provides the basis for DOE’s HEPA filter service life guidance. However, this appendix also points out the variability of data, and it does not correlate performance of aged filters to degradation of media due to age. Funding awarded by NSR&D to initiate full-scale testing of aged HEPA filters addresses the issue of correlating media degradation due to age with testing of new and aged HEPA filters under a generic design basis event set of conditions. This funding has accelerated the process of describing this study via: (1) establishment of a Technical Working Group of all stakeholders, (2) development and approval of a test plan, (3) development of testing and autopsy procedures, (4) acquiring an initial set of aged filters, (5) testing the initial set of aged filters, and (6) developing the filter test report content for each filter tested. This funding was very timely and has moved the project forward by at least three years. Activities have been correlated with testing conducted under DOE-EM funding for evaluating performance envelopes for AG-1 Section FC Separator and Separatorless filters. This coordination allows correlation of results from the NSR&D Aged Filter Study with results from testing new filters of the Separator and Separatorless Filter Study. DOE-EM efforts have identified approximately 100 more filters of various ages that have been stored under Level B conditions. NSR&D funded work allows a time for rigorous review among subject matter experts before moving forward with development of the testing matrix that will be used for additional filters. The NSR&D data sets are extremely valuable in as much

  2. Request for Confirmation of the Definition of a 100-Ton Source as Applied to Controls in the Gasoline Storage and Marketing Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Response to Letter Regarding the Louisiana Department of Environmental Protection's Position on the PSD Significant Emission Level for ODS at Existing Major Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Application of PSD Review to a Portland Cement Manufacturing Operation, Texas Industries, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Confirmed and Potential Sources of Legionella Reviewed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijnsbergen, Eri; Schalk, Johanna A C; Euser, Sjoerd M; Brandsema, Petra S; den Boer, Jeroen W; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281

    2015-01-01

    Legionella bacteria are ubiquitous in natural matrices and man-made systems. However, it is not always clear if these reservoirs can act as source of infection resulting in cases of Legionnaires' disease. This review provides an overview of reservoirs of Legionella reported in the literature, other

  6. 40 CFR 51.307 - New source review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and nonair quality environmental impacts of compliance, and the useful life of the source. (d) The... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New source review. 51.307 Section 51... source review. (a) For purposes of new source review of any new major stationary source or major...

  7. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Tesoro Logistics-Rockies - Ponderosa Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents related to the synthetic minor NSR permit for the Tesoro Logistics-Rockies Ponderosa Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  8. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  9. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed synthetic minor NSR permit, public notice bulletin, and administrative permit docket for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in Colorado.

  10. Grasshoppers as a food source? A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Current trends suggest an increasing future demand for conventional meats, which indicates a strong need to shift this dependency to other alternative protein sources such as insects. Literature. From a nutritional point of view, of all the insects consumed globally, grasshoppers are particularly important as a human food. Data from the literature regarding the nutrient composition, amino acid profile, fatty acid profile, mineral composition and vitamin content of grasshoppers as reviewed in this paper, suggest that a number of grasshopper species are a good source of nutrients. It also highlights some of the health related aspects that might arise from the consumption of grasshoppers, mostly linked to agricultural practices and the allergic response of sensitive individuals. The paper also summarizes some religious, social and economic factors that are associated with grasshopper consumption. Conclusions. The success of introducing grasshoppers as a novel food in western countries depends on changes in consumer attitudes. It would be interesting to develop food products derived from grasshoppers in a form acceptable to consumers. Furthermore, it is important to explore the food potential of some grasshopper species native to western countries and to develop their rearing methodologies to enhance availability.

  11. A review of polarized ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.

    1995-06-01

    The two main types of polarized ion sources in use on accelerators today are the Atomic Beam Polarized Ion Source (ABIS) source and the Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source (OPPIS). Both types can provide beams of nuclearly polarized light ions which are either positively or negatively charged. Heavy ion polarized ion sources for accelerators are being developed. (author). 35 refs., 1 tab

  12. Electron-cyclotron-resonance ion sources (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    1992-01-01

    The physical principles are described and a brief survey of the present state is given of ion sources based on electron-cyclotron heating of plasma in a mirror trap. The characteristics of ECR sources of positive and negative ions used chiefly in accelerator technology are presented. 20 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  13. The transcriptional repressor protein NsrR senses nitric oxide directly via a [2Fe-2S] cluster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P Tucker

    Full Text Available The regulatory protein NsrR, a member of the Rrf2 family of transcription repressors, is specifically dedicated to sensing nitric oxide (NO in a variety of pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. It has been proposed that NO directly modulates NsrR activity by interacting with a predicted [Fe-S] cluster in the NsrR protein, but no experimental evidence has been published to support this hypothesis. Here we report the purification of NsrR from the obligate aerobe Streptomyces coelicolor. We demonstrate using UV-visible, near UV CD and EPR spectroscopy that the protein contains an NO-sensitive [2Fe-2S] cluster when purified from E. coli. Upon exposure of NsrR to NO, the cluster is nitrosylated, which results in the loss of DNA binding activity as detected by bandshift assays. Removal of the [2Fe-2S] cluster to generate apo-NsrR also resulted in loss of DNA binding activity. This is the first demonstration that NsrR contains an NO-sensitive [2Fe-2S] cluster that is required for DNA binding activity.

  14. Learning from open source software projects to improve scientific review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Satrajit S; Klein, Arno; Avants, Brian; Millman, K Jarrod

    2012-01-01

    Peer-reviewed publications are the primary mechanism for sharing scientific results. The current peer-review process is, however, fraught with many problems that undermine the pace, validity, and credibility of science. We highlight five salient problems: (1) reviewers are expected to have comprehensive expertise; (2) reviewers do not have sufficient access to methods and materials to evaluate a study; (3) reviewers are neither identified nor acknowledged; (4) there is no measure of the quality of a review; and (5) reviews take a lot of time, and once submitted cannot evolve. We propose that these problems can be resolved by making the following changes to the review process. Distributing reviews to many reviewers would allow each reviewer to focus on portions of the article that reflect the reviewer's specialty or area of interest and place less of a burden on any one reviewer. Providing reviewers materials and methods to perform comprehensive evaluation would facilitate transparency, greater scrutiny, and replication of results. Acknowledging reviewers makes it possible to quantitatively assess reviewer contributions, which could be used to establish the impact of the reviewer in the scientific community. Quantifying review quality could help establish the importance of individual reviews and reviewers as well as the submitted article. Finally, we recommend expediting post-publication reviews and allowing for the dialog to continue and flourish in a dynamic and interactive manner. We argue that these solutions can be implemented by adapting existing features from open-source software management and social networking technologies. We propose a model of an open, interactive review system that quantifies the significance of articles, the quality of reviews, and the reputation of reviewers.

  15. [Source-monitoring deficits in schizophrenia: review and pharmacotherapeutic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Levente Zsolt; Bartkó, György

    2007-03-01

    The disturbance of source-monitoring is one of the various impairments in cognitive functioning observed in schizophrenic patients. The process of source-monitoring allows individuals to distinguish self generated thoughts and behaviours from those generated by others. The aim of the present study is to review the general psychological definition of source memory and source-monitoring and its neurological basis as well as the models for explanation of source-monitoring deficits. The relationship between source-monitoring-deficits and psychopathological symptoms as well as the effect of antipsychotic treatment on source-monitoring disturbances are introduced. There is evidence suggesting, that a selective source-monitoring deficit is in the occurrence of auditory hallucinations. The disturbance of prospective memory may influence unfavorably the compliance. Administration of antipsychotics in general can improve source-monitoring deficits. The neuropsychiatric perspective provides a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of schizophrenia.

  16. Kansas Energy Sources: A Geological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, D.F.; Brady, L.L.; Newell, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    Kansas produces both conventional energy (oil, gas, and coal) and nonconventional (coalbed gas, wind, hydropower, nuclear, geothermal, solar, and biofuels) and ranks the 22nd in state energy production in the U. S. Nonrenewable conventional petroleum is the most important energy source with nonrenewable, nonconventional coalbed methane gas becoming increasingly important. Many stratigraphic units produce oil and/or gas somewhere in the state with the exception of the Salina Basin in north-central Kansas. Coalbed methane is produced from shallow wells drilled into the thin coal units in southeastern Kansas. At present, only two surface coal mines are active in southeastern Kansas. Although Kansas has been a major exporter of energy in the past (it ranked first in oil production in 1916), now, it is an energy importer. ?? 2011 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  17. A review of biomedical multiphoton microscopy and its laser sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been the subject of major development efforts for about 25 years for imaging biological specimens at micron scale and presented as an elegant alternative to classical fluorescence methods such as confocal microscopy. In this topical review, the main interests and technical requirements of MPM are addressed with a focus on the crucial role of excitation source for optimization of multiphoton processes. Then, an overview of the different sources successfully demonstrated in literature for MPM is presented, and their physical parameters are inventoried. A classification of these sources in function with their ability to optimize multiphoton processes is proposed, following a protocol found in literature. Starting from these considerations, a suggestion of a possible identikit of the ideal laser source for MPM concludes this topical review. (topical review)

  18. A review of biomedical multiphoton microscopy and its laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has been the subject of major development efforts for about 25 years for imaging biological specimens at micron scale and presented as an elegant alternative to classical fluorescence methods such as confocal microscopy. In this topical review, the main interests and technical requirements of MPM are addressed with a focus on the crucial role of excitation source for optimization of multiphoton processes. Then, an overview of the different sources successfully demonstrated in literature for MPM is presented, and their physical parameters are inventoried. A classification of these sources in function with their ability to optimize multiphoton processes is proposed, following a protocol found in literature. Starting from these considerations, a suggestion of a possible identikit of the ideal laser source for MPM concludes this topical review. Dedicated to Martin.

  19. Gloriosa, a source of colchicine፡ review article | Alemu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review is to assess the importance of Gloriosa superba as a source of colchicine and action to taken on the conservation of the plant in Ethiopian. Gloriosa superba L. is an important plant distributed in different countries which is known by its valuable chemical called colchicine. Due to this, the crop is ...

  20. Review of radiation sources, calibration facilities and simulated workplace fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacoste, V., E-mail: veronique.lacoste@irsn.f [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, BP3, Bat. 159, F-13115 Saint-Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2010-12-15

    A review on radiation sources, calibration facilities and realistic fields is presented and examples are given. The main characteristics of the fields are shortly described together with their domain of applications. New emerging fields are also mentioned and the question of needs for additional calibration fields is raised.

  1. Review of SFR In-Vessel Radiological Source Term Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Soo Dong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2008-10-01

    An effort has been made in this study to search for and review the literatures in public domain on the studies of the phenomena related to the release of radionuclides and aerosols to the reactor containment of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) plants (i.e., in-vessel source term), made in Japan and Europe including France, Germany and UK over the last few decades. Review work is focused on the experimental programs to investigate the phenomena related to determining the source terms, with a brief review on supporting analytical models and computer programs. In this report, the research programs conducted to investigate the CDA (core disruptive accident) bubble behavior in the sodium pool for determining 'primary' or 'instantaneous' source term are first introduced. The studies performed to determine 'delayed source term' are then described, including the various stages of phenomena and processes: fission product (FP) release from fuel , evaporation release from the surface of the pool, iodine mass transfer from fission gas bubble, FP deposition , and aerosol release from core-concrete interaction. The research programs to investigate the release and transport of FPs and aerosols in the reactor containment (i.e., in-containment source term) are not described in this report

  2. Review of Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiti, Shadrack Anthony; Choi, Kwang Sik

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive materials are used worldwide for peaceful applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, environmental science, education and research and military applications. Most of these radioactive sources used are imported therefore trans-boundary movement is a significant factor in consideration of safety and security measures during movement of these sources. It is estimated that 20 million packages of radioactive materials are transported annually worldwide and this number of shipments is expected to increase due to the renaissance of nuclear power generation. The African continent has shown considerable leadership in its advocacy for the safety and security of radioactive sources. The First Africa Workshop on the Establishment of a Legal Framework governing Radiation Protection, the Safety of Radiation Sources and the Safe Management of Radioactive Waste held in Ethiopia in 2001 called upon the IAEA to form a forum for African countries to consider the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and give it a legally binding effect so that the peaceful use of nuclear technology is not compromised. Despite these laudable efforts, Africa still faces considerable challenges in the implementation of safety and security of radioactive sources because of weak regulatory control and lack of infrastructure to properly control, manage and secure radiation sources 1 . The purpose of this paper was therefore, to analyze, review, address and share knowledge and experience with regard to safety and security measures of radioactive materials in Africa. This project will benefit IAEA's African member states in creating nuclear safety and security networking in the region

  3. Seed lipases: sources, applications and properties - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barros

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview regarding the main aspects of seed lipases, such as the reactions catalyzed, physiological functions, specificities, sources and applications. Lipases are ubiquitous in nature and are produced by several plants, animals and microorganisms. These enzymes exhibit several very interesting features, such as low cost and easy purification, which make their commercial exploitation as industrial enzymes a potentially attractive alternative. The applications of lipases in food, detergents, oils and fats, medicines and fine chemistry, effluent treatment, biodiesel production and in the cellulose pulp industry, as well as the main sources of oilseed and cereal seed lipases, are reviewed.

  4. A key review of wastewater source heat pump (WWSHP) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Biyik, Emrah; Ekren, Orhan; Gunerhan, Huseyin; Araz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensively reviewing WWSHP systems for the first time. • Varying the COP values for heating of the reviewed systems between 1.77 and 10.63. • Ranging the COP values for cooling of the reviewed systems from 2.23 to 5.35. • Being the majority of the performance assessments on the energetic basis. - Abstract: Heat pumps (HPs) are part of the environmentally friendly technologies using renewable energy and have been utilized in the developed countries for years. Wastewater is seen as a renewable heat source for HPs. At the beginning of the 1980s, waste (sewage) water source heat pumps (WWSHPs) were widely applied in North European countries like Sweden and Norway and partially applied in China. In the past two decades, the WWSHP has become increasingly popular due to its advantages of relatively higher energy utilization efficiency and environmental protection. The present study comprehensively reviews WWSHP systems in terms of applications and performance assessments including energetic, exergetic, environmental and economic aspects for the first time to the best of the authors’ knowledge. In this context, a historical development of WWSHPs was briefly given first. Next, wastewater potential and its characteristics were presented while a WWSHP system was introduced. The previously conducted studies on WWSHPs were then reviewed and classified in a tabulated form. Finally, some concluding remarks were listed. The COP values of the reviewed studies ranged from 1.77 to 10.63 for heating and 2.23 to 5.35 for cooling based on the experimental and simulated values. The performance assessments are mostly made using energy analysis methods while the number of exergetic evaluations is very low and has not been comprehensively performed. It is expected that the comprehensive review here will be very beneficial to those dealing with the design, analysis, simulation and performance assessment of WWSHP systems

  5. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  6. Invited review, recent developments in brachytherapy source dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigooni, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Application of radioactive isotopes is the treatment of choice around the globe for many cancer sites. In this technique, the accuracy of the radiation delivery is highly dependent on the accuracy of radiation dosimetry around individual brachytherapy sources. Moreover, in order to have compatible clinical results, an identical method of source dosimetry must be employed across the world. This problem has been recently addressed by task group 43 from the American Association of Medical Physics with a protocol for dosimetric characterization of brachytherapy sources. This new protocol has been further updated using published data from international sources, by a new Task Group from the American Association of Medical Physics. This has resulted in an updated protocol known as TG43U1 that has been published in March 2004 issue of Medical Physics. The goal of this presentation is to review the original Task Group 43 protocol and associated algorithms for brachytherapy source dosimetry. In addition, the shortcomings of the original protocol that has been resolved in the updated recommendation will be highlighted. I am sure that this is not the end of the line and more work is needed to complete this task. I invite the scientists to join this task and complete the project, with the hope of much better clinical results for cancer patients

  7. Selenium speciation from food source to metabolites: a critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, Emmie; Vanhaecke, Frank; Cornelis, Rita [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-08-15

    Especially in the last decade, a vast number of papers on Se and its role in health issues have been published. This review gives a brief, critical overview of the main analytical findings reported in these papers. Of particular interest is the Se content in different food sources worldwide and the extent to which their consumption is reflected in the Se content of human tissues and body fluids. Several food sources, both natural (Brazil nuts, garlic, Brassica juncea) and Se-enriched (yeast-based supplements), are discussed as to origin, characteristics, Se metabolism and impact of their consumption on the human body. The continuous development of new and improvement of existing analytical techniques has provided different powerful tools to unravel the Se species and their function. An up-to-date literature study on Se speciation analysis is given, illustrating how analytical chemistry in its different facets aids in the identification of Se compounds and provides insight into the complete metabolic pathway of Se throughout the human body. This review includes a detailed image of the current state-of-the-art of Se speciation analysis in these food sources and in human tissues and body fluids. (orig.)

  8. Review of MEVVA ion source performance for accelerator injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Rueck, D.M.; Wolf, B.H.

    1991-05-01

    The Mevva (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source provides high current beams of multiply-charged metal ions suitable for use in heavy ion synchrotrons as well as for metallurgical ion implantation. Pulsed beam currents of up to several amperes can be produced at ion energies of up to several hundred keV. Operation has been demonstrate for 48 metallic ion species: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. When the source is operated optimally the rms fractional beam noise can be as low as 7% of the mean beam current; and when properly triggered the source operates reliably and reproducibly for many tens of thousands of pulses without failure. In this paper we review the source performance referred specifically to its use for synchrotron injection. 15 refs., 3 figs

  9. Review on solving the inverse problem in EEG source analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabri Simon G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this primer, we give a review of the inverse problem for EEG source localization. This is intended for the researchers new in the field to get insight in the state-of-the-art techniques used to find approximate solutions of the brain sources giving rise to a scalp potential recording. Furthermore, a review of the performance results of the different techniques is provided to compare these different inverse solutions. The authors also include the results of a Monte-Carlo analysis which they performed to compare four non parametric algorithms and hence contribute to what is presently recorded in the literature. An extensive list of references to the work of other researchers is also provided. This paper starts off with a mathematical description of the inverse problem and proceeds to discuss the two main categories of methods which were developed to solve the EEG inverse problem, mainly the non parametric and parametric methods. The main difference between the two is to whether a fixed number of dipoles is assumed a priori or not. Various techniques falling within these categories are described including minimum norm estimates and their generalizations, LORETA, sLORETA, VARETA, S-MAP, ST-MAP, Backus-Gilbert, LAURA, Shrinking LORETA FOCUSS (SLF, SSLOFO and ALF for non parametric methods and beamforming techniques, BESA, subspace techniques such as MUSIC and methods derived from it, FINES, simulated annealing and computational intelligence algorithms for parametric methods. From a review of the performance of these techniques as documented in the literature, one could conclude that in most cases the LORETA solution gives satisfactory results. In situations involving clusters of dipoles, higher resolution algorithms such as MUSIC or FINES are however preferred. Imposing reliable biophysical and psychological constraints, as done by LAURA has given superior results. The Monte-Carlo analysis performed, comparing WMN, LORETA, sLORETA and SLF

  10. Cross-functional Sourcing Teams – A Purchasing and Supply Management Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Peder Lysholm

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic literature review of scientific papers on cross-functional sourcing teams in top journals within Purchasing and Supply Management. The review identifies four common research topics within the field; Determining factors of sourcing team success, Performance...... management/goals of sourcing teams, Behavior and decisions in sourcing teams and Involvement of purchasing in sourcing teams. Further research on Performance Management and how to create a holistic, teams based perspective in cross-functional sourcing teams is suggested....

  11. Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergult Anneleen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter. In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM, the finite element method (FEM and the finite difference method (FDM. In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative

  12. 78 FR 23704 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Tennessee: New Source Review-Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ...) Program for Particulate Matter Less Than 2.5 Micrometers (PM 2.5 ): Amendment to the Definition of..., 2008, NSR PM 2.5 Rule including the term ``particulate matter emissions,'' in the definition of... matter emissions into the Tennessee SIP (at rule 1200-03-09-.01(4)(b)47(vi)) as part of the definition...

  13. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B

    2016-01-01

    , such as fishmeal. With estimated 1.5 to 3 million species, the class of insects harbours the largest species variety in the world including species providing a high protein and sulphur amino acids content, which can be successfully exploited as feed for poultry. The aim of this paper is to review the present state...... of knowledge concerning the use of insect protein in poultry nutrition and the possibilities of mass production of insects for the feed industry. There is no doubt that insects have an enormous potential as a source of nutrients (protein) and active substances (polyunsaturated fatty acids, antimicrobial...... peptides) for poultry. It can be concluded, based on many experimental results, that meals from insects being members of the orders Diptera (black soldier fly, housefly), Coleoptera (mealworms) and Orthoptera (grasshoppers, locust, crickets and katylids), may be successfully used as feed material...

  14. Marine Algae as Source of Novel Antileishmanial Drugs: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauve Rachel Tchokouaha Yamthe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus and transmitted by the female Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia sand flies. The currently prescribed therapies still rely on pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, paromomycin, liposomal amphotericin B, and miltefosine. However, their low efficacy, long-course treatment regimen, high toxicity, adverse side effects, induction of parasite resistance and high cost require the need for better drugs given that antileishmanial vaccines may not be available in the near future. Although most drugs are still derived from terrestrial sources, the interest in marine organisms as a potential source of promising novel bioactive natural agents has increased in recent years. About 28,000 compounds of marine origin have been isolated with hundreds of new chemical entities. Recent trends in drug research from natural resources indicated the high interest of aquatic eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, marine algae in the search for new chemical entities given their broad spectrum and high bioactivities including antileishmanial potential. This current review describes prepared extracts and compounds from marine macroalgae along with their antileishmanial activity and provides prospective insights for antileishmanial drug discovery.

  15. Rooftop runoff as a source of contamination: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lye, Dennis J

    2009-10-15

    Scientific reports concerning chemical and microbiological contaminant levels of rainwater runoff from rooftop collection in both urban and rural areas are reviewed. This alternative source of water has been documented to often contain substantial amounts of contaminants. Studies describing levels of heavy metal contamination specific to runoff from rooftop catchment areas containing exposed metal surfaces are discussed. Depending upon the intended use, scientific evidence is also accumulating that various treatments and disinfections will be required prior to release of roof-runoff water either into surface waters or for more direct consumer usage. For microbial contamination, current proposed standards and guidelines regarding this type of water source are shown to vary widely worldwide. Scientific literature reveals a lack of clarity regarding water quality guidelines and health related standards for certain types of rooftop runoff. Studies suggests that rainwater collection systems which are properly designed, maintained, and treated may provide a valuable supplement to existing water supplies by reducing demand on community water supplies/infrastructure costs, enhancing effective management of storm water runoff, and increasing restoration of underground reservoirs through controlled infiltration.

  16. D = 4 Yang-Mills correlators from NSR strings on AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, D.

    1999-07-01

    In our previous work (hep-th/9812044) we have proposed the sigma-model action, conjectured to be the NSR analogue of superstring theory on AdS 5 x S 5 . This sigma-model is the NSR superstring action with potential term corresponding to the exotic 5-form vertex operator (branelike state). This 5-form potential plays the role of cosmological term, effectively curving the flat space-time geometry to that of AdS 5 x S 5 . In this paper we study this ansatz in more detail and provide the derivation of the correlators of the four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory from the above mentioned sigma-model. In particular, we show that the correlation function of two dilaton vertex operators in such a model reproduces the well-known result for the two-point function in N = 4 four-dimensional super Yang-Mills theory. (author)

  17. Earth-moving equipment as base machines in forest work. Final report of an NSR project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Jerry [ed.

    1997-12-31

    Excavators have been used for forest draining for a long time in the Nordic countries. Only during the 1980s they were introduced as base machines for other forest operations, such as mounding, processing, harvesting, and road construction and road maintenance. Backhoe loaders were introduced in forestry at a somewhat later stage and to a smaller degree. The number of this type of base machines in forestry is so far small and is increasing very slowly. The NSR project `Earth moving equipment as base machines in forest work` started in 1993 and the project ended in 1995. The objective of the project was to obtain an overall picture of this type of machines up to a point where the logs are at landing site, ready for transportation to the industry. The project should cover as many aspects as possible. In order to obtain this picture, the main project was divided into sub projects. The sub projects separately described in this volume are (1) Excavators in ditching operations and site preparation, (2) Backhoe loaders in harvesting operations, (3) Excavators in wood cutting operations, (4) Tracked excavators in forestry operations, (5) Crawler versus wheeled base machines for single-grip harvester, and (6) Soil changes - A comparison between a wheeled and a tracked forest machine

  18. NSR-seq transcriptional profiling enables identification of a gene signature of Plasmodium falciparum parasites infecting children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D.; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C.; Biery, Matthew C.; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K.; Duffy, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases. PMID:21317536

  19. NSR-seq transcriptional profiling enables identification of a gene signature of Plasmodium falciparum parasites infecting children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Marissa; Armour, Christopher D; Chen, Jingyang; Morrison, Robert; Castle, John C; Biery, Matthew C; Bouzek, Heather; Moon, Wonjong; Babak, Tomas; Fried, Michal; Raymond, Christopher K; Duffy, Patrick E

    2011-03-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in approximately 1 million annual deaths worldwide, with young children and pregnant mothers at highest risk. Disease severity might be related to parasite virulence factors, but expression profiling studies of parasites to test this hypothesis have been hindered by extensive sequence variation in putative virulence genes and a preponderance of host RNA in clinical samples. We report here the application of RNA sequencing to clinical isolates of P. falciparum, using not-so-random (NSR) primers to successfully exclude human ribosomal RNA and globin transcripts and enrich for parasite transcripts. Using NSR-seq, we confirmed earlier microarray studies showing upregulation of a distinct subset of genes in parasites infecting pregnant women, including that encoding the well-established pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate var2csa. We also describe a subset of parasite transcripts that distinguished parasites infecting children from those infecting pregnant women and confirmed this observation using quantitative real-time PCR and mass spectrometry proteomic analyses. Based on their putative functional properties, we propose that these proteins could have a role in childhood malaria pathogenesis. Our study provides proof of principle that NSR-seq represents an approach that can be used to study clinical isolates of parasites causing severe malaria syndromes as well other blood-borne pathogens and blood-related diseases.

  20. Collagen: A review on its sources and potential cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Rodríguez, María Isabela; Rodríguez Barroso, Laura G; Sánchez, Mirna Lorena

    2018-02-01

    Collagen is a fibrillar protein that conforms the conjunctive and connective tissues in the human body, essentially skin, joints, and bones. This molecule is one of the most abundant in many of the living organisms due to its connective role in biological structures. Due to its abundance, strength and its directly proportional relation with skin aging, collagen has gained great interest in the cosmetic industry. It has been established that the collagen fibers are damaged with the pass of time, losing thickness and strength which has been strongly related with skin aging phenomena [Colágeno para todo. 60 y más. 2016. http://www.revista60ymas.es/InterPresent1/groups/revistas/documents/binario/ses330informe.pdf.]. As a solution, the cosmetic industry incorporated collagen as an ingredient of different treatments to enhance the user youth and well-being, and some common presentations are creams, nutritional supplement for bone and cartilage regeneration, vascular and cardiac reconstruction, skin replacement, and augmentation of soft skin among others [J App Pharm Sci. 2015;5:123-127]. Nowadays, the biomolecule can be obtained by extraction from natural sources such as plants and animals or by recombinant protein production systems including yeast, bacteria, mammalian cells, insects or plants, or artificial fibrils that mimic collagen characteristics like the artificial polymer commercially named as KOD. Because of its increased use, its market size is valued over USD 6.63 billion by 2025 [Collagen Market By Source (Bovine, Porcine, Poultry, Marine), Product (Gelatin, Hydrolyzed Collagen), Application (Food & Beverages, Healthcare, Cosmetics), By Region, And Segment Forecasts, 2014 - 2025. Grand View Research. http://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/collagen-market. Published 2017.]. Nevertheless, there has been little effort on identifying which collagen types are the most suitable for cosmetic purposes, for which the present review will try to enlighten

  1. 40 CFR 52.1824 - Review of new sources and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict exists, the EPA Guideline will take precedence for these source categories. [39 FR 7283, Feb. 25... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of new sources and modifications... Review of new sources and modifications. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) The State of North Dakota has clarified...

  2. Learning from open source software projects to improve scientific review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrajit S Ghosh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Peer-reviewed publications are the primary mechanism for sharing scientific results. The current peer-review process is, however, fraught with many problems that undermine the pace, validity, and credibility of science. We highlight five salient problems: (1 Reviewers are expected to have comprehensive expertise; (2 Reviewers do not have sufficient access to methods and materials to evaluate a study; (3 Reviewers are not acknowledged; (4 There is no measure of the quality of a review; and (5 Reviews take a lot of time, and once submitted cannot evolve. We propose that these problems can be resolved by making the following changes to the review process. Distributing reviews to many reviewers would allow each reviewer to focus on portions of the article that reflect the reviewer’s specialty or area of interest and place less of a burden on any one reviewer, enabling a more comprehensive and timely review. Providing reviewers materials and methods to perform comprehensive evaluation would facilitate transparency, replication of results and enable greater scrutiny by people from different fields using different nomenclature, leading to greater clarity and cross-fertilization of ideas. Acknowledging reviewers makes it possible to quantitatively assess reviewer contributions, which could be integrated with assessments for promotions and grants. Quantifying review quality could help establish the importance of reviewers and information generated during a review, and assess the importance of a submitted article. Finally, we recommend expediting post-publication reviews and allowing for the dialogue to continue and flourish in a dynamic and interactive manner. We argue that these solutions can be addressed by building upon computer programming code management systems. In this article, we provide examples of current code review systems that offer opportunities for addressing the above problems, and offer suggestions for enhancing code review systems for

  3. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, R

    2003-01-01

    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity ...

  4. The sources of pain in osteoarthritis: a pathophysiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salaffi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pain of osteoarthritis (OA has multifaceted etiologies within and outside the joint. It is believed to be driven by both nociceptive and neuropathic mechanisms, as well as abnormal excitability in the pain pathways of the peripheral and central nervous system. Inflammation in the joint triggers a cascade of events that leads to peripheral sensitization, increased sensitivity of nociceptive primary afferent neurons, and hyperexcitability of the nociceptive neurons in the central nervous system. Pain receptors have been found in the synovium, ligaments, capsule, subchondral bone and surrounding tissues, with the exception of articular cartilage. The bone-related causes of pain in OA include subchondral microfractures, bone stretching with elevation of the periosteum due to osteophyte growth, bone remodeling and repair, bone marrow lesions, and bone angina caused by decreased blood flow and increased intra-osseous pressure. Central factors alter pain processing by setting the gain in such a way that, when a peripheral input is present, it is processed against a background of central factors that can enhance or diminish the experience of pain. As a complex phenomenon with a strong subjective component, pain can also be influenced by the nature of the underlying disease, personal predisposition (biological and psychological, and environmental and psychosocial factors. This review examines the current literature regarding the sources and mechanisms of pain in OA.

  5. 76 FR 65653 - New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... current within their review cycle, there are also multiple standards in different phases of the review... Rock Plants NN 04/16/1982 (47FR16589) 10/17/2000 3 4 (65FR61760) Polymeric Coating of Supporting VVV 09... whether review of a particular NSPS is necessary during the review cycle. A listing of any NSPS for which...

  6. Behind Linus's Law: Investigating Peer Review Processes in Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Open source software has revolutionized the way people develop software, organize collaborative work, and innovate. The numerous open source software systems that have been created and adopted over the past decade are influential and vital in all aspects of work and daily life. The understanding of open source software development can enhance its…

  7. [Source monitoring: general presentation and review of literature in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferchiou, A; Schürhoff, F; Bulzacka, E; Mahbouli, M; Leboyer, M; Szöke, A

    2010-09-01

    SOURCE MONITORING FRAMEWORK: Source monitoring refers to the ability to remember the origin of information. Three source monitoring processes can be distinguished: external source monitoring, internal or self-monitoring and reality monitoring (i.e. discrimination between internal and external sources of information). Source monitoring decisions are based on memory characteristics recorded such as perceptions, contextual information or emotional reactions and heuristic or more controlled judgement processes. Several studies suggested that specific structures in the prefrontal and the mediotemporal lobes are the main areas implicated in source monitoring. A typical source monitoring paradigm includes an items generation stage and a second stage of recognition of items (old versus new) and identification of their sources: external (usually the examiner) or internal (the subject). Several indices can be calculated based on the raw data such as the number of false alarms, attribution biases or discrimination indexes. To date, there is no standardized source monitoring task and differences in the type of items used (words, pictures), in the cognitive or emotional effort involved or in the delay between the two test stages, contribute to the heterogeneity of results. Factors such as age (either very young or very old) and emotions influence source monitoring performances. Influence of gender was not properly explored, whereas the role of IQ and selective attention is still debated. Source monitoring deficits are observed mainly in disorders affecting frontotemporal areas, such as frontal trauma, Alzheimer's disease or frontotemporal dementia. Source monitoring errors (e.g. external misattribution of self-generated information) are observed in schizophrenia and seem to correlate with positive symptomatology, in particular auditory hallucinations, thought intrusion and alien control symptoms. These results are of particular interest in clinical research because source

  8. A Review on the Implementation of Nonlinear Source Emulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen-Duy, Khiem; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are playing an important role in industry as green sources of energy to reduce carbon dioxide emissions . They possess electrically non linear voltage - current characteristics. In the test and development of the downstream converters that utilize these renewable types of...

  9. Civil Society In Tanzania: An Analytical Review Of Sources Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty percent of civil societies deal with social development programmes. Additionally, results show that most civil societies had disproportionate staffing problems; and sixty six percent depended on international sources of funding while 46% reported that they secured funds from both local and foreign sources of financing.

  10. Review of power sources for Alaska DOT & PF road weather information systems (RWIS) : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report documents the findings related to a review of power sources for six off-grid Road Weather Information Systems (RWIS) in : Alaska. Various power sources were reviewed as a means of reliably operating the off-grid RWIS sites throughout the ...

  11. Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This publication presents an investigation on the influence of the design and technical features of sealed radioactive sources (SRSs) on predisposal and disposal activities when the sources become disused. The publication also addresses whether design modifications could contribute to safer and/or more efficient management of disused sources without compromising the benefits provided by the use of the sealed sources. This technical publication aims to collect information on the most typical design features and manufacturing techniques of sealed radioactive sources and examines how they affect the safe management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS). The publication also aims to assist source designers and manufacturers by discussing design features that are important from the waste management point of view. It has been identified that most SRS manufacturers use similar geometries and materials for their designs and apply improved and reliable manufacturing techniques e.g. double- encapsulation. These designs and manufacturing techniques have been proven over time to reduce contamination levels in fabrication and handling, and improve source integrity and longevity. The current source designs and materials ensure as well as possible that SRSs will maintain their integrity in use and when they become disused. No significant improvement options to current designs have been identified. However, some design considerations were identified as important to facilitate source retrieval, to increase the possibility of re-use and to ensure minimal contamination risk and radioactive waste generation at recycling. It was also concluded that legible identifying markings on a source are critical for DSRS management. The publication emphasizes the need for a common understanding of the radioactive source's recommended working life (RWL) for manufacturers and regulators. The conditions of use (COU) are important for the determination of RWL. A formal system for specification

  12. Open Source Software: critical review of scientific literature and other sources

    OpenAIRE

    Querol del Amo, Marc

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a survey of Open Source Licensing literature. It aims to assist the reader in choosing the best license for his/her business. For this reason, the content of this thesis can be divided into: (i) an open source licensing overview, (ii) the explication of the main features of the most popular open source licenses, (iii) the consequences of using one or another and (iv) the critical or controversial issues related to Open Source Licensing. Furthermore, at the ...

  13. Latest performance of ArF immersion scanner NSR-S630D for high-volume manufacturing for 7nm node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatsu, Takayuki; Uehara, Yusaku; Hikida, Yujiro; Hayakawa, Akira; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Hirayama, Toru; Kono, Hirotaka; Shirata, Yosuke; Shibazaki, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    In order to achieve stable operation in cutting-edge semiconductor manufacturing, Nikon has developed NSR-S630D with extremely accurate overlay while maintaining throughput in various conditions resembling a real production environment. In addition, NSR-S630D has been equipped with enhanced capabilities to maintain long-term overlay stability and user interface improvement all due to our newly developed application software platform. In this paper, we describe the most recent S630D performance in various conditions similar to real productions. In a production environment, superior overlay accuracy with high dose conditions and high throughput are often required; therefore, we have performed several experiments with high dose conditions to demonstrate NSR's thermal aberration capabilities in order to achieve world class overlay performance. Furthermore, we will introduce our new software that enables long term overlay performance.

  14. REVIEW: HOME AT THE SOURCE OF THREE RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Nyangchakja (Snying lcags rgyal སྙིང་ལྕགས་རྒྱལ། Niang Jijia 娘吉加

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Established in 2000, The Three Rivers Source National Nature Reserve (hereafter TRSNNR comprises 152,300 square kilometers of the general region of Three Rivers' Source, which encompasses 363,000 square kilometers in the south of Qinghai Province (SNNR 2018. "The Three Rivers" refer to the Yangtze (Changjiang, Yellow, and Lancang (Mekong. The region of the Three Rivers' Source, which has an area greater than that of Germany, has the country's highest altitude wetlands and supports globally important biodiversity. Known as "China's Water Tower," the area has key ecological value for China and our world. Global warming and glacial melting have direct impact on the wetlands, lakes, wildlife, and the entire ecosystem in the TRSNNR, which is China's second largest nature reserve. Rare wildlife protected in the nature reserve include snow leopards, Tibetan antelopes, wild yaks, wild ass, and black-necked cranes. .........

  15. A review of radio-frequency photocathode electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovall, J.

    1992-01-01

    A review of this topic at the last conference in this series reported considerable progress in R and D programs aimed at producing high-current low-emittance electron beams using photocathode rf guns. At present at least 20 such projects are under way world wide and at least 6 photoinjectors are presently in operation. This paper reviews some of the choices that must be made in optimizing the design of the accelerating structure for a photoinjector based on the current state of knowledge. (Author) 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Consumption and sources of added sugar in Indonesia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmarita; Imanningsih, Nelis; Jahari, Abas B; Permaesih, Ir Dewi; Chan, Pauline; Amarra, Maria Sofia

    2018-01-01

    The present report summarized the best available evidence regarding consumption level and sources of free or added sugars in Indonesia. Information was extracted from food balance sheets, household expenditure surveys, nutrition surveys, published studies, unpublished theses/ dissertations, and government reports. A total of 18 references were obtained, showing varying results. Indonesia's national surveys suggested intakes of sugar below 50 grams per day or below 10% of energy intake. Published studies suggested higher levels of intake. Studies used expenditure surveys or a single day of recall to determine dietary intake. None made use of biomarkers to determine the level of sugar intake. The 2014 Total Diet Study estimated that 11.8% of the population consumed >50 grams sugar per day. Common food sources were table sugar, wheat products, milk products, sweetened drinks, condiments, candies and chocolate products. Insufficient evidence exists regarding the levels and sources of added sugar intake of different population groups in Indonesia. A nationwide survey using multiple (at least two) 24-hour recalls to allow estimation of usual intake and to identify food sources, and the use of biomarkers to validate intake will provide more accurate information on which to base policy decisions.

  17. Pressure retarded osmosis from hypersaline sources - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajraktari, Niada; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Madsen, Henrik T.

    2017-01-01

    for commercialization. The scope of this paper is to review the existing knowledge on the use of hypersaline waters in the salinity gradient process, pressure retarded osmosis. Although only few papers have had the specific aim of investigating hypersaline waters, concentrated solutions have been used in many papers...

  18. Microbes as interesting source of novel insecticides: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... strains with good insecticidal properties can be identified, evaluated and utilized for pest control. This paper reviews the insecticidal properties of microbes and their potential utility in pest management. Keywords: Microbes, insecticides, metabolites, pest management. African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(26) 2582- ...

  19. The effects of online review message appeal and online review source across two product types on review credibility, product attitude, and purchase intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion; Avicenna, Fitria; De Vries, Sjoerd; Fui-Hoon, Fiona; Tan, Chuan-Hoo

    2017-01-01

    The study reported in this paper investigated the effects of online review message appeal and online review source type on review credibility perception, product attitude, and purchase intention across two types of products, namely technical and non-technical. A between-respondent 2 (message appeal:

  20. Biuret, a NPN source for ruminants -- a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, K K; Mudgal, V D [National Dairy Research Inst., Karnal (India)

    1980-06-01

    Biuret is a non toxic and palatable source of non protein nitrogen which is hydrolyzed slowly and has a slower solubility as compared to urea. It is hydrolyzed in rumen with the help of biuretase which is an induced enzyme, therefore animals require some time of adaptation before its proper utilization. Biuret is degraded into ammonia and urea which later on gets hydrolysed further into ammonia with the help of urease. The activity of urease might have been supressed in the rumen when the animals were fed on biuret supplemented diet. Biuret degradation into ammonia increases as the adaptation reaches. Biuret hydrolyzed slowly upto 24 hr of its feeding in adapted animals. For the best utilization of this NPN compound, the diet should contain low levels of natural protein and sufficient quantity of readily available source of energy and provide adequate essential minerals. Biuret can be successfully used for the maintenance and production ratio of the ruminants.

  1. Biuret, a NPN source for ruminants -- a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, K.K.; Mudgal, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    Biuret is a non toxic and palatable source of non protein nitrogen which is hydrolyzed slowly and has a slower solubility as compared to urea. It is hydrolyzed in rumen with the help of biuretase which is an induced enzyme, therefore animals require some time of adaptation before its proper utilization. Biuret is degraded into ammonia and urea which later on gets hydrolysed further into ammonia with the help of urease. The activity of urease might have been supressed in the rumen when the animals were fed on biuret supplemented diet. Biuret degradation into ammonia increases as the adaptation reaches. Biuret hydrolyzed slowly upto 24 hr of its feeding in adapted animals. For the best utilization of this NPN compound, the diet should contain low levels of natural protein and sufficient quantity of readily available source of energy and provide adequate essential minerals. Biuret can be successfully used for the maintenance and production ratio of the ruminants. (author)

  2. Insects - a natural nutrient source for poultry - a review

    OpenAIRE

    Józefiak, D; Josefiak, A; Kieronczyk, B; Rawski, M; Swiatkiewicz, S; Dlugosz, Jakub; Engberg, Ricarda Greuel

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of poultry meat and eggs is expected to increase considerably in the nearest future, which creates the demand for new poultry feed ingredients in order to support sustainable intensive production. Moreover, the constant improvement of the genetic potential of poultry has resulted in an increased nutrient density in poultry feeds, which limits the possibility to include low quality feed ingredients. Therefore, the feed industry needs new sources of highly digestible protein wit...

  3. Relativism in the Cloud: Cloud Sourcing in virtue of IS Development Outsourcing - A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Johansson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays Cloud Computing and Cloud Sourcing is on the agenda in many organizations. Many Chief Information Officers (CIOs that urge for alternatives to traditional outsourcing are interested in how they can take advantage from Cloud Computing, by sourcing Information Technology (IT from the cloud. This paper provides an overview of the research direction of Cloud Sourcing in the IS field. A literature review based on selected papers from top Information Systems (IS journals and conferences were conducted. Findings from the review indicate that the attention of Cloud Sourcing in IS literature has mainly been directed towards security and risk as well as adoption issues, and that Cloud Sourcing is claimed to be the next generation of outsourcing. Unfortunately, this is where this strong claim ends without any further evidence, which indicate that there is a need for more research on Cloud Sourcing, especially in the direction of investigating relationships and implications when organizations start using Cloud Sourcing.

  4. Review on open source operating systems for internet of things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengmin; Li, Wei; Dong, Huiliang

    2017-08-01

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an environment in which everywhere and every device became smart in a smart world. Internet of Things is growing vastly; it is an integrated system of uniquely identifiable communicating devices which exchange information in a connected network to provide extensive services. IoT devices have very limited memory, computational power, and power supply. Traditional operating systems (OS) have no way to meet the needs of IoT systems. In this paper, we thus analyze the challenges of IoT OS and survey applicable open source OSs.

  5. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qinhong; Weng Jianqing; Wang Jinsheng

    2010-01-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides 99 Tc and 129 I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides 99 Tc, 129 I, and 237 Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  6. Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H; Elleaume, Pascal; Weckert, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is having a very large impact on interdisciplinary science and has been tremendously successful with the arrival of third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. But the revolution in x-ray science is still gaining momentum. Even though new storage rings are currently under construction, even more advanced rings are under design (PETRA III and the ultra high energy x-ray source) and the uses of linacs (energy recovery linac, x-ray free electron laser) can take us further into the future, to provide the unique synchrotron light that is so highly prized for today's studies in science in such fields as materials science, physics, chemistry and biology, for example. All these machines are highly reliant upon the consequences of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The consequences of relativity account for the small opening angle of synchrotron radiation in the forward direction and the increasing mass an electron gains as it is accelerated to high energy. These are familiar results to every synchrotron scientist. In this paper we outline not only the origins of SR but discuss how Einstein's strong character and his intuition and excellence have not only marked the physics of the 20th century but provide the foundation for continuing accelerator developments into the 21st century

  7. Reinforced Concrete Buildings Following NSR-10 vs Quetame Earthquake Registered on Bogotá D.C. Edificios de concreto reforzado siguiendo la NSR-10 vs sismo de Quetame registrado en Bogotá D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D M Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional nonlinear dynamic analysis of 6 concrete reinforcedbuildings of 5, 12 and 20 stories, designed according to NSR-10 and seismicresponse zoning for Bogotá 2010 version is presented. These 6 buildings weresubjected to 78 seismic signals of the Quetame earthquake (2008 registeredin 26 stations of the Bogotá’s accelerometer array (RAB. “Piedmont-B” and“Lacustrine-500” absolute acceleration design response spectra from the seismic response zoning of Bogota (2010 were used to design buildings analyzed.Plastic hinges were defined and assigned to each of the structural elementsof the 6 buildings, and for columns the interaction diagrams were establishedtoo. With these nonlinear parameters, the 6 structures were subject simultaneously to the time history registers North-South, East-West and vertical.For each building and for each seismic register the performance levels, the interstory drifts, roof displacements and base shear demanded were determined.With this information seismic demand maps were plotted for Bogota for eachone of buildings. The results suggest that, buildings designed under the newrules to Bogotá and provisions of NSR-10, develop strong damage level, related to limit states, such as: “llife security” for low-magnitude quake, was theQuetame earthquake, so far, from the design scenario.Se presenta el análisis no lineal dinámico en tres direcciones de 6 edificiosde concreto reforzado de 5, 12 y 20 pisos, diseñados con la NSR-10 yla zonificación de respuesta sísmica de Bogotá del año 2010. Estos 6 edificios,con planta típica idéntica, fueron sometidos a 78 señales sísmicas del sismo deQuetame (año 2008 registradas por 26 estaciones de la red de acelerógrafosde Bogotá (RAB. Para el diseño de los edificios se utilizaron los espectros derespuesta de aceleración absoluta para las zonas: «Piedemonte-B» y «Lacustre-500» de la microzonificación sísmica de Bogotá. Posteriormente, se

  8. Carotenoids Functionality, Sources, and Processing by Supercritical Technology: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mezzomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid is a group of pigments naturally present in vegetal raw materials that have biological properties. These pigments have been used mainly in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Currently, the industrial production is executed through chemical synthesis, but natural alternatives of carotenoid production/attainment are in development. The carotenoid extraction occurs generally with vegetal oil and organic solvents, but supercritical technology is an alternative technique to the recovery of these compounds, presenting many advantages when compared to conventional process. Brazil has an ample diversity of vegetal sources inadequately investigated and, then, a major development of optimization and validation of carotenoid production/attainment methods is necessary, so that the benefits of these pigments can be delivered to the consumer.

  9. Licensing review process of the European Spallation Source (ESS) research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewitz, Erica

    2014-01-01

    On 3 January 2012 a license application under the Radiation Protection Act (SFS, 1988b) for the European Spallation Source research facility was submitted to the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority. The European Spallation Source research facility will be the site of a new and quite unusual kind of neutron source, based on a large proton accelerator that bombards a heavy material with protons. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority is now reviewing the application. (authors)

  10. Project to Increase 777 Airplane Production at Boeing Everett

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database.

  11. Use of information sources by cancer patients: results of a systematic review of the research literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyani Ankem

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Existing findings on cancer patients' use of information sources were synthesized to 1 rank the most and least used information sources and the most helpful information sources and to 2 find the impact of patient demographics and situations on use of information sources. Method. . To synthesize results found across studies, a systematic review was conducted. Medline and CINAHL were searched to retrieve literature on cancer patients' information source use. The retrieved articles were carefully selected according to predetermined criteria, and several articles were eliminated in a systematic approach. Analysis. The twelve articles that met the criteria were systematically analysed by extracting data from articles and summarizing data for the purpose of synthesis to determine the meaning of findings on most used information sources, least used information sources, most helpful information sources, effect of patient characteristics on preference for an information source, and effect of patient situations on preference for an information source. Results. In descending order of use, health care professionals, medical pamphlets, and family and friends were most used information sources. Internet and support groups were least used. In descending order of helpfulness, books, health care professionals and medical pamphlets were found to be most helpful information sources. Younger patients used health care professionals and certain forms of written information sources more than older patients. Conclusion. . The systematic review shows that many areas of cancer patients' information source use have been either neglected or barely analysed. An in-depth understanding of cancer patients' use of information sources and the characteristics in information sources they consider to be helpful is important for developing successful interventions to better inform patients.

  12. Sources of human non-typhoid salmonellosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a worldwide disease caused by bacteria of the genus Salmonella. Currently, there are over 2,500 identified serovars of Salmonella. A reduced number of these serovars, about eighty, are implicated in most animals and human diseases. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with the consumption of contaminated food products such as beef, pork, poultry meat, eggs, vegetables, juices and other kind of foods. It may also be associated with the contact between humans and infected pet animals. Therefore, the chain of human salmonellosis is very complex and in most cases the origin of the infection is difficult to establish. The use of antimicrobial agents to treat and to prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals, as well as as growth promoters in animal production, has favoured the selection and transference of resistance genes between different bacteria, including Salmonella serovars. Many studies have confirmed the role of foods of animal origin as a source of multi drugresistant Salmonella serovars. For this reason, continuous surveillance of these pathogens along the food chain together with the responsible use of antimicrobial agents is necessary.

  13. Cryogenic technology review of cold neutron source facility for localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Cheol; Park, D. S.; Moon, H. M.; Soon, Y. P. [Daesung Cryogenic Research Institute, Ansan (Korea); Kim, J. H. [United Pacific Technology, Inc., Ansan (Korea)

    1998-02-01

    This Research is performed to localize the cold neutron source(CNS) facility in HANARO and the report consists of two parts. In PART I, the local and foreign technology for CNS facility is investigated and examined. In PART II, safety and licensing are investigated. CNS facility consists of cryogenic and warm part. Cryogenic part includes a helium refrigerator, vacuum insulated pipes, condenser, cryogenic fluid tube and moderator cell. Warm part includes moderator gas control, vacuum equipment, process monitoring system. Warm part is at high level as a result of the development of semiconductor industries and can be localized. However, even though cryogenic technology is expected to play a important role in developing the 21st century's cutting technology, it lacks of specialists and the research facility since the domestic market is small and the research institutes and government do not recognize the importance. Therefore, it takes a long research time in order to localize the facility. The safety standard of reactor for hydrogen gas in domestic nuclear power regulations is compared with that of the foreign countries, and the licensing method for installation of CNS facility is examined. The system failure and its influence are also analyzed. 23 refs., 59 figs., 26 tabs. (Author)

  14. Mortality, morbidity and health in developed societies: a review of data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunsch, Guillaume; Gourbin, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the major sources of data on mortality, morbidity and health in Europe and in other developed regions in order to examine their potential for analysing mortality and morbidity levels and trends. The review is primarily focused on routinely collected information covering a whole country. No attempt is made to draw up an inventory of sources by country; the paper deals instead with the pros and cons of each source for mortality and morbidity studies in demography. While each source considered separately can already yield useful, though partial, results, record linkage among data sources can significantly improve the analysis. Record linkage can also lead to the detection of possible causal associations that could eventually be confirmed. More generally, Big Data can reveal changing mortality and morbidity trends and patterns that could lead to preventive measures being taken rather than more costly curative ones.

  15. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission's policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission's regulations and compliance with them is not required

  16. Standard review plan for applications for sealed source and device evaluations and registrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the reviewer of a request for a sealed source or device safety evaluation with the information and materials necessary to make a determination that the product is acceptable for licensing purposes. It provides the reviewer with a listing of the applicable regulations and industry standards, policies affecting evaluation and registration, certain administrative procedures to be followed, and information on how to perform the evaluation and write the registration certificate. Standard review plans are prepared for the guidance of the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards staff responsible for the review of a sealed source or device application. This document is made available to the public as part of the Commission`s policy to inform the nuclear industry and the general public of regulatory procedures and policies. Standard review plans are not substitutes for regulatory guides or the Commission`s regulations and compliance with them is not required.

  17. The French Experience Regarding Peer Reviews to Improve the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, J.-L.; Bélot, G.

    2015-01-01

    France has a 50 year history of control over radioactive sources. Convinced that peer reviews may be helpful to improve any regulatory system, France decided to experience a ‘full scope’ Integrated Regulatory Review Service mission in 2006 and its follow-up mission in 2009, including a review of the implementation of the Code of Conduct. The reviews, interviews and observations performed during these missions enabled the experts to have a thorough knowledge of the French system and to highlight its strengths and ways for improvements. Following these reviews, France decided to rely on its good practices, extend them as much as possible and to define, implement and address an action plan to improve its regulatory control over radioactive sources, while maintaining the prime responsibility on the operators. While good practices in the tracking of sources were maintained and slight evolutions were conducted in the safety regulations, licensing process, and inspection and enforcement actions, the major outcome of these reviews will obviously consist of the entrustment of the French Nuclear Safety Authority with the role of the regulatory authority for the security of radioactive sources and the implementation of dedicated provisions. (author)

  18. The Influence of Peer Reviews on Source Credibility and Purchase Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine L. Nowak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM is information shared on the Internet about a product, which allows people to receive information from others they may not otherwise encounter. Online product reviews are a type of eWOM where a user posts a comment about a product and selects an image to represent the self. The perception of the image and the text in the product review can influence source credibility and the perception of the product, as well as the likelihood that someone will purchase the product. This study examines the effect of the product reviews and their different images and text on perceived credibility, source trustworthiness and purchase intention. Consistent with predictions based on the information processing theory, perceived anthropomorphism influences perceived credibility, source trust, and purchase intention.

  19. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Aminpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  20. Utilization of open source electronic health record around the world: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahamdi, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Many projects on developing Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems have been carried out in many countries. The current study was conducted to review the published data on the utilization of open source EHR systems in different countries all over the world. Using free text and keyword search techniques, six bibliographic databases were searched for related articles. The identified papers were screened and reviewed during a string of stages for the irrelevancy and validity. The findings showed that open source EHRs have been wildly used by source limited regions in all continents, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. It would create opportunities to improve national healthcare level especially in developing countries with minimal financial resources. Open source technology is a solution to overcome the problems of high-costs and inflexibility associated with the proprietary health information systems.

  1. Energy sources for gynecologic laparoscopic surgery: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kenneth S K; Abbott, Jason A; Lyons, Stephen D

    2014-12-01

    A range of energy sources are used in gynecologic laparoscopy. These energy sources include monopolar electrosurgery, bipolar electrosurgery (including "advanced bipolar" devices that incorporate tissue feedback monitoring), and various types of laser and ultrasonic technologies. Gynecologists using these tools should be aware of the potential benefits and potential dangers of these instruments. This review provides an overview of the biophysics of these energy sources, their tissue effects, and the complications that may arise. It aims to highlight any potential advantages or disadvantages of various energy sources, as reported by clinical and laboratory studies. Literature relating to energy sources used in gynecologic laparoscopy was reviewed. While laboratory-based studies have reported differences between various energy sources, these differences may not be clinically significant. The choice of instrumentation may depend on the nature of the surgical task being performed, but other factors, such as the surgeon's training/experience, cost, and industry marketing, may also influence the decision. TAn awareness of the pros and cons of each energy modality and their relative efficacy profiles is paramount. It is important that surgeons have an understanding of the biophysics of these technologies in order to understand their limitations and potential dangers and to utilize the most appropriate energy source(s) in the appropriate clinical setting, in order to both minimize the risk of inadvertent injuries during gynecologic laparoscopy and to maximize cost-efficient delivery of health care.

  2. A review of the applications to solids of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzemius, R.J.; Capellen, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The review is intended to provide a panoramic view of the broadening applications of the laser ion source in mass spectrometry. In these applications a laser beam has been used to excite a solid specimen to the ionized state or to the vaporized state in the ion source of a mass spectrometer. The review is divided into two main sections: Analytical features and applications. The analytical features section has been subdivided into five areas: Detection sensitivity, ionisation efficiency, collection efficiency, quantification, and crater-depth analysis. Applications have been separated into ten different areas: Biological, carbon, fossil fuels, gaseous impurities, geological, inorganics, isotopic analysis, metals, organics and polymers. (EBE)

  3. Trustworthiness of product review blogs:a source trustworthiness scale validation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi; Steyn, Peter; van Heerden, Gene

    2012-01-01

    With the introduction of Web 2.0, online blogging has established its place in the lexicon of public relations management. Especially blogs that offer reviews of products, services and technologies, have become essential to practitioners of public relations in their dialogue with the market place. From a public relations perspective, this paper addresses the source trustworthiness of product review blogs among online consumers, and whether consumer demographics have a significant impact on th...

  4. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater : a review of sources, fate and occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram...

  5. Reporting of sources of funding in systematic reviews in periodontology and implant dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggion, C M; Atieh, M; Zanicotti, D G

    2014-02-01

    Industry-supported clinical trials may present better outcomes than those supported by other sources. The aim of this paper was to assess whether systematic reviews (SRs) published in periodontology and implant dentistry report and discuss the influence of funding sources on study results. Two reviewers conducted a comprehensive search in PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews independently and in duplicate to identify SRs published up to 11 November 2012. Speciality dental journals and the reference lists of included SRs were also scrutinised. Information on the reporting and discussion of funding sources of primary studies included in the SRs was extracted independently and in duplicate. Any disagreement regarding SR selection or data extraction was discussed until consensus was achieved. Of 146 SRs included in the assessment, only 45 (31%) reported the funding sources of primary studies. Fourteen (10%) SRs discussed the potential influence of funding sources on study results, that is, sponsorship bias. Funding sources are inadequately reported and discussed in SRs in periodontology and implant dentistry. Assessment, reporting, and critical appraisal of potential sponsorship bias of meta-analytic estimates are paramount to provide proper guidance for clinical treatments.

  6. Radiation sources in the EU. A review of steps in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciani, V.

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the role and activities of the European Union concerning safety of radiation sources. A brief presentation is given of the results from a recent study of the management of radiation sources in EU Member Sates. A Number of legal texts which apply to radiation sources are cited as well. In 1998, the EC co-sponsored together with the IAEA, the International Criminal Police Organization and the World Customs Organization, a Conference on the safety of radiation Sources and the Security of Radioactive Materials in France. Commission supports follow-up actions to that Conference and welcomes the IAEA initiative to develop an action plan that would address the international dimensions of the safety of radiation sources

  7. Common characteristics of open source software development and applicability for drug discovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardal, Christine; Alstadsæter, Annette; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2011-09-28

    Innovation through an open source model has proven to be successful for software development. This success has led many to speculate if open source can be applied to other industries with similar success. We attempt to provide an understanding of open source software development characteristics for researchers, business leaders and government officials who may be interested in utilizing open source innovation in other contexts and with an emphasis on drug discovery. A systematic review was performed by searching relevant, multidisciplinary databases to extract empirical research regarding the common characteristics and barriers of initiating and maintaining an open source software development project. Common characteristics to open source software development pertinent to open source drug discovery were extracted. The characteristics were then grouped into the areas of participant attraction, management of volunteers, control mechanisms, legal framework and physical constraints. Lastly, their applicability to drug discovery was examined. We believe that the open source model is viable for drug discovery, although it is unlikely that it will exactly follow the form used in software development. Hybrids will likely develop that suit the unique characteristics of drug discovery. We suggest potential motivations for organizations to join an open source drug discovery project. We also examine specific differences between software and medicines, specifically how the need for laboratories and physical goods will impact the model as well as the effect of patents.

  8. 75 FR 16461 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Committee Act, Public Law 92- 463, notice is hereby given that the Mobile Sources Technical Review... Hotel Crystal City-National Airport, 300 Army Navy Drive, Arlington, VA 22202-2891. Phone 703-416-4100. The hotel is located three blocks from the Pentagon City Metro station, and shuttle buses are...

  9. 77 FR 24148 - Revision to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan, Minor New Source Review Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R09-OAR-2012-0213; FRL-9661-6] Revision to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan, Minor New Source Review Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... final action to approve revisions to the Hawaii State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions would...

  10. International Test Comparisons: Reviewing Translation Error in Different Source Language-Target Language Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueyu; Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Qian, Ming

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language-target language combinations in the translation of PISA (Programme of International…

  11. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  12. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  13. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  14. Review of the accident source terms for aluminide fuel: Application to the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joppen, F.

    2005-01-01

    A major safety review of the BR2, a material test reactor, is to be conducted for the year 2006. One of the subjects selected for the safety review is the definition of source terms for emergency planning and in particular the development of accident scenarios. For nuclear power plants the behaviour of fuel under accident conditions is a well studied object. In case of non-power reactors this basic knowledge is rather scarce. The usefulness of information from power plant fuels is limited due to the differences in fuel type, power level and thermohydraulical conditions. First investigation indicates that using data from power plant fuel leads to an overestimation of the source terms. Further research on this subject could be very useful for the research reactor community, in order to define more realistic source terms and to improve the emergency preparedness. (author)

  15. Re-evaluating journalistic routines in a digital age: A review of research on the use of online sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.; Kruikemeier, S.

    This review article provides a critical discussion of empirical studies that deal with the use of online news sources in journalism. We evaluate how online sources have changed the journalist–source relationship regarding selection of sources as well as verification strategies. We also discuss how

  16. Active pipe-embedded structures in buildings for utilizing low-grade energy sources: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xinhua; Wang, Jinbo; Wang, Shengwei; Xiao, Fu

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade energy sources such as geothermal energy, favorable ambient air and industrial waste heat etc. exist widely. Sufficient utilization of these low-grade energy sources may reduce our daily dependence on high-grade energy sources such as electricity resulting in reduced emission of green house gas for environmental conservation. Active pipe-embedded structure as floor/ceiling usually with water as the medium to carry heat or coolth may utilize these low-grade energy sources for providing space air-conditioning. Compact arrangement of pipes in the structure may significantly enlarge heat transfer surface between the slab mass and water in the pipe allowing substantial heat flows even for relatively small temperature differences. Application of the heat or coolth storage capacity of this structure for preheating or pre-cooling is also one among the advantages of this structure for shifting load and exploiting the nighttime cheap electricity tariff in some regions. This paper presents the technology of the active pipe-embedded structure for utilizing widely existing low-grade energy sources following by a comprehensive review on the heat transfer calculation models of this structure and its practical applications in real building systems for space air-conditioning. This review shows that more works on the active structure, especially simple and transient models for dynamic and accurate performance prediction and easy integration with existing building energy simulation packages, are worthwhile for further promoting the practical application wherever the low-grade energy sources are favorable. (author)

  17. A Systematic Review of Techniques and Sources of Big Data in the Healthcare Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Susel Góngora; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Hamrioui, Sofiane; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-10-14

    The main objective of this paper is to present a review of existing researches in the literature, referring to Big Data sources and techniques in health sector and to identify which of these techniques are the most used in the prediction of chronic diseases. Academic databases and systems such as IEEE Xplore, Scopus, PubMed and Science Direct were searched, considering the date of publication from 2006 until the present time. Several search criteria were established as 'techniques' OR 'sources' AND 'Big Data' AND 'medicine' OR 'health', 'techniques' AND 'Big Data' AND 'chronic diseases', etc. Selecting the paper considered of interest regarding the description of the techniques and sources of Big Data in healthcare. It found a total of 110 articles on techniques and sources of Big Data on health from which only 32 have been identified as relevant work. Many of the articles show the platforms of Big Data, sources, databases used and identify the techniques most used in the prediction of chronic diseases. From the review of the analyzed research articles, it can be noticed that the sources and techniques of Big Data used in the health sector represent a relevant factor in terms of effectiveness, since it allows the application of predictive analysis techniques in tasks such as: identification of patients at risk of reentry or prevention of hospital or chronic diseases infections, obtaining predictive models of quality.

  18. Systematic Review: Impact of point sources on antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I; Williams-Nguyen, J; Hwang, H; Sargeant, J M; Nault, A J; Singer, R S

    2018-02-01

    Point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and agricultural facilities may have a role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). To analyse the evidence for increases in ARB in the natural environment associated with these point sources of ARB and ARG, we conducted a systematic review. We evaluated 5,247 records retrieved through database searches, including both studies that ascertained ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were subjected to a screening process to assess relevance to the question and methodology to address our review question. A risk of bias assessment was conducted upon the final pool of studies included in the review. This article summarizes the evidence only for those studies with ARB outcomes (n = 47). Thirty-five studies were at high (n = 11) or at unclear (n = 24) risk of bias in the estimation of source effects due to lack of information and/or failure to control for confounders. Statistical analysis was used in ten studies, of which one assessed the effect of multiple sources using modelling approaches; none reported effect measures. Most studies reported higher ARB prevalence or concentration downstream/near the source. However, this evidence was primarily descriptive and it could not be concluded that there is a clear impact of point sources on increases in ARB in the environment. To quantify increases in ARB in the environment due to specific point sources, there is a need for studies that stress study design, control of biases and analytical tools to provide effect measure estimates. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  20. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  1. Source modelling of train noise - Literature review and some initial measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xuetao; Jonasson, Hans; Holmberg, Kjell

    2000-07-01

    A literature review of source modelling of railway noise is reported. Measurements on a special test rig at Surahammar and on the new railway line between Arlanda and Stockholm City are reported and analyzed. In the analysis the train is modelled as a number of point sources with or without directivity and each source is combined with analytical sound propagation theory to predict the sound propagation pattern best fitting the measured data. Wheel/rail rolling noise is considered to be the most important noise source. The rolling noise can be modelled as an array of moving point sources, which have a dipole-like horizontal directivity and some kind of vertical directivity. In general it is necessary to distribute the point sources on several heights. Based on our model analysis the source heights for the rolling noise should be below the wheel axles and the most important height is about a quarter of wheel diameter above the railheads. When train speeds are greater than 250 km/h aerodynamic noise will become important and even dominant. It may be important for low frequency components only if the train speed is less than 220 km/h. Little data are available for these cases. It is believed that aerodynamic noise has dipole-like directivity. Its spectrum depends on many factors: speed, railway system, type of train, bogies, wheels, pantograph, presence of barriers and even weather conditions. Other sources such as fans, engine, transmission and carriage bodies are at most second order noise sources, but for trains with a diesel locomotive engine the engine noise will be dominant if train speeds are less than about 100 km/h. The Nord 2000 comprehensive model for sound propagation outdoors, together with the source model that is based on the understandings above, can suitably handle the problems of railway noise propagation in one-third octave bands although there are still problems left to be solved.

  2. Review of radionuclide source terms used for performance-assessment analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.

    1993-06-01

    Two aspects of the radionuclide source terms used for total-system performance assessment (TSPA) analyses have been reviewed. First, a detailed radionuclide inventory (i.e., one in which the reactor type, decay, and burnup are specified) is compared with the standard source-term inventory used in prior analyses. The latter assumes a fixed ratio of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) to boiling-water reactor (BWR) spent fuel, at specific amounts of burnup and at 10-year decay. TSPA analyses have been used to compare the simplified source term with the detailed one. The TSPA-91 analyses did not show a significant difference between the source terms. Second, the radionuclides used in source terms for TSPA aqueous-transport analyses have been reviewed to select ones that are representative of the entire inventory. It is recommended that two actinide decay chains be included (the 4n+2 ''uranium'' and 4n+3 ''actinium'' decay series), since these include several radionuclides that have potentially important release and dose characteristics. In addition, several fission products are recommended for the same reason. The choice of radionuclides should be influenced by other parameter assumptions, such as the solubility and retardation of the radionuclides

  3. The Influence of Peer Reviews on Source Credibility and Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Kristine; McGloin, Rory

    2014-01-01

    Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) is information shared on the Internet about a product, which allows people to receive information from others they may not otherwise encounter. Online product reviews are a type of eWOM where a user posts a comment about a product and selects an image to represent the self. The perception of the image and the text in the product review can influence source credibility and the perception of the product, as well as the likelihood that someone will purchase the pr...

  4. Systematic overview finds variation in approaches to investigating and reporting on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naaktgeboren, Christiana A.; van Enst, Wynanda A.; Ochodo, Eleanor A.; de Groot, Joris A. H.; Hooft, Lotty; Leeflang, Mariska M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Moons, Karel G. M.; Reitsma, Johannes B.

    2014-01-01

    To examine how authors explore and report on sources of heterogeneity in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. A cohort of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests was systematically identified. Data were extracted on whether an exploration of the sources of heterogeneity was undertaken,

  5. 40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part. [70 FR...

  6. Review of vacuum systems for x-ray lithography light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuchman, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will review and give a status report on vacuum systems for X-Ray lithography light sources. It will include conventional machines and compact machines (machines using superconducting magnets). The vacuum systems will be described and compared with regard to basic machine parameters, pumping systems, types of pumps, chamber design and material, gauging and diagnostics, and machine performane. 23 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J. Wanders

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En% across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries.

  8. Trans Fat Intake and Its Dietary Sources in General Populations Worldwide: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, Anne J.; Zock, Peter L.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.

    2017-01-01

    After the discovery that trans fat increases the risk of coronary heart disease, trans fat content of foods have considerably changed. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data on intakes of trans fat and its dietary sources in general populations worldwide. Data from national dietary surveys and population studies published from 1995 onward were searched via Scopus and websites of national public health institutes. Relevant data from 29 countries were identified. The most up to date estimates of total trans fat intake ranged from 0.3 to 4.2 percent of total energy intake (En%) across countries. Seven countries had trans fat intakes higher than the World Health Organization recommendation of 1 En%. In 16 out of 21 countries with data on dietary sources, intakes of trans fat from animal sources were higher than that from industrial sources. Time trend data from 20 countries showed substantial declines in industrial trans fat intake since 1995. In conclusion, nowadays, in the majority of countries for which data are available, average trans fat intake is lower than the recommended maximum intake of 1 En%, with intakes from animal sources being higher than from industrial sources. In the past 20 years, substantial reductions in industrial trans fat have been achieved in many countries. PMID:28783062

  9. Free/Libre open source software in health care: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karopka, Thomas; Schmuhl, Holger; Demski, Hans

    2014-01-01

    To assess the current state of the art and the contribution of Free/Libre Open Source Software in health care (FLOSS-HC). The review is based on a narrative review of the scientific literature as well as sources in the context of FLOSS-HC available through the Internet. All relevant available sources have been integrated into the MedFLOSS database and are freely available to the community. The literature review reveals that publications about FLOSS-HC are scarce. The largest part of information about FLOSS-HC is available on dedicated websites and not in the academic literature. There are currently FLOSS alternatives available for nearly every specialty in health care. Maturity and quality varies considerably and there is little information available on the percentage of systems that are actually used in health care delivery. The global impact of FLOSS-HC is still very limited and no figures on the penetration and usage of FLOSS-HC are available. However, there has been a considerable growth in the last 5 to 10 years. While there where only few systems available a decade ago, in the meantime many systems got available (e.g., more than 300 in the MedFLOSS database). While FLOSS concepts play an important role in most IT related sectors (e.g., telecommunications, embedded devices) the healthcare industry is lagging behind this trend.

  10. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry as a tool for source inference in forensic science: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Natacha; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Esseiva, Pierre; Doyle, Sean; Zollinger, Kurt; Delémont, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) has been used in numerous fields of forensic science in a source inference perspective. This review compiles the studies published on the application of isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to the traditional fields of forensic science so far. It completes the review of Benson et al. [1] and synthesises the extent of knowledge already gathered in the following fields: illicit drugs, flammable liquids, human provenancing, microtraces, explosives and other specific materials (packaging tapes, safety matches, plastics, etc.). For each field, a discussion assesses the state of science and highlights the relevance of the information in a forensic context. Through the different discussions which mark out the review, the potential and limitations of IRMS, as well as the needs and challenges of future studies are emphasized. The paper elicits the various dimensions of the source which can be obtained from the isotope information and demonstrates the transversal nature of IRMS as a tool for source inference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Free/Libre Open Source Software in Health Care: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuhl, Holger; Demski, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the current state of the art and the contribution of Free/Libre Open Source Software in health care (FLOSS-HC). Methods The review is based on a narrative review of the scientific literature as well as sources in the context of FLOSS-HC available through the Internet. All relevant available sources have been integrated into the MedFLOSS database and are freely available to the community. Results The literature review reveals that publications about FLOSS-HC are scarce. The largest part of information about FLOSS-HC is available on dedicated websites and not in the academic literature. There are currently FLOSS alternatives available for nearly every specialty in health care. Maturity and quality varies considerably and there is little information available on the percentage of systems that are actually used in health care delivery. Conclusions The global impact of FLOSS-HC is still very limited and no figures on the penetration and usage of FLOSS-HC are available. However, there has been a considerable growth in the last 5 to 10 years. While there where only few systems available a decade ago, in the meantime many systems got available (e.g., more than 300 in the MedFLOSS database). While FLOSS concepts play an important role in most IT related sectors (e.g., telecommunications, embedded devices) the healthcare industry is lagging behind this trend. PMID:24627814

  12. Plastic waste in the marine environment: A review of sources, occurrence and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F; Fok, L

    2016-10-01

    This review article summarises the sources, occurrence, fate and effects of plastic waste in the marine environment. Due to its resistance to degradation, most plastic debris will persist in the environment for centuries and may be transported far from its source, including great distances out to sea. Land- and ocean-based sources are the major sources of plastic entering the environment, with domestic, industrial and fishing activities being the most important contributors. Ocean gyres are particular hotspots of plastic waste accumulation. Both macroplastics and microplastics pose a risk to organisms in the natural environment, for example, through ingestion or entanglement in the plastic. Many studies have investigated the potential uptake of hydrophobic contaminants, which can then bioaccumulate in the food chain, from plastic waste by organisms. To address the issue of plastic pollution in the marine environment, governments should first play an active role in addressing the issue of plastic waste by introducing legislation to control the sources of plastic debris and the use of plastic additives. In addition, plastics industries should take responsibility for the end-of-life of their products by introducing plastic recycling or upgrading programmes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Journal of Open Source Software (JOSS: design and first-year review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfon M. Smith

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the motivation, design, and progress of the Journal of Open Source Software (JOSS. JOSS is a free and open-access journal that publishes articles describing research software. It has the dual goals of improving the quality of the software submitted and providing a mechanism for research software developers to receive credit. While designed to work within the current merit system of science, JOSS addresses the dearth of rewards for key contributions to science made in the form of software. JOSS publishes articles that encapsulate scholarship contained in the software itself, and its rigorous peer review targets the software components: functionality, documentation, tests, continuous integration, and the license. A JOSS article contains an abstract describing the purpose and functionality of the software, references, and a link to the software archive. The article is the entry point of a JOSS submission, which encompasses the full set of software artifacts. Submission and review proceed in the open, on GitHub. Editors, reviewers, and authors work collaboratively and openly. Unlike other journals, JOSS does not reject articles requiring major revision; while not yet accepted, articles remain visible and under review until the authors make adequate changes (or withdraw, if unable to meet requirements. Once an article is accepted, JOSS gives it a digital object identifier (DOI, deposits its metadata in Crossref, and the article can begin collecting citations on indexers like Google Scholar and other services. Authors retain copyright of their JOSS article, releasing it under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. In its first year, starting in May 2016, JOSS published 111 articles, with more than 40 additional articles under review. JOSS is a sponsored project of the nonprofit organization NumFOCUS and is an affiliate of the Open Source Initiative (OSI.

  14. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  15. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  16. Application of large radiation sources in Asia and the Pacific - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iya, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of the applications of large radiation sources on industrial scale in the countries of Asia and the Pacific Region has been reviewed. The present R and D programmes and the major centres engaged in these programmes are described. So far as commercialization is considered, radiation processing industry is now well established in Japan, Australia, India and Israel. The major industrial uses of large radiation sources have been for : (1) sterilization of medical products, (2) food preservation, (3) cross-linking of polyethylene and (4) production of composite materials from polymer and wood or bamboo or bagasse. A table is given which indicates the current status of clearance of irradiated food in the countries under consideration. Finally, technological requirements in these countries for development and application of radiation processing are spelled out and discussed. (M.G.B.)

  17. Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Sui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs in the aquatic environment may pose potential threat to the ecosystem and human health, hence PPCPs have aroused much concern over the world. The contamination of PPCPs in the groundwater, the main source of drinking water supply in many countries and regions, has been extensively studied in the last decade. This paper reviews the occurrence of frequently detected PPCPs, including antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, lipid-regulators, carbamazepine, caffeine, and N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide in groundwater, with special concern to the progress made over the past three years. Possible emission sources for PPCPs in groundwater, such as wastewater and contaminated surface water, landfills, septic systems, livestock breeding and sewer leakage, are summarized. Besides, adsorption, migration and degradation, the dominant mechanisms in the subsurface transport and fate of PPCPs, are discussed, and the insights into the future study of PPCPs in the groundwater are provided.

  18. A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.O.; Field, R.A.; Goldstone, M.E.; Kirk, P.W.; Lester, J.N.; Perry, R.

    1991-01-01

    A review has been written to assess the sources, fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmosphere. PAH are formed mainly by anthropogenic processes, especially the combustion of organic fuels. PAH concentration in air will reflect the location of source emitters, with high concentrations corresponding with urban and industrial areas. PAH are however ubiquitous contaminants of the environment having been detected in remote areas of the world. This is thought to be due to long term transport in the atmosphere. PAH can also be subjected to chemical and/or photochemical change whilst resident in the atmosphere prior to their removal by either wet or dry deposition. 146 refs., 5 tabs

  19. Transformation of toxic potential of Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot into protein source: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of animal largely depends on supplying of quality feed and proteinaceous supplement to the animals. Jatropha plant can grow in the barren lands, and are used as a source of biodiesel. Besides, the plant may act as a rich proteinaceous source. However, the antinutritional factors present in the seed and seed oil of the plant may hamper the availability and beneficial use of the plant. Curcin and phorbol esters are the major toxic compounds present in the plant; these toxic compounds cause to produce liver and kidney diseases. Detoxification of these toxic compounds by physical and chemical means converting to less toxic seed cake may serve the purpose of using this plant in future as a replacement of costly protein supplement for animals. Therefore, in modern world, it is recommended to utilize the protein source by neutralizing the antinutritional factors. This mini-review describes the updates on how J. curcas can be utilized as a supplementary source of protein for animals by decreasing its toxicity.

  20. Neutron spectra and dosimetric features of isotopic neutron sources: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Martinez O, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    A convenient way to produce neutrons is the isotopic neutron source, where the production is through (α, n), (γ, n), and spontaneous fission reactions. Isotopic neutron sources are small, easy to handle, and have a relative low cost. On the other hand the neutron yield is small and mostly of them produces neutrons with a wide energy distribution. In this work, a review is carried out about the the main features of 24 NaBe, 24 NaD 2 O, 116 InBe, 140 LaBe, 238 PuLi, 239 PuBe, 241 AmB, 241 AmBe, 241 AmF, 241 AmLi, 242 CmBe, 210 PoBe, 226 RaBe, 252 Cf and 252 Cf/D 2 O isotopic neutron source. Also, using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra in 31 energy groups, the neutron mean energy; the Ambient dose equivalent, the Personal dose equivalent and the Effective dose were calculated for these isotopic neutron sources. (Author)

  1. Neutron spectra and dosimetric features of isotopic neutron sources: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte 39-115, 150003 Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia)

    2015-10-15

    A convenient way to produce neutrons is the isotopic neutron source, where the production is through (α, n), (γ, n), and spontaneous fission reactions. Isotopic neutron sources are small, easy to handle, and have a relative low cost. On the other hand the neutron yield is small and mostly of them produces neutrons with a wide energy distribution. In this work, a review is carried out about the the main features of {sup 24}NaBe, {sup 24}NaD{sub 2}O, {sup 116}InBe, {sup 140}LaBe, {sup 238}PuLi, {sup 239}PuBe, {sup 241}AmB, {sup 241}AmBe, {sup 241}AmF, {sup 241}AmLi, {sup 242}CmBe, {sup 210}PoBe, {sup 226}RaBe, {sup 252}Cf and {sup 252}Cf/D{sub 2}O isotopic neutron source. Also, using Monte Carlo methods, the neutron spectra in 31 energy groups, the neutron mean energy; the Ambient dose equivalent, the Personal dose equivalent and the Effective dose were calculated for these isotopic neutron sources. (Author)

  2. [Sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing-Kun; Deng, Jian-Guo; Li, Zhen; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2014-05-01

    The new China national ambient air quality standard has been published in 2012 and will be implemented in 2016. To meet the requirements in this new standard, monitoring and controlling PM2,,5 emission from stationary sources are very important. However, so far there is no national standard method on sampling PM2.5 from stationary sources. Different sampling methods for PM2.5 from stationary sources and relevant international standards were reviewed in this study. It includes the methods for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas and the methods for PM2.5 sampling after dilution. Both advantages and disadvantages of these sampling methods were discussed. For environmental management, the method for PM2.5 sampling in flue gas such as impactor and virtual impactor was suggested as a standard to determine filterable PM2.5. To evaluate environmental and health effects of PM2.5 from stationary sources, standard dilution method for sampling of total PM2.5 should be established.

  3. Aspidosperma species as sources of antimalarials. Part III. A review of traditional use and antimalarial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Renata Cristina; Dolabela, Maria Fâni; de Oliveira, Alaíde Braga

    2014-03-01

    Several plant species belonging to the genus Aspidosperma are traditionally used in Brazil and other Meso- and South American countries for the treatment of malaria and fevers. These traditional uses were motivation for this review. A literature survey completed for this review has identified scientific bibliographical references to the use of 24 Aspidosperma species to treat malaria/fevers and to 19 species that have had their extracts and/or alkaloids evaluated, with good results, for in vitro and/or in vivo antimalarial activity. Indole alkaloids are typical constituents of Aspidosperma species. However, only 20 out of more than 200 known indole alkaloids isolated from this genus have been assayed for antimalarial activity. These data support the potential of Aspidosperma species as sources of antimalarials and the importance of research aimed at validating their use in the treatment of human malaria. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Literature Review: Weldability of Iridium DOP-26 Alloy for General Purpose Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    The basic purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review relative to fabrication of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) that is used to provide electrical power for deep space missions of NASA. The particular fabrication operation to be addressed here is arc welding of the GPHS encapsulation. A considerable effort was made to optimize the fabrication of the fuel pellets and of other elements of the encapsulation; that work will not be directly addressed in this paper. This report consists of three basic sections: 1) a brief description of the GPHS will be provided as background information for the reader; 2) mechanical properties and the optimization thereof as relevant to welding will be discussed; 3) a review of the arc welding process development and optimization will be presented. Since the welding equipment must be upgraded for future production, some discussion of the historical establishment of relevant welding variables and possible changes thereto will also be discussed.

  5. Pulsed power sources based on MHD generators (A state-of-art review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    pulsed Power sources are finding increased applications in powering plasma experiments, CTF devices, investigations of structure of earth's crust or self-contained compact power supplies for military applications. This report reviews the development of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems for pulsed power applications. The major critical components, which are analysed in detail, include the combustor, high energy fuel development, high field magnet, high power density channel and power conditioning unit. The report concludes that the MHD research has now reached a stage, where it is possible to design and achieve requisite performance from short duration high power compact MHD generators. (author)

  6. Bioenergy. A sustainable and reliable energy source. A review of status and prospects. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauen, A.; Vuille, F.; Berndes, G.; Junginger, M.; Londo, M.

    2009-08-01

    This publication is the Executive Summary of a report prepared for IEA Bioenergy. The full report 'Bioenergy - a Sustainable and Reliable Energy Source' will be available on the website of IEA Bioenergy in digital form and in hard copy in a few months time. The purpose of the project was to produce an authoritative review of the entire bioenergy sector aimed at policy and investment decision makers. The brief to the contractors was to provide a global perspective of the potential for bioenergy, the main opportunities for deployment in the short and medium term and the principal issues and challenges facing the development of the sector.

  7. A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss PAHs impact on the environmental and the magnitude of the human health risks posed by such substances. They also contain important information on concentrations, burdens and fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the atmosphere. The main anthropogenic sources of PAHs and their effect on the concentrations of these compounds in air are discussed. The fate of PAHs in the air, their persistence and the main mechanisms of their losses are presented. Health hazards associated with PAH air pollution are stressed.

  8. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Critical Review of Naphthalene Sources and Exposures Relevant to Indoor and Outdoor Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Jia

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Both the recent classification of naphthalene as a possible human carcinogen and its ubiquitous presence motivate this critical review of naphthalene’s sources and exposures. We evaluate the environmental literature on naphthalene published since 1990, drawing on nearly 150 studies that report emissions and concentrations in indoor, outdoor and personal air. While naphthalene is both a volatile organic compound and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, concentrations and exposures are poorly characterized relative to many other pollutants. Most airborne emissions result from combustion, and key sources include industry, open burning, tailpipe emissions, and cigarettes. The second largest source is off-gassing, specifically from naphthalene’s use as a deodorizer, repellent and fumigant. In the U.S., naphthalene’s use as a moth repellant has been reduced in favor of para-dichlorobenzene, but extensive use continues in mothballs, which appears responsible for some of the highest indoor exposures, along with off-label uses. Among the studies judged to be representative, average concentrations ranged from 0.18 to 1.7 μg m-3 in non-smoker’s homes, and from 0.02 to 0.31 μg m-3 outdoors in urban areas. Personal exposures have been reported in only three European studies. Indoor sources are the major contributor to (non-occupational exposure. While its central tendencies fall well below guideline levels relevant to acute health impacts, several studies have reported maximum concentrations exceeding 100 μg m-3, far above guideline levels. Using current but draft estimates of cancer risks, naphthalene is a major environmental risk driver, with typical individual risk levels in the 10-4 range, which is high and notable given that millions of individuals are exposed. Several factors influence indoor and outdoor concentrations, but the literature is inconsistent on their effects. Further investigation is needed to better characterize naphthalene

  10. Drug-related homicide in Europe-First review of data and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Roel; Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Liem, Marieke

    2018-04-13

    Drugs can act as facilitators for all types of violence, including drug-related homicide (DRH). Addressing this phenomenon is not only of importance given the severity of a homicide event and its high costs on society, but also because DRH has the potential to act as a valuable indicator or proxy of wider drug-related violent crime. However, there appears to be an important gap in terms of available European data on DRH. This study aimed to identify relevant European data sources on DRH, to assess the role of drugs in national homicide data, and to assess these sources and data in terms of monitoring potential. A critical review was conducted of existing national and international homicide data sources. A three-step approach was adopted, including systematic searches for data sources and literature, snowballing methods, and contacting professionals. Data on DRH is systematically prepared in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom (England, Wales, and Scotland). Available data suggests both between- and within country variability in relation to the role of drugs in homicide events. Based on these findings, four key obstacles can be identified in terms of the current ability to monitor DRH: missing data, fragmented data, comparability issues and data quality reservations. To overcome these obstacles, there is a need for an international monitoring system that incorporates DRH. Ideally, the system should employ a single shared definition, standardised terminology, one coordinating body, and the use of multiple data sources. There are several approaches towards such a system, notably expanding the European Homicide Monitor (EHM) framework. Options should be explored to incorporate DRH into this existing and growing monitoring system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Arsenic Contamination of Groundwater: A Review of Sources, Prevalence, Health Risks, and Strategies for Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  12. Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a review of sources, prevalence, health risks, and strategies for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Shanker, Uma; Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater in different parts of the world is an outcome of natural and/or anthropogenic sources, leading to adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. Millions of people from different countries are heavily dependent on groundwater containing elevated level of As for drinking purposes. As contamination of groundwater, poses a serious risk to human health. Excessive and prolonged exposure of inorganic As with drinking water is causing arsenicosis, a deteriorating and disabling disease characterized by skin lesions and pigmentation of the skin, patches on palm of the hands and soles of the feet. Arsenic poisoning culminates into potentially fatal diseases like skin and internal cancers. This paper reviews sources, speciation, and mobility of As and global overview of groundwater As contamination. The paper also critically reviews the As led human health risks, its uptake, metabolism, and toxicity mechanisms. The paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art knowledge on the alternative As free drinking water and various technologies (oxidation, coagulation flocculation, adsorption, and microbial) for mitigation of the problem of As contamination of groundwater.

  13. Sources and remediation for mercury contamination in aquatic systems--a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qianrui; Kim, Daekeun; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Sorial, George A.; Timberlake, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Sources of mercury contamination in aquatic systems were studied in a comprehensive literature review. The results show that the most important anthropogenic sources of mercury pollution in aquatic systems are: (1) atmospheric deposition, (2) erosion, (3) urban discharges, (4) agricultural materials, (5) mining, and (6) combustion and industrial discharges. Capping and dredging are two possible remedial approaches to mercury contamination in aquatic systems, and natural attenuation is a passive decontamination alternative. Capping seems to be an economical and effective remedial approach to mercury-contaminated aquatic systems. Dredging is an expensive remedial approach. However, for heavily polluted systems, dredging may be more effective. Natural attenuation, involving little or no cost, is a possible and very economical choice for less contaminated sites. Proper risk assessment is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial and passive decontamination methods as well as their potential adverse environmental effects. Modeling tools have a bright future in the remediation and passive decontamination of mercury contamination in aquatic systems. Existing mercury transport and transformation models were reviewed and compared

  14. Yttrium recovery from primary and secondary sources: A review of main hydrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Innocenzi, Valentina, E-mail: valentina.innocenzi1@univaq.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); De Michelis, Ida [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Kopacek, Bernd [SAT, Austrian Society for Systems Engineering and Automation, Gurkasse 43/2, A-1140 Vienna (Austria); Vegliò, Francesco [Department of Industrial Engineering, of Information and Economy, University of L’Aquila, Via Giovanni Gronchi 18, Zona industriale di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Review of the main hydrometallurgical processes to recover yttrium. • Recovery of yttrium from primary sources. • Recovery of yttrium from e-waste and other types of waste. - Abstract: Yttrium is important rare earths (REs) used in numerous fields, mainly in the phosphor powders for low-energy lighting. The uses of these elements, especially for high-tech products are increased in recent years and combined with the scarcity of the resources and the environmental impact of the technologies to extract them from ores make the recycling waste, that contain Y and other RE, a priority. The present review summarized the main hydrometallurgical technologies to extract Y from ores, contaminated solutions, WEEE and generic wastes. Before to discuss the works about the treatment of wastes, the processes to retrieval Y from ores are discussed, since the processes are similar and derived from those already developed for the extraction from primary sources. Particular attention was given to the recovery of Y from WEEE because the recycle of them is important not only for economical point of view, considering its value, but also for environmental impact that this could be generated if not properly disposal.

  15. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranga Rao Ambati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3′-dihydroxy-β, β′-carotene-4,4′-dione is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

  16. Legionnaires' Disease in Hotels and Passenger Ships: A Systematic Review of Evidence, Sources, and Contributing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Rudge, James W

    2015-01-01

    Travel-associated Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a serious problem, and hundreds of cases are reported every year among travelers who stayed at hotels, despite the efforts of international and governmental authorities and hotel operators to prevent additional cases. A systematic review of travel-associated LD events (cases, clusters, outbreaks) and of environmental studies of Legionella contamination in accommodation sites was conducted. Two databases were searched (PubMed and EMBASE). Data were extracted from 50 peer-reviewed articles that provided microbiological and epidemiological evidence for linking the accommodation sites with LD. The strength of evidence was classified as strong, possible, and probable. Three of the 21 hotel-associated events identified and four of nine ship-associated events occurred repeatedly on the same site. Of 197 hotel-associated cases, 158 (80.2%) were linked to hotel cooling towers and/or potable water systems. Ship-associated cases were most commonly linked to hot tubs (59/83, 71.1%). Common contributing factors included inadequate disinfection, maintenance, and monitoring; water stagnation; poor temperature control; and poor ventilation. Across all 30 events, Legionella concentrations in suspected water sources were >10,000 cfu/L, hotels (587/1,200), while all 12 cruise ships examined were negative. This review highlights the need for LD awareness strategies targeting operators of accommodation sites. Increased standardization of LD investigation and reporting, and more rigorous follow-up of LD events, would help generate stronger, more comparable evidence on LD sources, contributing factors, and control measure effectiveness. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paloma Michelle; Souza, Paula Monteiro; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silveira, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.

  18. A review on the sources and spatial-temporal distributions of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongfang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ming; Zhu, Sixi; Wu, Yunjie

    2017-12-01

    This paper provided a review on the source, spatial-distribution, temporal variations of Pb in Jiaozhou Bay based on investigation of Pb in surface and waters in different seasons during 1979-1983. The source strengths of Pb sources in Jiaozhou Bay were showing increasing trends, and the pollution level of Pb in this bay was slight or moderate in the early stage of reform and opening-up. Pb contents in the marine bay were mainly determined by the strength and frequency of Pb inputs from human activities, and Pb could be moving from high content areas to low content areas in the ocean interior. Surface waters in the ocean was polluted by human activities, and bottom waters was polluted by means of vertical water’s effect. The process of spatial distribution of Pb in waters was including three steps, i.e., 1), Pb was transferring to surface waters in the bay, 2) Pb was transferring to surface waters, and 3) Pb was transferring to and accumulating in bottom waters.

  19. Air pollution in Australia: review of costs, sources and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dorothy L

    2005-12-01

    Estimated health costs and principal sources of air pollution are reviewed, together with estimated costs of reducing pollution from major sources in Australia. Emissions data from the Australian National Pollutant Inventory were compared with published estimates of pollution costs and converted to the cost per kilogram of emissions. Costs per kg of emissions (and, for the two main sources of pollution, diesel vehicles and wood heaters, costs per heater and per vehicle) are relatively easy to understand, making it easier to compare health costs with costs of pollution-control strategies. Estimated annual costs of morbidity/mortality exceed $1,100 per diesel vehicle and $2,000 per wood heater. Costs of avoiding emissions (about $2.1/kg PM2.5 for phasing out wood heaters and upwards of $70/kg for reducing diesel emissions) are considerably less than the estimated health costs ($166/kg) of those emissions. In other countries, smokeless zones (for domestic heating), heavy vehicle low-emission zones, and lower registration charges for low-emission vehicles reduce pollution and improve health. Similar 'polluter-pays' taxes in Australia to encourage retrofitting of existing diesels and incentives to choose new ones with lowest emissions would provide substantial benefits. Adopting Christchurch's policy of phasing out wood heaters and 'polluter-pays' levies to discourage their use would be extremely cost-effective.

  20. Emerging organic contaminants in groundwater: A review of sources, fate and occurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapworth, D.J.; Baran, N.; Stuart, M.E.; Ward, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) detected in groundwater may have adverse effects on human health and aquatic ecosystems. This paper reviews the existing occurrence data in groundwater for a range of EOCs including pharmaceutical, personal care, ‘life-style’ and selected industrial compounds. The main sources and pathways for organic EOCs in groundwater are reviewed, with occurrence data for EOCs in groundwater included from both targeted studies and broad reconnaissance surveys. Nanogram-microgram per litre concentrations are present in groundwater for a large range of EOCs as well as metabolites and transformation products and under certain conditions may pose a threat to freshwater bodies for decades due to relatively long groundwater residence times. In the coming decades, more of these EOCs are likely to have drinking water standards, environmental quality standards and/or groundwater threshold values defined, and therefore a better understanding of the spatial and temporal variation remains a priority. - Highlights: ► First review to focus on EOCs in groundwater. ► A large range (n > 180) of EOCs are detected in groundwater. ► Significant concentrations (10 2 –10 4 ng/L) for a range of EOCs, including endocrine disruptors. ► Groundwater EOC occurrence is poorly characterised compared to other freshwater resources. - A large range of emerging organic contaminants are now being detected in groundwater as a result of recent and historical anthropogenic activities.

  1. A systematic review characterizing on-farm sources of Campylobacter spp. for broiler chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95 conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32, animals (n = 57, humans (n = 26, environment (n = 54, and water (n = 63. Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping

  2. Consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Elina; Rantakokko, Piia; Suhonen, Marjo

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the review was to describe consumer-led health-related online sources and their impact on consumers. The review was carried out as an integrative literature review. Quantisation and qualitative content analysis were used as the analysis method. The most common method used by the included studies was qualitative content analysis. This review identified the consumer-led health-related online sources used between 2009 and 2016 as health-related online communities, health-related social networking sites and health-related rating websites. These sources had an impact on peer support; empowerment; health literacy; physical, mental and emotional wellbeing; illness management; and relationships between healthcare organisations and consumers. The knowledge of the existence of the health-related online sources provides healthcare organisations with an opportunity to listen to their consumers' 'voice'. The sources make healthcare consumers more competent actors in relation to healthcare, and the knowledge of them is a valuable resource for healthcare organisations. Additionally, these health-related online sources might create an opportunity to reduce the need for drifting among the healthcare services. Healthcare policymakers and organisations could benefit from having a strategy of increasing their health-related online sources.

  3. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajamul Rouf Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds. Phytochemicals play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. It contains various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. It is believed to have potential anti-HIV activity due to the presence of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA lectin or GNA-maize. A tablespoon of maize oil satisfies the requirements for essential fatty acids for a healthy child or adult. Decoction of maize silk, roots, leaves, and cob are used for bladder problems, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. Zein an alcohol-soluble prolamine found in maize endosperm has unique novel applications in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical areas. Resistant starch (RS from maize reduces the risk of cecal cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity-related complications. This review presents a detailed view on the nutritional and potential health benefits of maize.

  4. Classification of Hydrogels Based on Their Source: A Review and Application in Stem Cell Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; Sorokina, Lioudmila V.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Mukhtar, Farrukh; Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are recognized by their self-renewal ability and can give rise to specialized progeny. Hydrogels are an established class of biomaterials with the ability to control stem cell fate via mechanotransduction. They can mimic various physiological conditions to influence the fate of stem cells and are an ideal platform to support stem cell regulation. This review article provides a summary of recent advances in the application of different classes of hydrogels based on their source (e.g., natural, synthetic, or hybrid). This classification is important because the chemistry of substrate affects stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Natural and synthetic hydrogels have been widely used in stem cell regulation. Nevertheless, they have limitations that necessitate a new class of material. Hybrid hydrogels obtained by manipulation of the natural and synthetic ones can potentially overcome these limitations and shape the future of research in application of hydrogels in stem cell regulation.

  5. The Use of P isotope in the ecology and source environment research: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Qun; Feng Gu

    2012-01-01

    The use of tracers are widely to plant-soil-manue duction-environment systems which study activity of phosphorus, forms changes, utilization and changes. It induces the development of ecology and source environment. This review shows the approaches of tracer in plant-soil-manue duction-environment systems which include direct labeling technique, indirect labeling technique or exposed directly. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen in phosphate made it possible to quantify the phosphrous cycling under field conditions and water system. But it is limited in plant and soil systems. NMR techniques was widely used to study the changes of phosphorus forms. It supplies a new tools to quality and quantity of different forms of paraphos. (authors)

  6. A review on the major sources of the interior sound vibration and riding comfort in vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDhahebi, Adel Mohammed; Junoh, Ahmad Kadri; Ahmed, Amran

    2016-10-01

    Vehicle interior comfort is a crucial criteria that is considered by the perspective customer when purchasing a new vehicle. Meanwhile, automotive industries face the challenges for producing vehicles with better design criteria that meet the expectations of customers and eventually promote higher competitive advantages in areas of acoustic performance, cost effectiveness, product weight, and global competitive market. This review presents the major sources that influence the generation of noise and vibration in the interior part of the vehicles. It also demonstrates the relative methods that are used to assess the interior acoustics and vibration and further improve the riding comfort. This study is of a particular importance for acoustical researchers and automobile engineers, where it brings about suggestions and fundamentals that can contribute to acoustical comfort in vehicles.

  7. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams

  8. Ultrasound scan as a potential source of nosocomial and cross-infection: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Hadyme Miyague

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe authors review the main concepts regarding the importance of cleaning/disinfection of ultrasonography probes, aiming a better comprehension by practitioners and thus enabling strategies to establish a safe practice without compromising the quality of the examination and the operator productivity. In the context of biosafety, it is imperative to assume that contact with blood or body fluids represents a potential source of infection. Thus, in order to implement cleaning/disinfection practice, it is necessary to understand the principles of infection control, to consider the cost/benefit ratio of the measures to be implemented, and most importantly, to comprehend that such measures will not only benefit the health professional and the patient, but the society as a whole.

  9. A review of output-only structural mode identification literature employing blind source separation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Narasimhan, S.; Antoni, J.

    2017-09-01

    Output-only modal identification has seen significant activity in recent years, especially in large-scale structures where controlled input force generation is often difficult to achieve. This has led to the development of new system identification methods which do not require controlled input. They often work satisfactorily if they satisfy some general assumptions - not overly restrictive - regarding the stochasticity of the input. Hundreds of papers covering a wide range of applications appear every year related to the extraction of modal properties from output measurement data in more than two dozen mechanical, aerospace and civil engineering journals. In little more than a decade, concepts of blind source separation (BSS) from the field of acoustic signal processing have been adopted by several researchers and shown that they can be attractive tools to undertake output-only modal identification. Originally intended to separate distinct audio sources from a mixture of recordings, mathematical equivalence to problems in linear structural dynamics have since been firmly established. This has enabled many of the developments in the field of BSS to be modified and applied to output-only modal identification problems. This paper reviews over hundred articles related to the application of BSS and their variants to output-only modal identification. The main contribution of the paper is to present a literature review of the papers which have appeared on the subject. While a brief treatment of the basic ideas are presented where relevant, a comprehensive and critical explanation of their contents is not attempted. Specific issues related to output-only modal identification and the relative advantages and limitations of BSS methods both from theoretical and application standpoints are discussed. Gap areas requiring additional work are also summarized and the paper concludes with possible future trends in this area.

  10. Department of Energy review of the National Spallation Neutron Source Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) review of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) was conducted. The NSNS will be a new high-power spallation neutron source; initially, it will operate at 1 megawatt (MW), but is designed to be upgradeable to significantly higher power, at lower cost, when accelerator and target technologies are developed for higher power. The 53-member Review Committee examined the projected cost, schedule, technical scope, and management structure described in the CDR. For each of the major components of the NSNS, the Committee determined that the project team had produced credible designs that can be expected to work well. What remains to be done is to integrate the design of these components. With the exception of the liquid mercury target, the NSNS Project will rely heavily on proven technologies and, thus, will face a relatively low risk to successful project completion. The Total Project Cost (TPC) presented to the Committee in the CDR was $1.266 billion in as-spent dollars. In general, the Committee felt that the laboratory consortium had presented a credible estimate for each of the major components but that value engineering might produce some savings. The construction schedule presented to the Committee covered six years beginning in FY 1999. The Committee questioned whether all parts of the project could be completed according to this schedule. In particular, the linac and the conventional facilities appeared to have overly optimistic schedules. The NSNS project team was encouraged to reexamine these activities and to consider a more conservative seven-year schedule. Another concern of the Committee was the management structure. In summary, the Committee felt that this Conceptual Design Report was a very credible proposal, and that there is a high probability for successful completion of this major project within the proposed budget, although the six-year proposed schedule may be optimistic

  11. Department of Energy review of the National Spallation Neutron Source Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    A Department of Energy (DOE) review of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) for the National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) was conducted. The NSNS will be a new high-power spallation neutron source; initially, it will operate at 1 megawatt (MW), but is designed to be upgradeable to significantly higher power, at lower cost, when accelerator and target technologies are developed for higher power. The 53-member Review Committee examined the projected cost, schedule, technical scope, and management structure described in the CDR. For each of the major components of the NSNS, the Committee determined that the project team had produced credible designs that can be expected to work well. What remains to be done is to integrate the design of these components. With the exception of the liquid mercury target, the NSNS Project will rely heavily on proven technologies and, thus, will face a relatively low risk to successful project completion. The Total Project Cost (TPC) presented to the Committee in the CDR was $1.266 billion in as-spent dollars. In general, the Committee felt that the laboratory consortium had presented a credible estimate for each of the major components but that value engineering might produce some savings. The construction schedule presented to the Committee covered six years beginning in FY 1999. The Committee questioned whether all parts of the project could be completed according to this schedule. In particular, the linac and the conventional facilities appeared to have overly optimistic schedules. The NSNS project team was encouraged to reexamine these activities and to consider a more conservative seven-year schedule. Another concern of the Committee was the management structure. In summary, the Committee felt that this Conceptual Design Report was a very credible proposal, and that there is a high probability for successful completion of this major project within the proposed budget, although the six-year proposed schedule may be optimistic.

  12. Sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyakov, Y. [University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation

    2006-03-15

    Five main biogenic sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soils have been distinguished and described according to their turnover rates and the mean residence time of carbon. They are root respiration, rhizomicrobial respiration, decomposition of plant residues, the priming effect induced by root exudation or by addition of plant residues, and basal respiration by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). These sources can be grouped in several combinations to summarize CO{sub 2} efflux from the soil including: root-derived CO{sub 2}, plant-derived CO{sub 2}, SOM-derived CO{sub 2}, rhizosphere respiration, heterotrophic microbial respiration (respiration by heterotrophs), and respiration by autotrophs. These distinctions are important because without separation of SOM-derived CO{sub 2} from plant-derived CO{sub 2}, measurements of total soil respiration have very limited value for evaluation of the soil as a source or sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and for interpreting the sources of CO{sub 2} and the fate of carbon within soils and ecosystems. Additionally, the processes linked to the five sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soil have various responses to environmental variables and consequently to global warming. This review describes the basic principles and assumptions of the following methods which allow SOM-derived and root-derived CO{sub 2} efflux to be separated under laboratory and field conditions: root exclusion techniques, shading and clipping, tree girdling, regression, component integration, excised roots and in situ root respiration; continuous and pulse labeling, {sup 13}C natural abundance and FACE, and radiocarbon dating and bomb-{sup 14}C. A short sections cover the separation of the respiration of autotrophs and that of heterotrophs, i.e. the separation of actual root respiration from microbial respiration, as well as methods allowing the amount of CO{sub 2} evolved by decomposition of plant residues and by priming effects to be estimated. All

  13. Sources of CO2 efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzyakov, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Five main biogenic sources of CO 2 efflux from soils have been distinguished and described according to their turnover rates and the mean residence time of carbon. They are root respiration, rhizomicrobial respiration, decomposition of plant residues, the priming effect induced by root exudation or by addition of plant residues, and basal respiration by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). These sources can be grouped in several combinations to summarize CO 2 efflux from the soil including: root-derived CO 2 , plant-derived CO 2 , SOM-derived CO 2 , rhizosphere respiration, heterotrophic microbial respiration (respiration by heterotrophs), and respiration by autotrophs. These distinctions are important because without separation of SOM-derived CO 2 from plant-derived CO 2 , measurements of total soil respiration have very limited value for evaluation of the soil as a source or sink of atmospheric CO 2 and for interpreting the sources of CO 2 and the fate of carbon within soils and ecosystems. Additionally, the processes linked to the five sources of CO 2 efflux from soil have various responses to environmental variables and consequently to global warming. This review describes the basic principles and assumptions of the following methods which allow SOM-derived and root-derived CO 2 efflux to be separated under laboratory and field conditions: root exclusion techniques, shading and clipping, tree girdling, regression, component integration, excised roots and in situ root respiration; continuous and pulse labeling, 13 C natural abundance and FACE, and radiocarbon dating and bomb- 14 C. A short sections cover the separation of the respiration of autotrophs and that of heterotrophs, i.e. the separation of actual root respiration from microbial respiration, as well as methods allowing the amount of CO 2 evolved by decomposition of plant residues and by priming effects to be estimated. All these methods have been evaluated according to their inherent

  14. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  15. Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohaib Tahir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy.

  16. Laser Scanning Systems and Techniques in Rockfall Source Identification and Risk Assessment: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanos, Ali Mutar; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2018-04-01

    Rockfall poses risk to people, their properties and to transportation ways in mountainous and hilly regions. This catastrophe shows various characteristics such as vast distribution, sudden occurrence, variable magnitude, strong fatalness and randomicity. Therefore, prediction of rockfall phenomenon both spatially and temporally is a challenging task. Digital Terrain model (DTM) is one of the most significant elements in rockfall source identification and risk assessment. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) is the most advanced effective technique to derive high-resolution and accurate DTM. This paper presents a critical overview of rockfall phenomenon (definition, triggering factors, motion modes and modeling) and LiDAR technique in terms of data pre-processing, DTM generation and the factors that can be obtained from this technique for rockfall source identification and risk assessment. It also reviews the existing methods that are utilized for the evaluation of the rockfall trajectories and their characteristics (frequency, velocity, bouncing height and kinetic energy), probability, susceptibility, hazard and risk. Detail consideration is given on quantitative methodologies in addition to the qualitative ones. Various methods are demonstrated with respect to their application scales (local and regional). Additionally, attention is given to the latest improvement, particularly including the consideration of the intensity of the phenomena and the magnitude of the events at chosen sites.

  17. A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phebe Asantewaa Owusu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. The need for energy and its related services to satisfy human social and economic development, welfare and health is increasing. Returning to renewables to help mitigate climate change is an excellent approach which needs to be sustainable in order to meet energy demand of future generations. The study reviewed the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources which includes: Energy Security, Energy Access, Social and Economic development, Climate Change Mitigation, and reduction of environmental and health impacts. Despite these opportunities, there are challenges that hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources towards climate change mitigation. These challenges include Market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and our daily carbon footprint. The study suggested some measures and policy recommendations which when considered would help achieve the goal of renewable energy thus to reduce emissions, mitigate climate change and provide a clean environment as well as clean energy for all and future generations.

  18. Journal of Open Source Software (JOSS): design and first-year review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arfon M.

    2018-01-01

    JOSS is a free and open-access journal that publishes articles describing research software across all disciplines. It has the dual goals of improving the quality of the software submitted and providing a mechanism for research software developers to receive credit. While designed to work within the current merit system of science, JOSS addresses the dearth of rewards for key contributions to science made in the form of software. JOSS publishes articles that encapsulate scholarship contained in the software itself, and its rigorous peer review targets the software components: functionality, documentation, tests, continuous integration, and the license. A JOSS article contains an abstract describing the purpose and functionality of the software, references, and a link to the software archive. JOSS published more than 100 articles in its first year, many from the scientific python ecosystem (including a number of articles related to astronomy and astrophysics). JOSS is a sponsored project of the nonprofit organization NumFOCUS and is an affiliate of the Open Source Initiative.In this presentation, I'll describes the motivation, design, and progress of the Journal of Open Source Software (JOSS) and how it compares to other avenues for publishing research software in astronomy.

  19. Integration of renew able energy sources in smart grid: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S.; Nawaz, K.; Naqvi, S.A.R.; Malik, T.N.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing complexity of the existing power grid due to rapid population growth, development in technology, infrastructure and computational tools are the factors that contribute to the need of deployment of smart grid for secure and efficient use of electrical energy. The modernization of electric grids toward a smart grid is being carried out to improve reliability, facilitate integration of renewable energies, and improve power consumption management. Due to continuous depletion of primary fuel resources and global concern about the environmental pollution, the development of smart grids based on renewable energy resources has gained huge strategic significance now a days to resolve the energy crisis. However the intermittent and fluctuating nature of these sources makes the integration a difficult task that needs to be effectively addressed. Firstly this paper briefly discuss the emerging renewable energy resources (RERs) and Energy storage systems (EES). Secondly this work comprehensively reviews the potential challenges in integration of these sources in smart grid along with the applied control strategies for their facilitation and some practical case studies. (author)

  20. Short-wavelength free-electron laser sources and science: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, E. A.; Clarke, J. A.; Dunning, D. J.; Masciovecchio, C.; Milne, C. J.; Parmigiani, F.; Rugg, D.; Spence, J. C. H.; Thompson, N. R.; Ueda, K.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Wurth, W.

    2017-11-01

    This review is focused on free-electron lasers (FELs) in the hard to soft x-ray regime. The aim is to provide newcomers to the area with insights into: the basic physics of FELs, the qualities of the radiation they produce, the challenges of transmitting that radiation to end users and the diversity of current scientific applications. Initial consideration is given to FEL theory in order to provide the foundation for discussion of FEL output properties and the technical challenges of short-wavelength FELs. This is followed by an overview of existing x-ray FEL facilities, future facilities and FEL frontiers. To provide a context for information in the above sections, a detailed comparison of the photon pulse characteristics of FEL sources with those of other sources of high brightness x-rays is made. A brief summary of FEL beamline design and photon diagnostics then precedes an overview of FEL scientific applications. Recent highlights are covered in sections on structural biology, atomic and molecular physics, photochemistry, non-linear spectroscopy, shock physics, solid density plasmas. A short industrial perspective is also included to emphasise potential in this area. Dedicated to John M J Madey (1943-2016) and Rodolfo Bonifacio (1940-2016) whose perception, drive and perseverance paved the way for the realisation and development of short-wavelength free-electron lasers.

  1. Curcumin, a Compound from Natural Sources, a True Scientific Challenge - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Zorka

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, naturally present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been the subject of intensive investigations on account of its various activities. The implementation of safe, beneficial and highly functional compounds from natural sources in human nutrition/prevention/therapy requires some modifications in order to achieve their multi-functionality, improve their bioavailability and delivery strategies, with the main aim to enhance their effectiveness. The low aqueous solubility of curcumin, its rapid metabolism and elimination from the body, and consequently, poor bioavailability, constitute major obstacles to its application. The main objectives of this review are related to reported strategies to overcome these limitations and, thereby, improve the solubility, stability and bioavailability of curcumin. The effectiveness of curcumin could be greatly improved by using nanoparticle-based carriers. The significance of the quality of a substance delivery system is reflected in the fact that carrying curcumin as a food additive/nutrition also means carrying the active biological product/drug. This review summarizes the state of the art, and highlights some examples and the most significant advances in the field of curcumin research.

  2. Are healthcare workers' mobile phones a potential source of nosocomial infections? Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-10-29

    Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed.

  3. Sources and sinks of carbon in boreal ecosystems of interior Alaska: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Thomas A.; Jones, Miriam C.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Boreal regions store large quantities of carbon but are increasingly vulnerable to carbon loss due to disturbance and climate warming. The boreal region, underlain by discontinuous permafrost, presents a challenging landscape for itemizing current and potential carbon sources and sinks in the boreal soil and vegetation. The roles of fire, forest succession, and the presence (or absence) of permafrost on carbon cycle, vegetation, and hydrologic processes have been the focus of multidisciplinary research in this area for the past 20 years. However, projections of a warming future climate, an increase in fire severity and extent, and the potential degradation of permafrost could lead to major landscape process changes over the next 20 to 50 years. This provides a major challenge for predicting how the interplay between land management activities and impacts of climate warming will affect carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To assist land managers in adapting and managing for potential changes in the Interior Alaska carbon cycle we developed this review paper incorporating an overview of the climate, ecosystem processes, vegetation types, and soil regimes in Interior Alaska with a focus on ramifications for the carbon cycle. Our objective is to provide a synthesis of the most current carbon storage estimates and measurements to support policy and land management decisions on how to best manage carbon sources and sinks in Interior Alaska. To support this we have surveyed relevant peer reviewed estimates of carbon stocks in aboveground and belowground biomass for Interior Alaska boreal ecosystems. We have also summarized methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from the same ecosystems. These data have been converted into the same units to facilitate comparison across ecosystem compartments. We identify potential changes in the carbon cycle with climate change and human disturbance including how compounding disturbances can affect the boreal system. Finally, we provide

  4. Review of the all Source Analysis System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process-FY 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-20

    OFFICE OF THE INSPECTOR GENERAL REVIEW OF THE ALL SOURCE ANALYSIS SYSTEM AS A PART OF THE AUDIT OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DEFENSE...System as a Part of the Audit of the Effectiveness of the Defense Acquisition Board Review Process--FY 1993 (Report No. 93-087) We are providing...appreciate the courtesies extended to the audit staff. If you have questions on this report, please contact Program Director Russell A. Rau at (703) 693

  5. 77 FR 266 - Fresh Garlic From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of New Shipper Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-831] Fresh Garlic From the People... determined that two requests for a new shipper review (NSR) under the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on fresh garlic from...

  6. ALARA Review of the Spallation Neutron Source Accumulator Ring and Transfer Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haire, M.J.

    2003-06-30

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is designed to meet the growing need for new tools that will deepen our understanding in materials science, life science, chemistry, fundamental and nuclear physics, earth and environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. The SNS is an accelerator-based neutron-scattering facility that when operational will produce an average beam power of 2 MW at a repetition rate of 60 Hz. The accelerator complex consists of the front-end systems, which will include an ion source; a 1-GeV full-energy linear accelerator; a single accumulator ring and its transfer lines; and a liquid mercury target. This report documents an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable (ALARA) review of the accumulator ring and transfer lines at their early design stage. An ALARA working group was formed and conducted a review of the SNS ring and transfer lines at the {approx}25% complete design stage to help ensure that ALARA principles are being incorporated into the design. The radiological aspects of the SNS design criteria were reviewed against regulatory requirements and ALARA principles. Proposed features and measures were then reviewed against the SNS design criteria. As part of the overall review, the working group reviewed the design manual; design drawings and process and instrumentation diagrams; the environment, safety, and health manual; and other related reports and literature. The group also talked with SNS design engineers to obtain explanations of pertinent subject matter. The ALARA group found that ALARA principles are indeed being incorporated into the early design stage. Radiation fields have been characterized, and shielding calculations have been performed. Radiological issues are being adequately addressed with regard to equipment selection, access control, confinement structure and ventilation, and contamination control. Radiation monitoring instrumentation for worker and environment protection are also being considered--a good practice at this

  7. Marine Algae As A Prospective Source For Antidiabetic Compounds - A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, Pulikkaparambil Sasidharan; Jayasri, Mangalam Achuthananda

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia, which is attributed to several life threatening complications including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. The current therapies available for the management of DM mainly include oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin injections. However, continuous use of synthetic drugs provides lower healing with many side effects. Therefore, there is an urge for safe and efficient antidiabetic drugs for the management of DM. In the continuing search for effective antidiabetic drugs, marine algae (seaweeds) remains as a promising source with potent bioactivity. It is anticipated that the isolation, characterization, and pharmacological study of unexplored marine algae can be useful in the discovery of novel antidiabetic compounds with high biomedical value. Among marine algae, brown and red algae are reported to exhibit antidiabetic activity. Majority of the investigations on algal derived compounds controls the blood glucose levels through the inhbition of carbohydrate hydroloyzing enzymes and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B enzymes, insulin sensitization, glucose uptake effect and other protective effects against diabetic complications. Based on the above perspective this review provides; profiles for various marine algae posessing antidiabetic activity. This study also highlights the therapeutic potential of compounds isolated from marine algae for the effective management of diabetes and its associated complications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Technical review and evaluation for the installation of cold neutron source facility at HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woong; Kim, Dong Hoon; Lee, Mu Woong; Cho, Man Soon; Oh, Yun Woo; Park, Sun Hee; Park, Kuk Nam; Lee, Chang Hee

    1996-01-01

    The principle subjects of this study are to analyze the technical characteristics of cold neutron source(CNS) and take measures to cope with the matters regarding the installation of CNS facility at HANARO. This report, thus, reviews the current status of the CNS facilities that are now in operation worldwide and classifies the system and equipment to select the appropriate type for HANARO and provides advice and guidance for the future basic and detail design. As we have none of CNS facility here and very few experienced persons yet, this report provides some information for domestic users through the investigation of the utilization fields and experimental facilities of CNS, and presents the estimated total cost for the project based on JRR-3M. In addition, the work scope of the conceptual design, which will be performed in advance of the basic and detail design, and cooperative program with the countries having the advanced technology of CNS is presented in this report. 43 tabs., 57 figs., 22 refs. (Author)

  9. Caffeine intake and its sources: A review of national representative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Koenig, Juergen

    2018-05-24

    Aim of this review is to summarize current daily caffeine intake of children, adolescents, and adults, and trends in caffeine intake over the past decade. A literature search was conducted (1997-2015) which yielded 18 reports on nationally representative studies, describing caffeine consumption of over 275,000 children, adolescents and adults. The data revealed that mean total daily caffeine intake in children, adolescents, and adults is below caffeine intake recommendations such as those stated by Health Canada (2.5 mg/kg bw/day for children and adolescents, and 400 mg/day for adults) and the European Food Safety Authority, EFSA (3 mg/kg bw/day for children and adolescents, and 400 mg/day for adults). Total daily caffeine intake has remained stable in the last 10-15 years, and coffee, tea and soft drinks are the most important caffeine sources. Across all age groups, energy drinks contribute little to total caffeine intake. The highest potential for reducing daily caffeine intake is by limiting coffee consumption, and in some countries and age groups, by reducing tea and soft drink consumption.

  10. Recent advances in microencapsulation of natural sources of antimicrobial compounds used in food - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Rosas, Javier; Ferreira-Grosso, Carlos Raimundo; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos Alberto; Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Rodríguez-Marín, María Luisa; Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola Araceli; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna Nallely

    2017-12-01

    Food safety and microbiological quality are major priorities in the food industry. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural antimicrobials in food products. An ongoing challenge with natural antimicrobials is their degradation during food storage and/or processing, which reduces their antimicrobial activity. This creates the necessity for treatments that maintain their stability and/or activity when applied to food. Microencapsulation of natural antimicrobial compounds is a promising alternative once this technique consists of producing microparticles, which protect the encapsulated active substances. In other words, the material to be protected is embedded inside another material or system known as wall material. There are few reports in the literature about microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds. These published articles report evidence of increased antimicrobial stability and activity when the antimicrobials are microencapsulated when compared to unprotected ones during storage. This review focuses mainly on natural sources of antimicrobial compounds and the methodological approach for encapsulating these natural compounds. Current data on the microencapsulation of antimicrobial compounds and their incorporation into food suggests that 1) encapsulation increases compound stability during storage and 2) encapsulation of antimicrobial compounds reduces their interaction with food components, preventing their inactivation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glycerol (byproduct of biodiesel production) as a source of fuels and chemicals : mini review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States); Zhou, Y. [Yonezawa Hamari Chemical, Ltd., Yonezawa, Yamagata (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    Glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is a potential renewable feedstock for the production of functional chemicals. This paper reviewed recent developments in the conversion of glycerol into value-added products, including citric acid, lactic acid, 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), dichloro-2-propanol (DCP), acrolein, hydrogen, and ethanol. The new applications of glycerol will improve the economic viability of the biodiesel industry and capitalize on the oversupply of crude glycerol that the biodiesel industry has produced. Increasing abundance and attractive pricing make glycerol an attractive feedstock for deriving value-added chemical compounds. The processes turn glycerol into chemicals, materials, and fuels and fuel additives. Whereas glycerol from first-generation biodiesel production has low purity, glycerol from second-generation biodiesel production, which uses non-edible oil as a feedstock, produces a higher purity glycerol, minimizing the related impurity problem and potentially increasing the applications of glycerol. Glycerol is also being looked at as a carbon source for algal biomass fermentation. 36 refs.

  12. Extracellular matrix in tumours as a source of additional neoplastic lesions - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej Janusz A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The review describes the role of cells of extracellular matrix (ECM as a source of neoplastic outgrowths additional to the original tumour. The cells undergo a spontaneous transformation or stimulation by the original tumour through intercellular signals, e.g. through Shh protein (sonic hedgehog. Additionally, cells of an inflammatory infiltrate, which frequently accompany malignant tumours and particularly carcinomas, may regulate tumour cell behaviour. This is either by restricting tumour proliferation or, inversely, by induction and stimulation of the proliferation of another tumour cell type, e.g. mesenchymal cells. The latter type of tumour may involve formation of histologically differentiated stromal tumours (GIST, which probably originate from interstitial cells of Cajal in the alimentary tract. Occasionally, e.g. in gastric carcinoma, proliferation involves lymphoid follicles and lymphocytes of GALT (gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which gives rise to lymphoma. The process is preceded by the earlier stage of intestinal metaplasia, or is induced by gastritis alone. This is an example of primary involvement of inflammatory infiltrate cells in neoplastic progression. Despite the numerous histogenetic classifications of tumours (zygotoma benignum et zygotoma malignum, or mesenchymomata maligna et mesenchymomata benigna, currently in oncological diagnosis the view prevails that the direction of tumour differentiation and its degree of histologic malignancy (grading are more important factors than the histogenesis of the tumour.

  13. Using data sources beyond PubMed has a modest impact on the results of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Christopher W; Trikalinos, Thomas A; Schmid, Ian T; Schmid, Christopher H; Dahabreh, Issa J

    2015-09-01

    Searching multiple sources when conducting systematic reviews is considered good practice. We aimed to investigate the impact of using sources beyond PubMed in systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions. We randomly selected 50 Cochrane reviews that searched the PubMed (or MEDLINE) and EMBASE databases and included a meta-analysis of ≥10 studies. We checked whether each eligible record in each review (n = 2,700) was retrievable in PubMed and EMBASE. For the first-listed meta-analysis of ≥10 studies in each review, we examined whether excluding studies not found in PubMed affected results. A median of one record per review was indexed in EMBASE but not in PubMed; a median of four records per review was not indexed in PubMed or EMBASE. Meta-analyses included a median of 13.5 studies; a median of zero studies per meta-analysis was indexed in EMBASE but not in PubMed; a median of one study per meta-analysis was not indexed in PubMed or EMBASE. Meta-analysis using only PubMed-indexed vs. all available studies led to a different conclusion in a single case (on the basis of conventional criteria for statistical significance). In meta-regression analyses, effects in PubMed- vs. non-PubMed-indexed studies were statistically significantly different in a single data set. For systematic reviews of the effects of therapeutic interventions, gains from searching sources beyond PubMed, and from searching EMBASE in particular are modest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  15. Cobalt toxicity in humans-A review of the potential sources and systemic health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyssens, Laura; Vinck, Bart; Van Der Straeten, Catherine; Wuyts, Floris; Maes, Leen

    2017-07-15

    Cobalt (Co) and its compounds are widely distributed in nature and are part of numerous anthropogenic activities. Although cobalt has a biologically necessary role as metal constituent of vitamin B 12 , excessive exposure has been shown to induce various adverse health effects. This review provides an extended overview of the possible Co sources and related intake routes, the detection and quantification methods for Co intake and the interpretation thereof, and the reported health effects. The Co sources were allocated to four exposure settings: occupational, environmental, dietary and medical exposure. Oral intake of Co supplements and internal exposure through metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants deliver the highest systemic Co concentrations. The systemic health effects are characterized by a complex clinical syndrome, mainly including neurological (e.g. hearing and visual impairment), cardiovascular and endocrine deficits. Recently, a biokinetic model has been proposed to characterize the dose-response relationship and effects of chronic exposure. According to the model, health effects are unlikely to occur at blood Co concentrations under 300μg/l (100μg/l respecting a safety factor of 3) in healthy individuals, hematological and endocrine dysfunctions are the primary health endpoints, and chronic exposure to acceptable doses is not expected to pose considerable health hazards. However, toxic reactions at lower doses have been described in several cases of malfunctioning MoM hip implants, which may be explained by certain underlying pathologies that increase the individual susceptibility for Co-induced systemic toxicity. This may be associated with a decrease in Co bound to serum proteins and an increase in free ionic Co 2+ . As the latter is believed to be the primary toxic form, monitoring of the free fraction of Co 2+ might be advisable for future risk assessment. Furthermore, future research should focus on longitudinal studies in the clinical setting of Mo

  16. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Natarajan, Ramesh Babu; Menon, K Ramakrishna; Chandrasekhar, Lekshmi P; Moorkoth, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red pepper carotenoids during post-harvest processing and storage is also reviewed. This review highlights the potential of red pepper carotenoids as a source of natural food colors and also discusses the need for a standardized approach for the analysis and reporting of composition of carotenoids in plant products and designing model systems for stability studies.

  17. Fine particulates over South Asia: Review and meta-analysis of PM2.5 source apportionment through receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nandita; Murari, Vishnu; Kumar, Manish; Barman, S C; Banerjee, Tirthankar

    2017-04-01

    Fine particulates (PM 2.5 ) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM 2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources. Review of 51 SA studies were performed of which 48 (94%) were appeared within a span of 2007-2016. Almost half of SA studies (55%) were found concentrated over few typical urban stations (Delhi, Dhaka, Mumbai, Agra and Lahore). Due to lack of local particulate source profile and emission inventory, positive matrix factorization and principal component analysis (62% of studies) were the primary choices, followed by chemical mass balance (CMB, 18%). Metallic species were most regularly used as source tracers while use of organic molecular markers and gas-to-particle conversion were minimum. Among all the SA sites, vehicular emissions (mean ± sd: 37 ± 20%) emerged as most dominating PM 2.5 source followed by industrial emissions (23 ± 16%), secondary aerosols (22 ± 12%) and natural sources (20 ± 15%). Vehicular emissions (39 ± 24%) also identified as dominating source for highly polluted sites (PM 2.5 >100 μgm -3 , n = 15) while site specific influence of either or in combination of industrial, secondary aerosols and natural sources were recognized. Source specific trends were considerably varied in terms of region and seasonality. Both natural and industrial sources were most influential over Pakistan and Afghanistan while over Indo-Gangetic plain, vehicular, natural and industrial emissions appeared dominant. Influence of vehicular emission was

  18. HVAC SYSTEMS AS EMISSION SOURCES AFFECTING INDOOR AIR QUALITY: A CRITICAL REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses results of an evaluation of literature on heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as contaminant emission sources that affect indoor air quality (IAQ). The various literature sources and methods for characterizing HVAC emission sources are re...

  19. [Liver engineering as a new source of donor organs : A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mußbach, F; Dahmen, U; Dirsch, O; Settmacher, U

    2016-06-01

    Organ engineering is a new strategy to cope with the shortage of donor organs. A functional scaffold from explanted organs is prepared by removing all cellular components (decellularization) and the reseeding (repopulation) of the organ scaffold to generate a functional organ in vitro for transplantation. This technique was also applied to the liver (liver engineering). Outline of the current state of the art and resulting approaches for future research strategies. Systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines: a PubMed-based literature search (search terms liver, decellularization), selection of relevant articles based on predetermined criteria for relevance (e.g. decellularization, repopulation and transplantation), extraction and critical appraisal of data and results concerning the conditions for decellularization, repopulation and transplantation. Decellularization was successfully performed in small and large animal models. Hepatocytes as well as stem cells and hepatic cell lines were applied for repopulation and 7 publications could show the successful transplantation of acellular and repopulated organ scaffolds. The current scientific need for further studies concerning the source of donor organs, optimization of the decellularization process, the cell type for the reseeding process and the establishment of the optimal conditions for the repopulation of the scaffold is still tremendous. For successful recellularization of the liver three goals need to be achieved: (1) reseeding of the organ scaffold with a sufficient amount of parenchymal cells, (2) endothelialization of the vascular tree to ensure the supply of oxygen and nutrients to parenchymal cells and (3) an appropriate epithelialization of the biliary tree. In order to progress to clinical trials a suitable transplantation model to verify the function of the organ constructs must be established. Liver engineering using biological cell-free organ scaffolds represents a scientific and ethical

  20. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  1. Research review: the shared environment as a key source of variability in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research has historically concluded that the more important environmental influences were nonshared or result in differences between siblings, whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as shared environmental influences) were indistinguishable from zero. Recent theoretical and meta-analytic work {Burt. Psychological Bulletin [135 (2009) 608]} has challenged this conclusion as it relates to child and adolescent psychopathology, however, arguing that the shared environment is a moderate, persistent, and identifiable source of individual differences in such outcomes prior to adulthood. The current review seeks to bolster research on the shared environment by highlighting both the logistic advantages inherent in studies of the shared environment, as well as the use of nontraditional but still genetically informed research designs to study shared environmental influences. Although often moderate in magnitude prior to adulthood and free of unsystematic measurement error, shared environmental influences are nevertheless likely to have been underestimated in prior research. Moreover, the shared environment is likely to include proximal effects of the family, as well as the effects of more distal environmental contexts such as neighborhood and school. These risk and protective factors could influence the child either as main effects or as moderators of genetic influence (i.e. gene-environment interactions). Finally, because the absence of genetic relatedness in an otherwise nonindependent dataset also qualifies as 'genetically informed', studies of the shared environment are amenable to the use of novel and non-traditional designs (with appropriate controls for selection). The shared environment makes important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Empirical examinations of the shared environment would thus be of real and critical value for understanding the development and

  2. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  3. Preliminary preview for a geographic and monitoring program project; a review of point source-nonpoint source effluent trading/offset systems in watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander Warren; Bernknopf, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Watershed-based trading and offset systems are being developed to improve policy-maker?s and regulator?s ability to assess nonpoint source impacts in watersheds and to evaluate the efficacy of using market-incentive programs for preserving environmental quality. An overview of the history of successful and failed trading programs throughout the United States suggests that certain political, economic, and scientific conditions within a temporal and spatial setting help meet water quality standards. The current lack of spontaneous trading among dischargers does not mean that a marketable permit trading system is an inherently inefficient regulatory approach. Rather, its infrequent use is the result of institutional and informational barriers. Improving and refining the earth science information and technologies may help determine whether trading is a suitable policy for improving water quality. However, it is debatable whether or not environmental information is the limiting factor. This paper reviews additional factors affecting the potential for instituting a trading policy. The motivation for investigating and reviewing the history of offsets and trading was inspired by a project in the preliminary stages being developed by U.S. Geological Survey Western Geographic Science Center and the Environmental Protection Agency Region IX. An offset feasibility study will be an integrated, map-based approach that incorporates environmental, economic, and statistical information to investigate the potential for using offsets to meet mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads in the Sacramento River watershed. A regional water-quality offset program is being studied that may help known point sources reduce mercury loading more cost effectively by the remediation of abandoned mines or other diffuse sources as opposed to more costly treatment at their own sites. An efficient offset program requires both a scientific basis and methods to translate that science into a regulatory decision

  4. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Samuel R; Lomax, James W; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2017-04-05

    Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  5. Astrophysical ionizing radiation and Earth: a brief review and census of intermittent intense sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian L; Thomas, Brian C

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  6. Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation and Earth: A Brief Review and Census of Intermittent Intense Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Thomas, Brian C.

    2011-05-01

    Cosmic radiation backgrounds are a constraint on life, and their distribution will affect the Galactic Habitable Zone. Life on Earth has developed in the context of these backgrounds, and characterizing event rates will elaborate the important influences. This in turn can be a base for comparison with other potential life-bearing planets. In this review, we estimate the intensities and rates of occurrence of many kinds of strong radiation bursts by astrophysical entities, ranging from gamma-ray bursts at cosmological distances to the Sun itself. Many of these present potential hazards to the biosphere; on timescales long compared with human history, the probability of an event intense enough to disrupt life on the land surface or in the oceans becomes large. Both photons (e.g., X-rays) and high-energy protons and other nuclei (often called "cosmic rays") constitute hazards. For either species, one of the mechanisms that comes into play even at moderate intensities is the ionization of Earth's atmosphere, which leads through chemical changes (specifically, depletion of stratospheric ozone) to increased ultraviolet B flux from the Sun reaching the surface. UVB is extremely hazardous to most life due to its strong absorption by the genetic material DNA and subsequent breaking of chemical bonds. This often leads to mutation or cell death. It is easily lethal to the microorganisms that lie at the base of the food chain in the ocean. We enumerate the known sources of radiation and characterize their intensities at Earth and rates or upper limits on these quantities. When possible, we estimate a "lethal interval," our best estimate of how often a major extinction-level event is probable given the current state of knowledge; we base these estimates on computed or expected depletion of stratospheric ozone. In general, moderate-level events are dominated by the Sun, but the far more severe infrequent events are probably dominated by gamma-ray bursts and supernovae. We note

  7. A Brief Review on Recent Trends in Alternative Sources of Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Divya S.; Jibin Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Alternative energy is any energy source that is an alternative to fossil fuel. These alternatives are intended to address concerns about such fossil fuels. Today, because of the variety of energy choices and differing goals of their advocates, defining some energy types as "alternative" is highly controversial. Most of the recent and existing alternative sources of energy are discussed below

  8. Heavy Metals in Contaminated Soils: A Review of Sources, Chemistry, Risks and Best Available Strategies for Remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Wuana, Raymond A.; Okieimen, Felix E.

    2011-01-01

    Scattered literature is harnessed to critically review the possible sources, chemistry, potential biohazards and best available remedial strategies for a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury and nickel) commonly found in contaminated soils. The principles, advantages and disadvantages of immobilization, soil washing and phytoremediation techniques which are frequently listed among the best demonstrated available technologies for cleaning up heavy met...

  9. A review of the nutritional content and technological parameters of indigenous sources of meat in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadoun, A; Cabrera, M C

    2008-11-01

    Meat yields, proximate compositions, fatty acids compositions and technological parameters are reviewed for species which might be further developed as indigenous sources of meat in South America. These include the alpaca (Lama pacos), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), guanaco (Lama guanicoe), llama (Lama glama), nutria (Myocastor coypus), collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu), greater rhea (Rhea americana), lesser rhea (Rhea pennata), yacare (Caiman crocodilus yacare), tegu lizard (Tupinambis merianae) and green iguana (Iguana iguana).

  10. A Review of Galvanically Isolated Impedance-Source DC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chub, Andrii; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Impedance-source converters, an emerging technology in electric energy conversion, overcome limitations of conventional solutions by the use of specific impedance-source networks. Focus of this paper is on the topologies of galvanically isolated impedance-source dc-dc converters. These converters...... isolated dc-dc converters according to the element that transfers energy from the input to the output: a transformer, a coupled inductor, or their combination. This classification reveals advantages and disadvantages, as well as a wide space for further research. This paper also outlines the most promising...

  11. Human Health Risk Assessment Applied to Rural Populations Dependent on Unregulated Drinking Water Sources: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Lorelei; Bharadwaj, Lalita; McLeod, Lianne; Waldner, Cheryl

    2017-07-28

    Safe drinking water is a global challenge for rural populations dependent on unregulated water. A scoping review of research on human health risk assessments (HHRA) applied to this vulnerable population may be used to improve assessments applied by government and researchers. This review aims to summarize and describe the characteristics of HHRA methods, publications, and current literature gaps of HHRA studies on rural populations dependent on unregulated or unspecified drinking water. Peer-reviewed literature was systematically searched (January 2000 to May 2014) and identified at least one drinking water source as unregulated (21%) or unspecified (79%) in 100 studies. Only 7% of reviewed studies identified a rural community dependent on unregulated drinking water. Source water and hazards most frequently cited included groundwater (67%) and chemical water hazards (82%). Most HHRAs (86%) applied deterministic methods with 14% reporting probabilistic and stochastic methods. Publications increased over time with 57% set in Asia, and 47% of studies identified at least one literature gap in the areas of research, risk management, and community exposure. HHRAs applied to rural populations dependent on unregulated water are poorly represented in the literature even though almost half of the global population is rural.

  12. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  13. TIGER NUT (CYPERUS ESCULENTUS: SOURCE OF NATURAL ANTICANCER DRUG? BRIEF REVIEW OF EXISTING LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elom Seyram Achoribo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In some parts of the world, Cyperus esculentus L. is widely used as a healthy food for both humans and animals due to their nutritional and functional properties. Current research and reviews on this plant have focused mainly on organoleptic properties, phytochemical compositions, oil content, biochemical activities, and nutritional values. The medicinal properties of Tiger nut are seldom discussed, although its medicinal use is well known in folklore activities. To explore the medicinal properties of Tiger nut, This review tries to investigate the potential anticancer properties of components issued from Tiger nut by reviewing the existing literature in the field. Based on the evidence from the review, it is recommended that there is a need for further investigation into the proposed anticancer properties of Tiger nut.

  14. Open Crowd-Sourced Online Digital Review of Asia Pacific | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    , revealed that the Review faced many challenges as a print publication. Providing current data and information was one weakness, given its long preparation cycle; the cost of content generation was another. An open online publishing model ...

  15. Diagenesis and geochemistry of Australian ochre deposits: a review of methods and prospects for geochemically finger-printing major sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.A. [National Museum of Australia, Canberra, ACT (Australia). People and Environment Section; Fankhauser, B. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Division of Archaeology and Natural History

    1997-12-31

    Full text: The potential to examine prehistoric trade, exchange systems, social boundaries or regional interconnections through characterising the major ethnographic red ochre sources has long been recognised by Australian archaeologists. Recently several teams have made a start in characterising major ochre deposits and in attempting to source ochres recovered in archaeological contexts. Here we review prospects and progress with this line of research. We present case studies of the geochemistry of several major Australian ochre deposits - including Bookartoo, Karrku and Wilgie Mia -looking at their diagenesis, geochemistry and variability and explore the application of various analytical techniques, principally XRD, SEM/EDXA, ICP/MS and stable isotope analysis. We then explore an archaeological application at the Puritjarra shelter in central Australia where ochre sourcing has major implications for understanding prehistoric land use. Our results show that a systematic program of characterising ochre sources and archaeological ochres has great potential in Australia. Major ochre sources often have distinctive chemical fingerprints, particularly if a range of analytical techniques are used in conjunction to characterise ochres. Ochre is frequently found in both late Pleistocene and Holocene contexts, often in sufficient quantity to permit systematic study of temporal changes in prehistoric systems. To fully realize the potential of this research however it will be important to work collaboratively to build up centralized data files of compositional analyses of Australian ochres.

  16. Diagenesis and geochemistry of Australian ochre deposits: a review of methods and prospects for geochemically finger-printing major sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Fankhauser, B.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The potential to examine prehistoric trade, exchange systems, social boundaries or regional interconnections through characterising the major ethnographic red ochre sources has long been recognised by Australian archaeologists. Recently several teams have made a start in characterising major ochre deposits and in attempting to source ochres recovered in archaeological contexts. Here we review prospects and progress with this line of research. We present case studies of the geochemistry of several major Australian ochre deposits - including Bookartoo, Karrku and Wilgie Mia -looking at their diagenesis, geochemistry and variability and explore the application of various analytical techniques, principally XRD, SEM/EDXA, ICP/MS and stable isotope analysis. We then explore an archaeological application at the Puritjarra shelter in central Australia where ochre sourcing has major implications for understanding prehistoric land use. Our results show that a systematic program of characterising ochre sources and archaeological ochres has great potential in Australia. Major ochre sources often have distinctive chemical fingerprints, particularly if a range of analytical techniques are used in conjunction to characterise ochres. Ochre is frequently found in both late Pleistocene and Holocene contexts, often in sufficient quantity to permit systematic study of temporal changes in prehistoric systems. To fully realize the potential of this research however it will be important to work collaboratively to build up centralized data files of compositional analyses of Australian ochres

  17. In-Situ Ion Source Cleaning: Review of Chemical Mechanisms and Evaluation Data at Production Fabs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaim, R.; Bishop, S.; Byl, O.; Eldridge, D.; Marganski, P.; Mayer, J.; Sweeney, J.; Yedave, S.; Fuchs, D.; Spreitzer, S.; Vogel, J.; Dunn, J.; Lundquist, P.; Rolland, J.; Romig, T.; Newman, D.; Mitchell, M.; Ditzler, K.

    2008-01-01

    Since the concept of chemical in-situ ion implanter cleaning was introduced at IIT2006 [1], evaluations of the XeF 2 cleaning technology have taken place or are ongoing at more than 40 production fabs worldwide. Testing has been focused on assessing effects of cleaning in the source arc chamber and extraction regions. In this paper we describe use of the cleaning technology in a production environment and summarize evaluation data showing advantages of the technology for improving ion source life, reducing glitching, improving beam auto-tuning and avoiding species cross-contamination. More details of the evaluations are given in several separate papers submitted to this Conference. We have supplemented the fab production data with laboratory experiments designed to investigate the reactivity of XeF 2 and fundamental aspects of the source deposition and cleaning processes. These experiments are summarized here, and more details can be found in separate papers submitted to this Conference

  18. Review on heavy ion radiotherapy facilities and related ion sources (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Biri, S.; Drentje, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy ion radiotherapy awakens worldwide interest recently. The clinical results obtained by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan have clearly demonstrated the advantages of carbon ion radiotherapy. Presently, there are four facilities for heavy ion radiotherapy in operation, and several new facilities are under construction or being planned. The most common requests for ion sources are a long lifetime and good stability and reproducibility. Sufficient intensity has been achieved by electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the present facilities.

  19. A Review of Organic Photovoltaic Energy Source and Its Technological Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidius Rutatizibwa Rwenyagila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews and describes some of the existing research and mechanisms of operation of organic photovoltaic (OPV cells. Introduced first are problems that exist with traditional fossil fuels that result in most of the world energy challenges such as environmental pollution. This is followed by the description of baseline organic solar cell (OSC structures and materials. Then, some of the existing modelling approaches that have implemented either a one- or a two-dimensional drift-diffusion model to examine OSC structures are reviewed, and their reproducibility is examined. Both experimental and modelling approaches reviewed are particularly important for more and better designed research to probe practical procedural problems associated with OSCs that hinder the commercialization of OPV technology.

  20. A review on recent progress in observations, sources, classification and regulations of PM2.5 in Asian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneha; Yadav, Ankit; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Natural and human activities generate a significant amount of PM 2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) into the surrounding atmospheric environments. Because of their small size, they can remain suspended for a relatively longer time in the air than coarse particles and thus can travel long distances in the atmosphere. PM 2.5 is one of the key indicators of pollution and known to cause numerous types of respiratory and lung-related diseases. Due to poor implementation of regulations and a time lag in introducing the vehicle technology, levels of PM 2.5 in most Asian cities are much worse than those in European environments. Dedicated reviews on understanding the characteristics of PM 2.5 in Asian urban environments are currently missing but much needed. In order to fill the existing gaps in the literature, the aim of this review article is to describe dominating sources and their classification, followed by current status and health impact of PM 2.5 , in Asian countries. Further objectives include a critical synthesis of the topics such as secondary and tertiary aerosol formation, chemical composition, monitoring and modelling methods, source apportionment, emissions and exposure impacts. The review concludes with the synthesis of regulatory guidelines and future perspectives for PM 2.5 in Asian countries. A critical synthesis of literature suggests a lack of exposure and monitoring studies to inform personal exposure in the household and rural areas of Asian environments.

  1. A state-of-the-art review on nitrous oxide control from waste treatment and industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, Osvaldo D; Quijano, Guillermo; Aizpuru, Aitor; Muñoz, Raúl

    2018-03-20

    This review aims at holistically analyzing the environmental problems associated with nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions by evaluating the most important sources of N 2 O and its environmental impacts. Emissions from wastewater treatment processes and the industrial production of nitric and adipic acid represent nowadays the most important anthropogenic point sources of N 2 O. Therefore, state-of-the-art strategies to mitigate the generation and release to the atmosphere of this greenhouse and O 3 -depleting gas in the waste treatment and industrial sectors are also reviewed. An updated review of the end-of-the-pipe technologies for N 2 O abatement, both in the waste treatment and industrial sectors, is herein presented and critically discussed for the first time. Despite the consistent efforts recently conducted in the development of cost-efficient and eco-friendly N 2 O abatement technologies, physical/chemical technologies still constitute the most popular treatments for the control of industrial N 2 O emissions at commercial scale. The recent advances achieved on biological N 2 O abatement based on heterotrophic denitrification have opened new opportunities for the development of eco-friendly alternatives for the treatment of N 2 O emissions. Finally, the main limitations and challenges faced by these novel N 2 O abatement biotechnologies are identified in order to pave the way for market implementation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 52737 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    .... Jackson, preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process... the Subcommittee's Web Site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee web site. To subscribe...

  3. 77 FR 13318 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Ms. Krueger or Ms. Jackson, preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much... the Subcommittee's Web site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee Web site. To subscribe...

  4. 76 FR 58275 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ..., preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your... the Subcommittee's Web site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee Web site. To subscribe...

  5. 76 FR 19095 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ..., preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your... Subcommittee's Web site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee Web site. To subscribe to the MSTRS...

  6. 77 FR 60430 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Ms. Krueger or Ms. Jackson, preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting, to give EPA as much... Web site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee Web site. To subscribe to the MSTRS listserver...

  7. 78 FR 59017 - Meeting of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... the meeting, to give EPA as much time as possible to process your request. Dated: September 18, 2013... be posted on the Subcommittee's Web site: http://www.epa.gov/air/caaac/mobile_sources.html . MSTRS listserver subscribers will receive notification when the agenda is available on the Subcommittee Web site...

  8. REVIEW OF THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ECR ION SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DRENTJE, AG

    At the Workshop, the operation of various new and existing ECR ion sources was reported, with most of the emphasis on new methods to improve the performance and extend the variety of species. Much attention was paid to theoretical aspects, in particular to the basic question of electron heating; a

  9. Should we reject animal source foods to save the planet? A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the next 40 years, the global livestock industry will have to considerably increase production in order to supply the population with animal-source foods, yet the industry must concurrently improve the three metrics of sustainability – economic viability, environmental stewardship and social responsibility. Environmental ...

  10. Isolation and Preparation of Nanoscale Bioapatites from Natural Sources: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 546-563 ISSN 1533-4880 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatites * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * natural sources Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2014

  11. BOOK REVIEW OF "ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS: A PRACTICAL APPROACH"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book is geared to environmental specialists and planners, heavy on the technical side. It goes beyond tranditional nonpoint source (NPS) approaches which typically only look at stormwater as athe sole NPS pollution driver. There is some overreaching material beyond the conte...

  12. 78 FR 2871 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: New Source Review-Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... management processes; CO 2 from the combustion of biogas collected from biological decomposition of waste in... provision at (i)(4) provide exemptions from the requirement of a source to obtain a SIP permit for... regarding testing and monitoring, and changes regarding exemptions from the requirement to obtain a SIP...

  13. RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE USSR: A REVIEW OF UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES, 1963-1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, D. J.; Schneider, K. J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Poor waste management practices and slow implementation of environmental restoration activities have caused a great deal of national concern. The release of information on the cause and extent of an accident involving high-level waste at the Kyshtym production reactor site in 1957, as well as other contamination at the site, serve to highlight past Soviet waste management practices. As a result, the area of waste management is now receiving greater emphasis, and more public disclosures. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations, such as from mill tailings piles, are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. For power reactors, only VVER-440 reactor fuel has been reprocessed in any significant amount, and a decision on the disposition of RBMK reactor fuel has been postponed indefinitely. Soviet reprocessing efforts are falling behind schedule; thus longer storage times for spent fuel will be required, primarily at multiple reactor stations. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledged by the Soviets. A 400-metric ton (MT) per year reprocessing facility, located at Kyshtym, has been operational since 1949 for reprocessing production reactor fuel. This facility is reported to have been reprocessing VVER-440 and naval reactor fuel since 1978, with about 2000 MT of VVER-440 fuel being reprocessed by July 1989. A second facility, located near Krasnoyarsk and having a 1500 MT per

  14. Are Review Skills and Academic Writing Skills Related? An Exploratory Analysis via Multi Source Feedback Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Salim

    2016-01-01

    Because students learn from each other as well as lecturers, it is important to create opportunities for collaboration in writing classes. Teachers now benefit from access to plagiarism detectors that can also provide feedback. This exploratory study considers the role of four review types, open and anonymous, involving the students themselves,…

  15. Expatriate support and success : A systematic review of organization-based sources of social support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laken, P.A.; van Engen, M.L.; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Paauwe, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review empirical research on the relationship between organization-based social support and the success of international assignments (IAs). Design/methodology/approach Four search engines were used to obtain empirical studies relating organization-based social

  16. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes

  17. Healthcare Engagement as a Potential Source of Psychological Distress among People without Religious Beliefs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel R. Weber

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Research into religion and mental health is increasing, but nonbelievers in terms of religion are often overlooked. Research has shown that nonbelievers experience various forms of psychological distress and that the negative perception of nonbelievers by others is a potential source of distress. This review builds on that research by identifying another potential source of psychological distress for nonbelievers: engagement with the healthcare system. Poor understanding of nonbelievers by healthcare professionals may lead to impaired communication in the healthcare setting, resulting in distress. Attempts by nonbelievers to avoid distress may result in different patterns of healthcare utilization. Awareness of these concerns may help healthcare providers to minimize distress among their nonbelieving patients.

  18. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  19. Agro-industrial fruit co-products in Colombia, their sources and potential uses in processed food industries: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alarcón García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit agribusinesses generate large amounts of byproductswith diverse characteristics that are inherent to the fruitsfrom which they come, which are a source of great use potentialbecause their compositions include molecules that are currentlyof high interest (antioxidants and dietary fiber. It is clear that,without correct handling and disposal, theses fruits present aproblem due to the environmental pollution that large quantitiesof residues can generate. Although there are varied uses for agroindustrialco-products, this review focused on the potential usesthat co-products could have in different processed food matrices.In this sense, this paper led to the revelation that one of theprincipal objectives of the reviewed research was to conditionco-products for use in processed foods in an attempt to takeadvantage of the bio-active compounds they contain, principallythe natural antioxidant activity, which especially enjoys acceptanceby consumers of processed foods.

  20. Purification and reuse of non-point source wastewater via Myriophyllum-based integrative biotechnology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Shunan; Luo, Pei; Zhuang, Xuliang; Chen, Xiang; Wu, Jinshui

    2018-01-01

    In this review, the applications of Myriophyllum-based integrative biotechnology to remove common non-point source (NPS) pollutants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, and organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides and antibiotics) are summarized. The removal of these pollutants via various mechanisms, including uptake by plant and microbial communities in macrophyte-based treatment systems are discussed. This review highlights the potential use of Myriophyllum biomass to produce animal feed, fertilizer, and other valuable by-products, which can yield cost-effective returns and attract more attention to the regulation and recycling of NPS pollutants. In addition, it demonstrates that utilization of Myriophyllum species is a promising and reliable strategy for wastewater treatment. The future development of sustainable Myriophyllum-based treatment systems is discussed from various perspectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 52.129 - Review of new sources and modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... billion g-cal/h) and burns only gaseous fuel containing not more than 20.0 grain H2 S per 100 stdft3 (45.8 g/100 stdm3); has a heat input of not more than 1 MBtu/h (250 Mg-cal/h) and burns only distillate... anticipated date of initial startup of source not more than 60 days or less than 30 days prior to such date...

  2. Review and evaluation of spark source mass spectrometry as an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beske, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    The analytical features and most important fields of application of spark source mass spectrometry are described with respect to the trace analysis of high-purity materials and the multielement analysis of technical alloys, geochemical and cosmochemical, biological and radioactive materials, as well as in environmental analysis. Comparisons are made to other analytical methods. The distribution of the method as well as opportunities for contract analysis are indicated and developmental tendencies discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi [Departamento de Organizacion de Empresas, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo [Departamento de Electronica y Telecomunicaciones, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  4. European Union's renewable energy sources and energy efficiency policy review. The Spanish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Alegria Mancisidor, Itziar Martinez; Diaz de Basurto Uraga, Pablo; Ruiz de Arbulo Lopez, Patxi; Martinez de Alegria Mancisidor, Inigo

    2009-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) energy objectives, legislation and programmes are determinant for the current strategy for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) in Spain, which is becoming a key element for its international competitiveness. Firstly, this article explores the evolution of the EU's energy strategy, focusing on the adopted legislations and programmes to promote RES and EE. It concludes with an analysis of the impact of those measures in Spain. (author)

  5. A Systematic Literature Review on relationship between agile methods and Open Source Software Development methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Gandomani, Taghi Javdani; Zulzalil, Hazura; Ghani, Abdul Azim Abdul; Sultan, Abu Bakar Md

    2013-01-01

    Agile software development methods (ASD) and open source software development methods (OSSD) are two different approaches which were introduced in last decade and both of them have their fanatical advocators. Yet, it seems that relation and interface between ASD and OSSD is a fertile area and few rigorous studies have been done in this matter. Major goal of this study was assessment of the relation and integration of ASD and OSSD. Analyzing of collected data shows that ASD and OSSD are able t...

  6. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    L. Zhang; S. X. Wang; Q. R. Wu; F. Y. Wang; C.-J. Lin; L. M. Zhang; M. L. Hui; J. M. Hao

    2015-01-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C t...

  7. Air-to-Ground Target Acquisition Source Book: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-09-30

    Verbal Countdown and No- Countdown Conditions . . . ’ 5-50 S-27 The Effects on Target Recognitio Proficiency ofVarying ’ Scn’ Time and of Display Aids...Factors; training and selection, visual response capability and requirements, compatibility, and inter- facing , cognitive aspects. All these factors...performance. 4-17 i As this review has pointed out, we are faced with a difficult set of problems when It comeL to measuring and upecifying inmge qualicy in

  8. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A.

    2017-01-01

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children th...

  9. A review of ion sources for medical accelerators (invited)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2012-02-01

    There are two major medical applications of ion accelerators. One is a production of short-lived isotopes for radionuclide imaging with positron emission tomography and single photon emission computer tomography. Generally, a combination of a source for negative ions (usually H- and/or D-) and a cyclotron is used; this system is well established and distributed over the world. Other important medical application is charged-particle radiotherapy, where the accelerated ion beam itself is being used for patient treatment. Two distinctly different methods are being applied: either with protons or with heavy-ions (mostly carbon ions). Proton radiotherapy for deep-seated tumors has become widespread since the 1990s. The energy and intensity are typically over 200 MeV and several 1010 pps, respectively. Cyclotrons as well as synchrotrons are utilized. The ion source for the cyclotron is generally similar to the type for production of radioisotopes. For a synchrotron, one applies a positive ion source in combination with an injector linac. Carbon ion radiotherapy awakens a worldwide interest. About 6000 cancer patients have already been treated with carbon beams from the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan. These clinical results have clearly verified the advantages of carbon ions. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center and Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center have been successfully launched. Several new facilities are under commissioning or construction. The beam energy is adjusted to the depth of tumors. It is usually between 140 and 430 MeV/u. Although the beam intensity depends on the irradiation method, it is typically several 108 or 109 pps. Synchrotrons are only utilized for carbon ion radiotherapy. An ECR ion source supplies multi-charged carbon ions for this requirement. Some other medical applications with ion beams attract developer's interests. For example, the several types of accelerators are under

  10. Spatial epidemiology of cancer: a review of data sources, methods and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Roquette

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a major concern among chronic diseases today. Spatial epidemiology plays a relevant role in this matter and we present here a review of this subject, including a discussion of the literature in terms of the level of geographic data aggregation, risk factors and methods used to analyse the spatial distribution of patterns and spatial clusters. For this purpose, we performed a websearch in the Pubmed and Web of Science databases including studies published between 1979 and 2015. We found 180 papers from 63 journals and noted that spatial epidemiology of cancer has been addressed with more emphasis during the last decade with research based on data mostly extracted from cancer registries and official mortality statistics. In general, the research questions present in the reviewed papers can be classified into three different sets: i analysis of spatial distribution of cancer and/or its temporal evolution; ii risk factors; iii development of data analysis methods and/or evaluation of results obtained from application of existing methods. This review is expected to help promote research in this area through the identification of relevant knowledge gaps. Cancer’s spatial epidemiology represents an important concern, mainly for public health policies design aimed to minimise the impact of chronic disease in specific populations.

  11. Companion Animals in Natural Disasters: A Scoping Review of Scholarly Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Cheryl; Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    During a disaster, people may make evacuation decisions based on their companion animal's welfare, therefore exposing themselves, their companion animals, and emergency responders to increased risk for injury or death. The loss and suffering of companion animals in disasters causes deep distress, diminishing people's capacity to rebuild their lives. This scoping review presents scholarly research studies and reviews relating to people and their companion animals in the context of disasters, with an aim of informing researchers, policymakers, and practitioners and providing direction for future research. Using the Arksey and O'Malley framework, articles in scholarly journals from 2004 to 2014 are discussed. Analysis included 38 articles: 20 research studies, 12 reviews, and 6 editorials. Findings revealed 2 central themes: companion animals as a risk factor to human health and safety and companion animals being "at risk" themselves. An emerging theme was "responsibility": Who is responsible for companion animals in disasters and how? Understanding the implications of human-nonhuman animal relationships for disaster response and having a broader public consensus on what is owed to animals at times of emergency are important to community preparedness and resilience.

  12. The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  14. A Review of Passive Filters for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    LCL filter is the common interface between the Pulse Width Modulated Voltage Source Converter (PWM VSC) and the utility grid due to high harmonic attenuation capability and reduced size of the passive elements. The present paper investigates the most promising passive damping methods for the LCL...... topology but also propose an overview of high order filters capable to offer even more attenuation than the LCL filter at a reduced size. This is the case of more recently introduced LCL topology with tuned traps. However, it is shown that by decreasing the size of the passive elements the robustness...

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder: a review of potential sources of diagnostic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.W.; Helms, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR arthrography are frequently utilized in the evaluation of shoulder pain and instability. The clinical scenario and imaging findings may be confusing to clinicians and radiologists and may present diagnostic challenges for those involved in evaluating and treating shoulder pathology. Often rotator cuff and labral abnormalities may be coexistent, clinical manifestations of denervation syndromes may be confusing to clinicians, and normal anatomic variations, imaging pitfalls, and various artifacts may cause dilemmas for the radiologist. This article will review the most frequently encountered mimickers and pitfalls of MR imaging of the shoulder. (orig.)

  16. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gase...

  17. The effect of online source type on review attitude through perceived expertise and perceived trustworthiness: a suppression situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study suggests that online source types (typical consumer vs. expert source) can induce differential effects on two dimensions of source credibility - perceived source expertise and perceived source trustworthiness - and, hence, on messages attitudes. This was tested for online product

  18. Review of window and filter requirements for commissioning of the Advanced Photon Source insertion device beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Wang, Zhibi.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) is building 16 insertion device (ID) front ends for the first phase of the project. Eleven of these are to be equipped with the APS Undulator A and the other five with a Wiggler-A-type source. The Undulator A front ends are designed to operate in a ''windowless'' mode using an APS-designed differential pump. However, during beamline commissioning and early operations of the storage ring, it is prudent to install windows to ensure storage ring vacuum safety before easing into windowless operation. However, the window designed for this interim period may not meet all the needs of a user's scientific program. In the early phases of the project through commissioning and start of operations, such a window will permit the user to prepare for his program, while allowing both the user and the facility operators to gain experience for safe phasing into eventual windowless operations. In this report, we will present analysis and design options for a variety of windows particularly suited to either the APS Undulator A front ends or as user windows located in the first optics enclosure (FOE)

  19. Physics of the Advanced Plasma Source: a review of recent experimental and modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R P; Schröder, B; Lapke, M; Storch, R; Styrnoll, T; Awakowicz, P; Harhausen, J; Foest, R; Hannemann, M; Loffhagen, D; Ohl, A

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plasma Source (APS), a gridless hot cathode glow discharge capable of generating an ion beam with an energy of up to 150 eV and a flux of 10 19 s −1 , is a standard industrial tool for the process of plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD). This manuscript details the results of recent experimental and modeling work aimed at a physical understanding of the APS. A three-zone model is proposed which consists of (i) the ionization zone (the source itself) where the plasma is very dense, hot, and has a high ionization rate, (ii) the acceleration zone (of  ∼20 cm extension) where a strong outward-directed electric field accelerates the primary ions to a high kinetic energy, and (iii) a drift zone (the rest of the process chamber) where the emerging plasma beam is further modified by resonant charge exchange collisions that neutralize some of the energetic ions and generate, at the same time, a flux of slow ions. (paper)

  20. A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Reinhard; Panzer, Christian; Resch, Gustav; Ragwitz, Mario; Held, Anne; Reece, Gemma

    2011-01-01

    The core objective of this paper is to elaborate on historically implemented promotion strategies of renewable energy sources and the associated deployment within the European electricity market. Hence, at a first glance, the historic development of renewable energy sources in the electricity (RES-E) sector is addressed on Member State and on sectoral level as well as consequently discussed according to available RES-E potentials and costs. The specific focus of this paper, are promotion strategies for RES-E options as they are the key driver of an efficient and effective RES-E deployment. Therefore, the paper depicts the main types of different promotion schemes and their properties. Additionally, several cases studies of different European Member States show an in-depth analysis of the different RES-E promotion schemes. In this context, special emphasises are put on the question of effective and efficient promotion scheme designs of different RES-E technologies. Generally, conducted research led to the conclusion, that technology specific financial support measures of RES-E performed much more effective and efficient than others did. Hence, it is not all about the common question of feed-in tariffs vs. quota systems based on tradable green certificates, but more about the design criteria of implemented RES-E support schemes. (author)

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Plant Compared with Animal Protein Sources on Features of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Arfsten, Judith; Egli, Léonie; Gaudichon, Claire; Karagounis, Leonidas G; Tomé, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Dietary protein may play an important role in the prevention of metabolic dysfunctions. However, the way in which the protein source affects these dysfunctions has not been clearly established. The aim of the current systematic review was to compare the impact of plant- and animal-sourced dietary proteins on several features of metabolic syndrome in humans. The PubMed database was searched for both chronic and acute interventional studies, as well as observational studies, in healthy humans or those with metabolic dysfunctions, in which the impact of animal and plant protein intake was compared while using the following variables: cholesterolemia and triglyceridemia, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, and body composition. Based on data extraction, we observed that soy protein consumption (with isoflavones), but not soy protein alone (without isoflavones) or other plant proteins (pea and lupine proteins, wheat gluten), leads to a 3% greater decrease in both total and LDL cholesterol compared with animal-sourced protein ingestion, especially in individuals with high fasting cholesterol concentrations. This observation was made when animal proteins were provided as a whole diet rather than given supplementally. Some observational studies reported an inverse association between plant protein intake and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but this was not confirmed by intervention studies. Moreover, plant protein (wheat gluten, soy protein) intake as part of a mixed meal resulted in a lower postprandial insulin response than did whey. This systematic review provides some evidence that the intake of soy protein associated with isoflavones may prevent the onset of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease, i.e., hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, in humans. However, we were not able to draw any further conclusions from the present work on the positive effects of plant proteins relating to glucose homeostasis and body composition. © 2017 American

  2. Medical-attention injuries in community Australian football: a review of 30 years of surveillance data from treatment sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-03-01

    In recent reports, Australian football has outranked other team sports in the frequency of hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) presentations. Understanding the profile of these and other "medical-attention" injuries is vital for developing preventive strategies that can reduce health costs. The objective of this review was to describe the frequency and profile of Australian football injuries presenting for medical attention. A systematic search was carried out to identify peer-reviewed articles and reports presenting original data about Australian football injuries from treatment sources (hospitals, EDs, and health-care clinics). Data extracted included injury frequency and rate, body region, and nature and mechanism of injury. Following literature search and review, 12 publications were included. In most studies, Australian football contributed the greatest number of injuries out of any sport or recreation activity. Hospitals and EDs reported a higher proportion of upper limb than lower limb injuries, whereas the opposite was true for sports medicine clinics. In hospitals, fractures and dislocations were most prevalent out of all injuries. In EDs and clinics, sprains/strains were most common in adults and superficial injuries were predominant in children. Most injuries resulted from contact with other players or falling. The upper limb was the most commonly injured body region for Australian football presentations to hospitals and EDs. Strategies to prevent upper limb injuries could reduce associated public health costs. However, to understand the full extent of the injury problem in football, treatment source surveillance systems should be supplemented with other datasets, including community club-based collections.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Stratev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. Keywords: A. hydrophila, Antimicrobial resistance, Microbial food safety

  4. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balat, Havva

    2008-01-01

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  5. Review of single particle dynamics for third generation light sources through frequency map analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nadolski

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency map analysis [J. Laskar, Icarus 88, 266 (1990] is used here to analyze the transverse dynamics of four third generation synchrotron light sources: the ALS, the ESRF, the SOLEIL project, and Super-ACO. Time variations of the betatron tunes give additional information for the global dynamics of the beam. The main resonances are revealed; a one-to-one correspondence between the configuration space and the frequency space can be performed. We stress that the frequency maps, and therefore the dynamics optimization, are highly sensitive to sextupolar strengths and vary in a large amount from one machine to another. The frequency maps can thus be used to characterize the different machines.

  6. Quality control circles: will they work at Sandia. Findings from a review of 66 sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeys, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Quality Control Circles (QCC's) meet regularly to solve limited, but important, problems related directly to their work. The QCC is organized so that the worker becomes involved in problem solving and quality awareness in meaningful and creative ways. Participation is voluntary. This concept has been successfully used in Japan for two decades. QCC's are now being implemented at an accelerating rate world-wide. There are questions as to QCC's applicability in the United States and in particular with respect to an R and D facility such as Sandia. This paper summarizes information about the QCC concept with respect to its implementation and applicability to Sandia. Information was extracted from 66 sources as noted in an Annotated Bibliography. Analysis techniques used by QCC's were utilized in the construction of this paper, especially with the Annotated Bibliography.

  7. The sources and fate of (210)Po in the urban air: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The origin of (210)Po activity and its fluctuations in the air are discussed in this paper. In the case of atmospheric aerosol samples, a comparison of the (210)Po/(210)Pb and (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios makes it possible not only to determine aerosol residence times but also to appraise the contribution of the unsupported (210)Po coming from other sources than (222)Rn decay, such as human industrial activities, especially coal combustion. A simple mathematical method makes it possible to observe the seasonal fluctuations of the anthropogenic excess of (210)Po in the urban air. The average doses of (210)Po intake with food (including drinking water) and inhalation of urban aerosols are usually lower than those from (210)Po intake by cigarette smokers and negligible in comparison to total natural radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Are There Changes in the Fatty Acid Profile of Breast Milk with Supplementation of Omega-3 Sources? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Yasmin Notarbartolo di Villarosa do; Marano, Daniele; Silva, Leila Maria Lopes da; Guimarães, Aline Carnevale Lia Dias; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Purpose  To evaluate the effect of supplementation with omega-3 sources on the fatty acid composition of human milk. Methods  The review consisted of the search for articles published in PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (Virtual Health Library[VHL]) and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: fatty acids , omega-3 , human milk and supplementation ; for this purpose, we have used the program of research to integrate the services for the maintenance of autonomy (PRISMA) checklist. The following selection criteria were used: articles in English, Portuguese, Spanish or Italian, published between 2000 and 2015, and about studies performed in humans. We found 710 articles that met the established criteria; however, only 22 of them were selected to be part of this study. Results  All studies found a positive relationship between the consumption of omega-3 sources and their concentration in human milk. The differences in the findings are due to the distinct methods used, such as the specific time of the omega-3 supplementation, the type of omega-3 source offered, as well as the sample size. Conclusion  Although the studies were different in several methodological aspects, it was possible to observe the importance of omega-3 supplementation during gestation and/or the puerperium. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  9. Source memory rehabilitation: A review toward recommendations for setting up a strategy training aimed at the "What, Where, and When" of episodic retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Allain, P.

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is a core component of episodic recall as it allows for the reconstruction of contextual details characterizing the acquisition of episodic events. Unlike episodic memory, little is known about source memory rehabilitation. Our review addresses this issue by emphasizing several

  10. Source memory rehabilitation: A review toward recommendations for setting up a strategy training aimed at the "what, where, and when" of episodic retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Haj, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Allain, P.

    2016-01-01

    Source memory is a core component of episodic recall as it allows for the reconstruction of contextual details characterizing the acquisition of episodic events. Unlike episodic memory, little is known about source memory rehabilitation. Our review addresses this issue by emphasizing several

  11. Botanical Sources for Alzheimer's: A Review on Reports From Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Sahragard, Ali; Namdari, Aida; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-11-01

    Herbal medicines for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have attracted considerable attention nowadays. Alzheimer's disease is described in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) by the term Nesyān. In this study, 5 main medicinal medieval Persian manuscripts were reviewed to filter plants reported for the treatment of Nesyān. Databases were searched for related possible mechanisms of action of these medicinal plants. Each herb was searched for along with these keywords: "acetyl and butyryl cholinesterase inhibition," "antioxidant," "anti-inflammatory," and "anti-amyloidogenic." In Total, 44 herbs were used for the treatment of Nesyān; 40 of those were authenticated. Also, 30 plants had at least one of the mechanisms of action that were searched for or related pharmacological functions known for the treatment of AD. In this work, we introduce promising candidates in TPM that could undergo further investigation for identification of their active compounds and clinical validation in the treatment of AD.

  12. Bisphenol A (BPA) in China: a review of sources, environmental levels, and potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y Q; Wong, C K C; Zheng, J S; Bouwman, H; Barra, R; Wahlström, B; Neretin, L; Wong, M H

    2012-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), identified as an endocrine disruptor, is an industrially important chemical that is used as a raw material in the manufacture of many products such as engineering plastics (e.g., epoxy resins/polycarbonate plastics), food cans (i.e., lacquer coatings), and dental composites/sealants. The demand and production capacity of BPA in China have grown rapidly. This trend will lead to much more BPA contamination in the environmental media and in the general population in China. This paper reviews the current literature concerning the pollution status of BPA in China (the mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan) and its potential impact on human health. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to BPA, body burden of the contaminant should be monitored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Human internal and external exposure to PBDEs--a review of levels and sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Thomsen, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature on human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), with particular focus on external exposure routes (e.g. dust, diet, and air) and the resulting internal exposure to PBDEs (e.g. breast milk and blood). Being lipophilic and persistent organic...... ingest more dust than adults. Infants are also exposed to PBDEs via breast milk. Internal human exposure has generally been found to be one order of magnitude larger in North America than in Europe and Asia. These differences cannot solely be explained by the dietary intake as meat products are the only...... food group where some differences has been observed. However, indoor air and dust concentrations have been found to be approximately one order of magnitude higher in North America than in Europe, possibly a result of different fire safety standards. Within Europe, higher PBDE concentrations in dust...

  14. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations.

  15. Stereospermum fimbriatum as a Potential Source of Phytochemicals: A Review of Stereospermum Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Anis F I; Ferdosh, Sahena; Sarker, Md Zaidul I; Sheikh, Hassan I; Ghafoor, Kashif; Yunus, Kamaruzzaman

    Stereospermum fimbriatum is one of the medicinal plants that has been claimed to be used traditionally to treat several illnesses such as stomachache, earache, skin irritation and postpartum illness. The genus of this plant is known to possess medicinal properties in every part of the plant. Therapeutic potential of S. fimbriatum is anticipated based on numerous previous studies that documented variety of phytochemical contents and bioactivity of the genus. The most reported bioactivities of its genus are antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diarrheal and analgesic activities. S. fimbriatum is a rare species that has not been discovered yet. Thus, this review aims at highlighting the potentials of S. fimbriatum by collecting available data on the bioactivities of its genus and set the directions for future research on this plant.

  16. The use of P isotope in the ecology and source environment research: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Qun; Feng Gu

    2011-01-01

    The use of tracers are widely to plant-soi-manue duction-environment systems which study activity of phosphorus, forms changes, utilization and changes. It induces the development of ecology and sorce environment. This review shows the approache of tracer in plant-soi-manue duction-environment systems which include direct labeling technique, indirect labeling technique or exposed directly. The use of stable isotopes of oxygen in phosphate made it possible to quantify the phosphrus cycling under field canditions and aer system. But it is limited in plant and soil systems. NMR techniques was widely used to study the changes of phosphorus forms. It supplies a new tools to qanlity and quantity of diffrenct forms of phophrus. (authors)

  17. Alternative plant protein sources for pigs and chickens in the tropics – nutritional value and constraints: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Lascano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, a large number of smallholder farms contribute significantly to food security by raising pigs and poultry for domestic consumption and for sale on local markets. The high cost and, sometimes, the lack of availability of commercial protein supplements is one of the main limitations to efficient animal production by smallholders. Locally-grown forages and grain legumes offer ecological benefits such as nitrogen fixation, soil improvement, and erosion control which contribute to improve cropping efficiency. Besides these agronomical assets, they can be used as animal feeds in mixed farming systems. In this paper we review options to include locally-grown forages and grain legumes as alternative protein sources in the diets of pigs and poultry in order to reduce farmers’ dependence on externally-purchased protein concentrates. The potential nutritive value of a wide range of forages and grain legumes is presented and discussed. The influence of dietary fibre and plant secondary metabolites contents and their antinutritive consequences on feed intake, digestive processes and animal performances are considered according to the varying composition in those compounds of the different plant species and cultivars covered in this review. Finally, methods to overcome the antinutritive attributes of the plant secondary metabolites using heat, chemical or biological treatment are reviewed regarding their efficiency and their suitability in low input farming systems.

  18. Sediment source fingerprinting as an aid to catchment management: A review of the current state of knowledge and a methodological decision-tree for end-users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A.L; Pulley, S.; Foster, I.D.L; Gellis, Allen; Porto, P.; Horowitz, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The growing awareness of the environmental significance of fine-grained sediment fluxes through catchment systems continues to underscore the need for reliable information on the principal sources of this material. Source estimates are difficult to obtain using traditional monitoring techniques, but sediment source fingerprinting or tracing procedures, have emerged as a potentially valuable alternative. Despite the rapidly increasing numbers of studies reporting the use of sediment source fingerprinting, several key challenges and uncertainties continue to hamper consensus among the international scientific community on key components of the existing methodological procedures. Accordingly, this contribution reviews and presents recent developments for several key aspects of fingerprinting, namely: sediment source classification, catchment source and target sediment sampling, tracer selection, grain size issues, tracer conservatism, source apportionment modelling, and assessment of source predictions using artificial mixtures. Finally, a decision-tree representing the current state of knowledge is presented, to guide end-users in applying the fingerprinting approach.

  19. Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1978-08-01

    The use of the Nuclear Structure References file by the Nuclear Data Project at ORNL is described. Much of the report concerns format information of interest only to those preparing input to the system or otherwise needing detailed knowledge of its internal structure. 17 figures

  20. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  1. Sources of patient uncertainty when reviewing medical disclosure and consent documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan-Kicken, Erin; Mackert, Michael; Guinn, Trey D; Tollison, Andrew C; Breckinridge, Barbara

    2013-02-01

    Despite evidence that medical disclosure and consent forms are ineffective at communicating the risks and hazards of treatment and diagnostic procedures, little is known about exactly why they are difficult for patients to understand. The objective of this research was to examine what features of the forms increase people's uncertainty. Interviews were conducted with 254 individuals. After reading a sample consent form, participants described what they found confusing in the document. With uncertainty management as a theoretical framework, interview responses were analyzed for prominent themes. Four distinct sources of uncertainty emerged from participants' responses: (a) language, (b) risks and hazards, (c) the nature of the procedure, and (d) document composition and format. Findings indicate the value of simplifying medico-legal jargon, signposting definitions of terms, removing language that addresses multiple readers simultaneously, reorganizing bulleted lists of risks, and adding section breaks or negative space. These findings offer suggestions for providing more straightforward details about risks and hazards to patients, not necessarily through greater amounts of information but rather through more clear and sufficient material and better formatting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimal beam sources for Stark decelerators in collision experiments: a tutorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogels, Sjoerd N.; Gao, Zhi; Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de

    2015-01-01

    With the Stark deceleration technique, packets of molecules with a tunable velocity, a narrow velocity spread, and a high state purity can be produced. These tamed molecular beams find applications in high resolution spectroscopy, cold molecule trapping, and controlled scattering experiments. The quality and purity of the packets of molecules emerging from the decelerator critically depend on the specifications of the decelerator, but also on the characteristics of the molecular beam pulse with which the decelerator is loaded. We consider three frequently used molecular beam sources, and discuss their suitability for molecular beam deceleration experiments, in particular with the application in crossed beam scattering in mind. The performance of two valves in particular, the Nijmegen Pulsed Valve and the Jordan Valve, is illustrated by decelerating ND 3 molecules in a 2.6 meter-long Stark decelerator. We describe a protocol to characterize the valve, and to optimally load the pulse of molecules into the decelerator. We characterize the valves regarding opening time duration, optimal valve-to-skimmer distance, mean velocity, velocity spread, state purity, and relative intensity. (orig.)

  3. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase sourceReview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bittencourt Luciano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p1   Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and there is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  4. The CAD drawing as a source of data for robot programming purposes – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foit Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are widely used in mass production, successfully replacing the workers during repetitive tasks. The lack of direct human participation in the production process involves the necessity of programming of the machines, which is mostly the time-consuming process. Most of the operations are well described in the process documentation, but some actions require the use of complicated paths, like for example welding, laser or water cutting, edge grinding, application of liquid sealants or films of paint etc. All of the mentioned activities need the precise movements of robot’s effector and this is - in many cases - connected with the necessity of entering of many points that approximate the path. One of the ways to solve this problem is the possibility of generating the complex path automatically, using the information from the technical documentation. This paper presents such approach that uses the CAD drawings as a data source. The available literature presents this problem mainly in the aspects of large software applications, but this paper was focused on presenting the problems of the proper analysis of the drawing and how to process the data to the form that can be used during robot programming.

  5. Use of transglutaminases in foods and potential utilization of plants as a transglutaminase sourceReview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Luciano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminases (TGases are enzymes able to catalyze acyl-transfer reactions introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, peptides and primary amines. Animal TGases were the first studied and are divided in nine different groups of isoenzymes. They have a wide range of functions in the metabolism of most animal cells, and share the characteristic of being Ca2+-dependent. Microbial and plant TGases were also identified, and here is a vast heterogeneity among their amino acid sequences. Interestingly, it seems that all transglutaminases share a specific amino acid triad of Cys-His-Asp in their catalytic site, which can be found in all tertiary structures of the enzymes yet studied so far. Microbial TGases are the most widely used for food modification due to lower costs and high yields involved with their extraction and purification when compared to mammal sources. TGases are ubiquitously found in a variety of plants, and their utilization for food transformation has been proposed. However, there is only a single attempt using vegetal TGase in food systems, where apple pomace was used to improve the quality of pork meat. The transference of mammalian TGase genes to plants has also been considered and they were found to be successfully expressed in rice and tobacco leaves. These results lead to a new approach, where TGases could be literally farmed for food utilization.

  6. A technological review on electric vehicle DC charging stations using photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Cheddadi; Fatima, Errahimi; najia, Es-sbai; Chakib, Alaoui

    2018-05-01

    Within the next few years, Electrified vehicles are destined to become the essential component of the transport field. Consequently, the charging infrastructure should be developed in the same time. Among this substructure, Charging stations photovoltaic-assisted are attracting a substantial interest due to increased environmental awareness, cost reduction and rise in efficiency of the PV modules. The intention of this paper is to review the technological status of Photovoltaic–Electric vehicle (PV-EV) charging stations during the last decade. The PV-EV charging station is divided into two categories, which are PV-grid and PV-standalone charging systems. From a practical point view, the distinction between the two architectures is the bidirectional inverter, which is added to link the station to the smart grid. The technological infrastructure includes the common hardware components of every station, namely: PV array, dc-dc converter provided with MPPT control, energy storage unit, bidirectional dc charger and inverter. We investigate, compare and evaluate many valuable researches that contain the design and control of PV-EV charging system. Additionally, this concise overview reports the studies that include charging standards, the power converters topologies that focus on the adoption of Vehicle-to grid technology and the control for both PV–grid and PV standalone DC charging systems.

  7. Review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the severe accident source term reassessment study (BMI-2104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.

    1985-04-01

    The determination of severe accident source terms must, by necessity it seems, rely heavily on the use of complex computer codes. Source term acceptability, therefore, rests on the assessed validity of such codes. Consequently, one element of NRC's recent efforts to reassess LWR severe accident source terms is to provide a review of the status of validation of the computer codes used in the reassessment. The results of this review is the subject of this document. The separate review documents compiled in this report were used as a resource along with the results of the BMI-2104 study by BCL and the QUEST study by SNL to arrive at a more-or-less independent appraisal of the status of source term modeling at this time

  8. Review on Sources and Handling Method of Pesticide Residues in Animal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indraningsih

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Field studies and literature search showed that some pesticide residues either organochlorines (OC or organophosphates (OP were detected in animal products (meat and milk . Pesticide residues in meat collected from West Java were detected at the level of 0 .8 ppb lindane and 62 ppb diazinon . While in meat from Lampung was detected at the level of 7 ppb lindane . 2 .7 heptachlor, 0 .8 endosulfan and 0 .5 ppb aldrin . Furthermore, pesticide residues were also detected in the milk collected from West, Central and East Java . The levels of lindane were 2,3 ; 15,9 ; 0,2 ppb ; heptachlor 8 ; 0 .4 and 0,05 ppb; diazinon 8 ; 0 and 1,8 ppb; CPM 0,4 ; 0,8 and 0 ppb ; endosulfan 0,1 ; 0,04 and 0,05 ppb for West, Central and East Java, respectively . The source of pesticide contamination in animal products is generally originated from feed materials, fodders . contaminated soils and water around the farm areas . Minimalization approach of pesticide residues in animal products could be conducted integratedly, such as through chemical process, biodegradation using microorganisms . Organic farming system is recognised as an alternative that may be applied to minimise contamination on agricultural land, eventually reducing pesticide residues in the agricultural products . Feeding with organic agricultural by-products with low pesticide residues appears to reduce pesticide residues in animal products . In order to eliminate pesticide contamination in soil, it has to be conducted progressively by implementing sustainable organic farming .

  9. A review of net metering mechanism for electricity renewable energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullikkas, Andreas; Kourtis, George; Hadjipaschalis, Ioannis [Electricity Authority of Cyprus, P.O. Box 24506, 1399 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an overview of the net metering mechanism for renewable energy sources for power generation (RES-E) systems is carried out. In particular, the net metering concept is examined with its benefits and misconceptions. Furthermore, a survey of the current operational net metering schemes in different countries in the world, such as, in Europe, USA, Canada, Thailand and Australia, is carried out. The survey indicated that there are different net metering mechanisms depending on the particularities of each country (or state in the case of USA). Especially, in Europe, only five countries are using net metering in a very simple form, such as, any amount of energy produced by the eligible RES-E technology is compensated from the energy consumed by the RES-E producer, which results to either a less overall electricity bill or to an exception in payment energy taxes. In the USA and the USA territories, any customer’s net excess generation is credited to the customer’s next electricity bill for a 12-month billing cycle at various rates or via a combination between rates. The actual type of net excess generation (NEG) credit is decided by a number of set criteria, such as the type of RES-E technology, the RES-E capacity limit, the type of customer and the type of utility. Regarding any excess credit at the end of the 12-month billing cycle, this is either granted to the utilities, or carries over indefinitely to the customer’s next electricity bill, or is reconciled annually at any rate, or provides an option to the customer to choose between the last two options.

  10. Radioactive Waste Management in the USSR: A review of unclassified sources, 1963-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.J.; Schneider, K.J.

    1990-03-01

    The Soviet Union operates a vast and growing radioactive waste management system. Detailed information on this system is rare and a general overall picture only emerges after a review of a great deal of literature. Little is known about Soviet waste management practices related to uranium mining, conversion, and fuel fabrication processes. However, releases of radioactive material to the environment from uranium mining and milling operations are causing public concern. Official Soviet policy calls for a closed fuel cycle, with reprocessing of power reactor fuel that has been cooled for five years. Information on reprocessing in the Soviet Union has been severely limited until 1989, when two reprocessing sites were acknowledge by the Soviets. The Soviets have announced that their high-level waste management plan is to (1) store liquid wastes for 3--5 years; (2) incorporate the waste into glass (at a final glass volume of 100--500 liters/MT of fuel reprocessed); (3) set it aside in air-cooled storage for 30--50 years; and (4) provide for its final disposal in a deep geologic repository. Millions of cures of liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes have been disposed of by well injection where they were supposedly contained by watertight rock strata. Some gaseous wastes were also disposed of by well injection. This practice is not referred to in recent literature and thus may not be widely used today. Deep geologic disposal of vitrified high-level waste has been studied over the last decade in the Soviet Union. Key disposal concepts include mining shafts, deep drill holes, and underground excavations. 209 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Review of current GPS methodologies for producing accurate time series and their error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxing; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel; Yu, Kegen; Hua, Xianghong; Jiang, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an important tool to observe and model geodynamic processes such as plate tectonics and post-glacial rebound. In the last three decades, GPS has seen tremendous advances in the precision of the measurements, which allow researchers to study geophysical signals through a careful analysis of daily time series of GPS receiver coordinates. However, the GPS observations contain errors and the time series can be described as the sum of a real signal and noise. The signal itself can again be divided into station displacements due to geophysical causes and to disturbing factors. Examples of the latter are errors in the realization and stability of the reference frame and corrections due to ionospheric and tropospheric delays and GPS satellite orbit errors. There is an increasing demand on detecting millimeter to sub-millimeter level ground displacement signals in order to further understand regional scale geodetic phenomena hence requiring further improvements in the sensitivity of the GPS solutions. This paper provides a review spanning over 25 years of advances in processing strategies, error mitigation methods and noise modeling for the processing and analysis of GPS daily position time series. The processing of the observations is described step-by-step and mainly with three different strategies in order to explain the weaknesses and strengths of the existing methodologies. In particular, we focus on the choice of the stochastic model in the GPS time series, which directly affects the estimation of the functional model including, for example, tectonic rates, seasonal signals and co-seismic offsets. Moreover, the geodetic community continues to develop computational methods to fully automatize all phases from analysis of GPS time series. This idea is greatly motivated by the large number of GPS receivers installed around the world for diverse applications ranging from surveying small deformations of civil engineering structures (e

  12. A review of total & added sugar intakes and dietary sources in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaïs-Braesco, Véronique; Sluik, Diewertje; Maillot, Matthieu; Kok, Frans; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-01-21

    Public health policies, including in Europe, are considering measures and recommendations to limit the intake of added or free sugars. For such policies to be efficient and monitored, a precise knowledge of the current situation regarding sugar intake in Europe is needed. This review summarizes published or re-analyzed data from 11 representative surveys in Belgium, France, Denmark, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Spain and the UK. Relative intakes were higher in children than in adults: total sugars ranged between 15 and 21% of energy intake in adults and between 16 and 26% in children. Added sugars (or non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES), in the UK) contributed 7 to 11% of total energy intake in adults and represented a higher proportion of children's energy intake (11 to 17%). Educational level did not significantly affect intakes of total or added sugars in France and the Netherlands. Sweet products (e.g. confectionery, chocolates, cakes and biscuits, sugar, and jam) were major contributors to total sugars intake in all countries, genders and age groups, followed by fruits, beverages and dairy products. Fruits contributed more and beverages contributed less to adults' total sugars intakes than to children's. Added sugars were provided mostly by sweet products (36 to 61% in adults and 40 to 50% in children), followed by beverages (12 to 31% in adults and 20 to 34% in children, fruit juices excluded), then by dairy products (4 to 15% in adults and 6 to 18% in children). Caution is needed, however, as survey methodologies differ on important items such as dietary data collection, food composition tables or estimation of added sugars. Cross-country comparisons are thus not meaningful and overall information might thus not be robust enough to provide a solid basis for implementation of policy measures. Data nevertheless confirm that intakes of total and added sugars are high in the European countries considered, especially in children, and point to

  13. Review and evaluation of the Millstone Unit 3 probabilistic safety study. Containment failure modes, radiological source - terms and offsite consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Pratt, W.; Ludewig, H.

    1985-09-01

    A technical review and evaluation of the Millstone Unit 3 probabilistic safety study has been performed. It was determined that; (1) long-term damage indices (latent fatalities, person-rem, etc.) are dominated by late failure of the containment, (2) short-term damage indices (early fatalities, etc.) are dominated by bypass sequences for internally initiated events, while severe seismic sequences can also contribute significantly to early damage indices. These overall estimates of severe accident risk are extremely low compared with other societal sources of risk. Furthermore, the risks for Millstone-3 are comparable to risks from other nuclear plants at high population sites. Seismically induced accidents dominate the severe accident risks at Millstone-3. Potential mitigative features were shown not to be cost-effective for internal events. Value-impact analysis for seismic events showed that a manually actuated containment spray system might be cost-effective

  14. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinya; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel; Rauchenstein, Lynn T.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on measurements obtained from sensors (i.e., receivers) is an important research area that is attracting much interest. In this paper, we review several representative localization algorithms that use time of arrivals (TOAs) and time difference of arrivals (TDOAs) to achieve high signal source position estimation accuracy when a transmitter is in the line-of-sight of a receiver. Circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) position estimation approaches both use nonlinear equations that relate the known locations of receivers and unknown locations of transmitters. Estimation of the location of transmitters using the standard nonlinear equations may not be very accurate because of receiver location errors, receiver measurement errors, and computational efficiency challenges that result in high computational burdens. Least squares and maximum likelihood based algorithms have become the most popular computational approaches to transmitter location estimation. In this paper, we summarize the computational characteristics and position estimation accuracies of various positioning algorithms. By improving methods for estimating the time-of-arrival of transmissions at receivers and transmitter location estimation algorithms, transmitter location estimation may be applied across a range of applications and technologies such as radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  15. Analysing concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalographic data: A review and introduction to the open-source TESA software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogasch, Nigel C; Sullivan, Caley; Thomson, Richard H; Rose, Nathan S; Bailey, Neil W; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Farzan, Faranak; Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C

    2017-02-15

    The concurrent use of transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) is growing in popularity as a method for assessing various cortical properties such as excitability, oscillations and connectivity. However, this combination of methods is technically challenging, resulting in artifacts both during recording and following typical EEG analysis methods, which can distort the underlying neural signal. In this article, we review the causes of artifacts in EEG recordings resulting from TMS, as well as artifacts introduced during analysis (e.g. as the result of filtering over high-frequency, large amplitude artifacts). We then discuss methods for removing artifacts, and ways of designing pipelines to minimise analysis-related artifacts. Finally, we introduce the TMS-EEG signal analyser (TESA), an open-source extension for EEGLAB, which includes functions that are specific for TMS-EEG analysis, such as removing and interpolating the TMS pulse artifact, removing and minimising TMS-evoked muscle activity, and analysing TMS-evoked potentials. The aims of TESA are to provide users with easy access to current TMS-EEG analysis methods and to encourage direct comparisons of these methods and pipelines. It is hoped that providing open-source functions will aid in both improving and standardising analysis across the field of TMS-EEG research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Distribution and importance of microplastics in the marine environment: A review of the sources, fate, effects, and potential solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Fauziah, S H

    2017-05-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller [Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Brachytherapy source calibration, reviews, and consistency of 192Ir high-dose rate afterloading sources supplied over the period of 10 years: a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagappan, Balasubramanian; Kumar, Yogesh; Patel, Narayan P.; Dhull, Anil Kumar; Kaushal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Measurement and verification of strength of monomodal high-dose rate (mHDR) 192 Ir source supplied by the vendor is a major part of quality assurance program. Reference air kerma rate (RAKR) or air kerma strength (AKS) is the recommended quantity to specify the strength of gamma emitting brachytherapy sources. Physicist in our institution performed the source calibration as soon as each 192 Ir new source was loaded on the mHDR afterloading machine. The AKS accurately measured using a physikalisch technische werkstatten (PTW) re-entrant chamber-electrometer system in a scatter-free geometry was used to compute the air kerma rate (AKR) at one-meter distance in the air. To ensure accurate dose delivery to brachytherapy patients, measured AKS or RAKR should be entered correctly in both HDR treatment console station (TCS) as well as treatment planning system (TPS) associated with it. The clinical outcome mainly depends not only on the accuracy of the source strength measurement in the hospital but also on the correct source strength entered into both TCS and TPS software. A retrospective study on 22 mHDR V2 sources supplied by the vendor for the period of 10 years was taken up to access the accuracy of source strength supplied to the Radiotherapy department. The results are analyzed and reported. The accuracy in measured RAKR of all 22 sources supplied by vendor was well within the tolerance limits set by the national regulatory body and international recommendations. The deviations observed between measured RAKR versus manufacturer's quoted RAKR were in the range from -1.71% to +1.15%. In conclusion, the measured RAKR have good agreement with vendor quoted RAKR values. (author)

  19. Methanol as a High Purity Hydrogen Source for Fuel Cells: A Brief Review of Catalysts and Rate Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madej-Lachowska Maria

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, therefore many hydrogen production methods are developed. At present, fuel cells are of great interest due to their energy efficiency and environmental benefits. A brief review of effective formation methods of hydrogen was conducted. It seems that hydrogen from steam reforming of methanol process is the best fuel source to be applied in fuel cells. In this process Cu-based complex catalysts proved to be the best. In presented work kinetic equations from available literature and catalysts are reported. However, hydrogen produced even in the presence of the most selective catalysts in this process is not pure enough for fuel cells and should be purified from CO. Currently, catalysts for hydrogen production are not sufficiently active in oxidation of carbon monoxide. A simple and effective method to lower CO level and obtain clean H2 is the preferential oxidation of monoxide carbon (CO-PROX. Over new CO-PROX catalysts the level of carbon monoxide can be lowered to a sufficient level of 10 ppm.

  20. Natural killer cells as a promising tool to tackle cancer-A review of sources, methodologies, and potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethy, Senthilkumar; Dedeepiya, Vidyasagar Devaprasad; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Rajmohan, Mathaiyan; Karthick, Ramalingam; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2017-07-04

    Immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising tool to tackle malignancies, both solid tumors and selected hematological tumors. Vast experiences in literature have documented their safety and added survival benefits when such cell-based therapies are combined with the existing treatment options. Numerous methodologies of processing and in vitro expansion protocols of immune cells, such as the dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, NKT cells, αβ T cells, so-called activated T lymphocytes, γδ T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and lymphokine-activated killer cells, have been reported for use in cell-based therapies. Among this handful of immune cells of significance, the NK cells stand apart from the rest for not only their direct cytotoxic ability against cancer cells but also their added advantage, which includes their capability of (i) action through both innate and adaptive immune mechanism, (ii) tackling viruses too, giving benefits in conditions where viral infections culminate in cancer, and (iii) destroying cancer stem cells, thereby preventing resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This review thoroughly analyses the sources of such NK cells, methods for expansion, and the future potentials of taking the in vitro expanded allogeneic NK cells with good cytotoxic ability as a drug for treating cancer and/or viral infection and even as a prophylactic tool for prevention of cancer after initial remission.

  1. Review of the scientific results obtained at the research reactor-booster IBR-30 and the Program of investigations at the neutron source IREN

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, W

    2002-01-01

    Brief review of the main scientific results obtained at research reactor booster IBR-30 and its predecessor IBR and IBR-1 for the period 1960 - 2001 is presented. The thesis of the scientific program for the upgrade of IBR-30 resonance neutron source IREN are adduced

  2. A review of recent work on the Discrete Particle Method at the University of Twente : An introduction to the open-source package MercuryDPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thornton, Anthony Richard; Krijgsman, Dinant; te Voortwis, Ate; Ogarko, V.; Luding, Stefan; Fransen, Rudi; Gonzalez, Sebastian; Bokhove, Onno; Imole, Olukayode Isaiah; Weinhart, Thomas; Graham Mustoe,

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we review some recent advances in DEM (DPM) modelling undertaken at the University of Twente. We introduce the new open-source package MercuryDPM that we have been developing over the last few years. MercuryDPM is an object-oriented program with a simple C++ implementation and

  3. Sources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F.; Murith, Ch.; Saint-Paul, N.; Colson, P.; Jouve, A.; Feron, F.; Haranger, D.; Mathieu, P.; Paycha, F.; Israel, S.; Auboiroux, B.; Chartier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  4. Sources of polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, L.

    1983-01-01

    Various sources of polarized neutrons are reviewed. Monoenergetic source produced with unpolarized or polarized beams, white sources of polarized neutrons, production by transmissions through polarized hydrogen targets and polarized thermal neutronsare discussed, with appropriate applications included. (U.K.)

  5. Modern state of the application of ionizing radiation for protection of environment. 1. Ionizing radiation sources. Purification of natural and drinking water (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, AK.

    2000-01-01

    Review of modern state of the application of ionizing radiations for protection of environment and natural and drinking water purification is presented. Building of installations with electron accelerators with summarized power of beam ∼0.6 MW signifies that application of ionizing radiation for ecological needs increase. It is pointed out that extensible application of electron accelerators is explained by their safety and efficiency as compared with gamma-sources. New information about ionizing radiation sources, radiation-chemical purification of polluted natural and drinking water, mechanisms of processes taking place during treatment by ionizing radiations are generalized [ru

  6. Adopting Open-Source Software Applications in U. S. Higher Education: A Cross-Disciplinary Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2009-01-01

    Higher Education institutions in the United States are considering Open Source software applications such as the Moodle and Sakai course management systems and the Kuali financial system to build integrated learning environments that serve both academic and administrative needs. Open Source is presumed to be more flexible and less costly than…

  7. Lessons Learned from Characterization, Performance Assessment, and EPA Regulatory Review of the 1996 Actinide Source Term for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, K.W.; Moore, R.C.; Nowak, E.J.; Papenguth, H.W.; Jow, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of transuranic waste from defense activities. In 1996, the DOE submitted the Title 40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The CCA included a probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to establish compliance with the quantitative release limits defined in 40 CFR 191.13. An experimental program to collect data relevant to the actinide source term began around 1989, which eventually supported the 1996 CCA PA actinide source term model. The actinide source term provided an estimate of mobile dissolved and colloidal Pu, Am, U, Th, and Np concentrations in their stable oxidation states, and accounted for effects of uncertainty in the chemistry of brines in waste disposal areas. The experimental program and the actinide source term included in the CCA PA underwent EPA review lasting more than 1 year. Experiments were initially conducted to develop data relevant to the wide range of potential future conditions in waste disposal areas. Interim, preliminary performance assessments and actinide source term models provided insight allowing refinement of experiments and models. Expert peer review provided additional feedback and confidence in the evolving experimental program. By 1995, the chemical database and PA predictions of WIPP performance were considered reliable enough to support the decision to add an MgO backfill to waste rooms to control chemical conditions and reduce uncertainty in actinide concentrations, especially for Pu and Am. Important lessons learned through the characterization, PA modeling, and regulatory review of the actinide source term are (1) experimental characterization and PA should evolve together, with neither activity completely dominating the other, (2) the understanding of physical processes

  8. Selection of earthquake resistant design criteria for nuclear power plants: Methodology and technical cases: Dislocation models of near-source earthquake ground motion: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luco, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    The solutions available for a number of dynamic dislocation fault models are examined in an attempt at establishing some of the expected characteristics of earthquake ground motion in the near-source region. In particular, solutions for two-dimensional anti-plane shear and plane-strain models as well as for three-dimensional fault models in full space, uniform half-space and layered half-space media are reviewed

  9. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - Ecological Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). This study reviews the extant cost function literature linking ...

  10. The Effects of Source Water Quality on Drinking Water Treatment Costs: A Review and Synthesis of Empirical Literature - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed protection, and associated in situ water quality improvements, has received considerable attention as a means of mitigating health risks and avoiding expenditures at drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). In this presentation, we review the literature linking raw wate...

  11. 78 FR 4339 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Revisions to the New Source Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ..., and conflict with our intentions for the use of SILs to demonstrate compliance with CAA section 163(a... submitted on May 23, 2011, will remain before EPA for review. EPA will revisit these submitted revisions...

  12. Review of particle-in-cell modeling for the extraction region of large negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünderlich, D.; Mochalskyy, S.; Montellano, I. M.; Revel, A.

    2018-05-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are used since the early 1960s for calculating self-consistently the motion of charged particles in plasmas, taking into account external electric and magnetic fields as well as the fields created by the particles itself. Due to the used very small time steps (in the order of the inverse plasma frequency) and mesh size, the computational requirements can be very high and they drastically increase with increasing plasma density and size of the calculation domain. Thus, usually small computational domains and/or reduced dimensionality are used. In the last years, the available central processing unit (CPU) power strongly increased. Together with a massive parallelization of the codes, it is now possible to describe in 3D the extraction of charged particles from a plasma, using calculation domains with an edge length of several centimeters, consisting of one extraction aperture, the plasma in direct vicinity of the aperture, and a part of the extraction system. Large negative hydrogen or deuterium ion sources are essential parts of the neutral beam injection (NBI) system in future fusion devices like the international fusion experiment ITER and the demonstration reactor (DEMO). For ITER NBI RF driven sources with a source area of 0.9 × 1.9 m2 and 1280 extraction apertures will be used. The extraction of negative ions is accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons which are deflected onto an electron dump. Typically, the maximum negative extracted ion current is limited by the amount and the temporal instability of the co-extracted electrons, especially for operation in deuterium. Different PIC codes are available for the extraction region of large driven negative ion sources for fusion. Additionally, some effort is ongoing in developing codes that describe in a simplified manner (coarser mesh or reduced dimensionality) the plasma of the whole ion source. The presentation first gives a brief overview of the current status of the ion

  13. Characterization of domestic gray water from point source to determine the potential for urban residential reuse: a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin, Golda A.; Gopalsamy, Poyyamoli; Muthu, Nandhivarman

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to discern the domestic gray water (GW) sources that is least polluting, at the urban households of India, by examining the GW characteristics, comparing with literature data, reuse standards and suitable treatment technologies. In view of this, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of domestic GW originating from bath, wash basin, laundry and kitchen sources are determined and compared with established standards for reuse requirements. Quality of different gray water sources is characterized with respect to the physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, ground element and heavy metal properties. The pollutant loads indicate that the diversion techniques are not suitable for household application and, therefore, treatment is necessary prior to storage and reuse. It is observed that the total volume of GW generated exceeds the reuse requirement for suggested reuse such as for flushing and gardening/irrigation. In spite of generating less volume, the kitchen source is found to be the major contributor for most of the pollutant load and, therefore, not recommended to be considered for treatment. It is concluded that treatment of GW from bathroom source alone is sufficient to meet the onsite reuse requirements and thereby significantly reduce the potable water consumption by 28.5 %. Constructed wetland systems and constructed soil filters are suggested as suitable treatment alternatives owing to its ability to treat highly variable pollutant load with lower operational and maintenance cost, which is more practical for tropical and developing countries.

  14. Towards the Application of Open Source Software in Developing National Electronic Health Record-Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) is a repository of patient health information shared among multiple authorized users. As a modern method of storing and processing health information, it is a solution for improving quality, safety and efficiency of patient care and health system. However, establishment of EHR requires a significant investment of time and money. While many of healthcare providers have very limited capital, application of open source software would be considered as a solution in developing national electronic health record especially in countries with low income. The evidence showed that financial limitation is one of the obstacles to implement electronic health records in developing countries. Therefore, establishment of an open source EHR system capable of modifications according to the national requirements seems to be inevitable in Iran. The present study identifies the impact of application of open source software in developing national electronic health record in Iran.

  15. The Reviewing of Distributed Power Sources Impact on Fallout’s Localization in 22 kV Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bracinik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to point out some facts that will occur by fault localization in 22 kV networks after the implementation of distributed power sources, especially wind power plants. This paper describes possible connection of these sources into power system in regard to their rated output. It also presents short theoretical background for short circuit calculation in 22 kV network. Then several examples explaining how the point of wind power plant connection can influence network’s operation during short-circuits and consequential fault’s localization are described in the second part of this paper

  16. A Review of Passive Power Filters for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Voltage-Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beres, Remus Narcis; Wang, Xiongfei; Liserre, Marco

    2016-01-01

    and source impedances. Furthermore, the stabilizing effect is more difficult to be guaranteed for cost-optimized filters, which are characterized by low inductance and high capacitance passive components. In this paper, several passive filter topologies used to interface voltage source converters......In order to reduce size and cost, high-order passive filters are generally preferred in power converters to cancel out high frequency harmonics caused by pulse width modulation. However, the filter resonance peaks may require the use of passive dampers to stabilize the interactions between the load...

  17. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  18. Speaking for Whom? Using Opera Reviews from Strasbourg (1887–1918) to Clarify the Problematical Source Character of Music Criticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gessel, Jeroen; Cascudo García-Villaraco, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Using Niklas Luhmann's observations on the functioning of media, this essay aims to show by analyzing the critics's self-image, their relations with authorities and theatre management, performers, and audiences that music criticism is not necessarily a reliable source about historic events –

  19. A review on potential use of low-temperature water in the urban environment as a thermal-energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laanearu, J.; Borodinecs, A.; Rimeika, M.; Palm, B.

    2017-10-01

    The thermal-energy potential of urban water sources is largely unused to accomplish the up-to-date requirements of the buildings energy demands in the cities of Baltic Sea Region. A reason is that the natural and excess-heat water sources have a low temperature and heat that should be upgraded before usage. The demand for space cooling should increase in near future with thermal insulation of buildings. There are a number of options to recover heat also from wastewater. It is proposed that a network of heat extraction and insertion including the thermal-energy recovery schemes has potential to be broadly implemented in the region with seasonally alternating temperature. The mapping of local conditions is essential in finding the suitable regions (hot spots) for future application of a heat recovery schemes by combining information about demands with information about available sources. The low-temperature water in the urban environment is viewed as a potential thermal-energy source. To recover thermal energy efficiently, it is also essential to ensure that it is used locally, and adverse effects on environment and industrial processes are avoided. Some characteristics reflecting the energy usage are discussed in respect of possible improvements of energy efficiency.

  20. Health information needs, source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer across the care continuum: protocol for a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Carol A; Martin, M Pilar; Jones, Ray B

    2017-02-17

    The health information needs, information source preferences and engagement behaviours of women with metastatic breast cancer (mBC) depend on personal characteristics such as education level, prior knowledge, clinical complications, comorbidities and where they are in the cancer journey. A thorough understanding of the information behaviours of women living with mBC is essential to the provision of optimal care. A preliminary literature review suggests that there is little research on this topic, but that there may be lessons from a slightly broader literature. This review will identify what is known and what is not known about the health information needs, acquisition and influences of women with mBC across the care continuum. Findings will help to identify research needs and specific areas where in-depth systematic reviews may be feasible, as well as inform evidence-based interventions to address the health information needs of female patients with mBC with different demographics and characteristics and across the mBC journey. A scoping review will be performed using the guidelines of Arksey and O'Malley as updated by subsequent authors to systematically search scientific and grey literature for articles in English that discuss the health information needs, source preferences, engagement styles, and associated personal and medical attributes of women ≥18 years living with mBC at different stages of the disease course. A variety of databases (including Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Academic Search Premier, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and PQDT Open), oncology, patient advocacy and governmental websites will be searched from inception to present day. Research and non-research literature will be included; no study designs will be excluded. The six-stage Arksey and O'Malley scoping review methodological framework involves

  1. 75 FR 26102 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans, State of California, San Joaquin Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... agricultural sources from the offset requirement does not conflict with the Clean Air Act. Dairy Cares points... District, New Source Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA... provide for review of new and modified stationary sources (``new source review'' or NSR) within the...

  2. Energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the available sources of energy in the world is presented. About 80 percent of primary energy utilization is based on fossile fuels, and their dominant role is not expected to change in the foreseeable future. Data are given on petroleum, natural gas and coal based power production. The role and economic aspects of nuclear power are analyzed. A brief summary of renewable energy sources is presented. The future prospects of the world's energy resources are discussed, and the special position of Hungary regarding fossil, nuclear and renewable energy and the country's energy potential is evaluated. (R.P.)

  3. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-05

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  4. Review: Niels C. Taubert (2006. Produktive Anarchie? Netzwerke freier Softwareentwicklung [Productive Anarchy? Networks of Open Source Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Groß

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is software designed to allow anyone to use and make changes in the software. This practice often renders the product superior to more centralized models such as those used in commercial software companies. How is such a phenomenon possible in a time where nothing seems to be acquirable save by purchase? Niels C. TAUBERT's book Productive Anarchy? Networks of Open Source Software Development aims at a sociological understanding of the prerequisites and conditions for the success of open source software. One of the conclusions of TAUBERT's book is that the process of open software development needs to be understood as adaptive and experimental. A continuous feedback between the context of production and the context of application is the basis for robust and successful software production. One of the surprising results of the book is that the most important requirement for this feedback process is a set of norms—neutrality, communism, disinterestedness, and universalism—norms that Robert MERTON associated with academic science in the 1940s. If TAUBERT is right that these norms are to be found outside the world of institutional science in open source software development projects today, then his case study can be seen as an indicator for a new form of knowledge production in the 21st century, where the social relevance and responsibility of a research process are keys to successful innovation. With this book, which deserves a wide readership, TAUBERT makes an important contribution to our understanding of the successful organization of technology development. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701109

  5. Evidence-based review of lasers, light sources and photodynamic therapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hædersdal, Merete; Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Results A total of 16 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 3 controlled trials (CT) were identified, involving a total of 587 patients. Interventions included photodynamic therapy (PDT; 5 RCTs), infrared lasers (4 RCTs), broad-spectrum light sources...... outcomes for PDT. We recommend that patients are preoperatively informed of the existing evidence, which indicates that optical treatments today are not included among first line treatments Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  6. Mercury from combustion sources: a review of the chemical species emitted and their transport in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Different species of mercury have different physical/chemical properties and thus behave quite differentially in air pollution control equipment and in the atmosphere. In general, emission of mercury from coal combustion sources are approximately 20-50% elemental mercury (Hg 0 ) and 50-80% divalent mercury (Hg(II)), which may be predominantly HgCl 2 . Emissions of mercury from waste incinerators are approximately 10-20% Hg 0 and 75-85% Hg(II). The partitioning of mercury in flue gas between the elemental and divalent forms may be dependent on the concentration of particulate carbon, HCl and other pollutants in the stack emissions. The emission of mercury from combustion facilities depends on the species in the exhaust stream and the type of air pollution control equipment used at the source. Air pollution control equipment for mercury removal at combustion facilities includes activated carbon injection, sodium sulfide injection and wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization. White Hg(II) is water-soluble and may be removed form the atmosphere by wet and dry deposition close to the combustion sources, the combination of a high vapor pressure and low water-solubility facilitate the long-range transport of Hg 0 in the atmosphere. Background mercury in the atmosphere is predominantly Hg 0 . Elemental mercury is eventually removed from the atmosphere by dry deposition onto surfaces and by wet deposition after oxidation to water-soluble, divalent mercury. 62 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  7. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  8. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural ...... The Drosophila model (New York: Oxford University Press) .... second part of his big species book written from 1856–1858. (New ...

  9. Concise Review: Human Dermis as an Autologous Source of Stem Cells for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapniarsky, Natalia; Arzi, Boaz; Hu, Jerry C; Nolta, Jan A; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-10-01

    The exciting potential for regenerating organs from autologous stem cells is on the near horizon, and adult dermis stem cells (DSCs) are particularly appealing because of the ease and relative minimal invasiveness of skin collection. A substantial number of reports have described DSCs and their potential for regenerating tissues from mesenchymal, ectodermal, and endodermal lineages; however, the exact niches of these stem cells in various skin types and their antigenic surface makeup are not yet clearly defined. The multilineage potential of DSCs appears to be similar, despite great variability in isolation and in vitro propagation methods. Despite this great potential, only limited amounts of tissues and clinical applications for organ regeneration have been developed from DSCs. This review summarizes the literature on DSCs regarding their niches and the specific markers they express. The concept of the niches and the differentiation capacity of cells residing in them along particular lineages is discussed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of widely used methods to demonstrate lineage differentiation are considered. In addition, safety considerations and the most recent advancements in the field of tissue engineering and regeneration using DSCs are discussed. This review concludes with thoughts on how to prospectively approach engineering of tissues and organ regeneration using DSCs. Our expectation is that implementation of the major points highlighted in this review will lead to major advancements in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Autologous dermis-derived stem cells are generating great excitement and efforts in the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. The substantial impact of this review lies in its critical coverage of the available literature and in providing insight regarding niches, characteristics, and isolation methods of stem cells derived from the human dermis. Furthermore, it provides

  10. Composite materials and structures: Science, technology and applications. A compendium of books, review papers, and other sources of information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanovich, A.E.; Sierakowski, R.L.

    1999-12-01

    A fast growing volume of literature in various fields of composite materials and structures has inspired the authors to attempt to assemble all major books and review papers in a concise compendium presented here. This could give researchers, engineers, designers, and graduate students a rapid access to the vast volume of references on any specific topic in the field of composites and thereby satisfy their research requirements. The compendium includes encyclopedias, handbooks, design guides, textbooks, reference books, review papers and also a few collections of papers. The topics span theory, modeling and analysis of composite materials, processing and manufacturing, properties and characterization, theory and analysis of composite structures, joints and connections, designing with composites, and composites applications. The compendium includes over 400 references, which are arranged in alphabetical order within each topic under consideration. Additionally, the reader can find, in this compendium, the lists of major conferences, journals, and ASTM STP publications on composites. The major objective of this work is not critically reviewing or discussing specific research approaches and results. The authors have rather intended to provide extensive bibliographic information that may help the reader to get familiar with the primary literature and, in necessary, undertake further literature search on any particular problem of interest.

  11. Toward a Mechanistic Source Term in Advanced Reactors: A Review of Past U.S. SFR Incidents, Experiments, and Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Brunett, Acacia J.; Grabaskas, David

    2016-04-17

    In 2015, as part of a Regulatory Technology Development Plan (RTDP) effort for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs), Argonne National Laboratory investigated the current state of knowledge of source term development for a metal-fueled, pool-type SFR. This paper provides a summary of past domestic metal-fueled SFR incidents and experiments and highlights information relevant to source term estimations that were gathered as part of the RTDP effort. The incidents described in this paper include fuel pin failures at the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) facility in July of 1959, the Fermi I meltdown that occurred in October of 1966, and the repeated melting of a fuel element within an experimental capsule at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) from November 1967 to May 1968. The experiments described in this paper include the Run-Beyond-Cladding-Breach tests that were performed at EBR-II in 1985 and a series of severe transient overpower tests conducted at the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) in the mid-1980s.

  12. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  13. Review and meta-analysis of 82 studies on end-of-life management methods for source separated organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey; Scott Matthews, H; Morawski, Clarissa

    2013-03-01

    This article reports on a literature review and meta-analysis of 82 studies, mostly life cycle assessments (LCAs), which quantified end-of-life (EOL) management options for organic waste. These studies were reviewed to determine the environmental preferability, or lack thereof, for a number of EOL management methods such as aerobic composting (AC), anaerobic digestion (AD), gasification, combustion, incineration with energy recovery (often denoted as waste-to-energy incineration), mechanical biological treatment, incineration without energy recovery (sometimes referenced by just the word "incineration"), and landfill disposal with and without energy recovery from generated methane. Given the vast differences in boundaries as well as uncertainty and variability in results, the LCAs among the 82 studies provided enough data and results to make conclusions regarding just four EOL management methods - aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion, mass burn waste-to-energy (WTE), and landfill gas-to-energy (LFGTE). For these four, the LCAs proved sufficient to determine that aerobic composting and anaerobic digestion are both environmentally preferable to either WTE or LFGTE in terms of climate change impacts. For climate change, LCA results were mixed for WTE versus LFGTE. Furthermore, there is a lack of empirically reliable estimates of the amount of organics input to AD that is converted to energy output versus remaining in the digestate. This digestate can be processed through aerobic composting into a compost product similar to the compost output from aerobic composting, assuming that the same type of organic materials are managed under AD as are managed via AC. The magnitude of any trade-off between generation of energy and production of compost in an AD system appears to be critical for ranking AC and AD for differing types of organics diversion streams. These results emphasize how little we generally know, and exemplify the fact that in the reviewed literature no

  14. BIOREMEDIATION FOR ACID MINE DRAINAGE: ORGANIC SOLID WASTE AS CARBON SOURCES FOR SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Jamil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological sulfate reduction has been slowly replacing chemical unit processes to treat acid mine drainage (AMD. Bioremediations for AMD treatment are favored due to their low capital and maintenance cost. This paper describes the available AMD treatment, current SRB commercialization such as THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies, and also the factors and limitations faced. THIOPAQ® and BioSulphide® technologies use expensive carbon sources such as hydrogen as the electron donor. This paper discusses the possibility of organic solid waste as an alternative substrate as it is cheaper and abundant. A possible AMD treatment system setup was also proposed to test the efficiency of sulfate-reducing bacteria utilizing organic solid substrate.

  15. Factory-discharged pharmaceuticals could be a relevant source of aquatic environment contamination: review of evidence and need for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Olivier; Porcher, Jean-Marc; Sanchez, Wilfried

    2014-11-01

    Human and veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are involved in contamination of surface water, ground water, effluents, sediments and biota. Effluents of waste water treatment plants and hospitals are considered as major sources of such contamination. However, recent evidences reveal high concentrations of a large number of APIs in effluents from pharmaceutical factories and in receiving aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, laboratory exposures to these effluents and field experiments reveal various physiological disturbances in exposed aquatic organisms. Also, it seems to be relevant to increase knowledge on this route of contamination but also to develop specific approaches for further environmental monitoring campaigns. The present study summarizes available data related to the impact of pharmaceutical factory discharges on aquatic ecosystem contaminations and presents associated challenges for scientists and environmental managers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  17. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  18. REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... narrowing the gap between recommended treatment protocols in ... for pregnant women is complicated by the need to take into account the health and safety of both the ... meta-analysis as at July 2011 (which reviews the APR and other ... 0.82 - 3.18) and relative risk of birth defects in EFV-containing ART.

  19. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 623–634 ..... 4000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K. The processes (1b) are characterized in this paper via ..... Mihajlov, A. A., Sreckovic, V. A., Ignjatovic, L. M., Klyucharev, A. N. 2012, J. Cluster.

  20. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  1. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  2. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  3. A review of the feasibility of using a system based upon photobiology as a large scale source of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogdell, R J; Hawthornthwaite, A M

    1992-07-01

    This report has reviewed critically the feasibility of using a Photobiological system to produce energy on a commercial scale. Two possible candidates have been identified. The first is to use our knowledge of the initial light-driven charge separation reaction in photosynthesis as a blue-print on which chemists could base the design of more efficient second generation solar cells. The details of this possibility are being considered in a separate report. The second is to harness the ability of anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria to support light-driven hydrogen production. This second option is the definite front runner, however as with other schemes to harness solar energy it does have the drawback that large surface areas will be required in order to produce commercially significant quantities of energy. A detailed evaluation of photobiological hydrogen production has been presented. (author).

  4. Contamination by hazardous substances in the Gulf of Naples and nearby coastal areas: a review of sources, environmental levels and potential impacts in the MSFD perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero, Victoria; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    During the 7th FW EU Programme, a large group of research institutions with a strong tradition in marine science designed PERSEUS, a policy-oriented, marine research project aimed at identifying human-derived pressures and their impacts in the Southern European Seas. PERSEUS is about gathering and analyzing the data on our marine ecosystems and developing recommendations to assist policy makers in the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In its initial phase, the project focuses on the analysis and evaluation of human pressures in selected coastal areas across the Mediterranean and Black Seas. This paper reports on the results about the chemical pollution pressure in the Gulf of Naples, one of the sites selected for the analysis, and surrounding waters of the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Based on a systematic up-to-date literature review, the paper brings together for the first time the available information on the presence, severity and distribution of contaminants on the site. In spite of methodological and sampling heterogeneity among studies, this review compiles the data in a harmonized and effective way, so that the current status, knowledge gaps and research priorities can be established. Thus, the review wishes not only to provide a contribution to the scientific community, but also to help to extract recommendations for mitigating pollution sources and risks in the area of concern. A similar process of analysis may be carried out for other areas and pressures in order to facilitate policy making at the European level. © 2013.

  5. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. Second part: analysis of results and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. This second part presents the results of the studies. Based on a literature review (51 papers), this article presents an analysis of the contribution of self-reported health to epidemiological studies investigating local sources of environmental pollution. It discusses the associations between self-reported health and exposure variables, and other risk factors that can influence health reporting. Studies using self-reported health showed that local sources can be associated with a wide range of health outcomes, including an impact on mental health and well-being. The perception of pollution, especially sensory information such as odors, affects self-reported health. Attitudes referring to beliefs, worries and personal behaviors concerning the source of pollution have a striking influence on reported health. Attitudes can be used to estimate the reporting bias in a biomedical approach, and also constitute the main explanatory factors in biopsychosocial studies taking into account not only the biological, physical, and chemical factors but also the psychological and social factors at stake in a situation of environmental exposure. Studying self-reported health enables a multifactorial approach to health in a context of environmental exposure. This approach is most relevant when conducted within a multidisciplinary framework involving human and social sciences to better understand psychosocial factors. The relevance of this type of approach used as an epidemiological surveillance tool to monitor local situations should be assessed with regard to needs for public health management of these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  7. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  8. Sphagnum restoration on degraded blanket and raised bogs in the UK using micropropagated source material: a review of progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J.M Caporn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for a supply of Sphagnum to re-introduce to degraded peatlands. However, available supplies of Sphagnum of the desired species are often limited. We describe the propagation of Sphagnum from vegetative material in sterile tissue culture and the introduction of juvenile mosses into the field. Sphagnum produced in the laboratory in three different forms (beads, gel and plugs was introduced to different peatland surfaces on upland degraded blanket bog and lowland cut-over peatland in northern England. On degraded blanket bog, the establishment of mixed-species Sphagnum plugs was typically 99 % while the survival of beads was much lower, ranging from little above zero on bare eroding peat to a maximum of 12 % on stabilised peat surfaces. On lowland cut-over peatland, all trials took place on peat with an expanding cover of Eriophorum angustifolium and tested Sphagnum gel as well as beads and plugs. This work showed that survival and establishment of plugs was high (99 % and greater than for beads. Sphagnum gel reached a cover of 95 % in two years. The vegetative micropropagation of Sphagnum offers an effective source of Sphagnum for re-introduction to degraded peatlands.

  9. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, A Rich Source of a Natural Sweetener: A Complete Review on the Biochemical, Nutritional and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Nikniaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is an ancient perennial shrub of South American used since ancient times for various purposes throughout the world. Stevia extracts contain high levels of sweetening compounds called steviol glycosides which besides sweetening (300 times sweeter than sacarose possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antifungal activity. Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the main sweetening compounds of this plant which are thermostable even at temperatures of up to 200 °C, making them suitable for use in cooked foods. Preparations of steviol glycosides are reported to be used principally as sweeteners in fruit and milk-based drinks, desserts, yoghurts, confectioneries, and pickles. The use of Stevia extract as a table-top sweetener is well known. The leaves of Stevia has functional and sensory properties superior to those of many other high-potency sweeteners and is likely to become a major source of safe and high-potency sweetener for the growing natural food market in the future.​

  10. Contributed Review: Source-localization algorithms and applications using time of arrival and time difference of arrival measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinya [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Deng, Zhiqun Daniel [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Rauchenstein, Lynn T. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Carlson, Thomas J. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA

    2016-04-01

    Locating the position of fixed or mobile sources (i.e., transmitters) based on received measurements from sensors is an important research area that is attracting much research interest. In this paper, we present localization algorithms using time of arrivals (TOA) and time difference of arrivals (TDOA) to achieve high accuracy under line-of-sight conditions. The circular (TOA) and hyperbolic (TDOA) location systems both use nonlinear equations that relate the locations of the sensors and tracked objects. These nonlinear equations can develop accuracy challenges because of the existence of measurement errors and efficiency challenges that lead to high computational burdens. Least squares-based and maximum likelihood-based algorithms have become the most popular categories of location estimators. We also summarize the advantages and disadvantages of various positioning algorithms. By improving measurement techniques and localization algorithms, localization applications can be extended into the signal-processing-related domains of radar, sonar, the Global Positioning System, wireless sensor networks, underwater animal tracking, mobile communications, and multimedia.

  11. A review of vegetated buffers and a meta-analysis of their mitigation efficacy in reducing nonpoint source pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Liu, Xingmei; Zhang, Minghua; Dahlgren, Randy A; Eitzel, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Vegetated buffers are a well-studied and widely used agricultural management practice for reducing nonpoint-source pollution. A wealth of literature provides experimental data on their mitigation efficacy. This paper aggregated many of these results and performed a meta-analysis to quantify the relationships between pollutant removal efficacy and buffer width, buffer slope, soil type, and vegetation type. Theoretical models for removal efficacy (Y) vs. buffer width (w) were derived and tested against data from the surveyed literature using statistical analyses. A model of the form Y = K x (1-e(-bxw)), (0 pollutant removal, where K reflects the maximum removal efficacy of the buffer and b reflects its probability to remove any single particle of pollutant in a unit distance. Buffer width alone explains 37, 60, 44, and 35% of the total variance in removal efficacy for sediment, pesticides, N, and P, respectively. Buffer slope was linearly associated with sediment removal efficacy either positively (when slope 10%). Buffers composed of trees have higher N and P removal efficacy than buffers composed of grasses or mixtures of grasses and trees. Soil drainage type did not show a significant effect on pollutant removal efficacy. Based on our analysis, a 30-m buffer under favorable slope conditions (approximately 10%) removes more than 85% of all the studied pollutants. These models predicting optimal buffer width/slope can be instrumental in the design, implementation, and modeling of vegetated buffers for treating agricultural runoff.

  12. Contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the La Rioja Autonomous Community, Spain. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Gonzalez, Luis Maria; Lopez Ochoa, Luis Maria [Grupo de Termodinamica Aplicada, Energia y Construccion, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20, 26004 Logrono (La Rioja) (Spain); Sala Lizarraga, Jose Maria [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco (Spain); Miguez Tabares, Jose Luis [E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales de Vigo, Universidad de Vigo (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    The implementation of the emissions market should imbue renewable energies with a greater degree of competitiveness regarding conventional generation. In order to comply with the Kyoto protocol, utilities are going to begin to factor in the cost of CO{sub 2} (environmental costs) in their overall generating costs, whereby there will be an increase in the marginal prices of the electricity pool. This article reviews the progress made in the La Rioja Autonomous Community (LRAC) in terms of the introduction of renewable energy technologies since 1996, where renewable energy represents approximately only 10% of the final energy consumption of the LRAC. Nonetheless, the expected exploitation of renewable energies and the recent implementation of a combined cycle facility mean that the electricity scenario in La Rioja will undergo spectacular change over the coming years: we examine the possibility of meeting a target of practical electrical self-sufficiency by 2010. In 2004, power consumption amounted to 1494GWh, with an installed power of 1029.0MW of electricity. By 2010, the Arrubal combined cycle facility will produce around 9600GWh/year, thereby providing a power generation output in La Rioja of close to 2044.7MW, which will involve almost doubling the present output, and multiplying by 8.9 that recorded in this Autonomous Community in 2001. (author)

  13. Pulsed spallation Neutron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development at Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provides a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  14. Pulsed spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the early history of pulsed spallation neutron source development ar Argonne and provides an overview of existing sources world wide. A number of proposals for machines more powerful than currently exist are under development, which are briefly described. The author reviews the status of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source, its instrumentation, and its user program, and provide a few examples of applications in fundamental condensed matter physics, materials science and technology

  15. A review of the cylindrical heat source method for the design and analysis of vertical ground-coupled heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Mecanique

    2000-12-01

    The successful design and analysis of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems depends in large part on the adequate prediction of ground water heat transfer. The author presented a detailed review of the cylindrical heat source method utilized for the prediction of transient heat transfer in vertical U-tube ground heat exchangers. The physics that underlies the theory applicable to this technology is explained in a step-by-step manner. Explanations are also provided for the equations that govern the determination of design lengths for the cylindrical heat method, as presented in the ASHRAE handbook. Some improvements were recommended by the author, such as the calculation of the effective thermal resistances using the borehole diameter instead of the equivalent U-tube diameter now in use. Annual hour-by-hour building load calculations should be used to calculate ground loads. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs., 3 appendices.

  16. Review of areas that may require simultaneous coupled solution of the thermal hydraulic and fission product/aerosol behavior equations for source term determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, T.S.

    1984-01-01

    In the determination of the behavior of nuclear aerosols in the reactor coolant system and in the containment for the development of severe accident source terms, present practice generally is to first perform thermal hydraulic calculations for specific plant types and sequences and then to utilize the results as input for separate fission product/aerosol dynamic transport calculations. It is recognized that there are several areas in which the thermal-hydraulics and the fission product/aerosol behavior may be significantly coupled and that it is then basically incorrect to do the analyses in a separated manner. This review paper produces a speculative list of these potentially coupled areas and attempts to assess the importance of the coupling for as many of the specific items that time has allowed before this conference

  17. Concise Review: Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Cells, A Promising Cell Source for Therapy of Heart Failure: Where Do We Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouadon, Elodie; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Smit, Nicoline W; Chatenoud, Lucienne; Coronel, Ruben; Harding, Sian E; Jourdon, Philippe; Lambert, Virginie; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Pucéat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is still a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in developed countries. Many clinical trials have tested the use of multipotent stem cells as a cardiac regenerative medicine. The benefit for the patients of this therapeutic intervention has remained limited. Herein, we review the pluripotent stem cells as a cell source for cardiac regeneration. We more specifically address the various challenges of this cell therapy approach. We question the cell delivery systems, the immune tolerance of allogenic cells, the potential proarrhythmic effects, various drug mediated interventions to facilitate cell grafting and, finally, we describe the pathological conditions that may benefit from such an innovative approach. As members of a transatlantic consortium of excellence of basic science researchers and clinicians, we propose some guidelines to be applied to cell types and modes of delivery in order to translate pluripotent stem cell cardiac derivatives into safe and effective clinical trials. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  18. REVISIÓN: PRODUCTOS VEGETALES COMO FUENTE DE FIBRA DIETARIA EN LA INDUSTRIA DE ALIMENTOS VEGETABLE PRODUCTS AS SOURCE OF DIETARY FIBER IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraida Cañas Ángel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos años se ha incrementado el interés de la industria, los especialistas y del público en general, hacia los posibles usos y beneficios de la fibra dietaria (FD. Este ingrediente funcional, ha sido reportado especialmente por favorecer el funcionamiento digestivo, controlando el tránsito intestinal de los alimentos, el estreñimiento, las hemorroides, la absorción de glucosa, el colesterol, la sensación de saciedad, entre otros. En este artículo se hace una revisión de literatura publicada principalmente de la última década de la fibra dietaria como componente con actividad fisiológica (ingrediente funcional, haciendo énfasis en las fuentes vegetales, sus propiedades funcionales y aplicabilidad. El resultado del repaso, identifica que son muchas las fuentes de fibra dietaria actualmente subutilizadas y que representan una alternativa viable y de bajo costo para mejorar la nutrición de la población.During the last years there has been an increasing interest from industry, professionals and the general public about possible uses and benefits of dietary fiber (DF. These functional ingredients have been reported especially by promoting gastrointestinal operation, controlling the intestinal transit of food, constipation, hemorrhoids, the absorption of glucose, cholesterol, satiety, among others. This article is a review of literature published primarily in the last decade as a component of dietary fiber with physiological activity (functional ingredient, with emphasis on plant sources, its functional properties and applicability. The results of the review, identified that there are many sources of dietary fiber currently underutilized and represent a viable alternative to improve the nutrition of the population at low cost.

  19. A systematic review of the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a plant source of the ethnomedicine "dragon's blood".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jia-Yi; Yi, Tao; Sze-To, Chui-Mei; Zhu, Lin; Peng, Wan-Ling; Zhang, Ya-Zhou; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Chen, Hu-Biao

    2014-07-22

    "Dragon's blood" is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of "dragon's blood". It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis.

  20. A Systematic Review of the Botanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Dracaena cochinchinensis, a Plant Source of the Ethnomedicine “Dragon’s Blood”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Yi Fan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available “Dragon’s blood” is the name given to a deep red resin obtained from a variety of plant sources. The resin extracted from stems of Dracaena cochinchinensis is one such source of “dragon’s blood”. It has a reputation for facilitating blood circulation and dispersing blood stasis. In traditional Chinese medicine, this resinous medicine is commonly prescribed to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. Modern pharmacological studies have found that this resinous medicine has anti-bacterial, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-diabetic, and anti-tumor activities, while it is also known to enhance immune function, promote skin repair, stop bleeding and enhance blood circulation. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant, including loureirin A, loureirin B, loureirin C, cochinchinenin, socotrin-4'-ol, 4',7-dihydroxyflavan, 4-methylcholest-7-ene-3-ol, ethylparaben, resveratrol, and hydroxyphenol. The present review summarizes current knowledge concerning the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, toxicology studies and clinical applications of this resinous medicine as derived from D. cochinchinenesis.

  1. Choice of Cell Source in Cell-Based Therapies for Retinal Damage due to Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhakar John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disorder that affects primarily the macula involving the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE but also to a certain extent the photoreceptor layer and the retinal neurons. Cell transplantation is a promising option for AMD and clinical trials are underway using different cell types. Methods. We hypothesize that instead of focusing on a particular cell source for concurrent regeneration of all the retinal layers and also to prevent exhaustive research on an array of cell sources for regeneration of each layer, the choice should depend on, precisely, which layer is damaged. Results. Thus, for a damage limited to the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE layer, the choice we suggest would be RPE cells. When the damage extends to rods and cones, the choice would be bone marrow stem cells and when retinal neurons are involved, relatively immature stem cell populations with an inherent capacity to yield neuronal lineage such as hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells can be tried. Conclusion. This short review will prove to be a valuable guideline for those working on cell therapy for AMD to plan their future directions of research and therapy for this condition.

  2. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis: role of funding sources, conflict of interest and bibliometric indices as predictors of methodological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-García, F; Ruano, J; Aguilar-Luque, M; Gay-Mimbrera, J; Maestre-Lopez, B; Sanz-Cabanillas, J L; Carmona-Fernández, P J; González-Padilla, M; Vélez García-Nieto, A; Isla-Tejera, B

    2017-06-01

    The quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease that severely impairs quality of life and is associated with high costs, remains unknown. To assess the methodological quality of systematic reviews published on psoriasis. After a comprehensive search in MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Database (PROSPERO: CDR42016041611), the quality of studies was assessed by two raters using the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Article metadata and journal-related bibliometric indices were also obtained. Systematic reviews were classified as low (0-4), moderate (5-8) or high (9-11) quality. A prediction model for methodological quality was fitted using principal component and multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses. We classified 220 studies as high (17·2%), moderate (55·0%) or low (27·8%) quality. Lower compliance rates were found for AMSTAR question (Q)5 (list of studies provided, 11·4%), Q10 (publication bias assessed, 27·7%), Q4 (status of publication included, 39·5%) and Q1 (a priori design provided, 40·9%). Factors such as meta-analysis inclusion [odds ratio (OR) 6·22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·78-14·86], funding by academic institutions (OR 2·90, 95% CI 1·11-7·89), Article Influence score (OR 2·14, 95% CI 1·05-6·67), 5-year impact factor (OR 1·34, 95% CI 1·02-1·40) and article page count (OR 1·08, 95% CI 1·02-1·15) significantly predicted higher quality. A high number of authors with a conflict of interest (OR 0·90, 95% CI 0·82-0·99) was significantly associated with lower quality. The methodological quality of systematic reviews published about psoriasis remains suboptimal. The type of funding sources and author conflicts may compromise study quality, increasing the risk of bias. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  3. Review of pipe-break probability assessment methods and data for applicability to the advanced neutron source project for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.

    1989-04-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) (Difilippo, 1986; Gamble, 1986; West, 1986; Selby, 1987) will be the world's best facility for low energy neutron research. This performance requires the highest flux density of all non-pulsed reactors with concomitant low thermal inertial and fast response to upset conditions. One of the primary concerns is that a flow cessation of the order of a second may result in fuel damage. Such a flow stoppage could be the result of break in the primary piping. This report is a review of methods for assessing pipe break probabilities based on historical operating experience in power reactors, scaling methods, fracture mechanics and fracture growth models. The goal of this work is to develop parametric guidance for the ANS design to make the event highly unlikely. It is also to review and select methods that may be used in an interactive IBM-PC model providing fast and reasonably accurate models to aid the ANS designers in achieving the safety requirements. 80 refs., 7 figs

  4. A Systematic Review of Surgical Randomized Controlled Trials: Part 2. Funding Source, Conflict of Interest, and Sample Size in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Ziolkowski, Natalia I; Kaur, Manraj N; Banfield, Laura; Meade, Maureen O; Chung, Kevin C; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined industry support, conflict of interest, and sample size in plastic surgery randomized controlled trials that compared surgical interventions. They hypothesized that industry-funded trials demonstrate statistically significant outcomes more often, and randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes report statistically significant results more frequently. An electronic search identified randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2013. Independent reviewers assessed manuscripts and performed data extraction. Funding source, conflict of interest, primary outcome direction, and sample size were examined. Chi-squared and independent-samples t tests were used in the analysis. The search identified 173 randomized controlled trials, of which 100 (58 percent) did not acknowledge funding status. A relationship between funding source and trial outcome direction was not observed. Both funding status and conflict of interest reporting improved over time. Only 24 percent (six of 25) of industry-funded randomized controlled trials reported authors to have independent control of data and manuscript contents. The mean number of patients randomized was 73 per trial (median, 43, minimum, 3, maximum, 936). Small trials were not found to be positive more often than large trials (p = 0.87). Randomized controlled trials with small sample size were common; however, this provides great opportunity for the field to engage in further collaboration and produce larger, more definitive trials. Reporting of trial funding and conflict of interest is historically poor, but it greatly improved over the study period. Underreporting at author and journal levels remains a limitation when assessing the relationship between funding source and trial outcomes. Improved reporting and manuscript control should be goals that both authors and journals can actively achieve.

  5. Sources of variability in fatty acid (FA) biomarkers in the application of compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) to soil and sediment fingerprinting and tracing: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiffarth, D.G., E-mail: Dominic.Reiffarth@unbc.ca [Natural Resources and Environmental Studies Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Petticrew, E.L., E-mail: Ellen.Petticrew@unbc.ca [Geography Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Owens, P.N., E-mail: Philip.Owens@unbc.ca [Environmental Science Program and Quesnel River Research Centre, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, V2N 4Z9 (Canada); Lobb, D.A., E-mail: David.Lobb@umanitoba.ca [Watershed Systems Research Program, University of Manitoba, 13 Freedman Crescent, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Determining soil redistribution and sediment budgets in watersheds is often challenging. One of the methods for making such determinations employs soil and sediment fingerprinting techniques, using sediment properties such as geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and mineral magnetism. These methods greatly improve the estimation of erosion and deposition within a watershed, but are limited when determining land use-based soil and sediment movement. Recently, compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs), which employ fatty acids naturally occurring in the vegetative cover of soils, offer the possibility of refining fingerprinting techniques based on land use, complementing other methods that are currently in use. The CSSI method has been met with some success; however, challenges still remain with respect to scale and resolution due to a potentially large degree of biological, environmental and analytical uncertainty. By better understanding the source of tracers used in CSSI work and the inherent biochemical variability in those tracers, improvement in sample design and tracer selection is possible. Furthermore, an understanding of environmental and analytical factors affecting the CSSI signal will lead to refinement of the approach and the ability to generate more robust data. This review focuses on sources of biological, environmental and analytical variability in applying CSSI to soil and sediment fingerprinting, and presents recommendations based on past work and current research in this area for improving the CSSI technique. A recommendation, based on current information available in the literature, is to use very-long chain saturated fatty acids and to avoid the use of the ubiquitous saturated fatty acids, C{sub 16} and C{sub 18}. - Highlights: • Compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) of carbon may be used as soil tracers. • The variables affecting CSSI data are: biological, environmental and analytical. • Understanding sources of variability will lead

  6. Sources of variability in fatty acid (FA) biomarkers in the application of compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) to soil and sediment fingerprinting and tracing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiffarth, D.G.; Petticrew, E.L.; Owens, P.N.; Lobb, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Determining soil redistribution and sediment budgets in watersheds is often challenging. One of the methods for making such determinations employs soil and sediment fingerprinting techniques, using sediment properties such as geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and mineral magnetism. These methods greatly improve the estimation of erosion and deposition within a watershed, but are limited when determining land use-based soil and sediment movement. Recently, compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs), which employ fatty acids naturally occurring in the vegetative cover of soils, offer the possibility of refining fingerprinting techniques based on land use, complementing other methods that are currently in use. The CSSI method has been met with some success; however, challenges still remain with respect to scale and resolution due to a potentially large degree of biological, environmental and analytical uncertainty. By better understanding the source of tracers used in CSSI work and the inherent biochemical variability in those tracers, improvement in sample design and tracer selection is possible. Furthermore, an understanding of environmental and analytical factors affecting the CSSI signal will lead to refinement of the approach and the ability to generate more robust data. This review focuses on sources of biological, environmental and analytical variability in applying CSSI to soil and sediment fingerprinting, and presents recommendations based on past work and current research in this area for improving the CSSI technique. A recommendation, based on current information available in the literature, is to use very-long chain saturated fatty acids and to avoid the use of the ubiquitous saturated fatty acids, C 16 and C 18 . - Highlights: • Compound-specific stable isotopes (CSSIs) of carbon may be used as soil tracers. • The variables affecting CSSI data are: biological, environmental and analytical. • Understanding sources of variability will lead to more

  7. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Mini Hotplate A constant temperature source is a very useful thing to have Mondo Magnets Book full of magnetism experiments, both classic and new The Physics of Star Trek A book that is not just for fans of the TV series The Trouble with Physics This book explains how string theory has sidetracked physicists Tubular Spring Balance Cheap alternative to the classic newton meter is a winner From Atoms to Patterns The book of the exhibition shows physics' role in fashion Water Heater Heater and calorimeter unit is simple and effective WORTH A LOOK Building Materials Sample Pack A good idea that is not well delivered Double-glazing Kit Another cheap and straightforward idea from SEP Cosmological Enigmas This book gives a personal edge to deep-space physics HANDLE WITH CARE Spring Balance Classically designed newton meter is poorly produced WEB WATCH Gary Williams searches for physics at its most extreme

  8. Neutron sources and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.L. [ed.] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rush, J.J. [ed.] [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications.

  9. Neutron sources and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.L.; Rush, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Review of Neutron Sources and Applications was held at Oak Brook, Illinois, during September 8--10, 1992. This review involved some 70 national and international experts in different areas of neutron research, sources, and applications. Separate working groups were asked to (1) review the current status of advanced research reactors and spallation sources; and (2) provide an update on scientific, technological, and medical applications, including neutron scattering research in a number of disciplines, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other important uses of neutron sources such as materials analysis and fundamental neutron physics. This report summarizes the findings and conclusions of the different working groups involved in the review, and contains some of the best current expertise on neutron sources and applications

  10. Sources management; La gestion des sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoux, H.; Gourmelon; Scanff, P.; Fournet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Murith, Ch. [Office Federal de la SantePublique (Switzerland); Saint-Paul, N. [NOVAR, 75 - Paris (France); Colson, P. [Electricite de France (EDF/DPN), 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Jouve, A.; Feron, F. [Direction Generale de al Surete Nucleaire et de la Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France); Haranger, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Mathieu, P. [Institut Pasteur, 75 - Paris (France); Paycha, F. [CHU Louis Mourier, Unitede Medecine Nucleaire Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, 92 - Colombes (France); Israel, S. [CEGELEC NDT et la gestion des sources radioactives (France); Auboiroux, B. [APAVE (France); Chartier, P. [DRIRE de Basse-Normandie, Div. Surete Nucleaire et Radioprotection, 14 - Caen (France)

    2005-07-01

    Organized by the section of technical protection of the French society of radiation protection ( S.F.R.P.), these two days had for objective to review the evolution of the rule relative to the sources of ionising radiations 'sealed and unsealed radioactive sources, electric generators'. They addressed all the actors concerned by the implementation of the new regulatory system in the different sectors of activities ( research, medicine and industry): Authorities, manufacturers, and suppliers of sources, holders and users, bodies involved in the approval of sources, carriers. (N.C.)

  11. Critical review of soil contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs); concentrations, sources and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Thomas J; Ball, Andrew S; Clarke, Bradley O

    2017-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a broad array of polymeric materials such as plastics, foams, resins and adhesives to inhibit the spread of fires since the 1970s. The widespread environmental contamination and well documented toxic effects of PBDEs have led to bans and voluntary withdrawals in many jurisdictions. Replacement novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) have, however, exhibited many of the same toxic characteristics as PBDEs and appear to share similar environmental fate. This paper presents a critical review of the scientific literature regarding PBDE and NBFR contamination of surface soils internationally, with the secondary objective of identifying probable pollution sources. An evaluation of NBFR distribution in soil was also conducted to assess the suitability of the newer compounds as replacements for PBDEs, with respect to their land contamination potential. Principle production of PBDEs and NBFRs and their consequent use in secondary polymer manufacture appear to be processes with strong potential to contaminate surrounding soils. Evidence suggests that PBDEs and NBFRs are also released from flame retarded products during disposal via landfill, dumping, incineration and recycling. While the land application of sewage sludge represents another major pathway of soil contamination it is not considered in this review as it is extensively covered elsewhere. Both PBDEs and NBFRs were commonly detected at background locations including Antarctica and northern polar regions. PBDE congener profiles in soil were broadly representative of the major constituents in Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDE commercial mixtures and related to predicted market place demand. BDE-209 dominated soil profiles, followed by BDE-99 and BDE-47. Although further research is required to gain baseline data on NBFRs in soil, the current state of scientific literature suggests that NBFRs pose a similar risk to land contamination as PBDEs. Copyright © 2017

  12. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S.

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  13. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. First part: health indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. A first step focused on describing the indicators. The literature on indicators of self-reported health was reviewed, leading to a discussion on data collection, selection of health effects, data processing, and construction of indicators. The literature review concerned 51 articles. The use of self-reported health indicators allowed the studies to take into account the health concerns and complaints of populations exposed to environmental pollution. Various indicators of self-reported health were used in the studies. They measured physical, psychological and general dimensions of health. Standardized questionnaires were used less often than ad hoc questionnaires (78% of studies) developed to fit the needs of a given study. Three standardized questionnaires were used more frequently: the MOS Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) to measure general health perceptions, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90) to measure psychological distress. The choice of self-reported health indicators is a compromise between specificity of the studied health issues within a given environment and standardization of the questionnaires used to measure them. Such standardization is necessary to ensure the validity and the reliability of the information collected across time and situations. The psychometric properties of the measuring questionnaires are rarely estimated or verified when they are used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Analytical methods for the determination of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Casero, N.; Lunar, L.; Rubio, S., E-mail: qa1rubrs@uco.es

    2016-02-18

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in humans and the environment. Its potential adverse effects through genomic and non-genomic pathways have fostered BPA replacement by bisphenol analogs that, unfortunately, exert similar adverse effects. Many of these analogs, as well as their derivatives, have already found in humans and the environment and major concerns have arisen over their low dose- and mixture-related effects. This review aims to discuss the characteristics of the main analytical methods reported so far for the determination of mixtures of bisphenol analogs and/or derivatives in human and environmental exposure sources and biological fluids. Approaches followed for removal of background contamination, sample preparation and separation and detection of mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives are critically discussed. Sample treatment is matrix-dependent and common steps include analyte isolation, removal of interferences, evaporation of the extracts and solvent reconstitution. Separation and quantification has been almost exclusively carried out by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS), in the last case prior derivatization, but LC-fluorescence detection has also found some applications. Main characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of these methods will be comparatively discussed. Although at an early stage, some approaches for the assessment of the risk to mixtures of bisphenols, mainly based on the combination of chemical target analysis and toxicity evaluation, have been already applied and they will be here presented. Current knowledge gaps hindering a reliable assessment of human and environmental risk to mixtures of bisphenols and derivatives will be outlined. - Highlights: • Analytical methods for the (bio)monitoring of mixtures of bisphenols are reviewed. • LC and CG coupled to MS are the preferred techniques. • Method-dependent sample treatments are required to remove matrix

  15. A Microbiological Preparation Based on the Homofermentative Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from the Natural Sources for Bioconservation of Plant Resources (Review of Studies between 2000 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Shurkhno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies performed by the author for improving the process of bioconservation of plant resources by creating an effective microbiological preparation based on the active strains of lactic acid bacteria. It is known that the problem of production of biological preservatives can be solved by using the basic principles of microbiological and biotechnological processes that contribute to the creation of biological preservatives ensuring the most optimal and efficient fermentation of plant mass, i.e., by using homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from the natural ecological niches, as well as by conservation of plant mass with the help of lactic acid bacteria at the stage of high physiological activity. In view of the above features, а microbial preparation “Universal Silage Ferment – BIOAGRO” was developed on the basis of two new strains of Lactobacillus plantarum RS3 and L. plantarum RS4, both isolated from natural sources, and implemented in the industrial production. Indus-trial introduction and testing of the microbiological preparation was carried out for 3 years (2012–2014 in ten farms of eight districts of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia. It was found that the use of the preparation along with an optimized technology of bioconservation of high-protein perennials, annual grasses, their mixtures and corn, and slightly dried herbs in anaerobic conditions improves the qualitative characteristics of silage and haylage, as well as increases their energy value and enhances the economic performance of technological processes of fodder conservation.

  16. Upgrading the Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Source of Energy Carriers and Chemicals—A Technological Review for Three Chemical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a by-product of biodiesel obtained from biomass, accounting for 10% of the biodiesel production. In the context of a green economy, aiming for a reduction of the emission of atmospheric greenhouse gases emissions, the demand of biodiesel is expected to increase vastly, in parallel with a side glut supply of glycerol. Given the high cost of biodiesel compared with its fossil congener, upgrading of glycerol into added-value products can represent a secondary income source and turn the production of such alternative fuels economically sustainable in the long term. The glycerol obtained as by-product of biodiesel from biomass is in a crude form and must be purified. Some industrial solutions and applications were therein geared. The survey presented in this work, based on a reviewing of the existing literature, examines three routes for the valuing glycerol into energy carriers and chemicals, namely, carbonation, acylation, and steam reforming to hydrogen. The latter is embodied of great interest and importance, insofar that hydrogen by itself is considered as straighforward clean fuel for transportation uses, due to its high calorific power and to recent advances in fuel cells. We also have focused on the chain value from biomass to energies carriers through these pathways.

  17. 3T MRI and 128-slice dual-source CT cisternography images of the cranial nerves a brief pictorial review for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Martinez-Anda, Jaime J; Corona-Cedillo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    There is a broad community of health sciences professionals interested in the anatomy of the cranial nerves (CNs): specialists in neurology, neurosurgery, radiology, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, maxillofacial surgery, radiation oncology, and emergency medicine, as well as other related fields. Advances in neuroimaging using high-resolution images from computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) have made highly-detailed visualization of brain structures possible, allowing normal findings to be routinely assessed and nervous system pathology to be detected. In this article we present an integrated perspective of the normal anatomy of the CNs established by radiologists and neurosurgeons in order to provide a practical imaging review, which combines 128-slice dual-source multiplanar images from CT cisternography and 3T MR curved reconstructed images. The information about the CNs includes their origin, course (with emphasis on the cisternal segments and location of the orifices at the skull base transmitting them), function, and a brief listing of the most common pathologies affecting them. The scope of the article is clinical anatomy; readers will find specialized texts presenting detailed information about particular topics. Our aim in this article is to provide a helpful reference for understanding the complex anatomy of the cranial nerves. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ion sources for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1974-01-01

    A limited review of low charge sate positive and negative ion sources suitable for accelerator use is given. A brief discussion is also given of the concepts underlying the formation and extraction of ion beams. Particular emphasis is placed on the technology of ion sources which use solid elemental or molecular compounds to produce vapor for the ionization process

  19. A dozen useful tips on how to minimise the influence of sources of error in quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Milan

    2006-01-01

    The principal and the most important error sources in quantitative electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements arising from sample-associated factors are the influence of the variation of the sample material (dielectric constant), sample size and shape, sample tube wall thickness, and sample orientation and positioning within the microwave cavity on the EPR signal intensity. Variation in these parameters can cause significant and serious errors in the primary phase of quantitative EPR analysis (i.e., data acquisition). The primary aim of this review is to provide useful suggestions, recommendations and simple procedures to minimise the influence of such primary error sources in quantitative EPR measurements. According to the literature, as well as results obtained in our EPR laboratory, the following are recommendations for samples, which are compared in quantitative EPR studies: (i) the shape of all samples should be identical; (ii) the position of the sample/reference in the cavity should be identical; (iii) a special alignment procedure for precise sample positioning within the cavity should be adopted; (iv) a special/consistent procedure for sample packing for a powder material should be used; (v) the wall thickness of sample tubes should be identical; (vi) the shape and wall thickness of quartz Dewars, where used, should be identical; (vii) where possible a double TE 104 cavity should be used in quantitative EPR spectroscopy; (viii) the dielectric properties of unknown and standard samples should be as close as possible; (ix) sample length less than double the cavity length should be used; (x) the optimised sample geometry for the X-band cavity is a 30 mm-length capillary with i.d. less then 1.5 mm; (xi) use of commercially distributed software for post-recording spectra manipulation is a basic necessity; and (xii) the sample and laboratory temperature should be kept constant during measurements. When the above recommendations and procedures were used

  20. Pharmacologic conversion of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, R S; Tisdale, J E; Borzak, S

    2001-01-01

    This report reviews the efficacy of currently available antiarrhythmic agents for conversion of atrial fibrilation (AF) to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). A systematic search of literature in the English language was done on computerized databases, such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Current Contents, in reference lists, by manual searching, and in contact with expert informants. Published studies involving humans that described the use of antiarrhythmic therapy for conversion of AF to NSR were considered and only studies that examined the use of agents currently available in the United States were included. Studies exclusively describing antiarrhythmic therapy for conversion of postsurgical AF were excluded. The methodology and results of each trial were assessed and attempts were made to acquire additional information from investigators when needed. Assessment of methodological quality was incorporated into a levels-of-evidence scheme. Eighty-eight trials were included, of which 34 (39%) included a placebo group (level I data). We found in recent-onset AF of less than 7 days, intravenous (i.v.) procainamide, high-dose i.v. or high-dose combination i.v. and oral amiodarone, oral quinidine, oral flecainide, oral propafenone, and high-dose oral amiodarone are more effective than placebo for converting AF to NSR. In recent-onset AF of less than 90 days, i.v. ibutilide is more effective than placebo and i.v. procainamide. In chronic AF, oral dofetilide converts AF to NSR within 72 hours, and oral propafenone and amiodarone are effective after 30 days of therapy. We conclude than for conversion of recent-onset AF of less than 7 days, procainamide may be considered a preferred i.v. agent and propafenone a preferred oral agent. For conversion of recent-onset AF of longer duration (less than 90 days), i.v. ibutilide may be considered a preferred agent. For patients with chronic AF and left ventricular dysfunction, direct current cardioversion is the preferred conversion method

  1. Review of laser produced multi-keV X-ray sources from metallic foils, cylinders with liner, and low density aerogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Frédéric [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2016-04-15

    Experimental results obtained within the last fifteen years on multi-keV X-ray sources irradiated with nanosecond scale pulse duration 3ω laser light at TW power levels by CEA and collaborators are discussed in this review paper. Experiments were carried out on OMEGA and GEKKO XII laser facilities where emitting materials in the 5–10 keV multi-keV energy range are intermediate Z value metals from titanium to germanium. Results focused on conversion efficiency improvement by a factor of 2 when an underdense plasma is created using a laser pre-pulse on a metallic foil, which is then heated by a second laser pulse delayed in time. Metal coated inner surface walls of plastic cylindrical tube ablated by laser beam impacts showed that plasma confinement doubles X-ray emission duration as it gives adequate plasma conditions (electron temperature and density) over a long period of time. Low-density aerogels (doped with metal atoms uniformly distributed throughout their volume or metal oxides) contained in a plastic cylinder have been developed and their results are comparable to gas targets. A hybrid target concept consisting of a thin metal foil placed at the end of a cylinder filled with low density aerogel has emerged as it could collect benefits from pre-exploded thin foils, efficient laser absorption in aerogel, and confinement by cylinder walls. All target geometry performances are relatively close together at a given photon energy and mainly depend on laser irradiation condition optimizations. Results are compared with gas target performances from recent NIF experiments allowing high electron temperatures over large dimension low density plasmas, which are the principal parameters for efficient multi-keV X-ray production.

  2. The effect of journal impact factor, reporting conflicts, and reporting funding sources, on standardized effect sizes in back pain trials: a systematic review and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froud, Robert; Bjørkli, Tom; Bright, Philip; Rajendran, Dévan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Underwood, Martin; Evans, David; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-11-30

    Low back pain is a common and costly health complaint for which there are several moderately effective treatments. In some fields there is evidence that funder and financial conflicts are associated with trial outcomes. It is not clear whether effect sizes in back pain trials relate to journal impact factor, reporting conflicts of interest, or reporting funding. We performed a systematic review of English-language papers reporting randomised controlled trials of treatments for non-specific low back pain, published between 2006-2012. We modelled the relationship using 5-year journal impact factor, and categories of reported of conflicts of interest, and categories of reported funding (reported none and reported some, compared to not reporting these) using meta-regression, adjusting for sample size, and publication year. We also considered whether impact factor could be predicted by the direction of outcome, or trial sample size. We could abstract data to calculate effect size in 99 of 146 trials that met our inclusion criteria. Effect size is not associated with impact factor, reporting of funding source, or reporting of conflicts of interest. However, explicitly reporting 'no trial funding' is strongly associated with larger absolute values of effect size (adjusted β=1.02 (95 % CI 0.44 to 1.59), P=0.001). Impact factor increases by 0.008 (0.004 to 0.012) per unit increase in trial sample size (Psources of funding, and conflicts of interest reflects positively on research and publisher conduct in the field. Strong evidence of a large association between absolute magnitude of effect size and explicit reporting of 'no funding' suggests authors of unfunded trials are likely to report larger effect sizes, notwithstanding direction. This could relate in part to quality, resources, and/or how pragmatic a trial is.

  3. ENERJİ VE ÇEVRE: ALTERNATİF ENERJİ KAYNAKLARININ İNCELENMESİ-ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan BAYKAL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available İklim değişikleri insanoğlunun günümüzde karşılaştığı en büyük sorunlardan biri olarak sayılmaktadır. Dünya’nın giderek artan enerji gereksinimleri küresel çevreyi tehlikeye atmaktadır. Ülkeler tarafından enerji üretmek için kullanılan fosilli yakıtlara olan bağımlılık, dünyanın iklimini tehdit etmektedir.  Fosilli yakıtlar tarafından üretilen enerjinin kullanımının yarattığı olumsuz etkiler, dünya ülkelerinin temiz ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarını geliştirmesi ve teşvik etmesinin gerekliliğini açıkça ortaya koymuştur. Dünyanın geleceği, karbondioksitin azaltılması ve temiz güç ile sürdürülebilirlik üzerinde yoğunlaşan alternatif enerjiye bağlıdır. Bu konular, çevresel olarak güvenli ve ekonomik olarak verimli olan alternatif enerji kaynaklarının geliştirilmesini ve kullanımını teşvik etmiştir. Bu çalışma çeşitli alternatif enerji kaynaklarını kapsayan verileri ve bu kaynakların uygulanması ile ilgili gelişmeleri gözden geçirecektir.- One of the greatest challenges facing humanity today has been identified as climate change. The world’s ever increasing energy requirements are endangering the global environment. The overall dependence on fossil fuels to generate power throughout the nations is threatening the climate across the planet. The negative effects created by the use of fossil fuel generated power have made it apparently clear that the nations of the world need to develop and promote clean and renewable energy sources.  The future of the Earth is dependent on the reduction of carbon dioxide and alternative energy that focuses on clean power and sustainability.  Together these issues have encouraged the development and the use of alternative energy that is environmentally safe and economically effective. This study presents and reviews data covering various alternative energy sources and the progress of their perspective applications.

  4. Book Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Book Review. Water Resources Management in Ethiopia: Implications for the Nile Basin. ... general to specific issues within the Ethiopian context. ... properly made with regard to water source, ... of those of Tanzania, Kenya, Burundi, Rwanda,.

  5. Experience with synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, S.

    1987-01-01

    The development of synchrotron radiation sources is discussed, emphasizing characteristics important for x-ray microscopy. Bending magnets, wigglers and undulators are considered as sources of radiation. Operating experience at the national Synchrotron Light Source on the VUV and XRAY storage rings is reviewed, with particular consideration given to achieved current and lifetime, transverse bunch dimensions, and orbit stability. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford

  7. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  8. Polarized electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepost, R.

    1994-01-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented

  9. Polarized electron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prepost, R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The fundamentals of polarized electron sources are described with particular application to the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The SLAC polarized electron source is based on the principle of polarized photoemission from Gallium Arsenide. Recent developments using epitaxially grown, strained Gallium Arsenide cathodes have made it possible to obtain electron polarization significantly in excess of the conventional 50% polarization limit. The basic principles for Gallium and Arsenide polarized photoemitters are reviewed, and the extension of the basic technique to strained cathode structures is described. Results from laboratory measurements of strained photocathodes as well as operational results from the SLAC polarized source are presented.

  10. 75 FR 17253 - Revisions to the General Conformity Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 51 and 93 Revisions to the General... under the minor source New Source Review (NSR) programs similar to the EPA's existing General Conformity... EPA is making two minor revisions to the definition. First, EPA is correcting the citation for the SIP...

  11. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  12. The Use of Local Short Story in English Language Learning (A Literary Review on the Use of Local Sources as an Alternative Teaching Media in EFL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsyah, Aam

    2016-01-01

    The use of native English story in EFL, which has so far been a source for heated debate among the scholars due to the possible intercultural conflict experienced by the learners and can possibly lead to the learners' confusion during the class, is basically driven by the long gone communicative competence theory, the paradigm which views that…

  13. Employee Reviews on Company Independent Sites and its Impact on Organizational Attractiveness: Role of Information Realism, Person – Environment Fit and Source Credibility Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavleen Kaur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extant literature on recruitment has focused on the traditional sources of recruitment like company brochures, career fairs, and impact of such sources on intent to join the organization, productivity and turnover intention. The influence of recruitment related information on pre hire outcomes is still scarce and inconclusive. With the advent of technology and access to Internet, company websites have become an important source of recruitment. Apart from company websites, job seekers are now using company independent websites, forums or online communities to gather a more truthful picture and information about the job and organizational attributes. Social media too has become increasingly important medium where the current employees’ share how it is to work with the organization However research on web based recruitment is limited to company websites. Despite the widespread growth and practical use of these new and innovative media very little is known about how these independent sites influence recruitment pre hire outcomes. In this direction the proposed study presents a conceptual framework about how job seekers perceive company independent websites as a tool for providing recruitment communication and their impact on organizational attractiveness using Information Realism, Person-Environment fit framework, Source Credibility framework.

  14. Radioactive aerosols of the object 'Ukryttya' (a review). Part 4.2. Sources and generation of radioactive aerosols during technogenic activities in 1987 - 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogorodnikov, B.I.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.

    2006-01-01

    The sources of radioactive aerosol formation were considered at operation. It is shown that concentrations, radionuclide composition, size distribution, transfer and transformation in environment depended on physical and chemical processes proceeding within reactor breakdown, man-caused activity into premises of the object 'Shelter' and near ChNPP. 34 refs.; 7 figs.; 11 tab

  15. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  16. Visual Occlusion During Minimally Invasive Surgery: A Contemporary Review of Methods to Reduce Laparoscopic and Robotic Lens Fogging and Other Sources of Optical Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Todd G; Perera, Marlon; Christidis, Daniel; Kinnear, Ned; McGrath, Shannon; O'Beirne, Richard; Zotov, Paul; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    Maintenance of optimal vision during minimally invasive surgery is crucial to maintaining operative awareness, efficiency, and safety. Hampered vision is commonly caused by laparoscopic lens fogging (LLF), which has prompted the development of various antifogging fluids and warming devices. However, limited comparative evidence exists in contemporary literature. Despite technologic advancements there remains no consensus as to superior methods to prevent LLF or restore visual acuity once LLF has occurred. We performed a review of literature to present the current body of evidence supporting the use of numerous techniques. A standardized Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis review was performed, and PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched. Articles pertaining to mechanisms and prevention of LLF were reviewed. We applied no limit to year of publication or publication type and all articles encountered were included in final review. Limited original research and heterogenous outcome measures precluded meta-analytical assessment. Vision loss has a multitude of causes and although scientific theory can be applied to in vivo environments, no authors have completely characterized this complex problem. No method to prevent or correct LLF was identified as superior to others and comparative evidence is minimal. Robotic LLF was poorly investigated and aside from a single analysis has not been directly compared to standard laparoscopic fogging in any capacity. Obscured vision during surgery is hazardous and typically caused by LLF. The etiology of LLF despite application of scientific theory is yet to be definitively proven in the in vivo environment. Common methods of prevention of LLF or restoration of vision due to LLF have little evidence-based data to support their use. A multiarm comparative in vivo analysis is required to formally assess these commonly used techniques in both standard and robotic laparoscopes.

  17. Systematic literature review of methodologies and data sources of existing economic models across the full spectrum of Alzheimer's disease and dementia from apparently healthy through disease progression to end of life care: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannidou, Maria; Wittenberg, Raphael; Landeiro, Filipa Isabel Trigo; Park, A-La; Fry, Andra; Knapp, Martin; Gray, Alastair M; Tockhorn-Heidenreich, Antje; Castro Sanchez, Amparo Yovanna; Ghinai, Isaac; Handels, Ron; Lecomte, Pascal; Wolstenholme, Jane

    2018-06-08

    Dementia is one of the greatest health challenges the world will face in the coming decades, as it is one of the principal causes of disability and dependency among older people. Economic modelling is used widely across many health conditions to inform decisions on health and social care policy and practice. The aim of this literature review is to systematically identify, review and critically evaluate existing health economics models in dementia. We included the full spectrum of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), from preclinical stages through to severe dementia and end of life. This review forms part of the Real world Outcomes across the Alzheimer's Disease spectrum for better care: multimodal data Access Platform (ROADMAP) project. Electronic searches were conducted in Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, Excerpta Medica dataBASE, Economic Literature Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, Research Papers in Economics, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Science Citation Index, Turning Research Into Practice and Open Grey for studies published between January 2000 and the end of June 2017. Two reviewers will independently assess each study against predefined eligibility criteria. A third reviewer will resolve any disagreement. Data will be extracted using a predefined data extraction form following best practice. Study quality will be assessed using the Phillips checklist for decision analytic modelling. A narrative synthesis will be used. The results will be made available in a scientific peer-reviewed journal paper, will be presented at relevant conferences and will also be made available through the ROADMAP project. CRD42017073874. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Phynx: an open source software solution supporting data management and web-based patient-level data review for drug safety studies in the general practice research database and other health care databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbring, Marco; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Russmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    To develop a software solution that supports management and clinical review of patient data from electronic medical records databases or claims databases for pharmacoepidemiological drug safety studies. We used open source software to build a data management system and an internet application with a Flex client on a Java application server with a MySQL database backend. The application is hosted on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud. This solution named Phynx supports data management, Web-based display of electronic patient information, and interactive review of patient-level information in the individual clinical context. This system was applied to a dataset from the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Our solution can be setup and customized with limited programming resources, and there is almost no extra cost for software. Access times are short, the displayed information is structured in chronological order and visually attractive, and selected information such as drug exposure can be blinded. External experts can review patient profiles and save evaluations and comments via a common Web browser. Phynx provides a flexible and economical solution for patient-level review of electronic medical information from databases considering the individual clinical context. It can therefore make an important contribution to an efficient validation of outcome assessment in drug safety database studies.

  19. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  20. Sourcing Excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2011-01-01

    Sourcing Excellence is one of the key performance indicators (KPIs) in this world of ever changing sourcing strategies. Manufacturing companies need to access and diagnose the reliability and competencies of existing suppliers in order to coordinate and develop them. This would help in managing...

  1. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  2. High current ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.

    1989-06-01

    The concept of high current ion source is both relative and evolutionary. Within the domain of one particular kind of ion source technology a current of microamperers might be 'high', while in another area a current of 10 Amperes could 'low'. Even within the domain of a single ion source type, what is considered high current performance today is routinely eclipsed by better performance and higher current output within a short period of time. Within their fields of application, there is a large number of kinds of ion sources that can justifiably be called high current. Thus, as a very limited example only, PIGs, Freemen sources, ECR sources, duoplasmatrons, field emission sources, and a great many more all have their high current variants. High current ion beams of gaseous and metallic species can be generated in a number of different ways. Ion sources of the kind developed at various laboratories around the world for the production of intense neutral beams for controlled fusion experiments are used to form large area proton deuteron beams of may tens of Amperes, and this technology can be used for other applications also. There has been significant progress in recent years in the use of microwave ion sources for high current ion beam generation, and this method is likely to find wide application in various different field application. Finally, high current beams of metal ions can be produced using metal vapor vacuum arc ion source technology. After a brief consideration of high current ion source design concepts, these three particular methods are reviewed in this paper

  3. New renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This publication presents a review of the technological, economical and market status in the field of new renewable energy sources. It also deals briefly with the present use of energy, external conditions for new renewable energy sources and prospects for these energy sources in a future energy system. The renewable energy sources treated here are ''new'' in the sense that hydroelectric energy technology is excluded, being fully developed commercially. This publication updates a previous version, which was published in 1996. The main sections are: (1) Introduction, (2) Solar energy, (3) Bio energy, (4) Wind power, (5) Energy from the sea, (6) Hydrogen, (7) Other new renewable energy technologies and (8) New renewable s in the energy system of the future

  4. Caffeine Intake from Food and Beverage Sources and Trends among Children and Adolescents in the United States: Review of National Quantitative Studies from 1999 to 201112345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Herrick, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing concern about potential adverse effects of caffeine in children. Our understanding of caffeine intake relies on studies dating to the late 1990s. This article synthesizes information from national studies since then to describe caffeine consumption, its association with sociodemographic factors, key dietary sources including caffeine-containing energy drinks (CCEDs), and trends in caffeine intake and sources among US children. Findings from the Kanter Worldpanel (KWP) Beverage Consumption Panel and the NHANES showed that caffeine consumption prevalence was generally consistent across studies and over time; more than one-half of 2- to 5-y-olds and ∼75% of older children (>5 y) consumed caffeine. The usual intakes of caffeine were 25 and 50 mg/d for children and adolescents aged 2–11 and 12–17 y, respectively (NHANES 2007–2010). Caffeine consumption correlated with age and was higher in non-Hispanic white children. The key sources of caffeine were soda and tea as well as flavored dairy (for children aged caffeine intake was noted in children overall during the 10- to 12-y period examined; intakes remained stable among older children (≥12 y). A significant increasing trend in CCED and coffee consumption and a decline in soda intake were noted (1999–2010). In 2009–2010, 10% of 12- to 19-y-olds and 10–25% of caffeine consumers (aged 12–19 y) had intakes exceeding Canadian maximal guidelines. Continued monitoring can help better understand changes in caffeine consumption patterns of youth. PMID:25593149

  5. Sources of error in etched-track radon measurements and a review of passive detectors using results from a series of radon intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimi, Z.-F.; Howarth, C.B.; Miles, J.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Etched-track passive radon detectors are a well established and apparently simple technology. As with any measurement system, there are multiple sources of uncertainty and potential for error. The authors discuss these as well as good quality assurance practices. Identification and assessment of sources of error is crucial to maintain high quality standards by a measurement laboratory. These sources can be found both within and outside the radon measurement laboratory itself. They can lead to changes in track characteristics and ultimately detector response to radon exposure. Changes don't just happen during etching, but can happen during the recording or counting of etched-tracks (for example ageing and fading effects on track sensitivity, or focus and image acquisition variables). Track overlap means the linearity of response of detectors will vary as exposure increases. The laboratory needs to correct the calibration curve due to this effect if it wishes to offer detectors that cover a range of exposures likely to be observed in the field. Extrapolation of results to estimate annual average concentrations also has uncertainty associated with it. Measurement systems need to be robust, reliable and stable. If a laboratory is not actively and constantly monitoring for anomalies via internal testing, the laboratory may not become aware of a problem until some form of external testing occurs, eg an accreditation process, performance test, interlaboratory comparison exercise or when a customer has cause to query results. Benchmark standards of accuracy and precision achievable with passive detectors are discussed drawing on trends from the series of intercomparison exercises for passive radon detectors which began in 1982, organised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), subsequently the Health Protection Agency (HPA).

  6. Review of laser ion sources developments in Prague and production of q over 50+ ions at Prague Asterix laser System (invited)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Láska, Leoš; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Krouský, Eduard; Mašek, Karel; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Ryc, L.; Szydlowski, A.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, L.; Boody, F. P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2004), s. 1546-1550 ISSN 0034-6748. [International Conference on Ion Sources, ICIS 03 /10./. Dubna, 07.09.2003-14.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010105; GA MŠk LN00A100 Grant - others:HPRI-CT(XE) 1999-00053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : PALS * highly charged ions * laser interaction with self-created plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2004

  7. In-silico studies in Chinese herbal medicines' research: evaluation of in-silico methodologies and phytochemical data sources, and a review of research to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, D J; Buriani, A; Ehrman, T; Bosisio, E; Eberini, I; Hylands, P J

    2012-04-10

    The available databases that catalogue information on traditional Chinese medicines are reviewed in terms of their content and utility for in-silico research on Chinese herbal medicines, as too are the various protein database resources, and the software available for use in such studies. The software available for bioinformatics and 'omics studies of Chinese herbal medicines are summarised, and a critical evaluation given of the various in-silico methods applied in screening Chinese herbal medicines, including classification trees, neural networks, support vector machines, docking and inverse docking algorithms. Recommendations are made regarding any future in-silico studies of Chinese herbal medicines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reading sources in English to write a literature review in a romance language: a genre-based eap course in a masters program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a genre-based, field-specific EAP course offered in a Latin American university to Master’s candidates of veterinary science who are in the process of writing literature reviews for their dissertations. As their dissertations are expected to be novel contributions, the writers need to have access to scientific information in English, although the final product will be produced in their native Romance language, Spanish. To meet this need, we capitalized on the advantages of the context, particularly the common L1 background and the field homogeneity of the course group, thus allowing for specific instruction.

  9. The use of sub-critical water hydrolysis for the recovery of peptides and free amino acids from food processing wastes. Review of sources and main parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcet, Ismael; Álvarez, Carlos; Paredes, Benjamín; Díaz, Mario

    2016-03-01

    Food industry processing wastes are produced in enormous amounts every year, such wastes are usually disposed with the corresponding economical cost it implies, in the best scenario they can be used for pet food or composting. However new promising technologies and tools have been developed in the last years aimed at recovering valuable compounds from this type of materials. In particular, sub-critical water hydrolysis (SWH) has been revealed as an interesting way for recovering high added-value molecules, and its applications have been broadly referred in the bibliography. Special interest has been focused on recovering protein hydrolysates in form of peptides or amino acids, from both animal and vegetable wastes, by means of SWH. These recovered biomolecules have a capital importance in fields such as biotechnology research, nutraceuticals, and above all in food industry, where such products can be applied with very different objectives. Present work reviews the current state of art of using sub-critical water hydrolysis for protein recovering from food industry wastes. Key parameters as reaction time, temperature, amino acid degradation and kinetic constants have been discussed. Besides, the characteristics of the raw material and the type of products that can be obtained depending on the substrate have been reviewed. Finally, the application of these hydrolysates based on their functional properties and antioxidant activity is described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic explanations for concurrent sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent sourcing is a phenomenon where firms simultaneously make and buy the same good, i.e. they simultaneously use the governance modes of market and hierarchy. Though concurrent sourcing seems to be widespread, few studies of sourcing have focused on this phenomenon. This paper reviews...... different economic explanations for why firms use concurrent sourcing. The distinctive features of the explanations are compared, and it is discussed how they may serve as a springboard for research on concurrent sourcing. Managerial implications are also offered....

  11. Investigation on Ion Source Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    M. Cheikh Mhamed, S. Essabaa, C. Lau

    The EURISOL multi-mega-watt target station requires dedicated radioactive ion sources. Notably, they must be capable of operating under extremely hard radiations and with a larger fission target producing over 1014 fissions/s. The realisation of next-generation ion sources suitable for such operating conditions needs exhaustive studies and developments. In order to take up such a challenge, a review on radioactive ion sources was achieved and the investigation on ion source parameters was in particular focused on a plasma ion source through a R&D program.

  12. Review of specific effects in atmospheric dispersion calculations. The impact of source-term characteristics -and the processes that modify them post release- on dry and wet deposition rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.J.; Underwood, B.Y.; Brearley, I.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of the work the source-term characteristics potentially influencing behaviour were identified and examined. It was concluded that a number of source characteristics, in addition to those conventionally provided for consequence assessment, could significantly influence deposition behaviour. Linking with this, a review was undertaken of past reactor-accident risk assessment and more recent source-term studies to pick out information, if any, on the parameters of interest. The second half of the study resulted in a list of processes capable of transforming the released material vis-a-vis deposition characteristics, including processes occurring in the near field associated with the initial release transient and also those occurring over a longer time span as the plume travels downwind. Scoping calculations were performed for some of the processes in the context of idealized accident scenarios, leading to the conclusions that in some circumstances post-release mechanisms could have an important impact on the deposition behaviour of released material. Statistical theory was used to describe the behaviour of a plume both before and after detachment, and the limitations of the theory were discussed. A review of the lateral wind velocity spectra was undertaken so that simplified spectra could be constructed and used to predict the plume behaviour as a function of travel time, stability category and release duration. It was found that commonly used methods of allowing for release duration overpredicted the dependence, in general, upon release duration. For example the adoption of a stability-independent meandering term would lead to the underprediction of threshold effects such as early death and land/crop interdiction. In addition, theory indicated that the 'Y' curves for different stability categories would converge gradually with increasing travel time

  13. Status of spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Existing and planned facilities using proton accelerator driven spallation neutron source are reviewed. These include new project of neutron science proposed from Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present status of facility requirement and accelerator technology leads us to new era of neutron science such as neutron scattering research and nuclear transmutation study using very intense neutron source. (author)

  14. Vacuum Technology for Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiggiato, P

    2013-01-01

    The basic notions of vacuum technology for ion sources are presented, with emphasis on pressure profile calculation and choice of pumping technique. A Monte Carlo code (Molflow+) for the evaluation of conductances and the vacuum-electrical analogy for the calculation of time-dependent pressure variations are introduced. The specific case of the Linac4 H - source is reviewed. (author)

  15. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium.

  16. Open source molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhadi, Somayeh; Sunseri, Jocelyn; Koes, David Ryan

    2016-09-01

    The success of molecular modeling and computational chemistry efforts are, by definition, dependent on quality software applications. Open source software development provides many advantages to users of modeling applications, not the least of which is that the software is free and completely extendable. In this review we categorize, enumerate, and describe available open source software packages for molecular modeling and computational chemistry. An updated online version of this catalog can be found at https://opensourcemolecularmodeling.github.io. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review of high energy data and model codes for accelerator-based transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    After reviewing the most important data needs for accelerator-based transmutation, the present status of the collection of experimental data for high energies is investigated by scanning the two databases NSR and EXFOR for measured cross sections. The most important nuclear theories and some of the associated nuclear model codes that are in use are outlined. Experimental data and simple theories have been used to construct empirical fomulae for the prediction of high-energy cross sections and these parametrizations are listed. A survey is given of the evaluation work that has been done so far, and finally some conclusions and recommendations are presented, with respect to the need of compilation of experimental data. (orig.)

  18. Optimal Rule-Based Power Management for Online, Real-Time Applications in HEVs with Multiple Sources and Objectives: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedatri Moulik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The field of hybrid vehicles has undergone intensive research and development, primarily due to the increasing concern of depleting resources and increasing pollution. In order to investigate further options to optimize the performance of hybrid vehicles with regards to different criteria, such as fuel economy, battery aging, etc., a detailed state-of-the-art review is presented in this contribution. Different power management and optimization techniques are discussed focusing on rule-based power management and multi-objective optimization techniques. The extent of rule-based power management and optimization in solving battery aging issues is investigated along with an implementation in real-time driving scenarios where no pre-defined drive cycle is followed. The goal of this paper is to illustrate the significance and applications of rule-based power management optimization based on previous contributions.

  19. Neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L. Jr.; Shaw, C.B.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron source which is particularly useful for neutron radiography consists of a vessel containing a moderating media of relatively low moderating ratio, a flux trap including a moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio at the center of the vessel, a shell of depleted uranium dioxide surrounding the moderating media of relatively high moderating ratio, a plurality of guide tubes each containing a movable source of neutrons surrounding the flux trap, a neutron shield surrounding one part of each guide tube, and at least one collimator extending from the flux trap to the exterior of the neutron source. The shell of depleted uranium dioxide has a window provided with depleted uranium dioxide shutters for each collimator. Reflectors are provided above and below the flux trap and on the guide tubes away from the flux trap

  20. Crowd Sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has contributed new words and slang to our daily vernacular. A few terms, such as tweeting, texting, sexting, blogging, and googling, have become common in most vocabularies and in many languages, and are now included in the dictionary. A new buzzword making the rounds in industry is crowd sourcing, which involves outsourcing an activity, task, or problem by sending it to people or groups outside a business or a practice. Crowd sourcing allows doctors and practices to tap the wisdom of many instead of relying only on the few members of their close-knit group. This article defines "crowd sourcing," offers examples, and explains how to get started with this approach that can increase your ability to finish a task or solve problems that you don't have the time or expertise to accomplish.

  1. High-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry for the simultaneous or sequential monitoring of multiple lines. A critical review of current possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resano, M.; Flórez, M.R.; García-Ruiz, E.

    2013-01-01

    This work examines the capabilities and limitations of commercially available high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry instrumentation for multi-line monitoring, discussing in detail the possible strategies to develop multi-element methodologies that are truly simultaneous, or else sequential, but from the same sample aliquot. Moreover, the simultaneous monitoring of various atomic or molecular lines may bring other important analytical advantages, such as: i) expansion of the linear range by monitoring multiplets; ii) improvements in the limit of detection and in precision by summing the signals from different lines of the same element or molecule; iii) simple correction for matrix-effects by selecting a suitable internal standard; or iv) accurate mathematical correction of spectral overlaps by simultaneous monitoring of free lines of the interfering molecule or element. This work discusses how authors have made use of these strategies to develop analytical methodologies that permit the straightforward analysis of complex samples. - Highlights: • HR CS AAS potential for simultaneous multi-line monitoring is critically examined. • Strategies to develop simultaneous multi-element methods are discussed. • Other benefits of multi-line monitoring (e.g., use of an IS or LSBC) are highlighted. • Selected examples from the literature are discussed in detail

  2. Diagnostic performance of dual-source CT coronary angiography with and without heart rate control: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Zhang, G.-M.; Zhao, J.-S.; Jiang, Z.-W.; Peng, Z.-H.; Jin, Z.-T.; Sun, G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography with and without the application of a β-blocker. Materials and methods: An exact binomial rendition of the bivariate mixed-effects regression model was used to synthesize diagnostic test data. Results: The pooled sensitivity at the patient level was 0.98 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.97–0.99], and specificity 0.88 (95% CI: 0.84–0.91). The results showed that without heart rate control, the sensitivity and specificity at the patient level did not decrease (p = 0.27 and 0.56, respectively). At the artery level, no significant differences in sensitivity and specificity for studies with and without heart rate control were detected (p = 0.04 and 0.05, respectively). At the segment level, the specificity decreased without heart rate control (p = 0.03), whereas the sensitivity was not influenced (p = 0.63). The median radiation exposure was 2.6 mSv, with 1.6 mSv and 8 mSv for heart rate-controlled studies and uncontrolled studies, respectively. Conclusions: DSCT coronary angiography without heart rate control has a similar excellent diagnostic performance at the patient level as that of heart rate control groups. However, controlling for heart rate to decrease radiation and to provide effective information for selecting the therapeutic strategy and risk stratification is recommended

  3. Application of the stable-isotope system to the study of sources and fate of Hg in the environment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Runsheng; Feng Xinbin; Shi Wenfang

    2010-01-01

    With the improvement of analytical methods and the development of multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP/MS), research on non-traditional stable isotope (Cu, Zn, Fe, Se, Mo, Cr, Hg) in geochemistry has made tremendous progress in the past decade. Recent studies have demonstrated that both organic and inorganic reactions may cause Hg isotope fractionation, and variations of Hg isotopic composition in the environment have been successfully employed to explain Hg pollution history, Hg sources and tracking Hg pathways in nature. Furthermore, Hg isotopic fractionation studies can be a powerful tool in the calibration of global Hg cycling models. Stable isotope geochemistry of Hg is therefore becoming a new frontier subject in earth sciences. Based on summarizing previous research, this paper outlines the main advances in the study of Hg stable isotopes with particular emphasis placed on a brief explanation of Hg isotope analytical techniques, possible Hg isotope fractionation mechanisms observed in both natural and experimental processes, Hg isotope composition variations in different environmental matrices, and the application prospects of the Hg stable isotopes in environmental geosciences.

  4. Mitigation of Power Quality Issues Due to High Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in Electric Grid Systems Using Three-Phase APF/STATCOM Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajahat Ullah Khan Tareen

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study summarizes an analytical review on the comparison of three-phase static compensator (STATCOM and active power filter (APF inverter topologies and their control schemes using industrial standards and advanced high-power configurations. Transformerless and reduced switch count topologies are the leading technologies in power electronics that aim to reduce system cost and offer the additional benefits of small volumetric size, lightweight and compact structure, and high reliability. A detailed comparison of the topologies, control strategies and implementation structures of grid-connected high-power converters is presented. However, reducing the number of power semiconductor devices, sensors, and control circuits requires complex control strategies. This study focuses on different topological devices, namely, passive filters, shunt and hybrid filters, and STATCOMs, which are typically used for power quality improvement. Additionally, appropriate control schemes, such as sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM and space vector PWM techniques, are selected. According to recent developments in shunt APF/STATCOM inverters, simulation and experimental results prove the effectiveness of APF/STATCOM systems for harmonic mitigation based on the defined limit in IEEE-519.

  5. 40 CFR 52.235 - Control strategy for ozone: Oxides of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... nitrogen. 52.235 Section 52.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Unified Air Pollution Control District on April 26, 1994 for the Monterey Bay ozone nonattainment area... technology (RACT), new source review (NSR), the related requirements of general and transportation conformity...

  6. 78 FR 63883 - Promulgation of State Implementation Plan Revisions; Revision to Prevention of Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... incorporate the required elements of the 2008 PM 2.5 New Source Review (NSR) Implementation Rule and the 2010... disclose potential conflicts of interest. However, the commenters cite another provision, added in Senate... (Department) to promulgate rules regarding conflict of interest procedures for the Board. The commenters...

  7. 78 FR 20868 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... chemical reactions from precursor gases (e.g., secondary particles). Secondary particles, such as sulfates, nitrates, and complex carbon compounds, are formed from reactions with oxides of sulfur (SO X ), oxides of... nonattainment new source review (nonattainment NSR) permit programs; provisions for air pollution modeling; and...

  8. 75 FR 79964 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Modifications to Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... renewable fuel facility to be considered biogas for purposes of Table 1 to Sec. 80.1426; --Sec. 80.1452(b... explained that many developers of ethanol facilities, including their own, sought to obtain construction permits without going through EPA's New Source Review (NSR) program, and were able to do so by obtaining...

  9. Visualizing spikes in source-space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beniczky, Sándor; Duez, Lene; Scherg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reviewing magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings is time-consuming: signals from the 306 MEG-sensors are typically reviewed divided into six arrays of 51 sensors each, thus browsing each recording six times in order to evaluate all signals. A novel method of reconstructing the MEG...... signals in source-space was developed using a source-montage of 29 brain-regions and two spatial components to remove magnetocardiographic (MKG) artefacts. Our objective was to evaluate the accuracy of reviewing MEG in source-space. METHODS: In 60 consecutive patients with epilepsy, we prospectively...... evaluated the accuracy of reviewing the MEG signals in source-space as compared to the classical method of reviewing them in sensor-space. RESULTS: All 46 spike-clusters identified in sensor-space were also identified in source-space. Two additional spike-clusters were identified in source-space. As 29...

  10. Ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The specifications of a set of point-shape electrodes of non-corrodable material that can hold a film of liquid material of equal thickness is described. Contained in a jacket, this set forms an ion source. The electrode is made of tungsten with a glassy carbon layer for insulation and an outer layer of aluminium-oxide ceramic material

  11. Audiovisual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physiology Teacher, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Lists and reviews recent audiovisual materials in areas of medical, dental, nursing and allied health, and veterinary medicine; undergraduate, and high school studies. Each is classified as to level, type of instruction, usefulness, and source of availability. Topics include respiration, renal physiology, muscle mechanics, anatomy, evolution,…

  12. National Asphalt Pavement Association Questions and Answers on PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions at Oilseed Processing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Accounting for Emergency Generators in the Estimate of Potential to Emit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Do Glass Manufacturing Plants Belong Under the Chemical Processing Plant Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Title V Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Creditibility of Shutdown Offsets at Sonoco Flexible Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. PSD Applicability Determination for Power Boiler No. 4 at the Potlatch Corporation Facility in Lewiston, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Applicability of PSD to Pennsylvania Power and Light Auxiliary Boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. PSD - Routine Maintenance Repair and Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Determining Baseline Emissions at Mississippi Power Company's Watson Electric Generating Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Classification of Ethanol Fuel Plants under PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. Classification of the Bardstown Fuel Alcohol Company under PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Request for Concurrence as to Applicability of PSD and NSPS Regulations to Marblehead Lime Company Proposed Lime Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. PSD Permit for the Marblehead Lime Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Plantwide Applicability Limitations for the Semiconductor Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. NOx Controls For Existing Utility Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  8. PSD Determination: Sun Oil Company and the Definition of Major Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Technical Document on Control of Nitrogen Oxides From Municipal Waste Combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  10. Consideration of Fugitive Emissions from Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Monroe Electric Generating Plant Petition No. 6-99-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Common Control, September 18, 1995 Letter to Peter Hamlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Endangered Species Act Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Honda Permits to Install 1 Year Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Contingency Plan for FGD Systems During Downtime as a Function of PSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Use of Banked ERC's as Both External Offsets and Reasonable Further Progress Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Response to Request for Guidance on Use of Pre-1990 ERC' s and Adjusting for RACT at Time of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. PSD Determination, Portland Cement Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Plant-wide Applicability Limit at Esroc Cement Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. St. Lawrence Cement... Two Facilities or One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.