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Sample records for source pattern nr

  1. The USA Nr Inventory: Dominant Sources and Primary Transport Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, R. D.; Clark, C.; Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Cooter, E. J.; Schwede, D. B.; Bash, J. O.; Rea, A.; Dobrowolski, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Efforts to mitigate the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr) on human health and ecosystem goods and service while ensuring food, biofuel, and fiber availability, is one of the most pressing environmental management challenges of this century. Effective management of Nr requires up to date inventories that quantitatively characterize the sources, transport, and transformation of Nr through the environment. The inherent complexity of the nitrogen cycle, however, through multiple exchange points across air, water, and terrestrial media, renders such inventories difficult to compile and manage. Previous Nr Inventories are for 2002 and 2007, and used data sources that have since been improved. Thus, this recent inventory will substantially advance the methodology across many sectors of the inventory (e.g. deposition and biological fixation in crops and natural systems) and create a recent snapshot that is sorely needed for policy planning and trends analysis. Here we use a simple mass balance approach to estimate the input-output budgets for all United States Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Code-8 watersheds. We focus on a recent year (i.e. 2012) to update the Nr Inventory, but apply the analytical approach for multiple years where possible to assess trends through time. We also compare various sector estimates using multiple methodologies. Assembling datasets that account for new Nr inputs into watersheds (e.g., atmospheric NOy deposition, food imports, biologic N fixation) and internal fluxes of recycled Nr (e.g., manure, Nr emmissions/volatilization) provide an unprecedented, data driven computation of N flux. Input-output budgets will offer insight into 1) the dominant sources of Nr in a watershed (e.g., food imports, atmospheric N deposition, or fertilizer), 2) the primary loss pathways for Nr (e.g., crop N harvest, volatilization/emissions), and 3) what watersheds are net sources versus sinks of Nr. These insights will provide needed clarity for

  2. Effects of NR1 splicing on NR1/NR3B-type excitatory glycine receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orth Angela

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are the most complex of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs. Subunits of this subfamily assemble into heteromers, which – depending on the subunit combination – may display very different pharmacological and electrophysiological properties. The least studied members of the NMDAR family, the NR3 subunits, have been reported to assemble with NR1 to form excitatory glycine receptors in heterologous expression systems. The heterogeneity of NMDARs in vivo is in part conferred to the receptors by splicing of the NR1 subunit, especially with regard to proton sensitivity. Results Here, we have investigated whether the NR3B subunit is capable of assembly with each of the eight functional NR1 splice variants, and whether the resulting receptors share the unique functional properties described for NR1-1a/NR3. We provide evidence that functional excitatory glycine receptors formed regardless of the NR1 isoform, and their pharmacological profile matched the one reported for NR1-1a/NR3: glycine alone fully activated the receptors, which were insensitive to glutamate and block by Mg2+. Surprisingly, amplitudes of agonist-induced currents showed little dependency on the C-terminally spliced NR1 variants in NR1/NR3B diheteromers. Even more strikingly, NR3B conferred proton sensitivity also to receptors containing NR1b variants – possibly via disturbing the "proton shield" of NR1b splice variants. Conclusion While functional assembly could be demonstrated for all combinations, not all of the specific interactions seen for NR1 isoforms with coexpressed NR2 subunits could be corroborated for NR1 assembly with NR3. Rather, NR3 abates trafficking effects mediated by the NR1 C terminus as well as the N-terminally mediated proton insensitivity. Thus, this study establishes that NR3B overrides important NR1 splice variant-specific receptor properties in NR1/NR3B excitatory glycine receptors.

  3. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1988-10-01

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  4. Qualified and Unqualified (N-R C) mental health nursing staff--minor differences in sources of stress and burnout. A European multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgaard, Knut W; Ryan, Peter; Dawson, Ian

    2010-06-14

    Unqualified/non-registered caregivers (N-R Cs) will continue to play important roles in the mental health services. This study compares levels of burnout and sources of stress among qualified and N-R Cs working in acute mental health care. A total of 196 nursing staff --124 qualified staff (mainly nurses) and 72 N-R Cs with a variety of different educational backgrounds--working in acute wards or community mental teams from 5 European countries filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the Mental Health Professional Scale (MHPSS) and the Psychosocial Work Environment and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). (a) The univariate differences were generally small and restricted to a few variables. Only Social relations (N-R Cs being less satisfied) at Work demands (nurses reporting higher demands) were different at the .05 level. (b) The absolute scores both groups was highest on variables that measured feelings of not being able to influence a work situation characterised by great demands and insufficient resources. Routines and educational programs for dealing with stress should be available on a routine basis. (c) Multivariate analyses identified three extreme groups: (i) a small group dominated by unqualified staff with high depersonalization, (ii) a large group that was low on depersonalisation and high on work demands with a majority of qualified staff, and (iii) a small N-R C-dominated group (low depersonalization, low work demands) with high scores on professional self-doubt. In contrast to (ii) the small and N-R C-dominated groups in (i) and (iii) reflected mainly centre-dependent problems. The differences in burnout and sources of stress between the two groups were generally small. With the exception of high work demands the main differences between the two groups appeared to be centre-dependent. High work demands characterized primarily qualified staff. The main implication of the study is that no special measures addressed towards N-R Cs in general with regard

  5. Fluxes of total reactive atmospheric nitrogen (ΣNr using eddy covariance above arable land

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    Christophe R. Flechard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The amount and timing of reactive nitrogen exchange between agricultural land and the atmosphere play a key role in evaluating ecosystem productivity and in addressing atmospheric nitrogen budgets and transport. With the recent development of the Total Reactive Atmospheric Nitrogen Converter (TRANC apparatus, a methodology has been provided for continuous measurement of the sum of all airborne nitrogen containing species (ΣNr allowing for diurnal and seasonal investigations. We present ΣNr concentration and net flux data from an 11-month field campaign conducted at an arable field using the TRANC system within an eddy-covariance setup. Clear diurnal patterns of both ΣNr concentrations and fluxes with significant dependencies on atmospheric stability and stomatal regulation were observed in the growing season. TRANC data were compared with monthly-averaged concentrations and dry deposition rates of selected Nr compounds using DELTA denuders and ensemble-averages of four inferential models, respectively. Similar seasonal trends were found for Nr concentrations from DELTA and TRANC measurements with values from the latter being considerably higher than those of DELTA denuders. The variability of the difference between these two systems could be explained by seasonally changing source locations of NOx contributions to the TRANC signal. As soil and vegetation Nr emissions to the atmosphere are generally not treated by inferential (dry deposition models, TRANC data showed lower monthly deposition rates than those obtained from inferential modelling. Net ΣNr exchange was almost neutral (~0.072 kg N ha−1 at the end of the observation period. However, during most parts of the year, slight but permanent net ΣNr deposition was found. Our measurements demonstrate that fertilizer addition followed by substantial ΣNr emissions plays a crucial role in a site's annual atmospheric nitrogen budget. As long-term Nr measurements with high temporal

  6. Measurement of extrapolation curves for the secondary pattern of beta radiation Nr. 86 calibrated in rapidity of absorbed dose for tissue equivalent by the Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt; Medicion de curvas de extrapolacion para el patron secundario de radiacion beta Nr. 86 calibrado en rapidez de dosis absorbida para tejido equivalente por el Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, J.T

    1988-10-15

    The following report has as objective to present the obtained results of measuring - with a camera of extrapolation of variable electrodes (CE) - the dose speed absorbed in equivalent fabric given by the group of sources of the secondary pattern of radiation Beta Nr. 86, (PSB), and to compare this results with those presented by the calibration certificates that accompany the PSB extended by the primary laboratory Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, (PTB), of the R.F.A. as well as the uncertainties associated to the measure process. (Author)

  7. Expression and Functional Pathway Analysis of Nuclear Receptor NR2F2 in Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Loomans, Holli A.; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Ghosh-Choudhury, Triparna; Coffey, Donna; Xiao, Weimin; Liu, Zhandong; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Context: Recent evidence implicates the orphan nuclear receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 2 (NR2F2; chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II) as both a master regulator of angiogenesis and an oncogene in prostate and other human cancers. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine whether NR2F2 plays a role in ovarian cancer and dissect its potential mechanisms of action. Design, Setting, and Patients: We examined NR2F2 expression in healthy ovary and ovarian cancers using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. NR2F2 expression was targeted in established ovarian cancer cell lines to assess the impact of dysregulated NR2F2 expression in the epithelial compartment of ovarian cancers. Results: Our results indicate that NR2F2 is robustly expressed in the stroma of healthy ovary with little or no expression in epithelia lining the ovarian surface, clefts, or crypts. This pattern of NR2F2 expression was markedly disrupted in ovarian cancers, in which decreased levels of stromal expression and ectopic epithelial expression were frequently observed. Ovarian cancers with the most disrupted patterns of NR2F2 were associated with significantly shorter disease-free interval by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Targeting NR2F2 expression in established ovarian cancer cell lines enhanced apoptosis and increased proliferation. In addition, we found that NR2F2 regulates the expression of NEK2, RAI14, and multiple other genes involved in the cell cycle, suggesting potential pathways by which dysregulated expression of NR2F2 impacts ovarian cancer. Conclusions: These results uncover novel roles for NR2F2 in ovarian cancer and point to a unique scenario in which a single nuclear receptor plays potentially distinct roles in the stromal and epithelial compartments of the same tissue. PMID:23690307

  8. Cross-talk between the NR3B and NR4A families of orphan nuclear receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammi, Johanna; Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Huppunen, Johanna; Aarnisalo, Piia

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (NR3B family) and Nurr1, NGFI-B, and Nor1 (NR4A family) are orphan nuclear receptors lacking identified natural ligands. The mechanisms regulating their transcriptional activities have remained elusive. We have previously observed that the members of NR3B and NR4A families are coexpressed in certain cell types such as osteoblasts and that the ability of Nurr1 to transactivate the osteopontin promoter is repressed by ERRs. We have now studied the cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors. We show that NR3B and NR4A receptors mutually repress each others' transcriptional activity. The repression involves intact DNA-binding domains and dimerization interfaces but does not result from competition for DNA binding or from heterodimerization. The activation functions of NR3B and NR4A receptors are dispensable for the cross-talk. In conclusion, we report that cross-talk between NR3B and NR4A receptors is a mechanism modulating the transcriptional activities of these orphan nuclear receptors

  9. Potentiation of glycine-gated NR1/NR3A NMDA receptors relieves Ca2+-dependent outward rectification

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    Christian Madry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycine has diverse functions within the mammalian central nervous system. It inhibits postsynaptic neurons via strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors (GlyRs and enhances neuronal excitation through co-activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Classical Ca2+-permeable NMDA receptors are composed of glycine-binding NR1 and glutamate-binding NR2 subunits, and hence require both glutamate and glycine for efficient activation. In contrast, recombinant receptors composed of NR1 and the glycine binding NR3A and/or NR3B subunits lack glutamate binding sites and can be activated by glycine alone. Therefore these receptors are also named excitatory glycine receptors. Co-application of antagonists of the NR1 glycine-binding site or of the divalent cation Zn2+ markedly enhances the glycine responses of these receptors. To gain further insight into the properties of these glycine-gated NMDA receptors, we investigated their current-voltage (I-V dependence. Whole-cell current-voltage relations of glycine currents recorded from NR1/NR3B and NR1/NR3A/NR3B expressing oocytes were found to be linear under our recording conditions. In contrast, NR1/NR3A receptors displayed a strong outwardly rectifying I-V relation. Interestingly, the voltage-dependent inward current block was abolished in the presence of NR1 antagonists, Zn2+ or a combination of both. Further analysis revealed that Ca2+ (1.8 mM present in our recording solutions was responsible for the voltage-dependent inhibition of ion flux through NR1/NR3A receptors. Since physiological concentrations of the divalent cation Mg2+ did not affect the I-V dependence, our data suggest that relief of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ block of NR1/NR3A receptors by Zn2+ may be important for the regulation of excitatory glycinergic transmission, according to the Mg2+-block of conventional NR1/NR2 NMDA receptors.

  10. NR4A1 is an endogenous inhibitor of vocal fold fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwatashi, Nao; Bing, Renjie; Kraja, Iv; Branski, Ryan C

    2017-09-01

    NR4A1 was recently identified as an endogenous inhibitor of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced fibrosis, and the role of this nuclear receptor has not been elucidated in tissue health or the response to injury in the vocal folds. Given the clinical implications of vocal fold fibrosis, we investigated NR4A1 expression during vocal fold wound healing in vivo and the regulatory roles of NR4A1 on vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) in vitro with the ultimate goal of developing targeted therapies for this challenging patient population. In vivo and in vitro. In vivo, the temporal pattern of NR4A1 mRNA expression was quantified following rat vocal fold injury. In vitro, the role of NR4A1 on TGF-β1-mediated transcription of genes underlying fibrosis as well as myofibroblast differentiation and collagen gel contraction was quantified in our human VFF line. Small interfering RNA was employed to alter NR4A1 expression to further elucidate this complex system. Nr4a1 mRNA increased 1 day after injury and peaked at 7 days. Knockdown of NR4A1 resulted in upregulation of COL1A1 and TGF-β1, with TGF-β1 stimulation (both P vocal fold health or disease. Upregulation of TGF-β following vocal fold injury was concurrent with increased NR4A1 expression. These data provide a foundation for the development of therapeutic strategies given persistent TGF-β signaling in vocal fold fibrosis. N/A Laryngoscope, 127:E317-E323, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. NR4A orphan nuclear receptor family members, NR4A2 and NR4A3, regulate neutrophil number and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Lynne R; Prosseda, Svenja D; Higgins, Kathryn; Carlring, Jennifer; Prestwich, Elizabeth C; Ogryzko, Nikolay V; Rahman, Atiqur; Basran, Alexander; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Philip; Renshaw, Stephen A; Whyte, Moira K B; Sabroe, Ian

    2017-08-24

    The lifespan of neutrophils is plastic and highly responsive to factors that regulate cellular survival. Defects in neutrophil number and survival are common to both hematologic disorders and chronic inflammatory diseases. At sites of inflammation, neutrophils respond to multiple signals that activate protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, which positively regulates neutrophil survival. The aim of this study was to define transcriptional responses to PKA activation and to delineate the roles of these factors in neutrophil function and survival. In human neutrophil gene array studies, we show that PKA activation upregulates a significant number of apoptosis-related genes, the most highly regulated of these being NR4A2 and NR4A3 Direct PKA activation by the site-selective PKA agonist pair N6/8-AHA (8-AHA-cAMP and N6-MB-cAMP) and treatment with endogenous activators of PKA, including adenosine and prostaglandin E2, results in a profound delay of neutrophil apoptosis and concomitant upregulation of NR4A2/3 in a PKA-dependent manner. NR4A3 expression is also increased at sites of neutrophilic inflammation in a human model of intradermal inflammation. PKA activation also promotes survival of murine neutrophil progenitor cells, and small interfering RNA to NR4A2 decreases neutrophil production in this model. Antisense knockdown of NR4A2 and NR4A3 homologs in zebrafish larvae significantly reduces the absolute neutrophil number without affecting cellular migration. In summary, we show that NR4A2 and NR4A3 are components of a downstream transcriptional response to PKA activation in the neutrophil, and that they positively regulate neutrophil survival and homeostasis. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. Differential functions of NR2A and NR2B in short-term and long-term memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2010-08-23

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate receptors implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory function. The specific functions of NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B have not yet been fully determined in the different types of memory. Nine Wistar rats (8-weeks-old) were subjected to the Morris water maze task to evaluate the memory behaviorally. Quantitative analysis of NR1, NR2A, and NR2B levels in the right and left forebrain of rats was performed and subunit associations with different types of memory were investigated using the Morris water maze task. Right forebrain NR2A expression was significantly increased and correlated with faster escape time onto a hidden platform, indicating involvement of short-term memory, because of the training time interval. Right forebrain NR2B expression was positively associated with long-term memory lasting 24-h (h). In the left forebrain, NR2B expression was positively related to 72-h long-term memory. In conclusion, the functions of NR2A and NR2B receptors were differentially specialized in short-term and long-term memory, depending on the right or left forebrain.

  13. Co-Application of Corticosterone and Growth Hormone Upregulates NR2B Protein and Increases the NR2B:NR2A Ratio and Synaptic Transmission in the Hippocampus

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    Ghada S. Mahmoud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This in vitro study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of growth hormone (GH on hippocampal function during periods of heightened glucocorticoid exposure. Methods: This study was conducted between January and June 2005 at the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, in Huntington, West Virginia, USA. The effects of the co-application of GH and corticosterone (CORT were tested at different concentrations on the field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs of the hippocampal slices of rats in two different age groups. Changes in the protein expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2B and NR2A were measured in hippocampal brain slices treated with either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF, low doses of CORT alone or both CORT and GH for three hours. Results: The co-application of CORT and GH was found to have an additive effect on hippocampal synaptic transmission compared to either drug alone. Furthermore, the combined use of low concentrations of GH and CORT was found to have significantly higher effects on the enhancement of fEPSPs in older rats compared to young ones. Both GH and CORT enhanced the protein expression of the NR2A subunit. Simultaneous exposure to low concentrations of GH and CORT significantly enhanced NR2B expression and increased the NR2B:NR2A ratio. In contrast, perfusion with CORT alone caused significant suppression in the NR1 and NR2B protein expression and a decrease in the NR2B:NR2A ratio. Conclusion: These results suggest that NMDARs provide a potential target for mediating the GH potential protective effect against stress and age-related memory and cognitive impairment.

  14. Differential Roles for "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" in Object Location vs. Object Recognition Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Susan E.; Barrett, Ruth M.; Vogel-Ciernia, Annie; Malvaez, Melissa; Hernandez, Nicole; Davatolhagh, M. Felicia; Matheos, Dina P.; Schiffman, Aaron; Wood, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    "Nr4a1" and "Nr4a2" are transcription factors and immediate early genes belonging to the nuclear receptor Nr4a family. In this study, we examine their role in long-term memory formation for object location and object recognition. Using siRNA to block expression of either "Nr4a1" or "Nr4a2", we found that "Nr4a2" is necessary for both long-term…

  15. PROPERTIES OF NR AND NR/ENR BASED RUBBER COMPOUNDS REINFORCED WITH CHOPPED AND SIZED CARBON FIBER

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    Bağdagül Karaağaç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available High elasticity, mechanical resistance and antivibration characteristics of natural rubber (NR are essential issue in the main area of vehicle tyres and high modulus demanding bearing applications. In this study, especially in bearing applications, where natural rubber modulus properties are limited, natural rubber has been reinforced with chopped and hydrocarbon sized carbon fiber to get improved tensile modulus. Besides, epoxidized natural rubber (ENR, which was produced by chemical modification of natural rubber, blended with NR and the compounds have been reinforced with epoxy sized carbon fiber. NR and NR/ENR based rubber compounds’ rheological, mechanical, and aging properties have been systematically investigated and evaluated.

  16. A dual system formed by the ARC and NR molybdoenzymes mediates nitrite-dependent NO production in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo-Ampudia, Alejandro; Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Llamas, Ángel; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Mariscal, Vicente; Carreras, Alfonso; Barroso, Juan B; Galván, Aurora; Fernández, Emilio

    2016-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a relevant signal molecule involved in many plant processes. However, the mechanisms and proteins responsible for its synthesis are scarcely known. In most photosynthetic organisms NO synthases have not been identified, and Nitrate Reductase (NR) has been proposed as the main enzymatic NO source, a process that in vitro is also catalysed by other molybdoenzymes. By studying transcriptional regulation, enzyme approaches, activity assays with in vitro purified proteins and in vivo and in vitro NO determinations, we have addressed the role of NR and Amidoxime Reducing Component (ARC) in the NO synthesis process. N\\R and ARC were intimately related both at transcriptional and activity level. Thus, arc mutants showed high NIA1 (NR gene) expression and NR activity. Conversely, mutants without active NR displayed an increased ARC expression in nitrite medium. Our results with nia1 and arc mutants and with purified enzymes support that ARC catalyses the NO production from nitrite taking electrons from NR and not from Cytb5-1/Cytb5-Reductase, the component partners previously described for ARC (proposed as NOFNiR, Nitric Oxide-Forming Nitrite Reductase). This NR-ARC dual system would be able to produce NO in the presence of nitrate, condition under which NR is unable to do it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis list: NR3C1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR3C1 Blood,Bone,Breast,Liver,Others,Prostate,Uterus + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosci...encedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.5.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR3C1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyu...shu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Bone.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR3C1.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bi

  18. Analysis list: Nr3c1 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nr3c1 Adipocyte,Blood,Breast,Embryo,Embryonic fibroblast,Liver,Neural + mm9 http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/ta...rget/Nr3c1.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Nr3c1.10.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Adipocyte.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp.../kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Blood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Nr3c1.Breast.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience

  19. Variability patterns of Rossby wave source

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    Shimizu, Marilia Harumi; Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Iracema Fonseca de [National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC), Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Rossby waves (RW) propagation due to a local forcing is one of the mechanisms responsible for wave trains configurations known as teleconnections. The term teleconnection refers to anomalies patterns that are correlated in several regions of the world, causing large-scale changes in atmospheric waves patterns and temperature and precipitation regimes. The aim of teleconnections studies is to provide a better understanding of atmospheric variability and their mechanisms of action in order to identify patterns that can be tracked and predicted. The purpose of this study was to characterize seasonal and spatial variability of atmospheric RW sources. The RW source at 200 hPa was calculated for the four seasons with reanalysis data of zonal and meridional wind. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the RW sources were located on East Asia, North America, North Atlantic and Pacific. The main RW sources in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) were located over Intertropical, South Pacific, South Atlantic and South Indian Convergence Zones. Extratropical regions were also identified, mainly to the south of Australia. The vortex stretching term (S1) and the advection of absolute vorticity by the divergent wind (S2) were analyzed to discuss the physical mechanisms for RW generation. In the NH, the source at East Asia in DJF changed to a sink in JJA, related to the dominance of S1 term in DJF and S2 term in JJA. In the SH, the vortex stretching term had the dominant contribution for RW source located to the south of Australia. The main forcing for RW sources at east of Australia was the advection of absolute vorticity by divergent flow. Over South America, both terms contributed to the source in DJF. The main modes of RW source variability were discussed by using empirical orthogonal functions analysis. RW variability was characterized by wave trains configurations in both hemispheres over regions of jet streams and storm tracks, associated with favorable and unfavorable areas for RW

  20. Analysis list: NR1H3 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NR1H3 Adipocyte,Blood + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target.../NR1H3.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR1H3.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscienced...bc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/NR1H3.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR1H3.Adipocyte....tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/NR1H3.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Adipocyte.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/Blood.gml ...

  1. Nuclear receptor 4A (NR4A) family - orphans no more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe, Stephen; Jin, Un-Ho; Morpurgo, Benjamin; Abudayyeh, Ala; Singh, Mandip; Tjalkens, Ronald B

    2016-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptors NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3 are immediate early genes induced by multiple stressors, and the NR4A receptors play an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and disease. There is increasing evidence for the role of these receptors in metabolic, cardiovascular and neurological functions and also in inflammation and inflammatory diseases and in immune functions and cancer. Despite the similarities of NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3 and their interactions with common cis-genomic elements, they exhibit unique activities and cell-/tissue-specific functions. Although endogenous ligands for NR4A receptors have not been identified, there is increasing evidence that structurally-diverse synthetic molecules can directly interact with the ligand binding domain of NR4A1 and act as agonists or antagonists, and ligands for NR4A2 and NR4A3 have also been identified. Since NR4A receptors are key factors in multiple diseases, there are opportunities for the future development of NR4A ligands for clinical applications in treating multiple health problems including metabolic, neurologic and cardiovascular diseases, other inflammatory conditions, and cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. NR2B subunit-dependent long-term potentiation enhancement in the rat cortical auditory system in vivo following masking of patterned auditory input by white noise exposure during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogsden, Jennifer L; Dringenberg, Hans C

    2009-08-01

    The composition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits influences the degree of synaptic plasticity expressed during development and into adulthood. Here, we show that theta-burst stimulation of the medial geniculate nucleus reliably induced NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of field postsynaptic potentials recorded in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of urethane-anesthetized rats. Furthermore, substantially greater levels of LTP were elicited in juvenile animals (30-37 days old; approximately 55% maximal potentiation) than in adult animals (approximately 30% potentiation). Masking patterned sound via continuous white noise exposure during early postnatal life (from postnatal day 5 to postnatal day 50-60) resulted in enhanced, juvenile-like levels of LTP (approximately 70% maximal potentiation) relative to age-matched controls reared in unaltered acoustic environments (approximately 30%). Rats reared in white noise and then placed in unaltered acoustic environments for 40-50 days showed levels of LTP comparable to those of adult controls, indicating that white noise rearing results in a form of developmental arrest that can be overcome by subsequent patterned sound exposure. We explored the mechanisms mediating white noise-induced plasticity enhancements by local NR2B subunit antagonist application in A1. NR2B subunit antagonists (Ro 25-6981 or ifenprodil) completely reversed white noise-induced LTP enhancement at concentrations that did not affect LTP in adult or age-matched controls. We conclude that white noise exposure during early postnatal life results in the maintenance of juvenile-like, higher levels of plasticity in A1, an effect that appears to be critically dependent on NR2B subunit activation.

  3. Molecular mechanism of ligand recognition by NR3 subtype glutamate receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Yongneng; Harrison, Chris B.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Schulten, Klaus; Mayer, Mark L. (UIUC); (NIH)

    2008-10-27

    NR3 subtype glutamate receptors have a unique developmental expression profile, but are the least well-characterized members of the NMDA receptor gene family, which have key roles in synaptic plasticity and brain development. Using ligand binding assays, crystallographic analysis, and all atom MD simulations, we investigate mechanisms underlying the binding by NR3A and NR3B of glycine and D-serine, which are candidate neurotransmitters for NMDA receptors containing NR3 subunits. The ligand binding domains of both NR3 subunits adopt a similar extent of domain closure as found in the corresponding NR1 complexes, but have a unique loop 1 structure distinct from that in all other glutamate receptor ion channels. Within their ligand binding pockets, NR3A and NR3B have strikingly different hydrogen bonding networks and solvent structures from those found in NR1, and fail to undergo a conformational rearrangement observed in NR1 upon binding the partial agonist ACPC. MD simulations revealed numerous interdomain contacts, which stabilize the agonist-bound closed-cleft conformation, and a novel twisting motion for the loop 1 helix that is unique in NR3 subunits.

  4. Expression of NR1 subunit of NMDA receptor and PSD-93/95 in rat hippocampus affected by NR1/NR2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrajová, M.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.; Klaschka, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 9, Suppl.1 (2010), S147 ISSN 1744-859X. [International Congress on Neurobiology and Clinical Psychopharmacology and European Psychiatric Association Conference on Treatment Guidance /1./. 19.11.2009-22.11.2009, Thessaloniki] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD309/09/H072; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : schizophrenia * animal model * NMDA receptor * aODN-NR1/NR2 * PPI Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology

  5. Analysis of NR3A receptor subunits in human native NMDA receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anna; Eriksson, Maria; Muly, E Chris

    2007-01-01

    NR3A, representing the third class of NMDA receptor subunits, was first studied in rats, demonstrating ubiquitous expression in the developing central nervous system (CNS), but in the adult mainly expressed in spinal cord and some forebrain nuclei. Subsequent studies showed that rodent and non-human...... primate NR3A expression differs. We have studied the distribution of NR3A in the human CNS and show a widespread distribution of NR3A protein in adult human brain. NR3A mRNA and protein were found in all regions of the cerebral cortex, and also in the subcortical forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain. Only...... very low levels of NR3A mRNA and protein could be detected in homogenized adult human spinal cord, and in situ hybridization showed that expression was limited to ventral motoneurons. We found that NR3A is associated with NR1, NR2A and NR2B in adult human CNS, suggesting the existence of native NR1-NR2...

  6. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krusche, Benjamin; Pemberton, Helen; Alonso, Marta M.; Chandler, Hollie; Brookes, Sharon; Parrinello, Simona; Peters, Gordon; Gil, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumours including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21CIP1 or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC) also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the Polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16INK4a and direct repression of p21CIP1. In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of Polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer. PMID:25328137

  7. The nuclear receptor NR2E1/TLX controls senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loghlen, Ana; Martin, Nadine; Krusche, Benjamin; Pemberton, Helen; Alonso, Marta M; Chandler, Hollie; Brookes, Sharon; Parrinello, Simona; Peters, Gordon; Gil, Jesús

    2015-07-30

    The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21(CIP1) or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that polycomb repressive complexes also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16(INK4a) and direct repression of p21(CIP1). In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence. The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer.

  8. Blood compatibility assessment of graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzak, M.T.; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Tabata, Yoneho; Ohashi, Fumio; Takeuchi, Atsuki

    1992-01-01

    Graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes have been prepared using simultaneous radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide, (DMAA) onto natural rubber (NR) tubes. The blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tubes was assessed with three methods, namely in vitro test, ex vivo once through test and ex vivo loops test. In the case of the in vitro test, a simple whole blood contacting procedure has been employed. The ex vivo once through test involves the exposing of NR-g-DMAA tubes with once through flow of fresh canine blood and then it was inspected for any evidence of clot. In the case of ex vivo loops test, the NR-g-DMAA tube was implanted at external jugular vein of a mongrel canine and the blood flow in the NR-g-DMAA tube was detected with an ultrasonic flow meter. It was found that the blood compatibility of NR-g-DMAA tubes is improved significantly with the increasing degree of grafting. All the NR-g-DMAA tubes having a degree of grafting of about 30 wt% or more exhibit good blood compatibility. It was found that the blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tube is better than that of a medical grade silicon rubber (SiR) tube. (Author)

  9. Reduced levels of NR1 and NR2A with depression-like behavior in different brain regions in prenatally stressed juvenile offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongli Sun

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a time of continued brain maturation, particularly in limbic and cortical regions, which undoubtedly plays a role in the physiological and emotional changes. Juvenile rats repeatedly exposed to prenatal stress (PS exhibit behavioral features often observed in neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. However, to date the underlying neurological mechanisms are still unclear. In the current study, juvenile offspring rats whose mothers were exposed to PS were evaluated for depression-related behaviors in open field and sucrose preference test. NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and striatum were assayed by western blotting. The results indicated that PS resulted in several behavioral anomalies in the OFT and sucrose preference test. Moreover, reduced levels of NMDA receptor subunits NR1 and NR2A in the hippocampus, and NR1 in prefrontal cortex and striatum of prenatally stressed juvenile offspring were found. Treatment with MK-801 to pregnant dams could prevent all those changes in the juvenile offspring. Collectivity, these data support the argument that PS to pregnant dams could induce depression-like behavior, which may be involved with abnormal expression of NR1 and NR2A in specific brain regions, and MK-801 may have antidepressant-like effects on the juvenile offspring.

  10. Sources and processes contributing to nitrogen deposition: an adjoint model analysis applied to biodiversity hotspots worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulot, Fabien; Jacob, Daniel J; Henze, Daven K

    2013-04-02

    Anthropogenic enrichment of reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition is an ecological concern. We use the adjoint of a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to identify the sources and processes that control Nr deposition to an ensemble of biodiversity hotspots worldwide and two U.S. national parks (Cuyahoga and Rocky Mountain). We find that anthropogenic sources dominate deposition at all continental sites and are mainly regional (less than 1000 km) in origin. In Hawaii, Nr supply is controlled by oceanic emissions of ammonia (50%) and anthropogenic sources (50%), with important contributions from Asia and North America. Nr deposition is also sensitive in complicated ways to emissions of SO2, which affect Nr gas-aerosol partitioning, and of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which affect oxidant concentrations and produce organic nitrate reservoirs. For example, VOC emissions generally inhibit deposition of locally emitted NOx but significantly increase Nr deposition downwind. However, in polluted boreal regions, anthropogenic VOC emissions can promote Nr deposition in winter. Uncertainties in chemical rate constants for OH + NO2 and NO2 hydrolysis also complicate the determination of source-receptor relationships for polluted sites in winter. Application of our adjoint sensitivities to the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) scenarios for 2010-2050 indicates that future decreases in Nr deposition due to NOx emission controls will be offset by concurrent increases in ammonia emissions from agriculture.

  11. Pressure vessels dossier restoration according to NR-13 requirements; Enquadramento de vasos de pressao a norma NR-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose L. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Osorio C. [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Pressure vessels are static pressurized equipment typical in oil industry facilities. In TRANSPETRO terminals and stations as well as in the whole PETROBRAS, these equipment can be found in the form of condenser accumulators, separators, heat exchangers, storage spheres and others. Because they work sustaining pressure and, many times flammable fluids, pressure vessels have a reasonable potential for hazard. For this reason, the NR-13 regulation was created. It deals with the safety in maintenance, operation and inspection of pressure vessels and boilers. During the compliance to the NR- 13 rules, a problem usually found is the lack of documents for different reasons. In this case, the NR-13 obligates the owner to recreate the vessel documentation under the responsibility of a chartered professional. This paper presents a case study where NR-13 rules were conformed by tasks involving documentation reconstruction based on information collected by means of inspection and tests performed on the field. (author)

  12. Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation through activating the NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wen-Zhu [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Hainan Branch of Chinese PLA General Hospital, Hainan 572013 (China); Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Miao, Yu-Liang [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Wen-Zhi [Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Military General Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing 100700 (China); Wu, Wei, E-mail: wwzwgk@163.com [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Li, Bao-Wei [Department of Head and Neck Surgery of Otolaryngology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); An, Li-Na [Department of Anesthesiology, Armed Police General Hospital, Beijing 100039 (China); Fang, Wei-Wu [Department of Anesthesiology, PLA No. 306 Hospital, Beijing 100101 (China); Mi, Wei-Dong, E-mail: elite2005gg@163.com [Anesthesia and Operation Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • Leptin promotes the proliferation of neural stem cells isolated from embryonic mouse hippocampus. • Leptin reverses corticosterone-induced inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation. • The effects of leptin are partially mediated by upregulating NR2B subunits. - Abstract: Corticosterone inhibits the proliferation of hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The removal of corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation has been reported to contribute to neural regeneration. Leptin has been shown to regulate brain development, improve angiogenesis, and promote neural regeneration; however, its effects on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation remain unclear. Here we reported that leptin significantly promoted the proliferation of hippocampal NSCs in a concentration-dependent pattern. Also, leptin efficiently reversed the inhibition of NSCs proliferation induced by corticosterone. Interestingly, pre-treatment with non-specific NMDA antagonist MK-801, specific NR2B antagonist Ro 25-6981, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting NR2B, significantly blocked the effect of leptin on corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. Furthermore, corticosterone significantly reduced the protein expression of NR2B, whereas pre-treatment with leptin greatly reversed the attenuation of NR2B expression caused by corticosterone in cultured hippocampal NSCs. Our findings demonstrate that leptin reverses the corticosterone-induced inhibition of NSCs proliferation. This process is, at least partially mediated by increased expression of NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors.

  13. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Un-Ki [Marine Ecological Risk Assessment Center, West Sea Fisheries Research Institute, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Incheon 46083 (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Choe, Joonho [Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Seong, E-mail: jslee2@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, College of Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47. • Expression profiles of nearly all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6. • USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) over different developmental stages. • NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47. • BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P < 0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47

  14. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Choe, Joonho; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47. • Expression profiles of nearly all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6. • USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) over different developmental stages. • NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47. • BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. - Abstract: 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P < 0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5–6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P < 0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P < 0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47

  15. Multigeneration Inheritance through Fertile XX Carriers of an NR0B1 (DAX1 Locus Duplication in a Kindred of Females with Isolated XY Gonadal Dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Barbaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 160 kb minimal common region in Xp21 has been determined as the cause of XY gonadal dysgenesis, if duplicated. The region contains the MAGEB genes and the NR0B1 gene; this is the candidate for gonadal dysgenesis if overexpressed. Most patients present gonadal dysgenesis within a more complex phenotype. However, few independent cases have recently been described presenting with isolated XY gonadal dysgenesis caused by relatively small NR0B1 locus duplications. We have identified another NR0B1 duplication in two sisters with isolated XY gonadal dysgenesis with an X-linked inheritance pattern. We performed X-inactivation studies in three fertile female carriers of three different small NR0B1 locus duplications identified by our group. The carrier mothers did not show obvious skewing of X-chromosome inactivation, suggesting that NR0B1 overexpression does not impair ovarian function. We furthermore emphasize the importance to investigate the NR0B1 locus also in patients with isolated XY gonadal dysgenesis.

  16. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B bind to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurd, J W; Bissoon, N

    1997-08-01

    The NMDA receptor has recently been found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine. To assess the possible connection between tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDA receptor and signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell, we have investigated the relationship between tyrosine phosphorylation and the binding of NMDA receptor subunits to the SH2 domains of phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-gamma). A glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein containing both the N- and the C-proximal SH2 domains of PLC-gamma was bound to glutathione-agarose and reacted with synaptic junctional proteins and glycoproteins. Tyrosine-phosphorylated PSD-GP180, which has been identified as the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, bound to the SH2-agarose beads in a phosphorylation-dependent fashion. Immunoblot analysis with antibodies specific for individual NMDA receptor subunits showed that both NR2A and NR2B subunits bound to the SH2-agarose. No binding occurred to GST-agarose lacking an associated SH2 domain, indicating that binding was specific for the SH2 domains. The binding of receptor subunits increased after the incubation of synaptic junctions with ATP and decreased after treatment of synaptic junctions with exogenous protein tyrosine phosphatase. Immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that NR2A and NR2B were phosphorylated on tyrosine and further that tyrosine phosphorylation of each of the subunits was increased after incubation with ATP. The results demonstrate that NMDA receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B will bind to the SH2 domains of PLC-gamma and that isolated synaptic junctions contain endogenous protein tyrosine kinase(s) that can phosphorylate both NR2A and NR2B receptor subunits, and suggest that interaction of the tyrosine-phosphorylated NMDA receptor with proteins that contain SH2 domains may serve to link it to signaling pathways in the postsynaptic cell.

  17. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinho, P.; Barros, C.; Augusto, S.; Pereira, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. - Highlights: • Which land-cover types are reactive nitrogen sources or sinks at a landscape level? • Nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition were analyzed in lichens. • This allowed determination of the main nitrogen sources: agricultural and urban areas. • Marine sources provided persistent low concentrations of reactive nitrogen. • The typical signature of each source was also determined. - Reactive-nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens were used to rank Nr sources at a landscape level.

  18. Memory Enhancement by Targeting Cdk5 Regulation of NR2B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Florian; Hernandéz, Adan; Kistler, Tara M.; Pozo, Karine; Zhong, Ping; Yuen, Eunice Y.; Tan, Chunfeng; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Cooke, Sam F.; Nishi, Akinori; Guo, Ailan; Wiederhold, Thorsten; Yan, Zhen; Bibb, James A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many psychiatric and neurological disorders are characterized by learning and memory deficits, for which cognitive enhancement is considered a valid treatment strategy. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a prime target for the development of cognitive enhancers due to its fundamental role in learning and memory. In particular, the NMDAR subunit NR2B improves synaptic plasticity and memory when over-expressed in neurons. However, NR2B regulation is not well understood and no therapies potentiating NMDAR function have been developed. Here, we show that serine 1116 of NR2B is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5). Cdk5-dependent NR2B phosphorylation is regulated by neuronal activity and controls the receptor’s cell surface expression. Disrupting NR2B-Cdk5 interaction using a small interfering peptide (siP) increases NR2B surface levels, facilitates synaptic transmission, and improves memory formation in vivo. Our results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism critical to NR2B function that can be targeted for the development of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24607229

  19. Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and imaging studies with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in LS174T colonic tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldrosen, M.H.; Biddle, W.C.; Pancook, J.; Bakshi, S.; Vanderheyden, J.L.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Morgan, A.C. Jr.; Foon, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Biodistribution, pharmacokinetic, and radioimaging studies were performed with 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 whole antibody in athymic nude mice bearing the LS174T tumor growing either s.c. or in an experimental hepatic metastasis model. NR-LU-10 is an IgG2b murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) that reacts with virtually all human tumors of epithelial origin. NR-BC-1, a IgG2b murine MAb that reacts with normal human B-cell and B malignancies, was used as an isotype-matched control. These MAbs were radiolabeled with 186Re by a preformed chelate approach by using the triamide thiolate ligand system. 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 (50 microCi) was injected into nude mice bearing LS174T tumors growing s.c. Biodistribution studies revealed that the LS174T tumor retained the highest concentration of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 at day 6. The tumor:blood ratio ranged from 0.1:1 to 10.8:1 by day 6, the last day of analysis. In contrast the tumor:blood ratio of 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, the isotype-matched MAb control, was 1:1 on day 6. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the t1/2 beta of NR-LU-10 for blood and other tissues ranged from 21 to 25 h, while the t1/2 beta for the LS174T tumor averaged 52 h. The area under the curve for tumor compared to blood was 2.8- to 5.7-fold higher than the area under the curve for all other tissues and organs. The mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in blood and all other organs ranged from 23 to 26 h, while the mean residence time for NR-LU-10 in the LS174T tumor was 72 h. Scintigraphic images revealed selective uptake of the 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10, but not of the 186Re-labeled NR-BC-1, at the LS174T tumor site. Studies in an experimental model of hepatic metastasis revealed a similar selective pattern of 186Re-labeled NR-LU-10 accumulation. Scintigraphic images of the LS174T tumor growing within the athymic nude mouse liver were obtained

  20. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ba M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maowen Ba,1,* Min Kong,2,* Guozhao Ma3 1Department of Neurology, Yuhuangding Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Neurology, Yantaishan Hospital, Yantai City, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Neurology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Context: Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID. It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated.Methods: In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results: Levodopa

  1. 1995 annual 100-NR-2 groundwater summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghese, J.V.; Johnson, V.M.; Walker, L.D.

    1996-09-01

    The 100-NR-2 Operable Unit (OU) is located in the north-central part of the Hanford Site along the southern shoreline of the Columbia River in Richland, Washington. The 100-N Area is bordered by the Columbia River and the 600 Area (the portion of the Hanford Site that surrounds the primary operations areas). The purpose of this document is to provide the 1995 groundwater sampling data for the 100-NR-2 groundwater OU. Also included are the analytical results for sampling rounds 7 and 8 that were conducted during March and September 1995 for 100-NR-2

  2. Cloning and expression of the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR3A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Maria; Nilsson, Anna; Froelich-Fabre, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    Native N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are heteromeric assemblies of four or five subunits. The NMDA receptor subunits, NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and NR2D have been cloned in several species, including man. The NR3A subunit, which in rodents is predominantly expressed during early development......, seems to function by reducing the NMDA receptor response. The human homologue to the rat NR3A, however, had not been cloned. In order to study the functions of the human NR3A (hNR3A), we have cloned and sequenced the hNR3A. It was found to share 88% of the DNA sequence with the rat gene, corresponding...

  3. NR4A nuclear receptors are orphans but not lonesome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakula, Kondababu; Koenis, Duco S; van Tiel, Claudia M; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2014-11-01

    The NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors consists of three mammalian members: Nur77, Nurr1, and NOR-1. The NR4A receptors are involved in essential physiological processes such as adaptive and innate immune cell differentiation, metabolism and brain function. They act as transcription factors that directly modulate gene expression, but can also form trans-repressive complexes with other transcription factors. In contrast to steroid hormone nuclear receptors such as the estrogen receptor or the glucocorticoid receptor, no ligands have been described for the NR4A receptors. This lack of known ligands might be explained by the structure of the ligand-binding domain of NR4A receptors, which shows an active conformation and a ligand-binding pocket that is filled with bulky amino acid side-chains. Other mechanisms, such as transcriptional control, post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions therefore seem to be more important in regulating the activity of the NR4A receptors. For Nur77, over 80 interacting proteins (the interactome) have been identified so far, and roughly half of these interactions has been studied in more detail. Although the NR4As show some overlap in interacting proteins, less information is available on the interactome of Nurr1 and NOR-1. Therefore, the present review will describe the current knowledge on the interactomes of all three NR4A nuclear receptors with emphasis on Nur77. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselectivity and Thermostability of a Novel Hyperhermotolerant Lipase from Geobacillus Thermodenitrificans nr68 (Lip.nr-68) on Secondary Racemic Alcohols Acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nik Him, N. R.; Ibrahim, D.

    2018-05-01

    In our previous work, a new lipase enzyme has been purified from a species identified as a Gram negative Geobacillus thermodenitrificans nr68, isolated from a hot spring in Malaysia with growth temperature of 48°C. This new lipase, called Lip.nr-68 has been characterized as a hyperthermotolerant protein with high stability at 65°C and has been showing excellent characteristics that are very much comparable yet better than some of those of well-known industrially-used lipases. It shows high activity against long-chain triglycerides with molecular weight of the purified enzyme estimated to be 33.5 kDa using SDS-PAGE analysis. This paper is focusing on hyperthermotolerant Lip.nr-68 performance in promoting for enantioselectivity activities towards three secondary racemic alcohols namely 1-phenylethanol, 1-cyclohexilethanol and 1-(naft-2-il) ethanol by acetylation with vinyl acetate. Lip.nr-68 has been confirmed to show high and usual enantioselectivitiy according to the Kazlauskas Rule towards all secondary racemic alcohols and has significantly approved as an enantiomer selective biocatalyst towards 1-phenylethanol and 1-cyclohexylethanol at 65°C. Lip.nr-68 has showed a reduction of (R) and (S) enantiomers as well as the production of 68-98% ee and almost 94% yield of 3-4 mg/ml for 1-cyclohexilethanol.

  5. Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 5, Neeme Järvi / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Roussel. Sinfonien Nr. 3 g-Moll op. 42 und Nr. 4 A-Dur op. 53, Bacchus et Ariane op. 43 (Zweite Orchestersuite). Sinfonietta für Streichorchester d-Moll op. 52. Detroit Symphony Orchester, N. Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 7007(WD: 70'10") DDD

  6. Fast biodegradation of toxic bisphenol a by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) isolated from Malaysian local lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Him, Nik Raikhan Nik; Zainuddin, Mohammad Fiqri; Basha, Anuar Zain Anuar

    2017-12-01

    The paper focused on microbial degradation of Bisphenol A (BPA) as a safe and fast method to reduce BPA contamination in water. BPA is found in waste water, sea water and home water pipeline and it is nondegradable pollutant. Biodegradation is suggested to be practical solution for large volume of BPA. Biodegradation plays an important role and the effect of low concentration significantly decreased the degradation rate. Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 (Ps.NR.22) which has been isolated from a lake at Seksyen 2, Shah Alam, was used. In Malaysia, Ps.NR.22 isolation agar is used for the BPA degradation process. It was stained with Gram negative-rod shaped bacteria that confirmed to carry a 16S rRNA gene. BPA as a sole carbon has been tested at various concentrations. The research showed that BPA was degraded at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm and the bacteria growth rate was excellent in 20 ppm BPA. Degradation of BPA was carried out for 9 hours to 18 hours and the maximum degradation was recorded at 9 hours. The value of the highest peak of growth at 540 nm was 2.0617 using 20 ppm BPA. This novel Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 has great potential to be used in waste water treatment.

  7. The NMDAR subunit NR3A interacts with microtubule-associated protein 1S in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Maria; Samuelsson, Helena; Samuelsson, Eva-Britt

    2007-01-01

    -proximal part of the NR3A C-terminus. MAP1S belongs to the same family as MAP1A and MAP1B, and was found to be abundant in both postnatal and adult rat brain. In hippocampal neurons the distribution-pattern of MAP1S resembled that of beta-tubulin III, but a fraction of the protein colocalized with synaptic...

  8. Attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus to lures containing quercivorol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euwallacea nr. fornicatus is an exotic ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal Fusarium spp. to avocados. Two field trials testing potential attractants to trap Euwallacea spp. were conducted in south Florida. Quercivorol + Ultra High Release Ethanol (URH) was the more powerful attractant for E. nr. for...

  9. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  10. LENRA as compatibilizer in NR/HDPE blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Mahathir Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Polymer blends of 60/40 NR/RDPE were prepared using Brabender PL2000 Plasticorder with 60 g capacity. The blends were added with radiation-sensitive natural rubber (NR)-based compatibilizer, known as LENRA. They were irradiated with electron-beam radiation at various doses. The efficacy of the compatibilizer was monitored by measuring various properties of the blends such as physical and dynamic mechanical properties including morphological studies by electron microscopic technique. Early results show that the addition of LENRA improves the properties of the TPNR blends. (Author)

  11. Molecular pathways: the role of NR4A orphan nuclear receptors in cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, Helen M

    2012-06-15

    Nuclear receptors are of integral importance in carcinogenesis. Manipulation of classic ligand-activated nuclear receptors, such as estrogen receptor blockade in breast cancer, is an important established cancer therapy. Orphan nuclear receptors, such as nuclear family 4 subgroup A (NR4A) receptors, have no known natural ligand(s). These elusive receptors are increasingly recognized as molecular switches in cell survival and a molecular link between inflammation and cancer. NR4A receptors act as transcription factors, altering expression of downstream genes in apoptosis (Fas-ligand, TRAIL), proliferation, DNA repair, metabolism, cell migration, inflammation (interleukin-8), and angiogenesis (VEGF). NR4A receptors are modulated by multiple cell-signaling pathways, including protein kinase A\\/CREB, NF-κB, phosphoinositide 3-kinase\\/AKT, c-jun-NH(2)-kinase, Wnt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. NR4A receptor effects are context and tissue specific, influenced by their levels of expression, posttranslational modification, and interaction with other transcription factors (RXR, PPAR-Υ). The subcellular location of NR4A "nuclear receptors" is also important functionally; novel roles have been described in the cytoplasm where NR4A proteins act both indirectly and directly on the mitochondria to promote apoptosis via Bcl-2. NR4A receptors are implicated in a wide variety of malignancies, including breast, lung, colon, bladder, and prostate cancer; glioblastoma multiforme; sarcoma; and acute and\\/or chronic myeloid leukemia. NR4A receptors modulate response to conventional chemotherapy and represent an exciting frontier for chemotherapeutic intervention, as novel agents targeting NR4A receptors have now been developed. This review provides a concise clinical overview of current knowledge of NR4A signaling in cancer and the potential for therapeutic manipulation.

  12. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) genes and the evolutionary significance of the NR1O subfamily in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jeong, Chang-Bum

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in many fundamental biological processes. NRs are considered to have originated from a common ancestor, and are highly conserved throughout the whole animal taxa. Therefore, the genome-wide identification of NR genes in an animal taxon can provide insight into the evolutionary tendencies of NRs. Here, we identified all the NR genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp., which are considered an ecologically key species due to their abundance and world-wide distribution. The NR family was composed of 40, 32, 29, and 32 genes in the genomes of the rotifers B. calyciflorus, B. koreanus, B. plicatilis, and B. rotundiformis, respectively, which were classified into seven distinct subfamilies. The composition of each subfamily was highly conserved between species, except for NR1O genes, suggesting that they have undergone sporadic evolutionary processes for adaptation to their different environmental pressures. In addition, despite the dynamics of NR evolution, the significance of the conserved endocrine system, particularly for estrogen receptor (ER)-signaling, in rotifers was discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. The results of this study may help provide a better understanding the evolution of NRs, and expand our knowledge of rotifer endocrine systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinct expression of synaptic NR2A and NR2B in the central nervous system and impaired morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice deficient in postsynaptic density-93 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johns Roger A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Postsynaptic density (PSD-93, a neuronal scaffolding protein, binds to and clusters N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR subunits NR2A and NR2B at cellular membranes in vitro. However, the roles of PSD-93 in synaptic NR2A and NR2B targeting in the central nervous system and NMDAR-dependent physiologic and pathologic processes are still unclear. We report here that PSD-93 deficiency significantly decreased the amount of NR2A and NR2B in the synaptosomal membrane fractions derived from spinal cord dorsal horn and forebrain cortex but did not change their levels in the total soluble fraction from either region. However, PSD-93 deficiency did not markedly change the amounts of NR2A and NR2B in either synaptosomal or total soluble fractions from cerebellum. In mice deficient in PSD-93, morphine dose-dependent curve failed to shift significantly rightward as it did in wild type (WT mice after acute and chronic morphine challenge. Unlike WT mice, PSD-93 knockout mice also showed marked losses of NMDAR-dependent morphine analgesic tolerance and associated abnormal sensitivity in response to mechanical, noxious thermal, and formalin-induced inflammatory stimuli after repeated morphine injection. In addition, PSD-93 knockout mice displayed dramatic loss of jumping activity, a typical NMDAR-mediated morphine withdrawal abstinence behavior. These findings indicate that impaired NMDAR-dependent neuronal plasticity following repeated morphine injection in PSD-93 knockout mice is attributed to PSD-93 deletion-induced alterations of synaptic NR2A and NR2B expression in dorsal horn and forebrain cortex neurons. The selective effect of PSD-93 deletion on synaptic NMDAR expression in these two major pain-related regions might provide the better strategies for the prevention and treatment of opioid tolerance and physical dependence.

  14. Irradiation Pattern Analysis for Designing Light Sources-Based on Light Emitting Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Stolik, S.; La Rosa, J. de; Valor, A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays it is possible to design light sources with a specific irradiation pattern for many applications. Light Emitting Diodes present features like high luminous efficiency, durability, reliability, flexibility, among others as the result of its rapid development. In this paper the analysis of the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes is presented. The approximation of these irradiation patterns to both, a Lambertian, as well as a Gaussian functions for the design of light sources is proposed. Finally, the obtained results and the functionality of bringing the irradiation pattern of the light emitting diodes to these functions are discussed. (Author)

  15. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  16. LENRA as compatibilizer in NR/HDPE blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahathir Mohamed; Dahlan Mohd

    2004-01-01

    Polymer blends of 60/40 NR/HDPE were prepared using Brabender PL2000 plasticorder with 60g capacity. The blends were added with radiation sensitive natural rubber (NR)-based compatibilizer, known as LENRA. They were irradiated in air with electron beam radiation at various doses. The efficacy of the compatibilizer was monitored by measuring various properties of the blends such as physical and dynamic mechanical properties including morphological studies by electron microscopic technique. Early results show that the addition of LENRA improves the properties of the TPNR blends. (Author)

  17. The mechanical properties of radiation-vulcanized NR/BR blending system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Aoshuang E-mail: yanas@public3.bta.net.cn; Guo Zhengtao; Li Li; Zhai Ying; Zhou Peng

    2002-03-01

    The effect of radiation dose on the mechanical properties of NR/BR blending system is reported in this paper. A comparison was made between sulphur vulcanization and radiation vulcanization for an optimal nature rubber (NR)/ butyl rubber (BR) blending ratio (60/40) at dose range from 10 to 150 kGy. The result shows that the mechanical properties, especially, tensile strength, elongation at break, and tear strength have been improved significantly by radiation-vulcanization. This finding was also proved by thermal aging experiment on a selected NR/BR blend at 70 deg. C for up to 168 h.

  18. Patterns of trust in sources of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Rob; Forbes, Sarah; Williams, John

    2011-01-21

    To understand the different patterns of trust that exist regarding different sources of information about health issues. Data from a large national health lifestyles survey of New Zealanders was examined using a factor analysis of trust toward 24 health information sources (HIS). Differences in trust are compared across a range of demographic variables. Factor analysis identified six different groupings of health information. Variations in trust in sources for health information are identified by age, employment status, level of education, income, sex and ethnic group. Systematic variations exist in the trust that people report with respect to different sources of health information. Understanding these variations may assist policymakers and other agencies which are responsible for planning the dissemination of health information.

  19. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti

    2016-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO 2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO 2 as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO 2 nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO 2 NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10 −3 , 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO 2 NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  20. Optimalization activity of ZnO NR/TiO2 NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction on dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputri, Liya Nikmatul Maula Zulfa; Ramelan, Ari Handono; Hanif, Qonita Awliya; Hasanah, Yesi Ihdina Fityatal; Prajanira, Lau Bekti; Wahyuningsih, Sayekti, E-mail: sayektiw@mipa.uns.ac.id [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Ir.Sutami 36A Kentingan Surakarta 57/26, Central Java (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with metal inorganic and conjugated organic polymer mixture, ZnO NR/TiO{sub 2} NR-P3HT as an active layer based on hybrid bulk heterojunction has been studied. The hybrid material was used to optimize DSSC performs for better efficiency than only TiO{sub 2} as an electrode. Synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NR) was conducted by ball milling 1000 rpm for 4 hours and strong base reaction by hydrothermal process at 120 °C overnight. And the ZnO NR was synthesized from Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}.4H{sub 2}O precusor by hydrotermal process at 90 °C for 5 hours and calcined on various temperature s of 400, 600, and 800 °C. ZnO NR was coated into an Tndium Tin Oxide (TTO) glass to collecting electron s effectively, where TiO{sup 2} NR were incorporated with poly(3 -hexylthiophene) (P3HT) on various concentration s of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL to obtain a larger surface area. Material characterization were performed by X -Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Uv-Vis spectrophotometer. For an application of DSSC were measured by T-V Keithley Multimeter and the efficiency of DSSC at various P3HT’s concentrations of 5, 10, 15 mg/mL were 7.44 × 10{sup −3}, 0.0114, 0.0104, respectively. The maximum efficiency of DSSC was showed when TiO{sup 2} NR-P3HT’s concentration was 10 mg/mL.

  1. NR4A nuclear receptors are orphans but not lonesome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurakula, Kondababu; Koenis, Duco S.; van Tiel, Claudia M.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The NR4A subfamily of nuclear receptors consists of three mammalian members: Nur77, Nurr1, and NOR-1. The NR4A receptors are involved in essential physiological processes such as adaptive and innate immune cell differentiation, metabolism and brain function. They act as transcription factors that

  2. Characterisation of the human NMDA receptor subunit NR3A glycine binding site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A; Duan, J; Mo-Boquist, L-L

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we characterise the binding site of the human N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit NR3A. Saturation radioligand binding of the NMDA receptor agonists [(3)H]-glycine and [(3)H]-glutamate showed that only glycine binds to human NR3A (hNR3A) with high affinity (K(d)=535nM (277...

  3. Modulation of NMDA Receptor Properties and Synaptic Transmission by the NR3A Subunit in Mouse Hippocampal and Cerebrocortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Gary; Takahashi, Hiroto; Tu, Shichun; Shin, Yeonsook; Talantova, Maria; Zago, Wagner; Xia, Peng; Nie, Zhiguo; Goetz, Thomas; Zhang, Dongxian; Lipton, Stuart A.; Nakanishi, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    Expression of the NR3A subunit with NR1/NR2 in Xenopus oocytes or mammalian cell lines leads to a reduction in N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced currents and decreased Mg2+ sensitivity and Ca2+ permeability compared with NR1/NR2 receptors. Consistent with these findings, neurons from NR3A knockout (KO) mice exhibit enhanced NMDA-induced currents. Recombinant NR3A can also form excitatory glycine receptors with NR1 in the absence of NR2. However, the effects of NR3A on channel properties in neurons and synaptic transmission have not been fully elucidated. To study physiological roles of NR3A subunits, we generated NR3A transgenic (Tg) mice. Cultured NR3A Tg neurons exhibited two populations of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) channels, reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, and decreased Ca2+ permeability in response to NMDA/glycine, but glycine alone did not elicit excitatory currents. In addition, NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in NR3A Tg hippocampal slices showed reduced Mg2+ sensitivity, consistent with the notion that NR3A subunits incorporated into synaptic NMDARs. To study the function of endogenous NR3A subunits, we compared NMDAR-mediated EPSCs in NR3A KO and WT control mice. In NR3A KO mice, the ratio of the amplitudes of the NMDAR-mediated component to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isox-azolepropionic acid receptor-mediated component of the EPSC was significantly larger than that seen in WT littermates. This result suggests that NR3A subunits contributed to the NMDAR-mediated component of the EPSC in WT mice. Taken together, these results show that NR3A subunits contribute to NMDAR responses from both synaptic and extra-synaptic receptors, likely composed of NR1, NR2, and NR3 subunits. PMID:18003876

  4. Using nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichens to spatially assess the relative contribution of atmospheric nitrogen sources in complex landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, P; Barros, C; Augusto, S; Pereira, M J; Máguas, C; Branquinho, C

    2017-11-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is an important driver of global change, causing alterations in ecosystem biodiversity and functionality. Environmental assessments require monitoring the emission and deposition of both the amount and types of Nr. This is especially important in heterogeneous landscapes, as different land-cover types emit particular forms of Nr to the atmosphere, which can impact ecosystems distinctively. Such assessments require high spatial resolution maps that also integrate temporal variations, and can only be feasibly achieved by using ecological indicators. Our aim was to rank land-cover types according to the amount and form of emitted atmospheric Nr in a complex landscape with multiple sources of N. To do so, we measured and mapped nitrogen concentration and isotopic composition in lichen thalli, which we then related to land-cover data. Results suggested that, at the landscape scale, intensive agriculture and urban areas were the most important sources of Nr to the atmosphere. Additionally, the ocean greatly influences Nr in land, by providing air with low Nr concentration and a unique isotopic composition. These results have important consequences for managing air pollution at the regional level, as they provide critical information for modeling Nr emission and deposition across regional as well as continental scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility study on utilization of vitrified radioactive waste as radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo; Yoshii, Fumio; Hyakutake, Kenichiro

    1995-01-01

    A feasibility study on utilization of vitrified high level radioactive waste (VW) as radiation source has been carried out. Natural rubber latex was radiation vulcanized with VW to demonstrate the feasibility. The dose rate was 0.1 kGy/hr. As a sensitizer, n-butyl acrylate was added. Negligible small activation of natural rubber (NR) latex by neutron from the VW was observed. The residual sensitizer in the irradiated latex and physical properties of film molded from the irradiated latex were the same level with the conventional radiation vulcanization of NR latex with γ-rays from Co-60. Surgical gloves and protective rubber gloves for radioactive contamination were produced from 20 litters of NR latex vulcanized with 2 VWs. The physical properties of both gloves were acceptable. These results suggested that vitrified high level waste can be used as an industrial radiation source. (author)

  6. Crosslinked bicontinuous biobased PLA/NR blends via dynamic vulcanization using different curing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Daosheng; Chen, Kunling; Xu, Chuanhui; Chen, Zhonghua; Chen, Yukun

    2014-11-26

    In this study, blends of entirely biosourced polymers, namely polylactide (PLA) and natural rubber (NR), were prepared through dynamic vulcanization using dicumyl peroxide (DCP), sulphur (S) and phenolic resin (2402) as curing agents, respectively. The crosslinked NR phase was found to be a continuous structure in all the prepared blends. The molecular weight changes of PLA were studied by gel permeation chromatography. Interfacial compatibilization between PLA and NR was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thermal properties of blends were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis instrument. It was found that the molecular weight of PLA and interfacial compatibilizaion between PLA and NR showed a significant influence on the mechanical and thermal properties of blends. The PLA/NR blend (60/40 w/w) by DCP-induced dynamic vulcanization owned the finest mechanical properties and thermal stability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research on non-destructive testing (NDT) aerospace igniter fuse with neutron radiography (NR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dawei; Liu Yisi; Cai Qingsheng; Chen Boxian

    1995-01-01

    The research works, facilities and results of NDT aerospace igniter fuse with neutron radiography at Tsinghua University swimming-pool reactor are introduced. The image quality (NR) of ASTM E545-85 I level was approached. The NR experimental research of the typical and possible defects was performed. The theoretical analysis was performed too. The feasibility of NDT aerospace igniter fuse with NR was proved experimentally

  8. Emerging Pattern in Utilizing Electronic Information Sources by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a detailed comparative analysis of electronic information sources (EIS) utilized by pharmacy lecturers in South-South universities in Nigeria. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which EIS are utilized among pharmacy lecturers in South-South Nigeria. The aim is to explore the emerging pattern of ...

  9. BDE-47 causes developmental retardation with down-regulated expression profiles of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved nuclear receptor (NR) genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Han, Jeonghoon; Won, Eun-Ji; Kim, Duck-Hyun; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Un-Ki; Zhou, Bingsheng; Choe, Joonho; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-08-01

    2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) in marine environments. Despite its adverse effects (e.g. developmental retardation) in ecdysozoa, the effects of BDE-47 on transcription of ecdysteroid signaling pathway-involved-nuclear receptor (NR) genes and metamorphosis-related genes have not been examined in copepods. To examine the deleterious effect of BDE-47 on copepod molting and metamorphosis, BDE-47 was exposed to the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus, followed by monitoring developmental retardation and transcriptional alteration of NR genes. The developmental rate was significantly inhibited (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 and the agricultural insecticide gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane. Conversely, the ecdysteroid agonist ponasterone A (PoA) led to decreased molting and metamorphosis time (P<0.05) from the nauplius stage to the adult stage. In particular, expression profiles of all NR genes were the highest at naupliar stages 5-6 except for SVP, FTZ-F1, and HR96 genes. Nuclear receptor USP, HR96, and FTZ-F1 genes also showed significant sex differences (P<0.05) in gene expression levels over different developmental stages, indicating that these genes may be involved in vitellogenesis. NR gene expression patterns showed significant decreases (P<0.05) in response to BDE-47 exposure, implying that molting and metamorphosis retardation is likely associated with NR gene expression. In summary, BDE-47 leads to molting and metamorphosis retardation and suppresses transcription of NR genes. This information will be helpful in understanding the molting and metamorphosis delay mechanism in response to BDE-47 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Value of Serum NR2 Antibody in Prediction of Post-Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits antibody (NR2-ab is a sensitive marker of ischemic brain damage in clinical circumstances, such as cerebrovascular accidents. We aimed to assess the value of serum NR2-ab in predicting the post-cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR survival. Methods: In this cohort study, we examined serum NR2-ab levels 1 hour after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC in 49 successfully resuscitated patients. Patients with traumatic or asphyxic arrests, prior neurological insults, or major medical illnesses were excluded. Participants were followed until death or hospital discharge. Demographic data, coronary artery disease risk factors, time before initiation of CPR, and CPR duration were documented.  In addition, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, blood pressure, and survival status of patients were recorded at 1, 6, 24, and 72 hour(s after ROSC. Descriptive analyses were performed, and the Cox proportional hazard model was applied to assess if NR2-ab level is an independent predictive factor of survival. Results: 49 successfully resuscitated patients were evaluated; 27 (55% survived to hospital discharge, 4 (8.1% were in vegetative state, 10 (20.4% were physically disabled, and 13 (26.5% were physically functional. Within 72 hours of ROSC all of the 12 NR2-ab positive patients died. In contrast, 31 (84% of the NR2-ab negative patients survived. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of NR2-ab in prediction of survival were 54.5% (95%CI=32.7%-74.9%, 100% (95%CI=84.5%-100%, infinite, and 45.5% (95%CI=28.8%-71.8%, respectively. Subsequent analysis showed that both NR2-ab status and GCS were independent risk factors of death. Conclusions: A positive NR2-ab serum test 1 hour after ROSC correlated with lower 72-hour survival. Further studies are required to validate this finding and demonstrate the value of a quantitative NR2-ab assay and its optimal time of measurement.

  11. Iterative use of nuclear receptor Nr5a2 regulates multiple stages of liver and pancreas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissim, Sahar; Weeks, Olivia; Talbot, Jared C.; Hedgepeth, John W.; Wucherpfennig, Julia; Schatzman-Bone, Stephanie; Swinburne, Ian; Cortes, Mauricio; Alexa, Kristen; Megason, Sean; North, Trista E.; Amacher, Sharon L.; Goessling, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    The stepwise progression of common endoderm progenitors into differentiated liver and pancreas organs is regulated by a dynamic array of signals that are not well understood. The nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 gene nr5a2, also known as Liver receptor homolog-1 (Lrh-1) is expressed in several tissues including the developing liver and pancreas. Here, we interrogate the role of Nr5a2 at multiple developmental stages using genetic and chemical approaches and uncover novel pleiotropic requirements during zebrafish liver and pancreas development. Zygotic loss of nr5a2 in a targeted genetic null mutant disrupted the development of the exocrine pancreas and liver, while leaving the endocrine pancreas intact. Loss of nr5a2 abrogated exocrine pancreas markers such as trypsin, while pancreas progenitors marked by ptf1a or pdx1 remained unaffected, suggesting a role for Nr5a2 in regulating pancreatic acinar cell differentiation. In the developing liver, Nr5a2 regulates hepatic progenitor outgrowth and differentiation, as nr5a2 mutants exhibited reduced hepatoblast markers hnf4α and prox1 as well as differentiated hepatocyte marker fabp10a. Through the first in vivo use of Nr5a2 chemical antagonist Cpd3, the iterative requirement for Nr5a2 for exocrine pancreas and liver differentiation was temporally elucidated: chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 function during hepatopancreas progenitor specification was sufficient to disrupt exocrine pancreas formation and enhance the size of the embryonic liver, suggesting that Nr5a2 regulates hepatic versus pancreatic progenitor fate choice. Chemical inhibition of Nr5a2 at a later time during pancreas and liver differentiation was sufficient to block the formation of mature acinar cells and hepatocytes. These findings define critical iterative and pleiotropic roles for Nr5a2 at distinct stages of pancreas and liver organogenesis, and provide novel perspectives for interpreting the role of Nr5a2 in disease. PMID:27474396

  12. Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films grown on Ir(100) substrates via patterned nucleation growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Taro; Kodama, Hideyuki; Kono, Shozo; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Sawabe, Atsuhito

    2015-01-01

    The potential of patterned nucleation growth (PNG) technique to control the wafer bowing of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films was investigated. The heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films were grown on an Ir(100) substrate via PNG technique with different patterns of nucleation regions (NRs), which were dot-arrays with 8 or 13 μm pitch aligned to < 100 > or < 110 > direction of the Ir(100) substrate. The wafer bows and the local stress distributions of the free-standing films were measured using a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer. For each NR pattern, the stress evolutions within the early stage of diamond growth were also studied together with a scanning electron microscopic observation of the coalescing diamond particles. These investigations revealed that the NR pattern, in terms of pitch and direction of dot-array, strongly affects the compressive stress on the nucleation side of the diamond film and dominantly contributes to the elastic deformation of the free-standing film. This indicates that the PNG technique with an appropriate NR pattern is a promising solution to fabricate free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond films with extremely small bows. - Highlights: • Wafer bowing control of free-standing heteroepitaxial diamond (100) films • Effect of patterned nucleation and growth (PNG) technique on wafer bowing reduction • Influence of nucleation region patterns of PNG on wafer bowing • Internal stress analysis of PNG films via confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy

  13. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd, E-mail: ayena90@yahoo.com; Othman, Nadras, E-mail: srnadras@usm.my; Ismail, Hanafi, E-mail: ihanafi@usm.my [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample.

  14. Mechanical & morphological properties of attapulgite/NR composites: Effect of mixing time variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor, Nor Aina Mohd; Othman, Nadras; Ismail, Hanafi

    2015-01-01

    The development of composite material based on attapulgite clay (ATP) as a filler and natural rubber (NR) matrices were prepared by combination of melt mixing and latex compounding methods. Sonication technique was chosen in this work to disperse the attapulgite suspension. 6 phr of attapulgite loading was fabricated using different time of mixing ranging from 30 minutes until 2 hours and sonication time was kept constant at 15 minutes. Then, co-coagulating HA latex with attapulgite clay suspension through latex compounding method produced the masterbatch. The masterbatch was compounded with natural rubber by melt mixing method. The mechanical and morphological characteristics were investigated in this work. From mechanical testing, M1 showed the highest value of tensile and tear strength. By comparing with M30 and M2, M1 shows high 300% tensile modulus and lower crosslink density. However, when the time of mixing was prolonged to 2 hours, the results for tensile strength, elongation at break and tear strength were decreased. This is due to flocculation of attapulgite particles. Sonication techniques also proved that the tensile strength and elongation at break of these three samples were higher compared to gum NR (NR) and attapulgite compounded with NR using a conventional method (in-situ 6). From field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) results, it revealed that M1 had good dispersion in the NR system. It is proved that the higher tensile strength was due to good dispersion of attapulgite clay in the NR matrix. It was also supported from crosslink density, which is lower than NR and in-situ 6 results. It showed that the penetration of toluene solvent into rubber compound was restricted. The optimum time, M1 give the best results, which can be compared to control the sample

  15. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  16. NR2A contributes to genesis and propagation of cortical spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Du, Ruoxing; Li, Yi; Quinn, John P; Wang, Minyan

    2016-03-22

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient propagating excitation of synaptic activity followed by depression, which is implicated in migraine. Increasing evidence points to an essential role of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors in CSD propagation in vitro; however, whether these receptors mediate CSD genesis in vivo requires clarification and the role of NR2A on CSD propagation is still under debate. Using in vivo CSD in rats with electrophysiology and in vitro CSD in chick retina with intrinsic optical imaging, we addressed the role of NR2A in CSD. We demonstrated that NVP-AAM077, a potent antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, perfused through microdialysis probes, markedly reduced cortex susceptibility to CSD, but also reduced magnitude of CSD genesis in rats. Additionally, NVP-AAM077 at 0.3 nmol perfused into the contralateral ventricle, considerably suppressed the magnitude of CSD propagation wave and propagation rate in rats. This reduction in CSD propagation was also observed with TCN-201, a negative allosteric modulator selective for NR2A, at 3 μM, in the chick retina. Our data provides strong evidence that NR2A subunit contributes to CSD genesis and propagation, suggesting drugs selectively antagonizing NR2A-containing receptors might constitute a highly specific strategy treating CSD associated migraine with a likely better safety profile.

  17. Identification of NR4A2 as a transcriptional activator of IL-8 expression in human inflammatory arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aherne, Carol M

    2009-10-01

    Expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is controlled by pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that NR4A2 may contribute to pathological processes in the inflammatory lesion. This study identifies the chemoattractant protein, interleukin 8 (IL-8\\/CXCL8), as a molecular target of NR4A2 in human inflammatory arthritis and examines the mechanism through which NR4A2 modulates IL-8 expression. In TNF-alpha-activated human synoviocyte cells, enhanced expression of IL-8 mRNA and protein correspond to temporal changes in NR4A2 transcription and nuclear distribution. Ectopic expression of NR4A2 leads to robust changes in endogenous IL-8 mRNA levels and co-treatment with TNF-alpha results in significant (p<0.001) secretion of IL-8 protein. Transcriptional effects of NR4A2 on the human IL-8 promoter are enhanced in the presence of TNF-alpha, suggesting molecular crosstalk between TNF-alpha signalling and NR4A2. A dominant negative IkappaB kinase antagonizes the combined effects of NR4A2 and TNF-alpha on IL-8 promoter activity. Co-expression of NR4A2 and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB enhances IL-8 transcription and functional studies indicate that transactivation occurs independently of NR4A2 binding to DNA or heterodimerization with additional nuclear receptors. The IL-8 minimal promoter region is sufficient to support NR4A2 and NF-kappaB\\/p65 co-operative activity and NR4A2 can interact with NF-kappaB\\/p65 on a 39bp sequence within this region. In patients treated with methotrexate for active inflammatory arthritis, a reduction in NR4A2 synovial tissue levels correlate significantly (n=10, r=0.73, p=0.002) with changes in IL-8 expression. Collectively, these data delineate an important role for NR4A2 in modulating IL-8 expression and reveal novel transcriptional responses to TNF-alpha in human inflammatory joint disease.

  18. Cholinergic cells in the nucleus basalis of mice express the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor subunit NR2C and its replacement by the NR2B subunit enhances frontal and amygdaloid acetylcholine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Souza Silva, M. A.; Dolga, Amalia; Pieri, I.; Marchetti, L.; Eisel, U. L. M.; Huston, J. P.; Dere, E.

    2006-01-01

    It is known that glutamatergic and cholinergic systems interact functionally at the level of the cholinergic basal forebrain. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) is a multiprotein complex composed of NR1, NR2 and/or NR3 subunits. The subunit composition of NMDA-R of cholinergic cells in the

  19. Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H / Susanne Benda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Benda, Susanne

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H. Cantus in memoriam B. Britten. Denisov Variationen über Haydns Kanon Tod ist ein langer Schlaf. Schtschedrin Stalin Coctail. Moskauer Virtuosen, Vladimir Spivakov. RCA/BMG-Ariola CD 09026 68061 2 (WD: 67'33")

  20. NR-code: Nonlinear reconstruction code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhu, Hong-Ming

    2018-04-01

    NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.

  1. Non-genomic effects of the NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB orphan nuclear receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Alicja; Strzadala, Leon; Kalas, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1/Nur77/TR3/NGFIB acts primarily as a transcription factor to regulate the expression of multiple genes. However, increasing research attention has recently been given to non-genomic activities of NR4A1. The first description of a non-genomic action of NR4A1 referred to the conversion of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 into a pro-apoptotic protein by direct interaction with NR4A1. In response to certain apoptotic stimuli, NR4A1 translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) where it associates with Bcl-2 and thereby causes apoptosis. Afterwards, it appeared that NR4A1 could also bind and convert other anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members. The latest studies indicate a significant role of NR4A1 in the process of autophagy. For example, a new NR4A1-mediated pathway specific for melanoma cells has been described where NR4A1 interacts with the adenine nucleotide translocase 1 (ANT1) on the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM) leading to induction of the autophagy pathway. Moreover, NR4A1 interaction with cytoplasmic p53 may also contribute to the induction of autophagy. In addition to mitochondria, NR4A1 could be translocated to the outer membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and associate with Bcl-2 or translocon-associated protein subunit γ (TRAPγ) causing ER stress-induced apoptosis. NR4A1 also contributes to the proteasomal degradation of β-catenin in colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, as well as to the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) under non-hypoxic conditions. This review summarizes research findings on non-genomic effects of NR4A1 in normal and cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Vliv hipokampální aplikace Nr1/Nr2 antisense oligodeoxynukleotidů na expresi proteinů postsynaptické denzity a na prepulzní inhibici

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrajová, M.; Klaschka, Jan; Tejkalová, H.; Bubeníková-Valešová, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, Suppl. 2 (2011), s. 11-14 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : NMDA receptor * PSD proteins * antisense oligodeoxynucleotides for NMDA-NR1/NR2 subunits * prepulse inhibition Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology http://www.tigis.cz/images/stories/psychiatrie/2011/s2/03_vrajova_cns_2-11.pdf

  3. Sources and methods to reconstruct past masting patterns in European oak species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Péter

    2012-01-01

    The irregular occurrence of good seed years in forest trees is known in many parts of the world. Mast year frequency in the past few decades can be examined through field observational studies; however, masting patterns in the more distant past are equally important in gaining a better understanding of long-term forest ecology. Past masting patterns can be studied through the examination of historical written sources. These pose considerable challenges, because data in them were usually not recorded with the aim of providing information about masting. Several studies examined masting in the deeper past, however, authors hardly ever considered the methodological implications of using and combining various source types. This paper provides a critical overview of the types of archival written that are available for the reconstruction of past masting patterns for European oak species and proposes a method to unify and evaluate different types of data. Available sources cover approximately eight centuries and can be put into two basic categories: direct observations on the amount of acorns and references to sums of money received in exchange for access to acorns. Because archival sources are highly different in origin and quality, the optimal solution for creating databases for past masting data is a three-point scale: zero mast, moderate mast, good mast. When larger amounts of data are available in a unified three-point-scale database, they can be used to test hypotheses about past masting frequencies, the driving forces of masting or regional masting patterns.

  4. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 inhibits hepatic stellate cell proliferation through MAPK pathway in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengguo; Li, Jie; Huo, Yan; Lu, Jin; Wan, Lili; Li, Bin; Gan, Run; Guo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in liver fibrosis, which is a pathological process characterized by extracellular matrix accumulation. NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor belonging to the NR4A subfamily and vital in regulating cell growth, metabolism, inflammation and other biological functions. However, its role in HSCs is unclear. We analyzed NR4A2 expression in fibrotic liver and stimulated HSCs compared with control group and studied the influence on cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell apoptosis and MAPK pathway after NR4A2 knockdown. NR4A2 expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. NR4A2 expression was significantly lower in fibrotic liver tissues and PDGF BB or TGF-β stimulated HSCs compared with control group. After NR4A2 knockdown α-smooth muscle actin and Col1 expression increased. In addition, NR4A2 silencing led to the promotion of cell proliferation, increase of cell percentage in S phase and reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, P38 and JNK in HSCs. These results indicate that NR4A2 can inhibit HSC proliferation through MAPK pathway and decrease extracellular matrix in liver fibrogenesis. NR4A2 may be a promising therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.

  5. Estimating and correcting the amplitude radiation pattern of a virtual source

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Neut, J.; Bakulin, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the virtual source (VS) method we crosscorrelate seismic recordings at two receivers to create a new data set as if one of these receivers were a virtual source and the other a receiver. We focus on the amplitudes and kinematics of VS data, generated by an array of active sources at the surface and recorded by an array of receivers in a borehole. The quality of the VS data depends on the radiation pattern of the virtual source, which in turn is controlled by the spatial aperture of the sur...

  6. Effect of organo clay on curing, mechanical and dielectric properties of NR/SBR blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, K.; Joseph, Reji; Ravichandran, K.

    2018-04-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) based elastomeric blends reinforced with organically modified Sodium bentonite clay were prepared by two roll mills. Vulcanization parameters such as minimum and maximum torque values scorch and cure times are measured by Oscillating Disc Rheometer. Mechanical properties such as Tensile strength, modulus at 100%, 200% and 300% elongation and elongation at break and Hardness were measured by Universal testing machine and Durometer Shore A hardness meter respectively. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant (ε’), dissipation factor (tanδ) and volume resistivity (ρv) were measured at room temperature. The curing studies show that torque values are increasing in NR/SBR blends by increase NR content. The scorch and optimum cure time in NR/SBR blends reinforced organo modified clay was found through increase in the SBR content. This may be due to better processing safety of the NR/SBR blends reinforced with organo modified clay. Mechanical properties show that addition of SBR in blends, tensile strength, elongation modulus increases, but 100% modulus slightly increases and no change was observed in Hardness. Dielectric studies show that dielectric constant of NR and SBR rubbers are almost same, it may due to their non-polar nature. But addition of SBR in NR/SBR blend, dielectric constant gradually increases and maximum value observed at 50/50 ratio. But no considerable change was observed in dissipation factor. Frequency dependant resistivity shows that volume resistivity was not changed with respect to frequency up to 3.5 kHz and beyond that the frequency dependence resistivity was found.

  7. Chronic zinc exposure decreases the surface expression of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhu

    Full Text Available Zinc distributes widely in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex. The dynamic balance of zinc is critical for neuronal functions. Zinc modulates the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs through the direct inhibition and various intracellular signaling pathways. Abnormal NMDAR activities have been implicated in the aetiology of many brain diseases. Sustained zinc accumulation in the extracellular fluid is known to link to pathological conditions. However, the mechanism linking this chronic zinc exposure and NMDAR dysfunction is poorly understood.We reported that chronic zinc exposure reduced the numbers of NR1 and NR2A clusters in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Whole-cell and synaptic NR2A-mediated currents also decreased. By contrast, zinc did not affect NR2B, suggesting that chronic zinc exposure specifically influences NR2A-containg NMDARs. Surface biotinylation indicated that zinc exposure attenuated the membrane expression of NR1 and NR2A, which might arise from to the dissociation of the NR2A-PSD-95-Src complex.Chronic zinc exposure perturbs the interaction of NR2A to PSD-95 and causes the disorder of NMDARs in hippocampal neurons, suggesting a novel action of zinc distinct from its acute effects on NMDAR activity.

  8. Mis toimub "Objektis nr 2011"? / Elli Kalju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalju, Elli

    2011-01-01

    Tallinnas Vabaduse väljakul 27.02.-20.03.2011 paiknevast installatsioonist "Objekt nr. 2011", kus alati keegi sees istub. Kultuuritegelased vahetuvad iga tunni järel, järjekorda oodatakse Tallinna Kunsihoones asuvas staabis

  9. Ring resonator optical modes in InGaN/GaN structures grown on micro-cone-patterned sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanov, D. R.; Pozina, G.; Jmerik, V. N.; Shubina, T. V.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of III-nitride compounds on specially prepared cone-shaped patterned substrates is being actively developed nowadays, especially for nanophotonic applications. This type of substrates enables the successful growth of hexagonal nanorods (NRs). The insertion of an active quantum-sized region of InGaN inside a GaN NR allows us to enhance the rate of optical transitions by coupling them with resonant optical modes in the NR. However, we have observed the enhancement of emission not only from the NR but also around the circumference region of the cone-shaped base. We have studied this specific feature and demonstrated its impact on the output signal.

  10. Void Structures in Regularly Patterned ZnO Nanorods Grown with the Hydrothermal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Feng Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The void structures and related optical properties after thermal annealing with ambient oxygen in regularly patterned ZnO nanrorod (NR arrays grown with the hydrothermal method are studied. In increasing the thermal annealing temperature, void distribution starts from the bottom and extends to the top of an NR in the vertical (c-axis growth region. When the annealing temperature is higher than 400°C, void distribution spreads into the lateral (m-axis growth region. Photoluminescence measurement shows that the ZnO band-edge emission, in contrast to defect emission in the yellow-red range, is the strongest under the n-ZnO NR process conditions of 0.003 M in Ga-doping concentration and 300°C in thermal annealing temperature with ambient oxygen. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data indicate that the concentration of hydroxyl groups in the vertical growth region is significantly higher than that in the lateral growth region. During thermal annealing, hydroxyl groups are desorbed from the NR leaving anion vacancies for reacting with cation vacancies to form voids.

  11. Pharmacological Activators of the NR4A Nuclear Receptors Enhance LTP in a CREB/CBP-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridi, Morgan S; Hawk, Joshua D; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Safe, Stephen; Abel, Ted

    2017-05-01

    Nr4a nuclear receptors contribute to long-term memory formation and are required for long-term memory enhancement by a class of broad-acting drugs known as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes and identifying ways to increase their activity may provide novel therapeutic approaches for ameliorating cognitive dysfunction. In the present study, we find that Nr4a gene expression after learning requires the cAMP-response element binding (CREB) interaction domain of the histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP). These gene expression deficits emerge at a time after learning marked by promoter histone acetylation in wild-type mice. Further, mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain reduces Nr4a promoter acetylation after learning. As memory enhancement by HDAC inhibitors requires CREB-CBP interaction and Nr4a gene function, these data support the notion that the balance of histone acetylation at the Nr4a promoters is critical for memory formation. NR4A ligands have recently been described, but the effect of these drugs on synaptic plasticity or memory has not been investigated. We find that the 'C-DIM' NR4A ligands, para-phenyl substituted di-indolylmethane compounds, enhance long-term contextual fear memory and increase the duration of long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. LTP enhancement by these drugs is eliminated in mice expressing a dominant negative form of NR4A and attenuated in mice with mutation of the CREB-CBP interaction domain. These data define the molecular connection between histone acetylation and Nr4a gene expression after learning. In addition, they suggest that NR4A-activating C-DIM compounds may serve as a potent and selective means to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity.

  12. Selective up-regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor expression in myenteric plexus after TNBS induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Donald D

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA spinal cord receptors play an important role in the development of hyperalgesia following inflammation. It is unclear, however, if changes in NMDA subunit receptor gene expression in the colonic myenteric plexus are associated with colonic inflammation. We investigated regulation of NMDA-NR1 receptor gene expression in TNBS induced colitis in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150 g–250 g were treated with 20 mg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS diluted in 50% ethanol. The agents were delivered with a 24 gauge catheter inserted into the lumen of the colon. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after induction of the colitis, their descending colon was retrieved for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; a subset of animals' distal colon was used for two-dimensional (2-D western analysis and immunocytochemistry. Results NR1-exon 5 (N1 and NR1-exon 21 (C1 appeared 14, 21 and 28 days after TNBS treatment. NR1 pan mRNA was up-regulated at 14, 21, and 28 days. The NR1-exon 22 (C2 mRNA did not show significant changes. Using 2-D western analysis, untreated control rats were found to express only NR1001 whereas TNBS treated rats expressed NR1001, NR1011, and NR1111. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated NR1-N1 and NR1-C1 to be present in the myenteric plexus of TNBS treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest a role for colonic myenteric plexus NMDA receptors in the development of neuronal plasticity and visceral hypersensitivity in the colon. Up-regulation of NMDA receptor subunits may reflect part of the basis for chronic visceral hypersensitivity in conditions such as post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome.

  13. Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi / Andreas K. W. Meyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meyer, Andreas K. W.

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stenhammer, Wilhelm. sinfonien Nr. 1 F-Dur und Nr. 2 g-Moll op. 34, Excelsior! op. 13, Serenade F-Dur op. 31. Sinfonieorchester Göteborg, Neeme Järvi". DG 2 CD 445857-2 (WD: 138'37")

  14. Proposal for inclusion of the risk based inspection technique in Regulatory Standard NR 13; Proposta de inclusao da tecnica de inspecao baseada em risco na Norma Regulamentadora NR 13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Vinicius Teixeira; Lima, Marco Aurelio Oliveira [Det Norske Veritas Ltda. (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In Brazil, the Regulatory Standard n. 13 (NR 13) establishes requirements for the inspection of boilers and pressure vessels which has main objective of preventing accidents with these types of equipment. Additionally, it has the Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) technique as an effective way to manage the mechanical integrity of various types of static mechanical equipment by through an inspection planning based on the risk factor. In this study, it is being proposed to include the RBI technique, in the NR 13, for the planning and definition of periods for the safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels in order to promote an increase in the operational safety in process industries in Brazil. In this study it was carried out a critical analysis of NR 13 and RBI, and beyond that a bibliographic research of various international documents that relate the operational safety of pressurized equipment with the inspection activity, and the acceptability of RBI by governments, agencies and organizations around the world. It is considered that the inclusion and formal acceptance of RBI technique in the NR 13 must be accompanied by a rigorous control to avoid the 'trivialization' of its use and ensure the implementation rational, efficient and reliable. Finally, it was developed and suggested basic elements and minimum requirements to be inserted in the NR 13, to be attended, in order mandatory, by the companies that choose the implementation and use of the RBI technique as a tool for the planning of safety inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. It is concluded that the formal acceptance of the RBI technique in the NR 13 could aggregate much value to this standard, with regard to the prevention of accidents involving boilers or pressure vessels, and provide a technological jump to the companies that make use of RBI technique in Brazil. (author)

  15. Flamenkofantaasia vallutused. Urmas Sisaski Missa nr 5

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Kontserdist "Flamenkofantaasiad" 2. mail Jõhvi kontserdimajas, 3. mail Tallinna Raekojas ja 4. mail Vanemuise kontserdimajas. Eesti Vabariigi 90 a juubeli auks loodud Urmas Sisaski Missa nr 5 "Chateau Rocher" esitusest 2. ja 3. mail Tallinnas ja Tartus

  16. Influence of acetone extract from natural rubber on the structure and interface interaction in NR/silica composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tiwen; Jia, Zhixin; Wu, Lianghui; Chen, Yongjun; Luo, Yuanfang; Jia, Demin; Peng, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that the coupling reagents as the additional modifiers were often used to improve the reinforcement effect of silica filled natural rubber. Actually, the commercial raw NR is a mixture consisting of polyisoprene and non-isoprene, where the latter one might have impact on the properties of NR/silica composites as an inartificial modifier inside. Thus, investigating the effect of non-isoprene compounds on the structure and properties of NR/silica composites is a novel approach to disclose the peculiarity of NR, which is meaningful to the assessment of NR quality. In this paper, the influences of acetone extract (AE) from natural rubber on the structure and mechanical properties of NR/silica composites were studied. Then the interfacial interactions between AE and silica were also illustrated through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetic analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results demonstrated the existence of hydrogen bond between silica and AE, also the covalent bond induced by esterification reaction between sbnd COOH and Sisbnd OH, which resulted in an increase of constrained regions around silica surface leading to the promotions on mechanical and dynamical properties of NR/silica composites significantly.

  17. Marianna Kaadi "Auk nr 8" linastub Põhja-Ameerikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Marianna Kaadi dokumentaalfilmi "Auk nr 8" Põhja-Ameerika esilinastus toimub Full Frame filmifestivalil Durhamis, Põhja- Carolinas. Film on valitud ka Kanadas Torontos toimuva Hot Docs filmifestivali võistlusprogrammi

  18. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of submicron aerosols measured in Senegal during the 2015 SHADOW campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellini, Laura-Hélèna; Chiapello, Isabelle; Tison, Emmanuel; Fourmentin, Marc; Féron, Anaïs; Diallo, Aboubacry; N'Diaye, Thierno; Goloub, Philippe; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André Stephan Henry; Riffault, Véronique

    2017-09-01

    The present study offers the first chemical characterization of the submicron (PM1) fraction in western Africa at a high time resolution, thanks to collocated measurements of nonrefractory (NR) species with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM), black carbon and iron concentrations derived from absorption coefficient measurements with a 7-wavelength Aethalometer, and total PM1 determined by a TEOM-FDMS (tapered element oscillating microbalance-filtered dynamic measurement system) for mass closure. The field campaign was carried out over 3 months (March to June 2015) as part of the SHADOW (SaHAran Dust Over West Africa) project at a coastal site located in the outskirts of the city of Mbour, Senegal. With an averaged mass concentration of 5.4 µg m-3, levels of NR PM1 in Mbour were 3 to 10 times lower than those generally measured in urban and suburban polluted environments. Nonetheless the first half of the observation period was marked by intense but short pollution events (NR PM1 concentrations higher than 15 µg m-3), sea breeze phenomena and Saharan desert dust outbreaks (PM10 up to 900 µg m-3). During the second half of the campaign, the sampling site was mainly under the influence of marine air masses. The air masses on days under continental and sea breeze influences were dominated by organics (36-40 %), whereas sulfate particles were predominant (40 %) for days under oceanic influence. Overall, measurements showed that about three-quarters of the total PM1 were explained by NR PM1, BC (black carbon) and Fe (a proxy for dust) concentrations, leaving approximately one-quarter for other refractory species. A mean value of 4.6 % for the Fe / PM1 ratio was obtained. Source apportionment of the organic fraction, using positive matrix factorization (PMF), highlighted the impact of local combustion sources, such as traffic and residential activities, which contribute on average to 52 % of the total organic fraction. A new organic aerosol (OA) source

  19. Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of NR2E3 affect in vivo dimerization and interaction with CRX.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Roduit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NR2E3 (PNR is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for proper photoreceptor determination and differentiation. In humans, mutations in NR2E3 have been associated with the recessively inherited enhanced short wavelength sensitive (S- cone syndrome (ESCS and, more recently, with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. NR2E3 acts as a suppressor of the cone generation program in late mitotic retinal progenitor cells. In adult rod photoreceptors, NR2E3 represses cone-specific gene expression and acts in concert with the transcription factors CRX and NRL to activate rod-specific genes. NR2E3 and CRX have been shown to physically interact in vitro through their respective DNA-binding domains (DBD. The DBD also contributes to homo- and heterodimerization of nuclear receptors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed NR2E3 homodimerization and NR2E3/CRX complex formation in an in vivo situation by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET(2. NR2E3 wild-type protein formed homodimers in transiently transfected HEK293T cells. NR2E3 homodimerization was impaired in presence of disease-causing mutations in the DBD, except for the p.R76Q and p.R104W mutant proteins. Strikingly, the adRP-linked p.G56R mutant protein interacted with CRX with a similar efficiency to that of NR2E3 wild-type and p.R311Q proteins. In contrast, all other NR2E3 DBD-mutant proteins did not interact with CRX. The p.G56R mutant protein was also more effective in abolishing the potentiation of rhodospin gene transactivation by the NR2E3 wild-type protein. In addition, the p.G56R mutant enhanced the transrepression of the M- and S-opsin promoter, while all other NR2E3 DBD-mutants did not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest different disease mechanisms in adRP- and ESCS-patients carrying NR2E3 mutations. Titration of CRX by the p.G56R mutant protein acting as a repressor in trans may account for the severe clinical phenotype in adRP patients.

  20. ESR investigation of NR and IR rubber vulcanized with different cross-link agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Posadas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the formation of radical species in natural rubber (NR and poly-isoprene rubber (IR during the vulcanization process and the uniaxial deformation of the formed networks by means of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. Vulcanization of NR and IR always shows a radical pathway, where the different vulcanization systems dictate the concentration of radical species in the course of this complex process. The greatest concentration of radicals were detected during the vulcanization with sulfur/accelerator based on efficient systems (EV, followed by conventional (CV and sulfur donor systems, whereas azide and organic peroxide agents showed smaller concentration of radicals. Independently of the vulcanization system, certain amount of radicals was detected on the vulcanized samples after the end of the vulcanization process. Comparison between different matrices demonstrates that NR always shows higher concentration of radicals than IR in the vulcanization process as well as during uniaxial deformation, fact that could be associated to the presence of nonrubber components in NR.

  1. PURIFICACIÓN DE IgY CONTRA LA SUBUNIDAD NR3 DEL RECEPTOR NMDA DE CEREBRO DE RATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Méndez C

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener anticuerpos tipo IgY contra péptidos sintéticos de las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA de ratas, para reconocer y seguir la expresión de estas subunidades en extractos de cerebro de rata de diferentes edades. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñaron dos péptidos empleando los sistemas de la base de datos Entrez y el programa ClustalW-PBIL de alineamientos múltiples contra las subunidades NR3A y NR3B del receptor NMDA; una vez sintetizados por el método SSPS-fmoc fueron utilizados para inocular gallinas (Gallus gallus, variedad Hy Line Brown de 16 semanas de edad; al cabo de 57 días postinoculación se purificó IgY específica y se enfrentaron a extractos de cerebro de rata postnatal y adulta. Resultados. Se detectaron las subunidades NR3A y NR3B y se relacionó su expresión con la edad del animal; siendo mayor la expresión de la subunidad NR3A en extracto de cerebro de rata postnatal. No se encontró diferencia marcada en la expresión de la subunidad NR3B en las edades mencionadas. Conclusiones. Esta es la primera investigación que emplea proteína nativa para el reconocimiento de la subunidad NR3 del receptor NMDA, lo cual muestra la especificidad de los anticuerpos generados y contribuye con el entendimiento de las funciones de este receptor y su relación con la regulación de la memoria espacial.

  2. Behavioral analysis of NR2C knockout mouse reveals deficit in acquisition of conditioned fear and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Brandon G; Gupta, Subhash C; Stairs, Dustin J; Buonanno, Andres; Dravid, Shashank M

    2011-05-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in excitatory neurotransmission and mediate synaptic plasticity associated with learning and memory. NMDA receptors are composed of two NR1 and two NR2 subunits and the identity of the NR2 subunit confers unique electrophysiologic and pharmacologic properties to the receptor. The precise role of NR2C-containing receptors in vivo is poorly understood. We have performed a battery of behavioral tests on NR2C knockout/nβ-galactosidase knock-in mice and found no difference in spontaneous activity, basal anxiety, forced-swim immobility, novel object recognition, pain sensitivity and reference memory in comparison to wildtype counterparts. However, NR2C knockout mice were found to exhibit deficits in fear acquisition and working memory compared to wildtype mice. Deficit in fear acquisition correlated with lack of fear conditioning-induced plasticity at the thalamo-amygdala synapse. These findings suggest a unique role of NR2C-containing receptors in associative and executive learning representing a novel therapeutic target for deficits in cognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Overexpression of the NR2A subunit in the forebrain impairs long-term social recognition and non-social olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S A; Tsien, J Z

    2014-04-01

    Animals must recognize and remember conspecifics and potential mates, and distinguish these animals from potential heterospecific competitors and predators. Despite its necessity, aged animals are known to exhibit impaired social recognition memory. As the brain ages, the ratio of NR2A:NR2B in the brain increases over time and has been postulated to underlie the cognitive decline observed during the aging process. Here, we test the hypothesis that an increased NR2A:NR2B subunit ratio underlies long-term social recognition memory. Using transgenic overexpression of NR2A in the forebrain regions, we investigated the ability of these mice to learn and remember male and female conspecifics, mice of another strain and animals of another rodent species, the rat. Furthermore, due to the importance of olfaction in social recognition, we tested the olfactory memory in the NR2A transgenic mice. Our series of behavioral experiments revealed significant impairments in the NR2A transgenic mice in long-term social memory of both male and female conspecifics. Additionally, the NR2A transgenic mice are unable to recognize mice of another strain or rats. The NR2A transgenic mice also exhibited long-term memory impairments in the olfactory recognition task. Taken together, our results provide evidence that an increased NR2A:NR2B ratio in the forebrain leads to reduced long-term memory function, including the ethologically important memories such as social recognition and olfactory memory.

  4. iNR-Drug: predicting the interaction of drugs with nuclear receptors in cellular networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue-Nong; Xiao, Xuan; Min, Jian-Liang; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2014-03-19

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called "iNR-Drug" was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional) vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine) algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  5. iNR-Drug: Predicting the Interaction of Drugs with Nuclear Receptors in Cellular Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Nong Fan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are closely associated with various major diseases such as cancer, diabetes, inflammatory disease, and osteoporosis. Therefore, NRs have become a frequent target for drug development. During the process of developing drugs against these diseases by targeting NRs, we are often facing a problem: Given a NR and chemical compound, can we identify whether they are really in interaction with each other in a cell? To address this problem, a predictor called “iNR-Drug” was developed. In the predictor, the drug compound concerned was formulated by a 256-D (dimensional vector derived from its molecular fingerprint, and the NR by a 500-D vector formed by incorporating its sequential evolution information and physicochemical features into the general form of pseudo amino acid composition, and the prediction engine was operated by the SVM (support vector machine algorithm. Compared with the existing prediction methods in this area, iNR-Drug not only can yield a higher success rate, but is also featured by a user-friendly web-server established at http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-Drug/, which is particularly useful for most experimental scientists to obtain their desired data in a timely manner. It is anticipated that the iNR-Drug server may become a useful high throughput tool for both basic research and drug development, and that the current approach may be easily extended to study the interactions of drug with other targets as well.

  6. Wide spectrum of NR5A1‐related phenotypes in 46,XY and 46,XX individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenice, Sorahia; Machado, Aline Zamboni; Ferreira, Frederico Moraes; Ferraz‐de‐Souza, Bruno; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; Lin, Lin; Nishi, Mirian Yumie; Gomes, Nathalia Lisboa; da Silva, Thatiana Evelin; Silva, Rosana Barbosa; Correa, Rafaela Vieira; Montenegro, Luciana Ribeiro; Narciso, Amanda; Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Achermann, John C

    2016-01-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (NR5A1, SF‐1, Ad4BP) is a transcriptional regulator of genes involved in adrenal and gonadal development and function. Mutations in NR5A1 have been among the most frequently identified genetic causes of gonadal development disorders and are associated with a wide phenotypic spectrum. In 46,XY individuals, NR5A1‐related phenotypes may range from disorders of sex development (DSD) to oligo/azoospermia, and in 46,XX individuals, from 46,XX ovotesticular and testicular DSD to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The most common 46,XY phenotype is atypical or female external genitalia with clitoromegaly, palpable gonads, and absence of Müllerian derivatives. Notably, an undervirilized external genitalia is frequently seen at birth, while spontaneous virilization may occur later, at puberty. In 46,XX individuals, NR5A1 mutations are a rare genetic cause of POI, manifesting as primary or secondary amenorrhea, infertility, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels. Mothers and sisters of 46,XY DSD patients carrying heterozygous NR5A1 mutations may develop POI, and therefore require appropriate counseling. Moreover, the recurrent heterozygous p.Arg92Trp NR5A1 mutation is associated with variable degrees of testis development in 46,XX patients. A clear genotype‐phenotype correlation is not seen in patients bearing NR5A1 mutations, suggesting that genetic modifiers, such as pathogenic variants in other testis/ovarian‐determining genes, may contribute to the phenotypic expression. Here, we review the published literature on NR5A1‐related disease, and discuss our findings at a single tertiary center in Brazil, including ten novel NR5A1 mutations identified in 46,XY DSD patients. The ever‐expanding phenotypic range associated with NR5A1 variants in XY and XX individuals confirms its pivotal role in reproductive biology, and should alert clinicians to the possibility of NR5A1 defects in a variety of phenotypes presenting with gonadal

  7. Determination of Crosslink Concentration by Mooney-Rivlin Equation for Vulcanized NR/ SBR Blend and its Influence on Mechanical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreen Izzati Dzulkifli; Che Mohd Som Said; Han, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Crosslink concentration is an important property affecting the major characteristic of cured rubber. The crosslink concentration was determined using Mooney-Rivlin equation due to its simple and reliable method. Cured natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber blend (NR/SBR) with different crosslink concentrations were obtained with different blend ratios of 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 0/100. The crosslink concentrations were determined using Mooney-Rivlin Equation and its influence on International Rubber Hardness Tester (IRHD), tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates was investigated. The results showed different blend ratios had an influence on the crosslink concentration of the NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates. Obtained data showed that high NR content in NR/ SBR blend increased the crosslink concentration. The highest crosslink concentration recorded was for 100/0 blend ratio which was 0.0498 mol kg"-"1 RH while the lowest was 0.0295 mol kg"-"1 RH for 0/100 blend ratio. The study on the influence of crosslink concentration on IRHD, tensile strength and rebound resilience of NR/ SBR blend vulcanizates showed that the mechanical properties increased linearly with the crosslink concentration. High NR content in NR/ SBR blends resulted in higher crosslink concentration which improved the performance of mechanical properties for NR/ SBR blend. (author)

  8. A role of periaqueductal grey NR2B-containing NMDA receptor in mediating persistent inflammatory pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The midbrain periaqueductal grey (PAG is a structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Noxious stimuli potentiate the glutamate synaptic transmission and enhance glutamate NMDA receptor expression in the PAG. However, little is known about roles of NMDA receptor subunits in the PAG in processing the persistent inflammatory pain. The present study was undertaken to investigate NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and their modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Noxious stimuli induced by hind-paw injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA caused up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG, while NR2A-containing NMDA receptors were not altered. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that NMDA receptor mediated mEPSCs were increased significantly in the PAG synapse during the chronic phases of inflammatory pain in mice. PAG local infusion of Ro 25-6981, an NR2B antagonist, notably prolonged the paw withdrawal latency to thermal radian heat stimuli bilaterally in rats. Hyperoside (Hyp, one of the flavonoids compound isolated from Rhododendron ponticum L., significantly reversed up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG and exhibited analgesic activities against persistent inflammatory stimuli in mice. Our findings provide strong evidence that up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the PAG involves in the modulation to the peripheral persistent inflammatory pain.

  9. Preliminary study of semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) as secondary gelling agent in natural rubber (NR) latex foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhazariah, S.; Azura, A. R.; Azahari, B.; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-12-01

    Semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) product is considerably cheaper and easier to produce as a natural polysaccharide, which was utilized in food and other product application. However, the application in latex is limited. The aim of this work is to evaluate the SRC produced from low industrial grade seaweed (LIGS) in the latex foam application. The FTIR spectra showed the SRC produced as kappa type carrageenan with lower sulfur content compared to native LIGS. NR latex foam is produced by using the Dunlop method with some modifications. The effect of SRC loading as a secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam is investigated. The density and morphology of the NR latex foam with the addition of the SRC are analyzed. NR latex foam density increased with SRC loading and peaked at 1.8 phr SRC. The addition of SRC has induced the bigger cell size compared to the cell size of the control NR latex foam, as shown in the optical micrograph. It can be concluded that SRC LIGS could be acted as secondary gelling agent in NR latex foam.

  10. "Peer Review: Nonroad (NR) Updates to Population Growth, Compression Ignition (CI) Criteria, Toxic Emission Factors and Speciation Profiles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report focuses on the methodology for estimating growth in NR engine populations as used in the MOVES201X-NONROAD emission inventory model. MOVES NR growth rates start with base year engine populations and estimate growth in the populations of NR engines, while applying cons...

  11. Acoustic beam steering by light refraction: illustration with directivity patterns of a tilted volume photoacoustic source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raetz, Samuel; Dehoux, Thomas; Perton, Mathieu; Audoin, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    The symmetry of a thermoelastic source resulting from laser absorption can be broken when the direction of light propagation in an elastic half-space is inclined relatively to the surface. This leads to an asymmetry of the directivity patterns of both compressional and shear acoustic waves. In contrast to classical surface acoustic sources, the tunable volume source allows one to take advantage of the mode conversion at the surface to control the directivity of specific modes. Physical interpretations of the evolution of the directivity patterns with the increasing light angle of incidence and of the relations between the preferential directions of compressional- and shear-wave emission are proposed. In order to compare calculated directivity patterns with measurements of normal displacement amplitudes performed on plates, a procedure is proposed to transform the directivity patterns into pseudo-directivity patterns representative of the experimental conditions. The comparison of the theoretical with measured pseudo-directivity patterns demonstrates the ability to enhance bulk-wave amplitudes and to steer specific bulk acoustic modes by adequately tuning light refraction.

  12. The Evolution of NR TrA (Nova TrA 2008) from 2008 through 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Burwitz, Vadim; Kafka, Stella

    2018-06-01

    The classical nova NR TrA was discovered as an O-type optically-thick classical nova. There is no evidence that it formed dust. Within four years the envelope became sufficiently thin to reveal an eclipsing accretion disk-dominated system with orbitally-modulated permitted lines of C IV, N V, and O VI. XMM observations reveal a non-eclipsing soft X-ray source and a deeply-eclipsing UV continuum. We will present the first ten years of optical spectral evolution of this system accompanied by ten years of BVRIJHK photometry, with an eye to deciphering the current nature of the system.

  13. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelie Moskal

    Full Text Available Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses.We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312. Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436 provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores.The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research

  14. Nutrient patterns and their food sources in an International Study Setting: report from the EPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Quirós, Jose R; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A; Key, Timothy J; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Ocké, Marga C; Beulens, Joline W J; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs in term of food sources. These outcomes open research opportunities and

  15. Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid) / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Tubin: Sinfonie nr. 11 (ergänzt von Kaljo Raid); Pärt: Nekrolog op. 5, Sinfonie nr. 1; Tüür: Searching for Roots, Insula deserta, Zeitraum. Königliches Philharmonisches Orchester Stockholm, Paavo Järvi". Virgin/EMI CD 5 45212 2 (WD:71'34") DDD

  16. Drinking water intake and source patterns within a US-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Adam; Gurian, Patrick; Mena, Kristina D

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to identify water intake and source patterns among a population that resides in a hot, arid region on the US-Mexico border. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted among households in the neighbouring cities of El Paso, TX, USA and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico to obtain data on the quantity and source of water consumed. The study was also designed to identify factors that impact water consumption patterns, including gender, demographics, socio-economic status, cultural characteristics, health status, types of occupations and residences, available water sources and outdoor temperature, among many others. Of all factors studied, outdoor air temperature was found to have the strongest impact upon water intake quantity. Specifically, among the survey participants, when the outdoor air temperature exceeded 90 °F, water consumption increased by 28 %. Additionally, it was found that participants in this region consumed approximately 50 % more water than the values reported in previous studies.

  17. Nonlinear estimation-based dipole source localization for artificial lateral line systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulsadda, Ahmad T; Tan Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    As a flow-sensing organ, the lateral line system plays an important role in various behaviors of fish. An engineering equivalent of a biological lateral line is of great interest to the navigation and control of underwater robots and vehicles. A vibrating sphere, also known as a dipole source, can emulate the rhythmic movement of fins and body appendages, and has been widely used as a stimulus in the study of biological lateral lines. Dipole source localization has also become a benchmark problem in the development of artificial lateral lines. In this paper we present two novel iterative schemes, referred to as Gauss–Newton (GN) and Newton–Raphson (NR) algorithms, for simultaneously localizing a dipole source and estimating its vibration amplitude and orientation, based on the analytical model for a dipole-generated flow field. The performance of the GN and NR methods is first confirmed with simulation results and the Cramer–Rao bound (CRB) analysis. Experiments are further conducted on an artificial lateral line prototype, consisting of six millimeter-scale ionic polymer–metal composite sensors with intra-sensor spacing optimized with CRB analysis. Consistent with simulation results, the experimental results show that both GN and NR schemes are able to simultaneously estimate the source location, vibration amplitude and orientation with comparable precision. Specifically, the maximum localization error is less than 5% of the body length (BL) when the source is within the distance of one BL. Experimental results have also shown that the proposed schemes are superior to the beamforming method, one of the most competitive approaches reported in literature, in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. (paper)

  18. Effects of a wide range of dietary nicotinamide riboside (NR) concentrations on metabolic flexibility and white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a mildly obesogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, W.; Hegeman, M.A.; Dartel, van D.A.M.; Tang, J.; Suarez, M.; Swarts, H.; Hee, van der B.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Scope: Metabolic flexibility is the ability to switch metabolism between carbohydrate oxidation (CHO) and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and is a biomarker for metabolic health. The effect on metabolic health of nicotinamide riboside (NR) as an exclusive source of vitamin B3 is unknown and is examined

  19. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  20. NMDAR NR2A and NR2B specific PKC-dependent regulation of mGluR is defective in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tue G.; Toft, Anna Karina; Lundbye, Camilla Johanne

    The Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) animal model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, has demonstrated an increased mGluR5-mediated long-term depression (LTD). However, surprisingly little information exists about other ion channels/receptors and their effects on FXS, including NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Here we....... Furthermore, in this model it appears that NR2B activation stimulates PKC, while NR2A activation halts or reverses this effect. In addition, in the KO mice, the coupling between specific NMDAR subunits and mGluR-LTD activity through PKC seems defective in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest strong...

  1. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano- composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M Arshad; Shahid, M; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A G

    2014-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix

  2. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano-composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M. A.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, R.; Yahya, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent d, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites. The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix. (author)

  3. Host range expansion and increased damage potential of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the Euwallacea nr. fornicatus complex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) vector Fusarium spp. fungi pathogenic to susceptible hosts, including avocado. The Florida avocado production area in Miami-Dade County was surveyed for E. nr. fornicatus upon observations of initial damage in 2016...

  4. The role of linked phospholipids in the rubber-filler interaction in carbon nanotube (CNT) filler natural rubber (NR) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, H.H.; Abhijeet, S.; Ilish, S.; Klehm, J.; Henning, S.; Beiner, M.; Sarkawi, S.S.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Das, A.; Fischer, D.; Stöckelhuber, K.-W.; Wiessner, S.; Khatiwada, S.P.; Adhikari, R.; Pham, T.; Heinrich, G.; Radusch, H.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to evidence the role of the linked phospholipids of natural rubber (NR) in the rubber-carbon nanotube (CNT) interactions in rubber composites. Three rubbers namely NR, deproteinized NR (DPNR) and a synthetic rubber isoprene (IR) were used as matrix for CNTs. The

  5. Clinical and biochemical function of polymorphic NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellites in Ewing sarcoma: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Monument

    Full Text Available The genetics involved in Ewing sarcoma susceptibility and prognosis are poorly understood. EWS/FLI and related EWS/ETS chimeras upregulate numerous gene targets via promoter-based GGAA-microsatellite response elements. These microsatellites are highly polymorphic in humans, and preliminary evidence suggests EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression is highly dependent on the number of GGAA motifs within the microsatellite.Here we sought to examine the polymorphic spectrum of a GGAA-microsatellite within the NR0B1 promoter (a critical EWS/FLI target in primary Ewing sarcoma tumors, and characterize how this polymorphism influences gene expression and clinical outcomes.A complex, bimodal pattern of EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression was observed across a wide range of GGAA motifs, with maximal expression observed in constructs containing 20-26 GGAA motifs. Relative to white European and African controls, the NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite in tumor cells demonstrated a strong bias for haplotypes containing 21-25 GGAA motifs suggesting a relationship between microsatellite function and disease susceptibility. This selection bias was not a product of microsatellite instability in tumor samples, nor was there a correlation between NR0B1 GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms and survival outcomes.These data suggest that GGAA-microsatellite polymorphisms observed in human populations modulate EWS/FLI-mediated gene expression and may influence disease susceptibility in Ewing sarcoma.

  6. No-reference stereoscopic image quality measurement based on generalized local ternary patterns of binocular energy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wujie; Yu, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Perceptual no-reference (NR) quality measurement of stereoscopic images has become a challenging issue in three-dimensional (3D) imaging fields. In this article, we propose an efficient binocular quality-aware features extraction scheme, namely generalized local ternary patterns (GLTP) of binocular energy response, for general-purpose NR stereoscopic image quality measurement (SIQM). More specifically, we first construct the binocular energy response of a distorted stereoscopic image with different stimuli of amplitude and phase shifts. Then, the binocular quality-aware features are generated from the GLTP of the binocular energy response. Finally, these features are mapped to the subjective quality score of the distorted stereoscopic image by using support vector regression. Experiments on two publicly available 3D databases confirm the effectiveness of the proposed metric compared with the state-of-the-art full reference and NR metrics. (paper)

  7. Pengaruh Penggunaan Nr dan Nbr dengan Bahan Pengisi Silika terhadap Sifat Fisika Kompon Rol Karet Cpo

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetya, Hari Adi

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to obtain the influence of natural rubber NR, synthetic rubber NBR and alumunium silikat (AISiO₃) as a filler, its physical properties and also to find out rubber compound the best for rubber mixture with variation of NR : NBR 50, 70 : 30, 90 : 10 hr and variation of aluminium silikat (ASiO₂) 45 phr, 50 phr, 55 phr. The result showed that the addition of rubber NR : NBR ratio and alumunium silikat (ASiO₂) had significant effect on the hardness, tensile strength, abration re...

  8. A novel NR2E3 gene mutation in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with cystic maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, D.; Votruba, Marcela

    2017-01-01

    NR2E3 is a gene that encodes for photoreceptor cell specific nuclear receptor, which is involved in cone proliferation. The splice site mutation 119-2A>C in NR2E3 (15q23) has been previously reported to underlie recessive enhanced cone S sensitivity syndrome, clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration, Goldman-Favre syndrome and also autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). However, the mutation c 571 + 2 T > C in NR2E3 has not been previously reported with retinal d...

  9. nr0b1 (DAX1) mutation in zebrafish causes female-to-male sex reversal through abnormal gonadal proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang

    2016-09-15

    Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of milk source on body weight and immune status of lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Moreno-Indias, I.; Morales-delaNuez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Milk source is one of the several factors that can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status before weaning. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of milk source (natural rearing method, named NR group, vs. artificial rearing method using a commercial milk replacer, named MR ...

  11. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  12. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolado-Carrancio, A.; Riancho, J.A.; Sainz, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity

  13. Altered placental DNA methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maccani JZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer ZJ Maccani, Matthew A Maccani Penn State Tobacco Center of Regulatory Science, College of Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Hershey, PA, USA Abstract: The developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse early life exposures can have lasting, detrimental effects on lifelong health. Exposure to maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with morbidity and mortality in offspring, including increased risks for miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, asthma, obesity, altered neurobehavior, and other conditions. Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy interferes with placental growth and functioning, and it has been proposed that this may occur through the disruption of normal and necessary placental epigenetic patterns. Epigenome-wide association studies have identified a number of differentially methylated placental genes that are associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy, including RUNX3, PURA, GTF2H2, GCA, GPR135, and HKR1. The placental methylation status of RUNX3 and NR3C1 has also been linked to adverse infant outcomes, including preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively. Candidate gene analyses have also found maternal smoking-associated placental methylation differences in the NR3C1, CYP1A1, HTR2A, and HSD11B2 genes, as well as in the repetitive elements LINE-1 and AluYb8. The differential methylation patterns of several genes have been confirmed to also exhibit altered gene expression patterns, including CYP1A1, CYP19A1, NR3C1, and HTR2A. Placental methylation patterns associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy may be largely gene-specific and tissue-specific and, to a lesser degree, involve global changes. It is important for future research to investigate the mechanistic roles that these differentially methylated genes may play in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and disease in later life, as well

  14. Reologi, sifat aging, termal, dan swelling dari campuran EPDM/NR dengan bahan pengisi carbon black N220

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Yuniari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blends of EPDM and NR are immiscible in nature and incompatible. Introducing maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer into the blends was expected to produce compatible blends with balanced mechanical properties. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of EPDM/NR ratio on the rheological, aging, thermal and swelling properties of the blends. The variation of EPDM/NR ratio were 100/0, 80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 40/60 phr. The blends were mixed using two roll mill. The results showed that the addition of NR affects the maximum torque, scorch time, and optimum vulcanization time. In the blends, EPDM plays an important role in improving aging, swelling, thermal properties.

  15. IGF-1-Involved Negative Feedback of NR2B NMDA Subunits Protects Cultured Hippocampal Neurons Against NMDA-Induced Excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Sun, Wei; Han, Song; Li, Jianing; Ding, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yin, Yanling

    2017-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a multifunctional protein involved in neuronal polarity and axonal guidance. In our previous study, it was discovered that IGF-1 alleviated 50-μM NMDA-induced excitotoxicity against neuronal autophagy via depression of NR2B p-Ser1303 activation. However, it was found that NMDA at a higher dose did not cause neuronal autophagy. And, the performance of IGF-1 under severe excitotoxicity still needs to be clarified. In this study, we observed that IGF-1 can salvage the hippocampal neurons in an autophagy-independent manner after 150-μM NMDA exposure using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Western blot assay, and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, over-activation of post-synaptic NMDARs was found with the whole-cell patch clamp recording method. In order to explore whether there is a positive feedback way for post-synaptic NMDARs and the different pathway caused by 150 μM NMDA, the phosphorylation level of Fyn and the phosphorylation site of NR2B were investigated. It was observed that NR2B p-Tyr1472 was increased by the activation of Fyn after 150-μM NMDA exposure. When the neutralizing antibody against NR2B p-Ser1303 was added into the medium, both the activations of Fyn and NR2B p-Tyr1472 were blocked, suggesting NR2B p-Ser1303 may be the initial step of NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. In addition, since IGF-1 can block the initial step of NR2B activation, its effect is concluded to continue with the development of excitotoxicity. Overall, this study strongly indicates that the relationship between different phosphorylation sites of NR2B should be laid more emphasis on, which may be a vital target for the NR2B-involved excitotoxicity.

  16. Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is a negative regulator of DHT-induced rat preantral follicular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kai; Liu, Jia-yin; Murphy, Bruce D; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member1 (NR4A1), an orphan nuclear receptor, is involved in the transcriptional regulation of thecal cell androgen biosynthesis and paracrine factor insulin-like 3 (INSL3) expression. Androgens are known to play an important regulatory role in ovarian follicle growth. Using a chronically androgenized rat model, a preantral follicle culture model and virus-mediated gene delivery, we examined the role and regulation of NR4A1 in the androgenic control of preantral follicular growth. In the present study, Ki67 staining was increased in preantral follicles on ovarian sections from 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated rats. Preantral follicles from DHT-treated rats cultured for 4 d exhibited increased growth and up-regulation of mRNA abundance of G(1)/S-specific cyclin-D2 (Ccnd2) and FSH receptor (Fshr). Similarly, DHT (1 μm) increased preantral follicular growth and Ccnd2 and Fshr mRNA abundance in vitro. The NR4A1 expression was high in theca cells and was down-regulated by DHT in vivo and in vitro. Forced expression of NR4A1 augmented preantral follicular growth, androstenedione production, and Insl3 expression in vitro. Inhibiting the action of androgen (with androgen receptor antagonist flutamide) or INSL3 (with INSL3 receptor antagonist INSL3 B-chain) reduced NR4A1-induced preantral follicular growth. Furthermore, NR4A1 overexpression enhanced DHT-induced preantral follicular growth, a response attenuated by inhibiting INSL3. In conclusion, DHT promotes preantral follicular growth and attenuates thecal NR4A1 expression in vivo and in vitro. Our findings are consistent with the notion that NR4A1 serves as an important point of negative feedback to minimize the excessive preantral follicle growth in hyperandrogenism.

  17. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  18. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M.; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  19. Sources of nitrogen deposition in Federal Class I areas in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-M. Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is desired to control excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr deposition due to its detrimental impact on ecosystems. Using a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, Nr deposition in the contiguous US and eight selected Class I areas (Voyageurs (VY, Smoky Mountain (SM, Shenandoah (SD, Big Bend (BB, Rocky Mountain (RM, Grand Teton (GT, Joshua Tree (JT, and Sequoia (SQ is investigated. First, modeled Nr deposition is compared with National Trends Network (NTN and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET deposition values. The seasonality of measured species is generally well represented by the model (R2 > 0.6, except in JT. While modeled Nr is generally within the range of seasonal observations, large overestimates are present in sites such as SM and SD in the spring and summer (up to 0.6 kg N ha month−1, likely owing to model high-biases in surface HNO3. The contribution of non-measured species (mostly dry deposition of NH3 to total modeled Nr deposition ranges from 1 to 55 %. The spatial distribution of the origin of Nr deposited in each Class I area and the contributions of individual emission sectors are estimated using the GEOS-Chem adjoint model. We find the largest role of long-range transport for VY, where 50 % (90 % of annual Nr deposition originates within 670 (1670 km of the park. In contrast, the Nr emission footprint is most localized for SQ, where 50 % (90 % of the deposition originates from within 130 (370 km. Emissions from California contribute to the Nr deposition in remote areas in the western US (RM, GT. Mobile NOx and livestock NH3 are found to be the major sources of Nr deposition in all sites except BB, where contributions of NOx from lightning and soils to natural levels of Nr deposition are significant (∼ 40 %. The efficiency in terms of Nr deposition per kg emissions of NH3-N, NOx-N, and SO2-S are also estimated. Unique seasonal features are found in JT (opposing

  20. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (Nur77) regulates oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Syng-Ook; Jin, Un-Ho; Kang, Jeong Han; Kim, Sang Bae; Guthrie, Aaron S; Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Lee, Ju-Seog; Safe, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    NR4A1 (Nur77, TR3) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and exhibits pro-oncogenic activity. RNA interference of NR4A1 expression in Panc-1 cells induced apoptosis and subsequent proteomic analysis revealed the induction of several markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress, including glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), and activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4). Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the NR4A1 antagonist 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-hydroxyphenyl)methane (DIM-C-pPhOH) gave similar results. Moreover, both NR4A1 knockdown and DIM-C-pPhOH induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), and induction of ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress by these agents was attenuated after cotreatment with antioxidants. Manipulation of NR4A1 expression coupled with gene expression profiling identified a number of ROS metabolism transcripts regulated by NR4A1. Knockdown of one of these transcripts, thioredoxin domain containing 5 (TXNDC5), recapitulated the elevated ROS and endoplasmic reticulum stress; thus, demonstrating that NR4A1 regulates levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress and ROS in pancreatic cancer cells to facilitate cell proliferation and survival. Finally, inactivation of NR4A1 by knockdown or DIM-C-pPhOH decreased TXNDC5, resulting in activation of the ROS/endoplasmic reticulum stress and proapoptotic pathways. The NR4A1 receptor is pro-oncogenic, regulates the ROS/endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways, and inactivation of the receptor represents a novel pathway for inducing cell death in pancreatic cancer. Mol Cancer Res; 12(4); 527-38. ©2014 AACR.

  1. Efeito da ordem de adição de componentes nas propriedades de misturas NR/BR Properties of NR/BR mixtures and their dependence on the preparation mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele F. Castro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Misturas de elastômeros vêm sendo largamente utilizadas na indústria de borracha com a finalidade de se conseguir propriedades específicas, sem a necessidade de sintetizar novos polímeros. O polibutadieno puro (BR não apresenta boas características de processamento e de resistência à tração e ao rasgamento sendo, por essa razão, normalmente utilizado em misturas com outros elastômeros, principalmente NR e SBR. Tais misturas são amplamente utilizadas na indústria de pneus. Neste trabalho o polibutadieno (BR foi misturado à borracha natural (NR na proporção de 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas em misturador de cilindros, empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas de incorporação dos aditivos. Após a vulcanização, foram estudadas as propriedades mecânicas (resistência à tração, ao rasgamento e dureza e a morfologia das composições. Os resultados mostram que, apesar de apresentarem a mesma formulação, as propriedades das misturas são bastante influenciadas pelo modo de preparo.Elastomer Blends have been widely used in the rubber industry with the purpose of reaching specific properties without the need of synthesizing new polymers. Polybutadiene rubber (BR presents poor stress and tear strengths, which is the main reason why BR is usually blended with NR and SBR. These blends are extensively used in the manufacture of tyres. In this work natural rubber (NR was mixed to polybutadiene rubber (BR in a 50:50 w/w ratio. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill employing four different modes of introducing the additives. After vulcanization, the mixtures were studied with evaluation of their mechanical (stress and tear strengths and hardness properties and morphology. The results show that the properties varied even using the same NR/BR formulations due to the different preparation techniques.

  2. Bayesian image processing of data from fuzzy pattern sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Z.; Hart, H.

    1986-01-01

    In some radioisotopic organ image applications, a priori or supplementary source information may exist and can be characterized in terms of probability density functions P (phi) of the source elements {phi/sub j/} = phi (where phi/sub j/ (j = 1,2,..α) is the estimated average photon emission in voxel j per unit time at t = 0). For example, in cardiac imaging studies it is possible to evaluate the radioisotope concentration of the blood filling the cardiac chambers independently as a function of time by peripheral measurement. The blood concentration information in effect serves to limit amplitude uncertainty to the chamber boundary voxels and thus reduces the extent of amplitude ambiguities in the overall cardiac imaging reconstruction. The a priori or supplementary information may more generally be spatial, amplitude-dependent probability distributions P(phi), fuzzy patterns superimposed upon a background

  3. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F.; Dagli, M.L.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3 − . Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3 + tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice

  4. Expression of NR1I3 in mouse lung tumors induced by the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasu, H.; Cordeiro, Y.G.; Rochetti, A.L.; Barra, C.N.; Sámora, T.S.; Strefezzi, R.F. [Laboratório de Oncologia Comparada e Translacional, Departmento de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Pirassununga, SP (Brazil); Dagli, M.L.Z. [Laboratório de Oncologia Experimental e Comparada, Departmento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group I, member 3 (NR1I3) is reported to be a possible novel therapeutic target for some cancers, including lung, brain and hematopoietic tumors. Here, we characterized expression of NR1I3 in a mouse model of lung carcinogenesis induced by 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the most potent tobacco carcinogen. Lung tumors were collected from mice treated with NNK (400 mg/kg) and euthanized after 52 weeks. Benign and malignant lesions were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded for histology and immunohistochemistry, with samples snap-frozen for mRNA analysis. Immunohistochemically, we found that most macrophages and type I and II pneumocytes expressed NR1I3, whereas fibroblasts and endothelial cells were NR1I3{sup −}. Compared with benign lesions, malignant lesions had less NR1I3{sup +} tumor cells. Gene expression analysis also showed an inverse correlation between NR1I3 mRNA expression and tumor size (P=0.0061), suggesting that bigger tumors expressed less NR1I3 transcripts, in accordance with our immunohistochemical NR1I3 tests. Our results indicate that NR1I3 expression decreased during progression of malignant lung tumors induced by NNK in mice.

  5. Dynamic aperture of NR-2000 in the work regime with a small radiation emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelinskij, A.Yu.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Kononenko, S.G.; Tarasenko, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    NR-2000 is an electron storage ring installation with 6-pole magnets compensating its chromatism. The results of NR-2000 dynamic aperture numerical modelling in 6-dimension space are given. Perturbation of the equilibrium orbit and that of magnetic field up to the third order of magnitude were taken into consideration. Calculations were made according to DeCA programme. 7 refs.; 5 figs. (author)

  6. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Brandrud, Tor Erik; Dima, Bàlint

    2017-01-01

    Brandrud, T.E. & Dima, B. 2017. Overvåking av jordboende sopp i Røsskleiva NR, Bamble 2016. – NINA Kortrapport 80. 15 s. Kartlegging (start av overvåking) av habitat-spesifikke, jordboende kalksopper i nordre del av Røsskleiva NR ble gjennomført i 2016, før oppstart av skjøtselstiltak med storfébeiting. Tilsammen 27 habitat-spesifikke arter, inkludert 18 rødlistede arter ble registrert i løpet av to registreringsrunder i 2016. Funnene fordelte seg på 10 kalkbarskogsopper, 5 kalklinde-skogs...

  7. HCV core protein promotes hepatocyte proliferation and chemoresistance by inhibiting NR4A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yongsheng, E-mail: yongshengtanwhu@126.com; Li, Yan, E-mail: liyansd2@163.com

    2015-10-23

    This study investigated the effect of HCV core protein on the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the influence of HCV core protein on HCC apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, and the mechanism through which HCV core protein acts as a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related HCC by measuring the levels of NR4A1 and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which are associated with tumor suppression and chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, PcDNA3.1-core and RUNX3 siRNA were transfected into LO2 and HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. LO2-core, HepG2-core, LO2-RUNX3 {sup low} and control cells were treated with different concentrations of cisplatin for 72 h, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed using the CellTiter 96{sup ®}Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Western blot and real time PCR analyses were used to detect NR4A1, RUNX3, smad7, Cyclin D1 and BAX. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the levels of NR4A1 in HepG2 and HepG2-core cells. The growth rate of HepG2-core cells was considerably greater than that of HepG2 cells. HCV core protein increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. In LO2 – RUNX3 {sup low}, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of cisplatin resistance were the same as in the LO2 -core. These results suggest that HCV core protein decreases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to cisplatin by inhibiting the expression of NR4A1 and promoting the expression of smad7, which negatively regulates the TGF-β pathway. This effect results in down regulation of RUNX3, a target of the TGF-β pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that in hepatocytes, HCV core protein increases drug resistance and inhibits cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. - Highlights: • HCV core protein inhibits HepG2 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. • Core expression in HepG2 decreases

  8. HCV core protein promotes hepatocyte proliferation and chemoresistance by inhibiting NR4A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yongsheng; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of HCV core protein on the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC), the influence of HCV core protein on HCC apoptosis induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin, and the mechanism through which HCV core protein acts as a potential oncoprotein in HCV-related HCC by measuring the levels of NR4A1 and Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3), which are associated with tumor suppression and chemotherapy resistance. In the present study, PcDNA3.1-core and RUNX3 siRNA were transfected into LO2 and HepG2 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. LO2-core, HepG2-core, LO2-RUNX3 "l"o"w and control cells were treated with different concentrations of cisplatin for 72 h, and cell proliferation and apoptosis were assayed using the CellTiter 96"®Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Western blot and real time PCR analyses were used to detect NR4A1, RUNX3, smad7, Cyclin D1 and BAX. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the levels of NR4A1 in HepG2 and HepG2-core cells. The growth rate of HepG2-core cells was considerably greater than that of HepG2 cells. HCV core protein increased the expression of cyclin D1 and decreased the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. In LO2 – RUNX3 "l"o"w, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of cisplatin resistance were the same as in the LO2 -core. These results suggest that HCV core protein decreases the sensitivity of hepatocytes to cisplatin by inhibiting the expression of NR4A1 and promoting the expression of smad7, which negatively regulates the TGF-β pathway. This effect results in down regulation of RUNX3, a target of the TGF-β pathway. Taken together, these findings indicate that in hepatocytes, HCV core protein increases drug resistance and inhibits cell apoptosis by inhibiting the expressions of NR4A1 and RUNX3. - Highlights: • HCV core protein inhibits HepG2 cell sensitivity to cisplatin. • Core expression in HepG2 decreases expression of NR4A1

  9. Effect of maleic anhydride on the physico-mechanical properties of NR/PE blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yehia, A.A.; El Elnashar, D.

    2005-01-01

    Blending of two or more polymers is considered as a new technique to produce new materials with new properties at low production cost and investment. Rubber / Rubber blends are well known in tire industry. In the last decade rubber and plastic blending attract the interest of many researchers and technologists. In the present work NR and LLDPE was blended in presence of maleic anhydride (MA) on a Brabender premixed at different conditions and namely temperature and time. The obtained blends were cured with sulphur and peroxide curing systems. Peroxide can crosslink both NR and PE, but the sulphur system crosslinks only the rubber phase in the blend. The data showed also that the addition of MA greatly improved the physico-mechanical properties of NR/PE blends. The surface morphology of the blends under investigation was studied by SEM. The results will be presented and discussed in detail

  10. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.

    2011-08-31

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  11. Kalirin Binds the NR2B Subunit of the NMDA Receptor, Altering Its Synaptic Localization and Function

    KAUST Repository

    Kiraly, D. D.; Lemtiri-Chlieh, Fouad; Levine, E. S.; Mains, R. E.; Eipper, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of dendritic spines to change size and shape rapidly is critical in modulating synaptic strength; these morphological changes are dependent upon rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor localized to the postsynaptic density (PSD), modulates dendritic spine morphology in vitro and in vivo. Kal7 activates Rac and interacts with several PSD proteins, including PSD-95, DISC-1, AF-6, and Arf6. Mice genetically lacking Kal7 (Kal7KO) exhibit deficient hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as behavioral abnormalities in models of addiction and learning. Purified PSDs from Kal7KO mice contain diminished levels of NR2B, an NMDA receptor subunit that plays a critical role in LTP induction. Here we demonstrate that Kal7KO animals have decreased levels of NR2B-dependent NMDA receptor currents in cortical pyramidal neurons as well as a specific deficit in cell surface expression of NR2B. Additionally, we demonstrate that the genotypic differences in conditioned place preference and passive avoidance learning seen in Kal7KO mice are abrogated when animals are treated with an NR2B-specific antagonist during conditioning. Finally, we identify a stable interaction between the pleckstrin homology domain of Kal7 and the juxtamembrane region of NR2B preceding its cytosolic C-terminal domain. Binding of NR2B to a protein that modulates the actin cytoskeleton is important, as NMDA receptors require actin integrity for synaptic localization and function. These studies demonstrate a novel and functionally important interaction between the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor and Kalirin, proteins known to be essential for normal synaptic plasticity.

  12. Distributional patterns of arsenic concentrations in contaminant plumes offer clues to the source of arsenic in groundwater at landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2015-01-01

    The distributional pattern of dissolved arsenic concentrations from landfill plumes can provide clues to the source of arsenic contamination. Under simple idealized conditions, arsenic concentrations along flow paths in aquifers proximal to a landfill will decrease under anthropogenic sources but potentially increase under in situ sources. This paper presents several conceptual distributional patterns of arsenic in groundwater based on the arsenic source under idealized conditions. An example of advanced subsurface mapping of dissolved arsenic with geophysical surveys, chemical monitoring, and redox fingerprinting is presented for a landfill site in New Hampshire with a complex flow pattern. Tools to assist in the mapping of arsenic in groundwater ultimately provide information on the source of contamination. Once an understanding of the arsenic contamination is achieved, appropriate remedial strategies can then be formulated.

  13. Degradation of blending vulcanized natural rubber and nitril rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether through variation of elastomer ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, A. H.; Juneva, S.; Sari, T. I.; Cifriadi, A.

    2018-04-01

    Dimethyl ether can cause degradation of the rubber material seal in some applications. In order to use of natural rubber in industry, research about a blending of natural rubber (NR) and nitrile rubber (NBR) to produce rubber to meet the standard seal material application were conducted. This study will observe the degradation mechanisms that occur in the blending natural rubber and nitrile rubber (NR/NBR) by dimethyl ether. Nitrile rubber types used in this study is medium quality nitrile rubber with 33% of acrylonitrile content (NBR33). The observed parameters are percent change in mass, mechanical properties and surface morphology. This study is limited to see the effect of variation vulcanized blending ratio (NR/NBR33) against to swelling. The increase of nitrile rubber (NBR33) ratio of blending rubber vulcanized can reduce the tensile strength and elongation. The best elastomer variation was obtained after comparing with the standard feasibility material of seal is rubber vulcanized blending (NR/NBR33) with ratio 40:60 NR: NBR.

  14. The LANL C-NR counting room and fission product yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-21

    This PowerPoint presentation focused on the following areas: LANL C-NR counting room; Fission product yields; Los Alamos Neutron wheel experiments; Recent experiments ad NCERC; and Post-detonation nuclear forensics

  15. NR2B Expression in Rat DRG Is Differentially Regulated Following Peripheral Nerve Injuries That Lead to Transient or Sustained Stimuli-Evoked Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini, Monica; Sideris, Alexandra; Adler, Samantha M; Hernandez, Lourdes A M; Zhang, Jin; Blanck, Thomas J J; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    Following injury, primary sensory neurons undergo changes that drive central sensitization and contribute to the maintenance of persistent hypersensitivity. NR2B expression in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) has not been previously examined in neuropathic pain models. Here, we investigated if changes in NR2B expression within the DRG are associated with hypersensitivities that result from peripheral nerve injuries. This was done by comparing the NR2B expression in the DRG derived from two modalities of the spared nerve injury (SNI) model, since each variant produces different neuropathic pain phenotypes. Using the electronic von Frey to stimulate the spared and non-spared regions of the hindpaws, we demonstrated that sural-SNI animals develop sustained neuropathic pain in both regions while the tibial-SNI animals recover. NR2B expression was measured at Day 23 and Day 86 post-injury. At Day 23 and 86 post-injury, sural-SNI animals display strong hypersensitivity, whereas tibial-SNI animals display 50 and 100% recovery from post-injury-induced hypersensitivity, respectively. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23 the perinuclear region of the neuronal somata displayed an increase in NR2B protein. This retention of NR2B protein within the perinuclear region, which will render them non-functional, correlates with the recovery observed in tibial-SNI. In sural-SNI at Day 86, DRG displayed an increase in NR2B mRNA which correlates with the development of sustained hypersensitivity in this model. The increase in NR2B mRNA was not associated with an increase in NR2B protein within the neuronal somata. The latter may result from a decrease in kinesin Kif17, since Kif17 mediates NR2B transport to the soma's plasma membrane. In both SNIs, microglia/macrophages showed a transient increase in NR2B protein detected at Day 23 but not at Day 86, which correlates with the initial post-injury induced hypersensitivity in both SNIs. In tibial-SNI at Day 86, but not at Day 23

  16. Direct growth and patterning of multilayer graphene onto a targeted substrate without an external carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dongseok; Kim, Won-Jun; Lim, Jung Ah; Song, Yong-Won

    2012-07-25

    Using only a simple tube furnace, we demonstrate the synthesis of patterned graphene directly on a designed substrate without the need for an external carbon source. Carbon atoms are absorbed onto Ni evaporator sources as impurities, and incorporated into catalyst layers during the deposition. Heat treatment conditions were optimized so that the atoms diffused out along the grain boundaries to form nanocrystals at the catalyst-substrate interfaces. Graphene patterns were obtained under patterned catalysts, which restricted graphene formation to within patterned areas. The resultant multilayer graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to verify the high crystallinity and two-dimensional nanomorphology. Finally, a metal-semiconductor diode with a catalyst-graphene contact structure were fabricated and characterized to assess the semiconducting properties of the graphene sheets with respect to the display of asymmetric current-voltage behavior.

  17. Microstructure, molecular weight and thermal behavior of natural rubber (NR) from mangabeira (Hancornia speciosa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Expedito Flavio dos; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Ricardo, Nagila M.P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The natural rubber (NR) from Hancornia speciosa contains characteristics that turns it a good alternative in elastomers supply. The NMR and IR spectra showed that the rubber of mangabeira is composed fundamentally by poly(1,4-cis-isoprene). The rubber molecular weight obtained by GPC and viscometry was 2,0x10 6 and 1,3x10 6 g/mol, respectively, in good agreement with the values determined for seringueira and manicoba NR. The glass transition temperature obtained by DSC (Tg = - 65 deg C) showed the mangabeira rubber is ideal to be utilized in regions of cold climate without compromising its mechanical properties. The rubber has also good thermal stability up to 213 deg C, as indicated by TG curves. This results indicated that the mangabeira NR can be effectively used in vulcanized articles or to be added to asphalt. (author)

  18. Exprese NR1 podjednotky NMDA receptoru v animálním modelu schizofrenie

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šťastný, František; Kozmiková, I.; Klaschka, Jan; Peková, S.; Tejkalová, H.; Vrajová, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 10, Suppl. 3 (2006), s. 12-15 ISSN 1211-7579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517; GA MZd NF7626; GA MZd NR8797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : schizofrenie * NMDA receptor * exprese NR1 podjednotky * animál ní model * kyselina chinolinová * prepulzní inhibice akustického úletu Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology

  19. GLYX-13 Ameliorates Schizophrenia-Like Phenotype Induced by MK-801 in Mice: Role of Hippocampal NR2B and DISC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dongsheng; Lv, Dan; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhua; Chen, Zhongming; Wang, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports that the hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and downregulation of disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-Methyl D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B (NR2B)-containing NMDAR are associated with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. GLYX-13 is an NMDAR glycine-site functional partial agonist and cognitive enhancer that does not induce psychotomimetic side effects. However, it remains unclear whether NR2B plays a critical role in the GLYX-13-induced alleviation of schizophrenia-like behaviors in mice. Methods: The effect of GLYX-13 was tested by observing changes in locomotor activity, novel object recognition ability, and prepulse inhibition (PPI) induced by dizocilpine (known as MK-801) in mice. Lentivirus-mediated NR2B knockdown in the hippocampus was assessed to confirm the role of NR2B in GLYX-13 pathophysiology, using Western blots and immunohistochemistry. Results: The systemic administration of GLYX-13 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.) ameliorates MK-801 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion, deficits in memory, and PPI in mice. Additionally, GLYX-13 normalized the MK-801-induced alterations in signaling molecules, including NR2B and DISC1 in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we found that NR2B knockdown produced memory and PPI deficits without any changes in locomotor activity. Notably, DISC1 levels significantly decreased by NR2B knockdown. However, the effective dose of GLYX-13 did not alleviate the memory and PPI dysfunctions or downregulation of DISC1 induced by NR2B knockdown. Conclusion: Our results suggest GLYX-13 as a candidate for schizophrenia treatment, and NR2B and DISC1 in the hippocampus may account for the molecular mechanisms of GLYX-13. PMID:29695955

  20. Mice with subtle reduction of NMDA NR1 receptor subunit expression have a selective decrease in mismatch negativity: Implications for schizophrenia prodromal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Robert E; Shin, Rick; Kogan, Jeffrey H; Liang, Yuling; Matsumoto, Mitsuyuki; Siegel, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Reductions in glutamate function are regarded as an important contributory factor in schizophrenia. However, there is a paucity of animal models characterized by developmental and sustained reductions in glutamate function. Pharmacological models using NMDA antagonists have been widely used but these typically produce only transient changes in behavior and brain function. Likewise, mice with homozygous constitutive reductions in glutamate receptor expression show stable brain and behavioral changes, but many of these phenotypes are more severe than the human disease. The current study examines a variety of schizophrenia-related EEG measures in mice with a heterozygous alteration of the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit gene (NR1) that is known to result in reduced NR1 receptor expression in the homozygous mouse (NR1-/-). (NR1+/-) mice showed a 30% reduction in NR1 receptor expression and were reared after weaning in either group or isolated conditions. Outcome measures include the response to paired white noise stimuli, escalating inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) and deviance-related mismatch negativity (MMN). In contrast to what has been reported in (NR1-/-) mice and mice treated with NMDA antagonists, (NR1+/-) mice showed no change on obligatory Event Related Potential (ERP) measures including the murine P50 and N100 equivalents (P20 and N40), or measures of baseline or evoked gamma power. Alternatively, (NR1+/-) mice showed a marked reduction in response to a deviant auditory tone during MMN task. Data suggest that EEG response to deviant, rather than static, stimuli may be more sensitive for detecting subtle changes in glutamate function. Deficits in these heterozygous NR1 knockdown mice are consistent with data demonstrating MMN deficits among family members of schizophrenia patients and among prodromal patients. Therefore, the current study suggests that (NR1+/-) mice may be among the most sensitive models for increased vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright

  1. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR) and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhart, Sophia E; Shireman, Laura M; Risler, Linda J; Anderson, Gail D; Nagana Gowda, G A; Raftery, Daniel; Tian, Rong; Shen, Danny D; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2017-01-01

    The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK) of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels. Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR), improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials. In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed. Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss) were observed for both NR (p = 0.03) and NAD+ (p = 0.001); the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008). Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  2. An open-label, non-randomized study of the pharmacokinetics of the nutritional supplement nicotinamide riboside (NR and its effects on blood NAD+ levels in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia E Airhart

    Full Text Available The co-primary objectives of this study were to determine the human pharmacokinetics (PK of oral NR and the effect of NR on whole blood nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ levels.Though mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development and progression of heart failure, no mitochondria-targeted therapies have been translated into clinical practice. Recent murine studies have reported associations between imbalances in the NADH/NAD+ ratio with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues, including myocardium. Moreover, an NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide, improved cardiac function, while another NAD+ precursor, nicotinamide riboside (NR, improved mitochondrial function in muscle, liver and brown adipose. Thus, PK studies of NR in humans is critical for future clinical trials.In this non-randomized, open-label PK study of 8 healthy volunteers, 250 mg NR was orally administered on Days 1 and 2, then uptitrated to peak dose of 1000 mg twice daily on Days 7 and 8. On the morning of Day 9, subjects completed a 24-hour PK study after receiving 1000 mg NR at t = 0. Whole-blood levels of NR, clinical blood chemistry, and NAD+ levels were analyzed.Oral NR was well tolerated with no adverse events. Significant increases comparing baseline to mean concentrations at steady state (Cave,ss were observed for both NR (p = 0.03 and NAD+ (p = 0.001; the latter increased by 100%. Absolute changes from baseline to Day 9 in NR and NAD+ levels correlated highly (R2 = 0.72, p = 0.008.Because NR increases circulating NAD+ in humans, NR may have potential as a therapy in patients with mitochondrial dysfunction due to genetic and/or acquired diseases.

  3. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. This report is unique in that it is based on Hanford-specific agreements discussed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992), the Hanford Site Risk Assessment Methodology (DOE-RL 1994a), the Remedial Investigation Feasibility Study Work Plan for the 100-NR-1 Operable Unit (DOE-RL 1992a), and the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy (HPPS) (DOE-RL 1991), and must be viewed in this context. The HPPS emphasizes initiating and completing waste site cleanup through interim actions. The strategy includes paths for interim decision-making and a final remedy-selection process for the operable unit. A LFI report is required, in accordance with the HPPS, when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant- and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM

  4. Long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampus induced by NR2A subunit-containing NMDA glutamate receptors is mediated by Ras-GRF2/Erk map kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-xue Jin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs are major contributors to long-term potentiation (LTP, a form of synaptic plasticity implicated in the process of learning and memory. These receptors consist of calcium-permeating NR1 and multiple regulatory NR2 subunits. A majority of studies show that both NR2A and NR2B-containing NMDARs can contribute to LTP, but their unique contributions to this form of synaptic plasticity remain poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we show that NR2A and NR2B-containing receptors promote LTP differently in the CA1 hippocampus of 1-month old mice, with the NR2A receptors functioning through Ras-GRF2 and its downstream effector, Erk Map kinase, and NR2B receptors functioning independently of these signaling molecules. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that NR2A-, but not NR2B, containing NMDA receptors induce LTP in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 hippocampus from 1 month old mice through Ras-GRF2 and Erk. This difference add new significance to the observation that the relative levels of these NMDAR subtypes is regulated in neurons, such that NR2A-containing receptors become more prominent late in postnatal development, after sensory experience and synaptic activity.

  5. The effect of NMDA-NR2B receptor subunit over-expression on olfactory memory task performance in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L; Youngentob, Steven L

    2004-09-17

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the forebrain is thought to modulate some forms of memory formation, with the NR2B subunit being particularly relevant to this process. Relative to wild-type mice, transgenic animals in which the NR2B subunit was over-expressed demonstrate superior memory in a number of behavioral tasks, including object recognition [Nature 401 (1999) 63]. The purpose of the present study was to explore the generality of such phenomena, interpreted as the effect of increasing NR2B expression on the retention of other types of sensory-related information. To accomplish this, we focused our evaluation on the highly salient sensory modality of olfaction. In the first experiment, mice performed both a novel-object-recognition task identical to that performed by Tang et al. [Nature 401 (1999) 63] and a novel-odor-recognition task analogously constructed. Although the results of the object recognition task were consistent with the previous literature, there was no evidence of an effect of NR2B over-expression on the retention of odor recognition memory in the specific task performed. As it was possible that, unlike object recognition memory, novel odor recognition is not NMDA-receptor-dependent, a second task was designed using the social transmission of food preference paradigm. In contrast to the foregoing olfactory task, there is evidence that the latter procedure is, indeed, NMDA-dependent. The results of the second study demonstrated that transgenic mice with NR2B over-expression had a clear memory advantage in this alternative odor memory paradigm. Taken together, these results suggest the NR2B subunit is an important component in some but not all forms of olfactory memory organization. Moreover, for those functions that are NMDA-receptor-dependent, these data support the growing literature demonstrating the importance of the NR2B subunit.

  6. Examining the Relationship between Communication Patterns of Source Family and Self-Consciousness with Defensive Styles of Discordant Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’asoomeh Kheirkhah; Ebrahim Namani

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown the relationship between communication patterns of source family with defensive styles of discordant couples. For this reason, the present research has examined the relationship between communication patterns of source family and self-consciousness with defensive styles of discordant couples. This study is a descriptive-correlation type. Its population consisted of all discordant couples referred to counseling centers of Mashhad in 2015. Among the referred 140 disc...

  7. Modulation of expression of the nuclear receptor NR0B2 (small heterodimer partner 1 and its impact on proliferation of renal carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestin K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Katharina Prestin,1,* Maria Olbert,2,* Janine Hussner,1 Tamara L Isenegger,1 Daniel G Gliesche,1 Kerstin Böttcher,2 Uwe Zimmermann,3 Henriette E Meyer zu Schwabedissen1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Biopharmacy, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Center of Drug Absorption and Transport, Institute of Pharmacology, 3Department of Urology, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Mammalian nuclear receptors (NRs are transcription factors regulating the expression of target genes that play an important role in drug metabolism, transport, and cellular signaling pathways. The orphan and structurally unique receptor small heterodimer partner 1 (syn NR0B2 is not only known for its modulation of drug response, but has also been reported to be involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Indeed, previous studies show that NR0B2 is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that NR0B2 acts as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of cellular growth and activation of apoptosis in this tumor entity. The aim of our study was to elucidate whether NR0B2 may also play a role in other tumor entities. Comparing NR0B2 expression in renal cell carcinoma and adjacent nonmalignant transformed tissue revealed significant downregulation in vivo. Additionally, the impact of heterologous expression of NR0B2 on cell cycle progression and proliferation in cells of renal origin was characterized. Monitoring fluorescence intensity of resazurin turnover in RCC-EW cells revealed no significant differences in metabolic activity in the presence of NR0B2. However, there was a significant decrease of cellular proliferation in cells overexpressing this NR, and NR0B2 was more efficient than currently used antiproliferative agents. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that heterologous overexpression of NR0B2 significantly reduced the amount of cells passing the G1 phase, while on

  8. genetic overexpression of NR2B subunit enhances social recognition memory for different strains and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie A; Tsien, Joe Z

    2012-01-01

    The ability to learn and remember conspecifics is essential for the establishment and maintenance of social groups. Many animals, including humans, primates and rodents, depend on stable social relationships for survival. Social learning and social recognition have become emerging areas of interest for neuroscientists but are still not well understood. It has been established that several hormones play a role in the modulation of social recognition including estrogen, oxytocin and arginine vasopression. Relatively few studies have investigated how social recognition might be improved or enhanced. In this study, we investigate the role of the NMDA receptor in social recognition memory, specifically the consequences of altering the ratio of the NR2B:NR2A subunits in the forebrain regions in social behavior. We produced transgenic mice in which the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor was overexpressed postnatally in the excitatory neurons of the forebrain areas including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. We investigated the ability of both our transgenic animals and their wild-type littermate to learn and remember juvenile conspecifics using both 1-hr and 24-hr memory tests. Our experiments show that the wild-type animals and NR2B transgenic mice preformed similarly in the 1-hr test. However, transgenic mice showed better performances in 24-hr tests of recognizing animals of a different strain or animals of a different species. We conclude that NR2B overexpression in the forebrain enhances social recognition memory for different strains and animal species.

  9. NR2F2 inhibits Smad7 expression and promotes TGF-β-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC via transactivation of miR-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Nie, Lei; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qiufang; Guo, Xueyan

    2017-03-25

    Metastasis is one of the most decisive factors influencing CRC patient prognosis and current studies suggest that a molecular mechanism known as EMT broadly regulates cancer metastasis. NR2F2 is a key molecule in the development of CRC, but the roles and underlying mechanisms of NR2F2 in TGF-β induced EMT in CRC remain largely unknown. In the current study, we were interested to examine the role of NR2F2 in the TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Here, we found NR2F2 was upregulated in CRC cells and promotes TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Using comparative miRNA profiling TGF-β pre-treated CRC cells in which NR2F2 had been knocked down with that of control cells, we identified miR-21 as a commonly downregulated miRNA in HT29 cells treated with TGF-β and NR2F2 siRNA, and its downregulation inhibiting migration and invasion of CRC cells. Moreover, we found NR2F2 could transcriptional activated miR-21 expression by binding to miR-21 promoter in HT29 by ChIP and luciferase assay. In the last, our data demonstrated that Smad7 was the direct target of miR-21 in CRC cells. Thus, NR2F2 could promote TGF-β-induced EMT and inhibit Smad7 expression via transactivation of miR-21, and NR2F2 may be a new common therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns and sources of personality development in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Kornadt, Anna E; Hagemeyer, Birk; Neyer, Franz J

    2015-07-01

    Despite abundant evidence that personality development continues in adulthood, little is known about the patterns and sources of personality development in old age. We thus investigated mean-level trends and individual differences in change as well as the genetic and environmental sources of rank-order continuity and change in several personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, perceived control, and affect intensity) and well-being. In addition, we analyzed the interrelation between perceived control and change in other personality traits as well as between change in personality traits and change in well-being. We analyzed data from older adult twins, aged 64-85 years at Time 1 (N = 410; 135 males and 275 females; 134 monozygotic and 63 dizygotic twin pairs), collected at 2 different time points about 5 years apart. On average, neuroticism increased, whereas extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control significantly decreased over time. Change in perceived control was associated with change in neuroticism and conscientiousness, pointing to particular adaptation mechanisms specific to old age. Whereas individual differences in personality traits were fairly stable due to both genetic and environmental sources, individual differences in change were primarily due to environmental sources (beyond random error) indicating plasticity in old age. Even though the average level of well-being did not significantly change over time, individual well-being tended to decrease with strongly increasing levels of neuroticism as well as decreasing extraversion, conscientiousness, and perceived control, indicating that personality traits predict well-being but not vice versa. We discuss implications for theory on personality development across the lifespan. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Avaliação do cumprimento da NR-18 em função do porte de obra residencial e proposta de lista de verificação da NR-18

    OpenAIRE

    Costella, Marcelo Fabiano; Junges, Franciele Cristina; Pilz, Silvio Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    O presente trabalho investiga as reais condições dos ambientes de trabalho da indústria da construção, tendo em vista os problemas relacionados à segurança do trabalho nos canteiros de obras. Formulou-se a hipótese de haver discrepância no grau de cumprimento da NR-18 em obras de diferentes portes (pequena, média e grande). Baseado em uma lista de verificação do grau de cumprimento dos requisitos da NR-18, foram avaliados 115 canteiros de obra na cidade de Chapecó - SC. Para cada item da list...

  12. Friction and wear study of NR/SBR blends with Si3N4Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    GaneshKumar, A.; Balaganesan, G.; Sivakumar, M. S.

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate mechanical and frictional properties of natural rubber/styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR) blends with and without silicon nitride (Si3N4) filler. The rubber is surface modified by silane coupling agent (Si-69) for enhancing hydrophobic property. The Si3N4of percentage 0 1, 3, 5 and 7, is incorporated into NR/SBR rubber compounds with 20% precipitated silica. The specimens with and without fillers are prepared as per standard for tensile and friction testing. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy test is conducted and it is inferred that the coupling agent is covalently bonded on the surface of Si3N4 particles and an organic coating layer is formed. The co-efficient of friction and specific wear rate of NR/SBR blends are examined using an in-house built friction tester in a disc-on-plate (DOP) configuration. The specimens are tested to find coefficient of friction (COF) against steel grip antiskid plate under dry, mud, wet and oil environmental conditions. It is found that the increase in tensile strength and modulus at low percentage of Si3N4 dispersion. It is also observed that increase in sliding friction co-efficient and decrease in wear rate for 1% of Si3N4 dispersion in NR/SBR blends. The friction tested surfaces are inspected using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 3D non contact surface profiler.

  13. Patterns of source monitoring bias in incarcerated youths with and without conduct problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, Larisa; Badoud, Deborah; Salaminios, George; Eliez, Stephan; Van der Linden, Martial; Heller, Patrick; Debbané, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Antisocial individuals present behaviours that violate the social norms and the rights of others. In the present study, we examine whether biases in monitoring the self-generated cognitive material might be linked to antisocial manifestations during adolescence. We further examine the association with psychopathic traits and conduct problems (CPs). Sixty-five incarcerated adolescents (IAs; M age = 15.85, SD = 1.30) and 88 community adolescents (CAs; M age = 15.78, SD = 1.60) participated in our study. In the IA group, 28 adolescents presented CPs (M age = 16.06, SD = 1.41) and 19 did not meet the diagnostic criteria for CPs (M age = 15.97, SD = 1.20). Source monitoring was assessed through a speech-monitoring task, using items requiring different levels of cognitive effort; recognition and source-monitoring bias scores (internalising and externalising biases) were calculated. Between-group comparisons indicate greater overall biases and different patterns of biases in the source monitoring. IA participants manifest a greater externalising bias, whereas CA participants present a greater internalising bias. In addition, IA with CPs present different patterns of item recognition. These results indicate that the two groups of adolescents present different types of source-monitoring bias for self-generated speech. In addition, the IAs with CPs present impairments in item recognition. Future studies may examine the developmental implications of self-monitoring biases in the perseverance of antisocial behaviours from adolescence to adulthood.

  14. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction and sonodynamic damage of neutral red (NR) to bovine serum albumin (BSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Bin; Guo Ying [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun890@126.co [Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xu Rui [Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Wang Xin; Wang Dan; Zhang Liqun [Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xu Yongnan [Department of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, the interaction of neutral red (NR) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the sonodynamic damage to BSA under ultrasonic irradiation was studied by means of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectra. The quenching constant (K{sub SV}=5.749x10{sup 4} L/mol), binding constant (K{sub A}=3.19x10{sup 4} L/mol) and binding site number (n=0.9462) were measured. The binding distance (r=2.47 nm) between NR and BSA was obtained according to Foester's non-radiative energy transfer theory. The damage process of BSA molecules was detected by the hyperchromic effect of UV-vis spectra and quenching of intrinsic fluorescence spectra. In addition, the influencing factors such as ultrasonic irradiation time and NR concentration on the damage to BSA molecules were also considered. The results showed that the damage degree is enhanced with the increase of ultrasonic irradiation time and NR concentration. The possible mechanism of sonodynamic damage to BSA molecules was mainly mediated by singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}). Otherwise, the binding and damaging sites to BSA molecules were also estimated by synchronous fluorescence. The results indicated that the NR is more vicinal to tryptophan (Trp) residue than to tyrosine (Tyr) residue and the damage site is also mainly at Trp residues. The research result will bring a certain significance to use sonosensitive drugs in the fields of tumor treatment.

  15. >RESTAURANT Nr 1 (building 501 - Meyrin site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Customers are kindly requested to note the modified opening times of restaurant nr. 1 and the adjoining newspaper stand from Monday, January 5 to Sunday February 29, 2004: - Kiosque from Monday to Friday 07:30 - 17:00 hrs - Restaurant from Monday to Friday Saturday / Sunday 07:00 - 23:00 hrs08:00 - 21:00 hrs Hot meals will be served between 11:30 and 14:00 hrs, then from 18:00 to 19:30 hrs. Restaurant Supervisory Committee

  16. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  17. Influence of different curing systems on the physico-mechanical properties and stability of SBR and NR rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basfar, A.A. E-mail: abasfar@kacst.edu.sa; Abdel-Aziz, M.M.; Mofti, S

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of radiation, sulfur and peroxide-cured styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) and natural rubber (NR) were compared. The dependence of the mechanical properties of the radiation-vulcanized SBR and NR on the coagent concentration and radiation dose was studied. The effect of thermal aging on the mechanical properties of the different rubber formulations was discussed. The radiation-cured formulations of SBR have superior mechanical properties and thermal stability compared with those of the chemically vulcanized compounds. Whereas, the radiation-cured formulations of NR have similar mechanical properties but superior thermal stability (based on the % change in E after thermal aging), when compared with those of the sulfur-vulcanized compounds and slightly better than those of the peroxide-vulcanized compounds.

  18. Source/sink patterns of disturbance and cross-scale mismatches in a panarchy of social-ecological landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola Zaccarelli; Irene Petrosillo; Giovanni Zurlini; Kurt H. Riitters

    2008-01-01

    Land-use change is one of the major factors affecting global environmental change and represents a primary human effect on natural systems. Taking into account the scales and patterns of human land uses as source/sink disturbance systems, we describe a framework to characterize and interpret the spatial patterns of disturbances along a continuum of scales in a panarchy...

  19. Identifying Patterns in the Weather of Europe for Source Term Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klampanos, Iraklis; Pappas, Charalambos; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Davvetas, Athanasios; Ikonomopoulos, Andreas; Karkaletsis, Vangelis

    2017-04-01

    During emergencies that involve the release of hazardous substances into the atmosphere the potential health effects on the human population and the environment are of primary concern. Such events have occurred in the past, most notably involving radioactive and toxic substances. Examples of radioactive release events include the Chernobyl accident in 1986, as well as the more recent Fukushima Daiichi accident in 2011. Often, the release of dangerous substances in the atmosphere is detected at locations different from the release origin. The objective of this work is the rapid estimation of such unknown sources shortly after the detection of dangerous substances in the atmosphere, with an initial focus on nuclear or radiological releases. Typically, after the detection of a radioactive substance in the atmosphere indicating the occurrence of an unknown release, the source location is estimated via inverse modelling. However, depending on factors such as the spatial resolution desired, traditional inverse modelling can be computationally time-consuming. This is especially true for cases where complex topography and weather conditions are involved and can therefore be problematic when timing is critical. Making use of machine learning techniques and the Big Data Europe platform1, our approach moves the bulk of the computation before any such event taking place, therefore allowing for rapid initial, albeit rougher, estimations regarding the source location. Our proposed approach is based on the automatic identification of weather patterns within the European continent. Identifying weather patterns has long been an active research field. Our case is differentiated by the fact that it focuses on plume dispersion patterns and these meteorological variables that affect dispersion the most. For a small set of recurrent weather patterns, we simulate hypothetical radioactive releases from a pre-known set of nuclear reactor locations and for different substance and temporal

  20. Monosialotetrahexosylganglioside Inhibits the Expression of p-CREB and NR2B in the Auditory Cortex in Rats with Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Rui-Biao; Lou, Wei-Hua

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) on the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) and phosphorylated (p)-cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the auditory cortex of rats with tinnitus. Tinnitus-like behavior in rats was tested with the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle paradigm. We then investigated the NR2B mRNA and protein and p-CREB protein levels in the auditory cortex of tinnitus rats compared with normal rats. Rats treated for 4 days with salicylate exhibited tinnitus. NR2B mRNA and protein and p-CREB protein levels were upregulated in these animals, with expression returning to normal levels 14 days after cessation of treatment; baseline levels of NR2B and p-CREB were also restored by GM1 administration. These data suggest that chronic salicylate administration induces tinnitus via upregulation of p-CREB and NR2B expression, and that GM1 can potentially be used to treat tinnitus.

  1. Objekt nr 2011 / Liina Siib, Signe Kivi, Vilen Künnapu ...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Installatsioon "Objekt nr. 2011" Tallinnas Vabaduse väljakul 27.02.-20.03.2011. Arvamust avaldavad kuplis objektiks olnud. Installatsiooni autorid: Mart Koldits, Kaarel Oja, Iir Hermeliin, Indrek Tiigi, Kadri Tamre, Kadri Tikerpuu, Sirli Bergström

  2. Biochemical contents of the ovary and hepatopancreas of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minaxContenido bioquímico del ovario y hepatopáncreas de Uca longisignalis y Uca nr. minax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara E. Hasek

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>Biochemical composition of ovary and hepatopancreas tissues in wild populations of Uca longisignalis and Uca nr. minax were monitored during the reproductive season. Total lipid (concentration and content, C (carbon, N (nitrogen, and C:N ratios of the ovary and hepatopancreas were quantified over the course of ovarian maturation. Ovary lipid and C concentration varied significantly over the course of ovarian maturation for both species, but there was no relationship between lipid concentration or hepatopancreas content and the stage of ovarian development in females. Hepatopancreatic lipid and C concentration did not differ between sexes of U. nr. minax. Lipid demands of ovarian maturation thus appear to be met in large part by increased dietary intake and not purely by translocating lipid stores from the hepatopancreas. In both Uca longisignalis and U. nr. minax, the color of the hepatopancreas may be used as an indicator of the lipid and C levels of the hepatopancreas. Cadmium-yellow and lemon-yellow hepatopancreas tissues had the highest lipid concentrations. No evidence could be found to demonstrate depletion of lipid or C concentrations in the hepatopancreas concomitant with ovarian maturation.

  3. RESTAURANT Nr 1 (building 501 - Meyrin site)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    OPENING TIMES in JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2004 Customers are kindly requested to note the modified opening times of restaurant nr. 1 and the adjoining newspaper stand from Monday, January 5 to Sunday February 29, 2004: Kiosquefrom Monday to Friday07:30 - 17:00 hrs Restaurant from Monday to FridaySaturday / Sunday 07:00 - 23:00 hrs08:00 - 21:00 hrs Hot meals will be served between 11:30 and 14:00 hrs, then from 18:00 to 19:30 hrs. Restaurant Supervisory Committee

  4. Down-regulation of NR2B receptors partially contributes to analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside in persistent inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Jin-cheng; Zhang, Xiao-nan; Guo, Yan-yan; Xu, Zhao-hui; Cao, Wei; Sun, Xiao-li; Sun, Wen-ji; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2008-06-01

    Gentiopicroside is one of the secoiridoid compound isolated from Gentiana lutea. It exhibits analgesic activities in the mice. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a forebrain structure known for its roles in pain transmission and modulation. Painful stimuli potentiate the prefrontal synaptic transmission and induce glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor expression in the ACC. But little is known about Gentiopicroside on the persistent inflammatory pain and chronic pain-induced synaptic transmission changes in the ACC. The present study was undertaken to investigate its analgesic activities and central synaptic modulation to the peripheral painful inflammation. Gentiopicroside produced significant analgesic effects against persistent inflammatory pain stimuli in mice. Systemic administration of Gentiopicroside significantly reversed NR2B over-expression during the chronic phases of persistent inflammation caused by hind-paw administration of complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) in mice. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed that Gentiopicroside significantly reduced NR2B receptors mediated postsynaptic currents in the ACC. Our findings provide strong evidence that analgesic effects of Gentiopicroside involve down-regulation of NR2B receptors in the ACC to persistent inflammatory pain.

  5. Elevated utero/placental GR/NR3C1 is not required for the induction of parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Aykut; Trachsel, Alexandra; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2016-10-01

    The endocrine mechanisms that lead to initiation of parturition in dogs are still not fully understood. The prepartum luteolysis is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) F2α secretion; however, there is no pregnancy- or parturition-related increase in estrogens. Moreover, unlike in other mammalian species, in the dog, increased peripartum levels of cortisol measured sporadically in maternal peripheral blood are not mandatory for normal parturition. Nevertheless, auto/paracrine effects of cortisol at the placental feto-maternal level cannot be excluded. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and localization of glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) in canine utero/placental (Ut/Pl) units and uterine interplacental sites at selected time points during pregnancy (pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation), and at normal and antigestagen-induced parturition. The Ut/Pl expression of GR/NR3C1 did not change significantly from pre-implantation until mid-gestation; however, it was strongly induced during the prepartum luteolysis. Within the interplacental samples, expression of GR/NR3C1-mRNA was greater post-implantation than pre-implantation and did not change afterward, i.e. toward mid-gestation. Compartmentalization studies within the Ut/Pl units, involving placenta, endometrium and myometrium separately, performed at the prepartum luteolysis revealed the highest GR/NR3C1-mRNA levels in placenta compared with endometrium and myometrium. Interestingly, in antigestagen-treated mid-pregnancy dogs, Ut/Pl and interplacental GR/NR3C1-mRNA expression remained unaffected. At the cellular level, placental GR/NR3C1 was clearly detectable in placenta fetalis, i.e. in trophoblast cells. In conclusion, increased expression of GR/NR3C1 during normal parturition, but not following antigestagen-treatment, suggest that it is not required for initiating the signaling cascade of PG synthesis leading to the induction of parturition in the dog.

  6. Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9, Neeme Järvi / Bernhard Uske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uske, Bernhard

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Barber: Sinfonie Nr. 1, Op. 9. Ouvertüre School for Scandal, Op. 5; Beach: Sinfonie e-Moll, Op. 32, "Gaelic". Detroit Symphony Orchestra /Neeme Järvi". Chandes cassette ABTD 1550; CD CHAN 8958 (72 minutes)

  7. Vorinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction and enhances expression of the hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Morinobu, Shigeru; Takei, Shiro; Fuchikami, Manabu; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Shigeto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2012-05-01

    Histone acetylation, which alters the compact chromatin structure and changes the accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins, is emerging as a fundamental mechanism for regulating gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors increase histone acetylation and enhance fear extinction. In this study, we examined whether vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor, facilitates fear extinction, using a contextual fear conditioning (FC) paradigm, in Sprague-Dawley rats. We found that vorinostat facilitated fear extinction. Next, the levels of global acetylated histone H3 and H4 were measured by Western blotting. We also assessed the effect of vorinostat on the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor mRNA by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and protein by Western blotting. 2 h after vorinostat administration, the levels acetylated histones and NR2B mRNA, but not NR1 or NR2A mRNA, were elevated in the hippocampus. The NR2B protein level was elevated 4 h after vorinostat administration. Last, we investigated the levels of acetylated histones and phospho-CREB (p-CREB) binding at the promoter of the NR2B gene using the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by RT-PCR. The ChIP assay revealed increases in the levels of acetylated histones and they were accompanied by enhanced binding of p-CREB to its binding site at the promoter of the NR2B gene 2 h after vorinostat administration. These findings suggest that vorinostat increases the expression of NR2B in the hippocampus by enhancing histone acetylation, and this process may be implicated in fear extinction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization of NO2 emission sources using temporal and spatial pattern analysis in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, A. M. N.; Kuhlmann, G.; Zhu, Y.; Lipkowitsch, I.; Wenig, M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an indicator for population density and level of development, but the contributions of the different emission sources to the overall concentrations remains mostly unknown. In order to allocate fractions of OMI NO2 to emission types, we investigate several temporal cycles and regional patterns.Our analysis is based on daily maps of tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The data set is mapped to a high resolution grid by a histopolation algorithm. This algorithm is based on a continuous parabolic spline, producing more realistic smooth distributions while reproducing the measured OMI values when integrating over ground pixel areas.In the resulting sequence of zoom in maps, we analyze weekly and annual cycles for cities, countryside and highways in China, Japan and Korea Republic and look for patterns and trends and compare the derived results to emission sources in Middle Europe and North America. Due to increased heating in winter compared to summer and more traffic during the week than on Sundays, we dissociate traffic, heating and power plants and visualized maps with different sources. We will also look into the influence of emission control measures during big events like the Olympic Games 2008 and the World Expo 2010 as a possibility to confirm our classification of NO2 emission sources.

  9. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  10. Bursting as a source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jaeseung; Shi, Wei-Xing; Hoffman, Ralph; Oh, Jihoon; Gore, John C; Bunney, Benjamin S; Peterson, Bradley S

    2012-11-01

    Nigral dopamine (DA) neurons in vivo exhibit complex firing patterns consisting of tonic single-spikes and phasic bursts that encode information for certain types of reward-related learning and behavior. Non-linear dynamical analysis has previously demonstrated the presence of a non-linear deterministic structure in complex firing patterns of DA neurons, yet the origin of this non-linear determinism remains unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that bursting activity is the primary source of non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the dimension complexity of inter-spike interval data recorded in vivo from bursting and non-bursting DA neurons in the chloral hydrate-anesthetized rat substantia nigra. We found that bursting DA neurons exhibited non-linear determinism in their firing patterns, whereas non-bursting DA neurons showed truly stochastic firing patterns. Determinism was also detected in the isolated burst and inter-burst interval data extracted from firing patterns of bursting neurons. Moreover, less bursting DA neurons in halothane-anesthetized rats exhibited higher dimensional spiking dynamics than do more bursting DA neurons in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. These results strongly indicate that bursting activity is the main source of low-dimensional, non-linear determinism in the firing patterns of DA neurons. This finding furthermore suggests that bursts are the likely carriers of meaningful information in the firing activities of DA neurons. © 2012 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Nitrogen-source preference in blueberry (Vaccinium sp.): Enhanced shoot nitrogen assimilation in response to direct supply of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Douglas S; Doyle, John W; Malladi, Anish

    2017-09-01

    Blueberry (Vaccinium sp.) is thought to display a preference for the ammonium (NH 4 + ) form over the nitrate (NO 3 - ) form of inorganic nitrogen (N). This N-source preference has been associated with a generally low capacity to assimilate the NO 3 - form of N, especially within the shoot tissues. Nitrate assimilation is mediated by nitrate reductase (NR), a rate limiting enzyme that converts NO 3 - to nitrite (NO 2 - ). We investigated potential limitations of NO 3 - assimilation in two blueberry species, rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei) and southern highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum) by supplying NO 3 - to the roots, leaf surface, or through the cut stem. Both species displayed relatively low but similar root uptake rates for both forms of inorganic N. Nitrate uptake through the roots transiently increased NR activity by up to 3.3-fold and root NR gene expression by up to 4-fold. However, supplying NO 3 - to the roots did not increase its transport in the xylem, nor did it increase NR activity in the leaves, indicating that the acquired N was largely assimilated or stored within the roots. Foliar application of NO 3 - increased leaf NR activity by up to 3.5-fold, but did not alter NO 3 - metabolism-related gene expression, suggesting that blueberries are capable of post translational regulation of NR activity in the shoots. Additionally, supplying NO 3 - to the cut ends of stems resulted in around a 5-fold increase in NR activity, a 10-fold increase in NR transcript accumulation, and up to a 195-fold increase in transcript accumulation of NITRITE REDUCTASE (NiR1) which codes for the enzyme catalyzing the conversion of NO 2 - to NH 4 + . These data indicate that blueberry shoots are capable of assimilating NO 3 - when it is directly supplied to these tissues. Together, these data suggest that limitations in the uptake and translocation of NO 3 - to the shoots may limit overall NO 3 - assimilation capacity in blueberry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Uso de una conantokina y anticuerpos policlonales para identificar la subunidad NR2B del receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lareo,†

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Proponer una metodología de identificación de la subunidad NR2B, mediante el uso de conantokina G, así como una adecuada extracción de la subunidad NR2B. Materiales y métodos. Se ensayaron dos metodologías para la extracción de la subunidad NR2B de cerebro de rata adulta, la primera buscó la extracción de la subunidad a partir de la membrana mediante la utilización del detergente deoxicolato de sodio y la segunda, garantizó primero la solubilización y eliminación de proteínas citoplasmáticas para luego realizar la extracción de la subunidad mediante el uso del mismo detergente, a partir del pellet generado en la centrifugación del extracto obtenido. Adicionalmente se biotiniló la conantokina G para evaluar su eficiencia en la identificación de la subunidad y comparar los resultados con los obtenidos por metodologías tradicionales como DOT-BLOT, WESTERN-BLOT, ELISA e Inmunohistoquímica. Resultados. La segunda metodología mostró mayor extracción de NR2B por lo que se seleccionó para la realización de los extractos posteriores. Los ensayos de identificación con la conantokina biotinilada evidenciaron interferencia en el reconocimiento, haciéndose necesaria la identificación de la presencia de la subunidad NR2B mediante el uso de anticuerpos policlonales en los ensayos mencionados. Conclusiones. Se propone que hay un impedimento de tipo estérico en el marcaje de la conantokina con la biotina lo que no favorece la interacción de este péptido con la subunidad.

  13. Estradiol-induced increase in the magnitude of long-term potentiation is prevented by blocking NR2B-containing receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline C; McMahon, Lori L

    2006-08-16

    Estradiol, through activation of genomic estrogen receptors, induces changes in synaptic morphology and function in hippocampus, a brain region important for memory acquisition. Specifically, this hormone increases CA1 pyramidal cell dendritic spine density, NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated transmission, and the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at CA3-CA1 synapses. We recently reported that the estradiol-induced increase in LTP magnitude occurs only when there is a simultaneous increase in the fractional contribution of NMDAR-mediated transmission relative to AMPA receptor transmission, suggesting a direct role for the increase in NMDAR transmission to the heightened LTP magnitude. Estradiol has been shown to increase expression of the NMDAR subunit NR2B, but whether this translates into an increase in function of NR2B-containing receptors remains to be determined. Here we show that not only is the estradiol-induced increase in NMDAR transmission mediated by NR2B-containing receptors, but blocking these receptors using RO25-6981 [R-(R,S)-alpha-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-(phenylmethyl)-1-piperidine propranol] (0.5 microM), an NR2B selective antagonist, prevents the estradiol-induced increase in LTP magnitude. Thus, our data show a causal link between the estradiol-induced increase in transmission mediated by NR2B-containing NMDARs and the increase in LTP magnitude.

  14. Avaliação do cumprimento da NR-18 em função do porte de obra residencial e proposta de lista de verificação da NR-18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fabiano Costella

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investiga as reais condições dos ambientes de trabalho da indústria da construção, tendo em vista os problemas relacionados à segurança do trabalho nos canteiros de obras. Formulou-se a hipótese de haver discrepância no grau de cumprimento da NR-18 em obras de diferentes portes (pequena, média e grande. Baseado em uma lista de verificação do grau de cumprimento dos requisitos da NR-18, foram avaliados 115 canteiros de obra na cidade de Chapecó - SC. Para cada item da lista de verificação foi atribuída uma nota e, após compilar as informações, estas foram avaliadas conforme os objetivos da pesquisa. Fez-se uma análise crítica para os cinco piores e os cinco melhores itens observados para as obras pequenas, médias e grandes. Analisando-se os resultados é possível afirmar que há uma diferença significativa de aplicação da NR-18 nos diferentes portes de obras, sendo que as obras de grande porte obtiveram uma média final (6,47 significativamente superior em relação às obras pequenas (1,97. Desta forma, foi corroborada a hipótese formulada, podendo se atribuir este resultado a diversos fatores, entre os quais a falta de habilidades gerenciais de segurança e saúde do trabalho nas pequenas empresas. Outra contribuição deste artigo foi a proposta de uma nova lista de verificação para avaliar o grau de cumprimento da NR-18 nos canteiros de obra.

  15. The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

    2014-08-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanawan, S. [Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)], E-mail: ststw@mahidol.ac.th; Radabutra, S.; Thamasirianunt, P.; Amornsakchai, T.; Suchiva, K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170 (Thailand)

    2009-01-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  17. Origin of phase shift in atomic force microscopic investigation of the surface morphology of NR/NBR blend film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanawan, S; Radabutra, S; Thamasirianunt, P; Amornsakchai, T; Suchiva, K

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology and surface properties of NR/NBR blend. Blends at 1/3, 1/1 and 3/1 weight ratios were prepared in benzene and formed film by casting. AFM phase images of these blends in tapping mode displayed islands in the sea morphology or matrix-dispersed structures. For blend 1/3, NR formed dispersed phase while in blends 1/1 and 3/1 phase inversion was observed. NR showed higher phase shift angle in AFM phase imaging for all blends. This circumstance was governed by adhesion energy hysteresis between the device tip and the rubber surface rather than surface stiffness of the materials, as proved by force distance measurements in the AFM contact mode.

  18. Nuclear receptors of the NR4a family are not required for the development and function of follicular T helper cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Zhao, Ruozhu; Yang, Runqing; Liu, Bo; Chen, Xin; Wu, Longyan; Qi, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Follicular T helper (Tfh) cells promote germinal center (GC) reaction and high-affinity antibody production. The molecular mechanisms that regulate development and function of Tfh cells are not fully understood. Here we report that ligand-independent nuclear receptors of the Nr4a family are highly expressed in Tfh cells. In a well-established adoptive transfer model, enforced expression of Nr4a receptors reduces helper T cell expansion but apparently increased the T cell capacity to promote the GC response. On the other hand, deletion of all Nr4a receptors in T cells did not significantly affect expansion or differentiation of Tfh cells or the development of GC reaction. These findings suggest that Nr4a receptors may promote but are not necessary for Tfh development or function in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Estradiol-induced increase in novel object recognition requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedder, Lindsey C; Smith, Caroline C; Flannigan, Alaina E; McMahon, Lori L

    2013-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2), at high circulating levels, enhances learning and memory in many women, making it a clinical treatment for hormone-related cognitive decline in aging. However, the mechanisms stimulated by E2, which are responsible for its cognitive enhancing effects, remain incompletely defined. Using an ovariectomized rat model, we previously reported that increasing plasma E2 enhances the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses, which is caused by a selective increase in current mediated by NR2B-containing NMDARs, leading to an increase in the NMDAR/AMPAR ratio. Whether the increase in NR2B current is causally related to the ability of E2 to enhance hippocampal dependent learning and memory has yet to be tested. Here, we find that E2 enhances performance in the novel object recognition (NOR) task with the same time course we previously showed E2 enhances the LTP magnitude, temporally linking the increase in LTP to enhanced learning and memory. Furthermore, using the selective NR2B subunit antagonist Ro25-6981, we find that the E2-enhanced NOR, like the enhanced LTP, requires hippocampal NR2B-containing NMDARs, specifically in area CA1. Finally, using whole-cell recordings and the phosphatase inhibitor orthovanadate, we investigated whether the E2-induced increase in NMDAR current is caused by an increase in the density of synaptic NMDARs and/or an increase in NMDAR subunit phosphorylation. We find that both mechanisms are responsible for the enhanced NMDAR current in E2-treated rats. Our results show that the E2-enhanced NOR requires a functional increase in NR2B-containing NMDARs, a requirement shared with the E2-enhanced LTP magnitude at CA3-CA1 synapses, supporting the hypothesis that the increase in LTP likely contributes to the enhanced learning and memory following an increase in plasma E2 levels. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Biodegradation of NR Latex-based Materials via a Carbon Dioxide Evolution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. S. Shabinah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available NR as a natural polymer has biodegradable characteristics and their existence was examined using CO2 evolution methods. The CO2 molecule produced by micro-organism metabolisms in the degradation system was quantified using a conventional acidimetric method. An aerobic system was determined as most suitable condition to be examined under this method. The presence of O2 in the system would help micro-organisms to destabilize the natural polymer. The material of LATZ, HA film and NR gloves showed significant weight loss and were able to produce CO2 evolution curves after 45 days in the biodegradation system compared to synthetic polyisoprene films. Gel permeation chromatography, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron micrograph were used to characterize the degraded sample at molecular and physical levels.

  1. Combined serial analysis of gene expression and transcription factor binding site prediction identifies novel-candidate-target genes of Nr2e1 in neocortex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmouth, Jean-François; Arenillas, David; Corso-Díaz, Ximena; Xie, Yuan-Yun; Bohacec, Slavita; Banks, Kathleen G; Bonaguro, Russell J; Wong, Siaw H; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Simpson, Elizabeth M; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2015-07-24

    Nr2e1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group e, member 1) encodes a transcription factor important in neocortex development. Previous work has shown that nuclear receptors can have hundreds of target genes, and bind more than 300 co-interacting proteins. However, recognition of the critical role of Nr2e1 in neural stem cells and neocortex development is relatively recent, thus the molecular mechanisms involved for this nuclear receptor are only beginning to be understood. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), has given researchers both qualitative and quantitative information pertaining to biological processes. Thus, in this work, six LongSAGE mouse libraries were generated from laser microdissected tissue samples of dorsal VZ/SVZ (ventricular zone and subventricular zone) from the telencephalon of wild-type (Wt) and Nr2e1-null embryos at the critical development ages E13.5, E15.5, and E17.5. We then used a novel approach, implementing multiple computational methods followed by biological validation to further our understanding of Nr2e1 in neocortex development. In this work, we have generated a list of 1279 genes that are differentially expressed in response to altered Nr2e1 expression during in vivo neocortex development. We have refined this list to 64 candidate direct-targets of NR2E1. Our data suggested distinct roles for Nr2e1 during different neocortex developmental stages. Most importantly, our results suggest a possible novel pathway by which Nr2e1 regulates neurogenesis, which includes Lhx2 as one of the candidate direct-target genes, and SOX9 as a co-interactor. In conclusion, we have provided new candidate interacting partners and numerous well-developed testable hypotheses for understanding the pathways by which Nr2e1 functions to regulate neocortex development.

  2. Antagonism at the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors induces increased connectivity of the prefrontal and subcortical regions regulating reward behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Natalia; Becker, Robert; Sack, Markus; Schwarz, Adam J; Reinwald, Jonathan; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Zheng, Lei; von Hohenberg, Christian Clemm; Inta, Dragos; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter; Sartorius, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    Evidence indicates that ketamine's rapid antidepressant efficacy likely results from its antagonism of NR2B-subunit-containing NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Since ketamine equally blocks NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDAR, and has affinity to other receptors, NR2B-selective drugs might have improved therapeutic efficiency and side effect profile. We aimed to compare the effects of (S)-ketamine and two different types of NR2B-selective antagonists on functional brain networks in rats, in order to find common circuits, where their effects intersect, and that might explain their antidepressant action. The experimental design comprised four parallel groups of rats (N = 37), each receiving (S)-Ketamine, CP-101,606, Ro 25-6981 or saline. After compound injection, we acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging time series. We used graph theoretical approach to calculate brain network properties. Ketamine and CP-101,606 diminished the global clustering coefficient and small-worldness index. At the nodal level, all compounds induced increased connectivity of the regions mediating reward and cognitive aspects of emotional processing, such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex, septal nuclei, and nucleus accumbens. The dorsal hippocampus and regions involved in sensory processing and aversion, such as superior and inferior colliculi, exhibited an opposite effect. The effects common to ketamine and NR2B-selective compounds were localized to the same brain regions as those reported in depression, but in the opposite direction. The upregulation of the reward circuitry might partially underlie the antidepressant and anti-anhedonic effects of the antagonists and could potentially serve as a translational imaging phenotype for testing putative antidepressants, especially those targeting the NR2B receptor subtype.

  3. Medicina array demonstrator: calibration and radiation pattern characterization using a UAV-mounted radio-frequency source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupillo, G.; Naldi, G.; Bianchi, G.; Mattana, A.; Monari, J.; Perini, F.; Poloni, M.; Schiaffino, M.; Bolli, P.; Lingua, A.; Aicardi, I.; Bendea, H.; Maschio, P.; Piras, M.; Virone, G.; Paonessa, F.; Farooqui, Z.; Tibaldi, A.; Addamo, G.; Peverini, O. A.; Tascone, R.; Wijnholds, S. J.

    2015-06-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the new-generation Low-Frequency Aperture Array (LFAA) radio telescopes is instrument calibration. The operational LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) instrument and the future LFAA element of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) require advanced calibration techniques to reach the expected outstanding performance. In this framework, a small array, called Medicina Array Demonstrator (MAD), has been designed and installed in Italy to provide a test bench for antenna characterization and calibration techniques based on a flying artificial test source. A radio-frequency tone is transmitted through a dipole antenna mounted on a micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) (hexacopter) and received by each element of the array. A modern digital FPGA-based back-end is responsible for both data-acquisition and data-reduction. A simple amplitude and phase equalization algorithm is exploited for array calibration owing to the high stability and accuracy of the developed artificial test source. Both the measured embedded element patterns and calibrated array patterns are found to be in good agreement with the simulated data. The successful measurement campaign has demonstrated that a UAV-mounted test source provides a means to accurately validate and calibrate the full-polarized response of an antenna/array in operating conditions, including consequently effects like mutual coupling between the array elements and contribution of the environment to the antenna patterns. A similar system can therefore find a future application in the SKA-LFAA context.

  4. The LLE, pattern formation and a novel coherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Fabrizio; Brambilla, Massimo; Gatti, Alessandra; Prati, Franco; Lugiato, Luigi A.

    2017-04-01

    The LLE was introduced in order to provide a paradigmatic model for spontaneous spatial pattern formation in the field of nonlinear optics. In the first part of this paper we describe in details its historical evolution. We underline, first of all, that the multimode instability of optical bistability represents an important precursor of the LLE. Next, we illustrate how the original LLE was conceived in order to describe pattern formation in the planes transverse with respect to the longitudinal direction of propagation of light in the nonlinear medium contained in the optical cavity. We emphasize, in particular, the crucial role of the low transmission limit (also called mean field limit or uniform field limit in the literature) in determining the simplicity of the equation. In discussing transverse pattern formation in the LLE, we underline incidentally the presence of very important quantum aspects related to squeezing of quantum fluctuations and to quantum imaging. We consider not only the case of global patterns but also localized structures (cavity solitons and their control). Then we turn to the temporal/longitudinal version of the LLE, formulated by Haelterman et al. [H. Haelterman, S. Trillo, S. Wabnitz, Opt. Commun. 91, 401 (1992)], and to its equivalence with the transverse LLE in 1D, discussing especially the phenomenon of temporal cavity solitons, their experimental observation and their control. Finally for the first part we turn to the very recent topic of broadband frequency combs, observed in a versatile multiwavelength coherent source (driven Kerr microcavity), which is raising a lot of interest and of research activities because of its very favourable physical characteristics, which support quite promising applicative perspectives. Kerr microcavities realize in an ideal manner the basic assumptions of the LLE, and the spontaneous formation of travelling patterns along the microcavity is the crucial mechanism which creates the combs and governs

  5. Sources of reactive nitrogen in marine aerosol over the Northwest Pacific Ocean in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Bao, Hongyan; Xiao, Huayun; Xiao, Hongwei; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Huiwang; Li, Jiawei; Lu, Yangyang

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric deposition of long-range transport of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr, mainly comprised of NHx, NOy and water-soluble organic nitrogen, WSON) from continents may have profound impact on marine biogeochemistry. In addition, surface ocean dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) may also contribute to aerosol WSON in the overlying atmosphere. Despite the importance of off-continent dispersion and Nr interactions at the atmosphere-ocean boundary, our knowledge of the sources of various nitrogen species in the atmosphere over the open ocean remains limited due to insufficient observations. We conducted two cruises in the spring of 2014 and 2015 from the coast of China through the East China seas (ECSs, i.e. the Yellow Sea and East China Sea) to the open ocean (i.e. the Northwest Pacific Ocean, NWPO). Concentrations of water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN), NO3- and NH4+, as well as the δ15N of WSTN and NO3- in marine aerosol, were measured during both cruises. In the spring of 2015, we also analysed the concentrations and δ15N of NO3- and the DON of surface seawater (SSW; at a depth of 5 m) along the cruise track. Aerosol NO3-, NH4+ and WSON decreased logarithmically (1-2 orders of magnitude) with distance from the shore, reflecting strong anthropogenic emission sources of NO3-, NH4+ and WSON in China. Average aerosol NO3- and NH4+ concentrations were significantly higher in 2014 (even in the remote NWOP) than in 2015 due to the stronger wind field in 2014, underscoring the role of the Asian winter monsoon in the seaward transport of anthropogenic NO3- and NH4+. However, the background aerosol WSON over the NWPO in 2015 (13.3 ± 8.5 nmol m-3) was similar to that in 2014 (12.2 ± 6.3 nmol m-3), suggesting an additional non-anthropogenic WSON source in the open ocean. Obviously, marine DON emissions should be considered in model and field assessments of net atmospheric WSON deposition in the open ocean. This study contributes information on parallel isotopic

  6. Molecular Interactions between NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors and NF-κB Are Required for Appropriate Inflammatory Responses and Immune Cell Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Evelyn P; Crean, Daniel

    2015-06-29

    Appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for protection and resolution against chemical, physical or biological insults. Immune cell polarization is fundamental in orchestrating distinct phases of inflammation, specifically acute phase responses followed by resolution and tissue repair. Dysregulation of immune cell and inflammatory responses is a hallmark of multiple diseases encompassing atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and metabolic syndromes. A master transcriptional mediator of diverse inflammatory signaling and immune cell function is NF-κB, and altered control of this key regulator can lead to an effective switch from acute to chronic inflammatory responses. Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors crosstalk with NF-κB to regulate immune cell function(s). Within the NR superfamily the NR4A1-3 orphan receptors have emerged as important regulators of immune cell polarization and NF-κB signaling. NR4A receptors modulate NF-κB activity in a dynamic fashion, either repressing or enhancing target gene expression leading to altered inflammatory outcome. Here we will discuss the pivotal role NR4A's receptors play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis through molecular crosstalk with NF-κB. Specifically, we will examine such NR4A/NF-κB interactions within the context of distinct cell phenotypes, including monocyte, macrophage, T cells, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells, which play a role in inflammation-associated disease. Finally, we review the therapeutic potential of altering NR4A/NF-κB interactions to limit hyper-inflammatory responses in vivo.

  7. Chronic Administration of Benzo(apyrene Induces Memory Impairment and Anxiety-Like Behavior and Increases of NR2B DNA Methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zhang

    Full Text Available Recently, an increasing number of human and animal studies have reported that exposure to benzo(apyrene (BaP induces neurological abnormalities and is also associated with adverse effects, such as tumor formation, immunosuppression, teratogenicity, and hormonal disorders. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BaP-induced impairment of neurological function remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the regulating mechanisms underlying the impact of chronic BaP exposure on neurobehavioral performance.C57BL mice received either BaP in different doses (1.0, 2.5, 6.25 mg/kg or olive oil twice a week for 90 days. Memory and emotional behaviors were evaluated using Y-maze and open-field tests, respectively. Furthermore, levels of mRNA expression were measured by using qPCR, and DNA methylation of NMDA receptor 2B subunit (NR2B was examined using bisulfate pyrosequencing in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.Compared to controls, mice that received BaP (2.5, 6.25 mg/kg showed deficits in short-term memory and an anxiety-like behavior. These behavioral alterations were associated with a down-regulation of the NR2B gene and a concomitant increase in the level of DNA methylation in the NR2B promoter in the two brain regions.Chronic BaP exposure induces an increase in DNA methylation in the NR2B gene promoter and down-regulates NR2B expression, which may contribute to its neurotoxic effects on behavioral performance. The results suggest that NR2B vulnerability represents a target for environmental toxicants in the brain.

  8. PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION OF IgY ANTIBODIES AS A NOVEL TOOL TO PURIFY THE NR1 SUBUNIT OF NMDA RECEPTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Antonio Reyes Montaño

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Producing polyclonal antibodies (IgY inchickens has advantages over those obtainedin other animal models, since theyhave been used as a tool for studyingdifferent proteins (NMDA glutamate receptorin our case, specifically the NR1subunit. We produced specific antibodiesagainst expression products by thealternative splicing of the gene encodingNMDA receptor NR1 subunit in adult ratbrain. Three peptides corresponding tothe splicing sites (N1, C1 and C2’ cassetteswere designed, synthesised and usedindividually as antigens in hens. Specificimmunoglobulins were purified fromyolks. The antibodies were then used forpurifying the NMDA receptor NR1 subunitusing affinity chromatography couplingthe three antibodies to the support.R

  9. Open source identity management patterns and practices using OpenAM 10.x

    CERN Document Server

    Kenning, Waylon

    2013-01-01

    This is a Packt Mini in a tutorial format that provides multiple examples on Identity Management using OpenAM 10.x.Open Source Identity Management Patterns and Practices Using OpenAM 10.x is great for developers and architects who are new to Identity Management, and who want a brief overview of what's possible and how to quickly implement a prototype. It's assumed that you've had experience with web applications and some knowledge of Apache and Tomcat.

  10. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridwan, M.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accommodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components: emulsification unit, mixing unit and vulcanization reactor. The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process compared to the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized. (author)

  11. Pitch and Flat Roof Factors’ Association with Spatiotemporal Patterns of Dengue Disease Analysed Using Pan-Sharpened Worldview 2 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedri Ruluwedrata Rinawan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dengue disease incidence is related with the construction of a house roof, which is an Aedes mosquito habitat. This study was conducted to classify pitch roof (PR and flat roof (FR surfaces using pan-sharpened Worldview 2 to identify dengue disease patterns (DDPs and their association with DDP. A Supervised Minimum Distance classifier was applied to 653 training data from image object segmentations: PR (81 polygons, FR (50, and non-roof (NR class (522. Ground validation of 272 pixels (52 for PR, 51 for FR, and 169 for NR was done using a global positioning system (GPS tool. Getis-Ord score pattern analysis was applied to 1154 dengue disease incidence with address-approach-based data with weighted temporal value of 28 days within a 1194 m spatial radius. We used ordinary least squares (OLS and geographically weighted regression (GWR to assess spatial association. Our findings showed 70.59% overall accuracy with a 0.51 Kappa coefficient of the roof classification images. Results show that DDPs were found in hotspot, random, and dispersed patterns. Smaller PR size and larger FR size showed some association with increasing DDP into more clusters (OLS: PR value = −0.27; FR = 0.04; R2 = 0.076; GWR: R2 = 0.76. The associations in hotspot patterns are stronger than in other patterns (GWR: R2 in hotspot = 0.39, random = 0.37, dispersed = 0.23.

  12. Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasnicka-Crawford, Dorota A.; Vincent, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    Microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase catalyzes the one-electron transfer from NADPH via FAD and FMN to various electron acceptors, such as cytochrome P450s or to some anti-cancer quinone drugs. This results in generation of free radicals and toxic oxygen metabolites, which can contribute to the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Recently, a cytosolic NADPH-dependent flavin reductase, NR1, has been described which is highly homologous to the microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase. In this study, we show that over-expression of NR1 in human embryonic kidney cells enhances the cytotoxic action of the model quinone, menadione. Furthermore, we show that a novel human histidine triad protein DCS-1, which is expressed together with NR1 in many tissues, can significantly reduce menadione-induced cytotoxicity in these cells. We also show that DCS-1 binds NF1 and directly modulates its activity. These results suggest that NR1 may play a role in carcinogenicity and cell death associated with one-electron reductions

  13. Relevance of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors in trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Nur-77, a member of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors, is downregulated in the placentae of pre-eclamptic women. Here, we investigate the relevance of Nor-1, Nurr-1 and Nur-77 in trophoblastic cell differentiation. Their transcript levels were found to be significantly upregulated in BeWo cells treated with forskolin. The maximum increase was observed after 2 h, with a second peak in the expression levels after 48 h. The expression of NR4A sub-family members was also found to be upregulated in BeWo cells after treatment with hCG and GnRH. A similar significant increase was observed at the respective protein levels after 2 and 48 h of treatment with forskolin, hCG or GnRH. Silencing Nor-1, Nurr-1 or Nur-77 individually did not show any effect on forskolin-, hCG- and/or GnRH-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. After silencing any one member of the NR4A sub-family, an increase in the transcript levels of the other sub-family members was observed, indicating a compensatory effect due to their functional redundancy. Simultaneously silencing all three NR4A sub-family members significantly downregulated forskolin- and hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. However, a considerable amount of cell death occurred after forskolin or hCG treatment as compared to the control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors has a role in trophoblastic cell differentiation.

  14. Complete chloroplast genome and 45S nrDNA sequences of the medicinal plant species Glycyrrhiza glabra and Glycyrrhiza uralensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Hyun Oh; Ahn, Byoung Ohg; Won, So Youn; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Jung Sun

    2017-10-06

    Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra, members of the Fabaceae, are medicinally important species that are native to Asia and Europe. Extracts from these plants are widely used as natural sweeteners because of their much greater sweetness than sucrose. In this study, the three complete chloroplast genomes and five 45S nuclear ribosomal (nr)DNA sequences of these two licorice species and an interspecific hybrid are presented. The chloroplast genomes of G. glabra, G. uralensis and G. glabra × G. uralensis were 127,895 bp, 127,716 bp and 127,939 bp, respectively. The three chloroplast genomes harbored 110 annotated genes, including 76 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes. The 45S nrDNA sequences were either 5,947 or 5,948 bp in length. Glycyrrhiza glabra and G. glabra × G. uralensis showed two types of nrDNA, while G. uralensis contained a single type. The complete 45S nrDNA sequence unit contains 18S rRNA, ITS1, 5.8S rRNA, ITS2 and 26S rRNA. We identified simple sequence repeat and tandem repeat sequences. We also developed four reliable markers for analysis of Glycyrrhiza diversity authentication.

  15. Control over position, orientation, and spacing of arrays of gold nanorods using chemically nanopatterned surfaces and tailored particle-particle-surface interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Dhriti; Onses, M Serdar; Park, Kyoungweon; Jespersen, Michael; Thode, Christopher J; Nealey, Paul F; Vaia, Richard A

    2012-06-26

    The synergy of self- and directed-assembly processes and lithography provides intriguing avenues to fabricate translationally ordered nanoparticle arrangements, but currently lacks the robustness necessary to deliver complex spatial organization. Here, we demonstrate that interparticle spacing and local orientation of gold nanorods (AuNR) can be tuned by controlling the Debye length of AuNR in solution and the dimensions of a chemical contrast pattern. Electrostatic and hydrophobic selectivity for AuNR to absorb to patterned regions of poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) and polystyrene brushes and mats was demonstrated for AuNR functionalized with mercaptopropane sulfonate (MS) and poly(ethylene glycol), respectively. For P2VP patterns of stripes with widths comparable to the length of the AuNR, single- and double-column arrangements of AuNR oriented parallel and perpendicular to the P2VP line were obtained for MS-AuNR. Furthermore, the spacing of the assembled AuNR was uniform along the stripe and related to the ionic strength of the AuNR dispersion. The different AuNR arrangements are consistent with predictions based on maximization of packing of AuNR within the confined strip.

  16. Opinion presented on the behalf of the Commission for economic affairs on the finance bill project for 2018 (nr 235). Volume VII - Ecology, sustainable development and mobility, energy - Nr 264 corrected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolo, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    In its first part, this parliamentary report proposes an analysis of budgets allocated to some specific programmes related to ecology, sustainable development and mobility, and energy within the finance bill project for 2018. A first programme (nr 174) addresses issues related to energy, climate, and after-mines: increased credits for energy, decreased credits to manage the after-mines situation, increased credits for air quality and for the struggle against climate change, tax expenses. A second set of programmes (nr 345, 764 and 765) concerns the energy public service and energy transition. The third set of programmes (nr 793 and 794) deals with the financing of supports to communities for rural electrification. The second part of the report analyses various aspects of the digitalisation of the energy sector. It discusses its main stakes: a better knowledge of productions and consumptions, an increased efficiency of infrastructures and energy-related services, a need to secure infrastructures and data, a high potential for employment and increasing needs for specific abilities, and critical issue of a possible 'uberisation' of the energy sector. It also analyses perspectives and formulates some proposals regarding data security, support to economic actors, and some specific points of attention (to avoid differences between territories, some negative aspects of digitalisation). Contents of commission debates are provided as well as a list of hearings

  17. How do cancer patients navigate the public information environment? Understanding patterns and motivations for movement among information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Rebekah H; Romantan, Anca; Kelly, Bridget J; Stevens, Robin S; Gray, Stacy W; Hull, Shawnika J; Ramirez, A Susana; Hornik, Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about how patients move among information sources to fulfill unmet needs. We interviewed 43 breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer patients. Using a grounded theory approach, we identified patterns and motivations for movement among information sources. Overall, patients reported using one source (e.g., newspaper) followed by the use of another source (e.g., Internet), and five key motivations for such cross-source movement emerged. Patients' social networks often played a central role in this movement. Understanding how patients navigate an increasingly complex information environment may help clinicians and educators to guide patients to appropriate, high-quality sources.

  18. Genetic variation of the porcine NR5A1 is associated with meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görres, Andreas; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Muráni, Eduard

    2016-02-01

    Because of the central role of Steroidogenic factor 1 in the regulation of the development and function of steroidogenic tissues, including the adrenal gland, we chose the encoding gene NR5A1 as a candidate for stress response, meat quality and carcass composition in the domestic pig. To identify polymorphisms of the porcine NR5A1 we comparatively sequenced the coding, untranslated and regulatory regions in four commercial pig lines. Single nucleotide polymorphisms could be found in the 3' UTR and in an intronic enhancer, whereas no polymorphisms were detected in the proximal promoter and coding region. A subset of the detected polymorphisms was genotyped in Piétrain x (German Large White x German Landrace) and German Landrace pigs. For the same animals, carcass composition traits, meat quality characteristics and parameters of adrenal function were recorded. Associations with meat color were found for two of the discovered SNPs in Piétrain x (German Large White x German Landrace) and German Landrace pigs but no connections to parameters of adrenal function could be established. We conclude that NR5A1 variations influence meat color in a hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis independent manner and that further regulatory regions need to be analyzed for genetic variations to understand the discovered effects.

  19. Novel de novo pathogenic variant in the NR2F2 gene in a boy with congenital heart defect and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadia, Jariya; Gonzales, Patrick R; Robin, Nathaniel H

    2018-04-16

    The NR2F2 gene plays an important role in angiogenesis and heart development. Moreover, this gene is involved in organogenesis in many other organs in mouse models. Variants in this gene have been reported in a number of patients with nonsyndromic atrioventricular septal defect, and in one patient with congenital heart defect and dysmorphic features. Here we report an 11-month-old Caucasian male with global developmental delay, dysmorphic features, coarctation of the aorta, and ventricular septal defect. He was later found to have a pathogenic mutation in the NR2F2 gene by whole exome sequencing. This is the second instance in which an NR2F2 mutation has been identified in a child with a congenital heart defect and other anomalies. This case suggests that some variants in NR2F2 may cause syndromic forms of congenital heart defect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cluster pattern analysis of energy deposition sites for the brachytherapy sources 103Pd, 125I, 192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Fernanda; Tilly, Nina; Bäckström, Gloria; Ahnesjö, Anders

    2014-09-21

    Analysing the pattern of energy depositions may help elucidate differences in the severity of radiation-induced DNA strand breakage for different radiation qualities. It is often claimed that energy deposition (ED) sites from photon radiation form a uniform random pattern, but there is indication of differences in RBE values among different photon sources used in brachytherapy. The aim of this work is to analyse the spatial patterns of EDs from 103Pd, 125I, 192Ir, 137Cs sources commonly used in brachytherapy and a 60Co source as a reference radiation. The results suggest that there is both a non-uniform and a uniform random component to the frequency distribution of distances to the nearest neighbour ED. The closest neighbouring EDs show high spatial correlation for all investigated radiation qualities, whilst the uniform random component dominates for neighbours with longer distances for the three higher mean photon energy sources (192Ir, 137Cs, and 60Co). The two lower energy photon emitters (103Pd and 125I) present a very small uniform random component. The ratio of frequencies of clusters with respect to 60Co differs up to 15% for the lower energy sources and less than 2% for the higher energy sources when the maximum distance between each pair of EDs is 2 nm. At distances relevant to DNA damage, cluster patterns can be differentiated between the lower and higher energy sources. This may be part of the explanation to the reported difference in RBE values with initial DSB yields as an endpoint for these brachytherapy sources.

  1. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 abolishes pitch-mediated deviance detection in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva eDigavalli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit a decreased ability to detect change in their auditory environment as measured by auditory event related potentials such as mismatch negativity. This deficit has been linked to abnormal NMDA neurotransmission since, among other observations, non-selective channel blockers of NMDA reliably diminish deviance detection in human subjects as well as in animal models. Recent molecular and functional evidence link NR2B receptor subtype to aberrant NMDA transmission in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if NR2B receptors participate in pre-attentive deviance detection. We recorded event related potentials from the vertex of freely behaving rats in response to frequency mismatch protocols. We saw a robust increase in N1 response to deviants compared to standard as well as control stimuli indicating true deviance detection. Moreover, the increased negativity was highly sensitive to deviant probability. Next, we tested the effect of a non-selective NMDA channel blocker (ketamine, 30 mg/kg and a highly selective NR2B antagonist, CP-101,606 (10 or 30 mg/kg on deviance detection. Ketamine attenuated deviance mainly by increasing the amplitude of the standard ERP. Amplitude and/or latency of several ERP components were also markedly affected. In contrast, CP-101,606 robustly and dose-dependently inhibited the deviant’s N1 amplitude and as a consequence, completely abolished deviance detection. No other ERPs or components were affected. Thus, we report first evidence that NR2B receptors robustly participate in processes of automatic deviance detection in a rodent model. Lastly, our model demonstrates a path forward to test specific pharmacological hypotheses using translational endpoints relevant to aberrant sensory processing in schizophrenia.

  2. Schostakowitsch: Sinfonie Nr. 12 op. 112 (Das Jahr 1917) / Hans-Christian Dadelsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dadelsen, Hans-Christian

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schostakowitsch: Sinfonie Nr. 12 op. 112 (Das Jahr 1917). Hamlet-Suite op. 32a. Das goldene Zeitalter [The Age of Gold] (Suite) op. 22a. Göteborger Symphoniker, Neeme Järvi". DG CD 431 688-2 (WD:77'21") DDD

  3. [Applylication of new type combined fragments: nrDNA ITS+ nad 1-intron 2 for identification of Dendrobium species of Fengdous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Li-xia; Zheng, Rui; Ren, Jie; Niu, Zhi-tao; Sun, Yu-long; Xue, Qing-yun; Liu, Wei; Ding, Xiao-yu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, 17 kinds of Dendrobium species of Fengdous including 39 individuals were collected from 4 provinces. Mitochondrial gene sequences co I, nad 5, nad 1-intron 2 and chloroplast gene sequences rbcL, matK amd psbA-trnH were amplified from these materials, as well as nrDNA ITS. Furthermore, suitable sequences for identification of Dendrobium species of Fengdous were screened by K-2-P and P-distance. The results showed that during the mentioned 7 sequences, nrDNA ITS, nad 1-intron 2 and psbA-trnH which had a high degree of variability could be used to identify Dendrobium species of Fengdous. However, single fragment could not be used to distinguish D. moniliforme and D. huoshanense. Moreover, compared to other combined fragments, new type combined fragments nrDNA ITS+nad 1-intron 2 was more effective in identifying the original plants of Dendrobium species and could be used to identify D. huoshanense and D. moniliforme. Besides, according to the UPGMA tree constructed with nrDNA ITS+nad 1-intron 2, 3 inspected Dendrobium plants were identified as D. huoshanense, D. moniliforme and D. officinale, respectively. This study identified Dendrobium species of Fengdous by combined fragments nrDNA ITS+nad 1-intron 2 for the first time, which provided a more effective basis for identification of Dendrobium species. And this study will be helpful for regulating the market of Fengdous.

  4. Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris / Hanspeter Krellmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krellmann, Hanspeter

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Kalinnikov: Sinfonie Nr.2 A-Dur, Ouvertüre Zar Boris, Die Zeder und die Palme. Scottish National Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" (AD: 1989) Chandos / Koch Records CD 8805 (WD: 59'40") DDD

  5. Numerical Prediction of Wave Patterns Due to Motion of 3D Bodies by Kelvin-Havelock Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the numerical evaluation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of submerged and surface piercing moving bodies. Generally, two main classes of potential methods are used for hydrodynamic characteristic analysis of steady moving bodies which are Rankine and Kelvin-Havelock singularity distribution. In this paper, the Kelvin- Havelock sources are used for simulating the moving bodies and then free surface wave patterns are obtained. Numerical evaluation of potential distribution of a Kelvin-Havelock source is completely presented and discussed. Numerical results are calculated and presented for a 2D cylinder, single source, two parallel moving source, sphere, ellipsoid and standard Wigley hull in different situation that show acceptable agreement with results of other literatures or experiments.

  6. Imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghara, Raghunath; Choudhury, T. Roy; Datta, Kanan K.; Choudhuri, Samir

    2017-01-01

    Understanding properties of the first sources in the Universe using the redshifted H I 21 cm signal is one of the major aims of present and upcoming low-frequency experiments. We investigate the possibility of imaging the redshifted 21 cm pattern around the first sources during the cosmic dawn using the SKA1-low. We model the H I 21 cm image maps, appropriate for the SKA1-low, around the first sources consisting of stars and X-ray sources within galaxies. In addition to the system noise, we also account for the astrophysical foregrounds by adding them to the signal maps. We find that after subtracting the foregrounds using a polynomial fit and suppressing the noise by smoothing the maps over 10-30 arcmin angular scale, the isolated sources at z ˜ 15 are detectable with the ˜4σ-9σ confidence level in 2000 h of observation with the SKA1-low. Although the 21 cm profiles around the sources get altered because of the Gaussian smoothing, the images can still be used to extract some of the source properties. We account for overlaps in the patterns of the individual sources by generating realistic H I 21 cm maps of the cosmic dawn that are based on N-body simulations and a one-dimensional radiative transfer code. We find that these sources should be detectable in the SKA1-low images at z = 15 with a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜14(4) in 2000 (200) h of observations. One possible observational strategy thus could be to observe multiple fields for shorter observation times, identify fields with SNR ≳ 3 and observe these fields for much longer duration. Such observations are expected to be useful in constraining the parameters related to the first sources.

  7. Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend) / Norbert Rüdell

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rüdell, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Mahler: Sinfonie Nr. 8 Es-Dur (Sinfonie der Tausend). Estonian Boys' Choir, Brunnsbo Children's Choir, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Royal Stockholm Philharmonic Choir, Gothenburg Symphony Chorus, Gothenburg Opera Chorus, Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. BIS/Disco-Center CD 700 (WD:72'18")

  8. Tracking Reactive Nitrogen Sources, Chemistry and Deposition in Urban Environments Using Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, M. G.; Clark, S. C.; Chai, J.; Joyce, E.; Miller, D. J.; Schiebel, H.; Walters, W.

    2017-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) includes compounds such as nitrogen oxides (NOx, HONO), ammonia (NH3), nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and organic nitrates. These compounds serve major roles in controlling the composition of our atmosphere, and have a direct impact on ecosystem health and water quality. Our research is focused on using stable isotopes of Nr to investigate variations in sources, chemistry, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Our aim is to fingerprint distinct emission sources - such as vehicles, power plants, aircraft, agriculature, wildfires, and lightning - and track their influence in the environment. We have recently characterized vehicle emission plumes, emissions from agricultural soils under different management practices, and (in the near future) wildfire plumes in the western U.S. Our approach targets characterizing the isotopic composition of NOx, HONO, and NH3 at both the emissions source and the plume scale. In contrast to large ranges found for individual tailpipe emissions of NOx, on-road plumes in the U.S. have a mean δ15N of -4.7 ± 1.7‰. The plume scale approach integrates across the typical U.S. fleet giving a representative value that can be used for tracking the impact of this emission source in the environment. NH3 also tends towards a narrow isotopic range when considered at the roadside scale compared to individual vehicles. In agricultural settings, the isotopes of NOx and HONO released from soils under different fertilizer practices is typically very negative in δ15N (-40 to -10‰) and appears to vary most with soil N properties rather than meteorology. Our work is now extending to discern sources influencing Nr deposition in an urban area at the head of New England's largest estuary. National monitoring of N deposition shows decreases in NO3- (but not NH4+) deposition over the last two decades, following better controls on NOx emissions. Wet deposition collected in an urban area exhibits N concentrations that are often 3

  9. Canonical realizations of the Lie algebra sp(2n,R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlicek, M.; Lassner, W.

    1975-01-01

    The generators of the Lie algebra of the symplectic group sp(2n,R) are, rezcurently, realied by means of polynomials in the quantum canonical variables qsub(i) and psub(i), i=1,...,d(2n-d);d=1,...,n. These realisations are skew-hermitean, the Casimir operators are realised by constant multiples of identity element and they depend on d free real parameters

  10. Sources of reactive nitrogen in marine aerosol over the Northwest Pacific Ocean in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Luo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of long-range transport of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr, mainly comprised of NHx, NOy and water-soluble organic nitrogen, WSON from continents may have profound impact on marine biogeochemistry. In addition, surface ocean dissolved organic nitrogen (DON may also contribute to aerosol WSON in the overlying atmosphere. Despite the importance of off-continent dispersion and Nr interactions at the atmosphere–ocean boundary, our knowledge of the sources of various nitrogen species in the atmosphere over the open ocean remains limited due to insufficient observations. We conducted two cruises in the spring of 2014 and 2015 from the coast of China through the East China seas (ECSs, i.e. the Yellow Sea and East China Sea to the open ocean (i.e. the Northwest Pacific Ocean, NWPO. Concentrations of water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN, NO3− and NH4+, as well as the δ15N of WSTN and NO3− in marine aerosol, were measured during both cruises. In the spring of 2015, we also analysed the concentrations and δ15N of NO3− and the DON of surface seawater (SSW; at a depth of 5 m along the cruise track. Aerosol NO3−, NH4+ and WSON decreased logarithmically (1–2 orders of magnitude with distance from the shore, reflecting strong anthropogenic emission sources of NO3−, NH4+ and WSON in China. Average aerosol NO3− and NH4+ concentrations were significantly higher in 2014 (even in the remote NWOP than in 2015 due to the stronger wind field in 2014, underscoring the role of the Asian winter monsoon in the seaward transport of anthropogenic NO3− and NH4+. However, the background aerosol WSON over the NWPO in 2015 (13.3 ± 8.5 nmol m−3 was similar to that in 2014 (12.2 ± 6.3 nmol m−3, suggesting an additional non-anthropogenic WSON source in the open ocean. Obviously, marine DON emissions should be considered in model and field assessments of net atmospheric WSON deposition in the open ocean. This

  11. Identification of long-range transport of air pollutants using a Potential Source Contribution Function in Baengyeong Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, J.; Park, T.; Atwood, S. A.; Soo, C. J.; Ahn, J.; Lee, T.

    2017-12-01

    To understand the influence of long-range transport, Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis is widely used in many studies. PSCF is a region containing a source for a particular constituent estimated by looking at the percentage of back-trajectories that pass over that region which contain high concentrations of the constituent. Aerosol concentration, wind direction, wind speed and back trajectory from NOAA HYSPLIT model in Baengyeong Island were used as input data for PSCF to consider the retention time of aerosol. Non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) concentrations were measured by an Aerodyne High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and meteorological variables were also measured in Baengnyeong Island, Korea during 2013 to 2015. We will investigate the influence of long-range transport and compare with AMS data from eastern China in November 2013. It will be provided the overview of long-range transport of NR-PM1 including inorganics and organics species to South Korea.

  12. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza; Perlmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPARβ/δ signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPARβ/δ and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  13. Behavioral assays for evaluating host preferences of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, the exotic ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was first discovered in Florida avocado groves. Introduction of its symbiotic Fusarium spp. fungi into galleries in the xylem tissue results in Fusarium-dieback disease. Unlike most ambros...

  14. Involvement of spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yano Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug characterized by the development of acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. The chronic neuropathy is a dose-limiting toxicity. We previously reported that repeated administration of oxaliplatin induced cold hyperalgesia in the early phase and mechanical allodynia in the late phase in rats. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia in rats. Results Repeated administration of oxaliplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p., twice a week caused mechanical allodynia in the fourth week, which was reversed by intrathecal injection of MK-801 (10 nmol and memantine (1 μmol, NMDA receptor antagonists. Similarly, selective NR2B antagonists Ro25-6981 (300 nmol, i.t. and ifenprodil (50 mg/kg, p.o. significantly attenuated the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. In addition, the expression of NR2B protein and mRNA in the rat spinal cord was increased by oxaliplatin on Day 25 (late phase but not on Day 5 (early phase. Moreover, we examined the involvement of nitric oxide synthase (NOS as a downstream target of NMDA receptor. L-NAME, a non-selective NOS inhibitor, and 7-nitroindazole, a neuronal NOS (nNOS inhibitor, significantly suppressed the oxaliplatin-induced pain behavior. The intensity of NADPH diaphorase staining, a histochemical marker for NOS, in the superficial layer of spinal dorsal horn was obviously increased by oxaliplatin, and this increased intensity was reversed by intrathecal injection of Ro25-6981. Conclusion These results indicated that spinal NR2B-containing NMDA receptors are involved in the oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia.

  15. Long-term monitoring of molecular markers can distinguish different seasonal patterns of fecal indicating bacteria sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Timothy E; Thulsiraj, Vanessa; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G; Dagit, Rosi; Krug, Jenna; Hanley, Kaitlyn T; Adamek, Krista; Ebentier, Darcy L; Torres, Robert; Cobian, Uriel; Peterson, Sophie; Jay, Jennifer A

    2015-03-15

    Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have been observed at Topanga Beach, CA, USA. To identify the FIB sources, a microbial source tracking study using a dog-, a gull- and two human-associated molecular markers was conducted at 10 sites over 21 months. Historical data suggest that episodic discharge from the lagoon at the mouth of Topanga Creek is the main source of bacteria to the beach. A decline in creek FIB/markers downstream from upper watershed development and a sharp increase in FIB/markers at the lagoon sites suggest sources are local to the lagoon. At the lagoon and beach, human markers are detected sporadically, dog marker peaks in abundance mid-winter, and gull marker is chronically elevated. Varied seasonal patterns of FIB and source markers were identified showing the importance of applying a suite of markers over long-term spatial and temporal sampling to identify a complex combination of sources of contamination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of landscape patterns of variation and optimization based on non-point source pollution control in an estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui; Wu, Haiyan

    2014-10-15

    Appropriate increases in the "sink" of a landscape can reduce the risk of non-point source pollution (NPSP) to the sea at relatively lower costs and at a higher efficiency. Based on high-resolution remote sensing image data taken between 2003 and 2008, we analyzed the "source" and "sink" landscape pattern variations of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants in the Jiulongjiang estuary region. The contribution to the sea and distribution of each pollutant in the region was calculated using the LCI and mGLCI models. The results indicated that an increased amount of pollutants was contributed to the sea, and the "source" area of the nitrogen NPSP in the study area increased by 32.75 km(2). We also propose a landscape pattern optimization to reduce pollution in the Jiulongjiang estuary in 2008 through the conversion of cultivated land with slopes greater than 15° and paddy fields near rivers, and an increase in mangrove areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. NR4A1 (Nur77 mediates thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced stimulation of transcription of the thyrotropin β gene: analysis of TRH knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Nakajima

    Full Text Available Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH is a major stimulator of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH synthesis in the anterior pituitary, though precisely how TRH stimulates the TSHβ gene remains unclear. Analysis of TRH-deficient mice differing in thyroid hormone status demonstrated that TRH was critical for the basal activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone of the TSHβ gene. cDNA microarray and K-means cluster analyses with pituitaries from wild-type mice, TRH-deficient mice and TRH-deficient mice with thyroid hormone replacement revealed that the largest and most consistent decrease in expression in the absence of TRH and on supplementation with thyroid hormone was shown by the TSHβ gene, and the NR4A1 gene belonged to the same cluster as and showed a similar expression profile to the TSHβ gene. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that NR4A1 was expressed not only in ACTH- and FSH- producing cells but also in thyrotrophs and the expression was remarkably reduced in TRH-deficient pituitary. Furthermore, experiments in vitro demonstrated that incubation with TRH in GH4C1 cells increased the endogenous NR4A1 mRNA level by approximately 50-fold within one hour, and this stimulation was inhibited by inhibitors for PKC and ERK1/2. Western blot analysis confirmed that TRH increased NR4A1 expression within 2 h. A series of deletions of the promoter demonstrated that the region between bp -138 and +37 of the TSHβ gene was responsible for the TRH-induced stimulation, and Chip analysis revealed that NR4A1 was recruited to this region. Conversely, knockdown of NR4A1 by siRNA led to a significant reduction in TRH-induced TSHβ promoter activity. Furthermore, TRH stimulated NR4A1 promoter activity through the TRH receptor. These findings demonstrated that 1 TRH is a highly specific regulator of the TSHβ gene, and 2 TRH mediated induction of the TSHβ gene, at least in part by sequential stimulation of the NR4A1-TSHβ genes through a PKC and

  18. Sibelius. Lemminkäinen-Legenden op. 22 Nr. 1-4 / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Lemminkäinen-Legenden op. 22 Nr. 1-4, Nächtlicher Ritt und Sonnenaufgang op. 55, Luonnotar op. 70. Stockholm Philharmoniker / Paavo Järvi. Virgin/EMI CD 545213 2 (WD:70'22")DDD

  19. NR2E3 mutations in enhanced S-cone sensitivity syndrome (ESCS), Goldmann-Favre syndrome (GFS), clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration (CPRD), and retinitis pigmentosa (RP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorderet, Daniel F; Escher, Pascal

    2009-11-01

    NR2E3, also called photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor (PNR), is a transcription factor of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily whose expression is uniquely restricted to photoreceptors. There, its physiological activity is essential for proper rod and cone photoreceptor development and maintenance. Thirty-two different mutations in NR2E3 have been identified in either homozygous or compound heterozygous state in the recessively inherited enhanced S-cone sensitivity syndrome (ESCS), Goldmann-Favre syndrome (GFS), and clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration (CPRD). The clinical phenotype common to all these patients is night blindness, rudimental or absent rod function, and hyperfunction of the "blue" S-cones. A single p.G56R mutation is inherited in a dominant manner and causes retinitis pigmentosa (RP). We have established a new locus-specific database for NR2E3 (www.LOVD.nl/eye), containing all reported mutations, polymorphisms, and unclassified sequence variants, including novel ones. A high proportion of mutations are located in the evolutionarily-conserved DNA-binding domains (DBDs) and ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of NR2E3. Based on homology modeling of these NR2E3 domains, we propose a structural localization of mutated residues. The high variability of clinical phenotypes observed in patients affected by NR2E3-linked retinal degenerations may be caused by different disease mechanisms, including absence of DNA-binding, altered interactions with transcriptional coregulators, and differential activity of modifier genes.

  20. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    (maximum observed concentration of 290,000 colonies/100 milliliters (col/100mL) could occur along the entire length of each stream, and that the samples collected at the downstream monitoring station of each stream were generally representative of the entire upstream reach. Seasonal patterns were observed in the base-flow fecal coliform concentrations of all streams; concentrations were typically highest in the summer and lowest in the winter. Fecal coliform concentrations were lowest during periods of base flow (typically 200?2,000 col/100mL) and increased by 3?4 orders of magnitude during storm events (as high as 700,000 col/100mL). Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict fecal coliform concentrations as a function of streamflow and other water-quality parameters. The source tracking technique provided identification of bacteria contributions from diverse sources that included (but were not limited to) humans, cattle, poultry, horses, dogs, cats, geese, ducks, raccoons, and deer. Seasonal patterns were observed in the contributions of cattle and poultry sources. There were relations between the identified sources of fecal coliform bacteria and the land-use practices within each watershed. There were only minor differences in the distribution of bacteria sources between low-flow periods and high-flow periods. A coupled approach that utilized both a large available source library and a smaller, location-specific source library provided the most success in identifying the unknown E. coli isolates. BST data should provide valuable support and guidance for producing more defendable and scientifically rigorous watershed models. Incorporation of these bacteria-source data into watershed management strategies also should result in the selection of more efficient source-reduction scenarios for improving water quality.

  1. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment.

  2. Patterns of organic acids exuded by pioneering fungi from a glacier forefield are affected by carbohydrate sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Ivano; Goren, Asena; Schlumpf, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Bare soils in the area of retreating glaciers are ideal environments to study the role of microorganisms in the early soil formation and in processes of mineral weathering. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the source of carbohydrate would influence the patterns of organic acids exuded by fungal species. Three pioneering fungus species, isolated from fine granitic sediments in front of the Damma glacier from the central Swiss Alps, have previously been found to have the capability to exude organic acids and dissolve granite powder. In batch experiments, various carbohydrates, including glucose, cellulose, pectin, pollen, and cell remnants of cyanobacteria, fungi, and algae, were applied as carbohydrate sources and the patterns of exuded organic acids recorded. The results showed that two fungi, the zygomycete fungus Mucor hiemalis and the ascomycete fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, released a significantly higher amount of organic acids in dependence on specific carbohydrate sources. Pollen and algae as carbohydrate sources triggered significantly the exudation of malate in M. hiemalis, and pollen and cellulose that of oxalate in P. chrysogenum. We conclude that the occurrence of complex carbohydrate sources in nutrient-deficient deglaciated soils may positively influence the exudation of organic acids of fungi. In particular, pollen and remnants of other microorganisms can trigger the exudation of organic acids of fungi in order to promote the weathering of minerals and to make nutrients available that would otherwise be trapped in that cryospheric environment. (paper)

  3. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  4. Erikontingendi filtreerimine ja töölerakendamine Eesti NSV-s kontroll-filterlaager nr. 0316 näitel / Peeter Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Peeter, 1974-

    2010-01-01

    1945. aasta alguses paigutati Paldiski lähedale Põllkülasse NKVD erilaager. Laager allus NSV Liidu NKVD kontroll-filterlaagrite osakonnale. Erikontingendi mõistest. Kontroll-filterlaagri nr. 0316 rajamisest ja struktuurist. Laagri Smerši osakonna tegevusest. Kontroll-laager nr. 0316 oli mõneti erandlik, sealt ei saadetud isikuid üldjuhul Eestist välja. Balti riikide kodanikest erikontingendi küsimus jäi täpselt määratlemata, NSV Liidu kui oma kodumaa reeturiteks ei saanud neid nimetada

  5. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR4A1 is Involved in the Apoptotic Pathway Induced by LPS and Simvastatin in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Song, Seok Bean; Lee, Sang Kyu; Park, Sang Min; Kim, Young Sang

    2014-04-01

    Macrophage death plays a role in several physiological and inflammatory pathologies such as sepsis and arthritis. In our previous work, we showed that simvastatin triggers cell death in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells through both caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. Here, we show that the nuclear orphan receptor NR4A1 is involved in a caspase-independent apoptotic process induced by LPS and simvastatin. Simvastatin-induced NR4A1 expression in RAW 264.7 macrophages and ectopic expression of a dominant-negative mutant form of NR4A1 effectively suppressed both DNA fragmentation and the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) during LPS- and simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis was accompanied by Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) translocation to the mitochondria. Our findings suggest that NR4A1 expression and mitochondrial translocation of Bax are related to simvastatin-induced apoptosis in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

  6. High and low nightly running behavior associates with nucleus accumbens N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) NR1 subunit expression and NMDAR functional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Kolter B; Kovarik, Cathleen M; Rottinghaus, George E; Booth, Frank W

    2018-04-03

    The extent to which N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors facilitate the motivation to voluntarily wheel-run in rodents has yet to be determined. In so, we utilized female Wistar rats selectively bred to voluntarily run high (HVR) and low (LVR) nightly distances in order to examine if endogenous differences in nucleus accumbens (NAc) NMDA receptor expression and function underlies the propensity for high or low motivation to voluntarily wheel-run. 12-14 week old HVR and LVR females were used to examine: 1.) NAc mRNA and protein expression of NMDA subunits NR1, NR2A and NR2B; 2.) NMDA current responses in isolated medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and 3.) NMDA-evoked dopamine release in an ex vivo preparation of NAc punches. Expectedly, there was a large divergence in nightly running distance and time between HVR and LVR rats. We saw a significantly higher mRNA and protein expression of NR1 in HVR compared to LVR rats, while seeing no difference in the expression of NR2A or NR2B. There was a greater current response to a 500 ms application of 300 μM of NMDA in medium-spiny neurons isolated from the NAc HVR compared to LVR animals. On average, NMDA-evoked punches (50 μM of NMDA for 10 min) taken from HVR rats retained ∼54% of the dopamine content compared to their bilateral non-evoked sides, while evoked punches from LVR animals showed no statistical decrease in dopamine content compared to their non-evoked sides. Collectively, these data suggest a potential link between NAc NR1 subunit expression as well as NMDA function and the predisposition for nightly voluntary running behavior in rats. In light of the epidemic rise in physical inactivity, these findings have the potential to explain a neuro-molecular mechanism that regulates the motivation to be physically active. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hurricane Matthew's Effects on Wetland Sources of Organic Matter to North Carolina Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Paerl, H. W.; Hounshell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Increased frequency and intensity of storm events such as tropical cyclones will have a major impact on estuarine and coastal biogeochemical cycling. Here, we determined the sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) as part of a larger study to quantify the short-term (several months) response of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Neuse River Estuary-Pamlico Sound (NRE-PS) ecosystem to floodwaters associated with Hurricane Matthew. Sampling was conducted weekly in both the NRE-PS (October 2016 to January 2017), the Neuse River (NR) (October to December 2016) and in freshwater wetlands of the Neuse River above head of tide in March 2017. Specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C-DOC) were used to determine the sources of DOM and POM transported to the NRE-PS in post-hurricane floodwaters. For DOM, SUVA254 values increased from 3.23 ±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NR to 4.14±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NRE and then declined to 3.63±0.32 mg C L-1 m-1 in PS. Combined with depleted δ13C-DOC values (-26 to -32‰) and elevated C:N values in the estuary and sound, these results confirm continued loading of fresh terrestrial organic matter into NRE-PS weeks after the storm. For POM, δ13C-POC and C:N ratio results likewise indicated a terrestrial source in floodwaters. SUVA254 values >3.5 mg C L-1 m-1 coupled with the depleted δ13C values and large C:N values were consistent with DOM primarily sourced from wetlands (e.g., wetland SUVA254 = 3.77±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in March 2017). We hypothesize that floodwaters connected riverine wetlands to the main channel of the NR, exporting DOM and POM into the NRE-PS. Our results indicate that upstream wetlands play a central and potentially significant role in organic matter enrichment and metabolism of estuarine and coastal waters, in light of increasing frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones impacting coastal watersheds.

  8. Risk of influenza A(nrH7N9) pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nrH7N9) infection in humans (1). Countries from the eastern Mediterranean region have high rates of viral hepatitis infection. The World Health. Organization (WHO) estimates that the HBsAg preva- lence in the eastern Mediterranean region ...

  9. PRE-DISCOVERY AND FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEARBY SN 2009nr: IMPLICATIONS FOR PROMPT TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Rubab; Stanek, K. Z.; Beacom, J. F.; Szczygiel, D. M.; Mogren, K.; Eastman, J. D.; Martini, P.; Stoll, R.; Prieto, J. L.; Pojmanski, G.; Pilecki, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present photometric and spectroscopic observations of the Type Ia supernova SN 2009nr in UGC 8255 (z = 0.0122). Following the discovery announcement at what turned out to be 10 days after peak, we detected it at V ≅15.7 mag in data collected by the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) North telescope 2 weeks prior to the peak, and then followed it up with telescopes ranging in aperture from 10 cm to 6.5 m. Using early photometric data available only from ASAS, we find that the supernova is similar to the overluminous Type Ia SN 1991T, with a peak at M V ≅ -19.6 mag, and a slow decline rate of Δm 15 (B) ≅ 0.95 mag. The early post-maximum spectra closely resemble those of SN 1991T, while the late-time spectra are more similar to those of normal Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Interestingly, SN 2009nr has a projected distance of 13.0 kpc (∼4.3 disk scale lengths) from the nucleus of the small star-forming host galaxy UGC 8255. This indicates that the progenitor of SN 2009nr is not associated with a young stellar population, calling into question the conventional association of luminous SNe Ia with the 'prompt' component directly correlated with current star formation. The pre-discovery observation of SN 2009nr using ASAS demonstrates the science utility of high-cadence all sky surveys conducted using small telescopes for the discovery of nearby (d ∼< 50 Mpc) supernovae.

  10. Qualitative risk assessment for the 100-NR-2 Operable Unit. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This qualitative risk assessment provides information about the 100- NR-2 Groundwater Operable Unit of the Hanford reservation. Topics discussed in this report are: data evaluation; human health risk assessment overview; ecological evaluations; summary of uncertainty; results of both the ecological and human health evaluations; toxicity assessment; risk characterization; and a summary of contaminants of potential concern

  11. Carbon monoxide alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress injury through suppressing the expression of Fis1 in NR8383 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jia [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Yu, Jian-bo, E-mail: yujianbo11@126.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Wei; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Da-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin 300100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, as one of the products of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses powerful protective properties in vivo or in vitro models, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis function. However, there is little evidence that CO alleviates oxidative stress damage through altering mitochondrial fission in alveolar macrophages. In the present study, our results showed that CO increased cell vitality, improved mitochondrial SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited cell apoptosis in NR8383 exposed to LPS. Meanwhile, CO decreased the expression of Fis1, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained elongation of mitochondria in LPS-incubated NR8383. Overall, our study underscored a critical role of CO in suppressing the expression of Fis1 and alleviating LPS- induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. - Highlights: • LPS exposure triggered cell injury in NR8383. • CO alleviated LPS-induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. • CO inhibited Fis1 levels and improved mitochondrial function in LPS-induced NR8383.

  12. Signal differential-to-noise ratio (SdNR) in the evaluation of radiography techniques for optimisation of the industrial computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddock, Aline; Candeias, Janaina P.; Oliveira, Davi F.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2007-01-01

    The transition from analog to digital operation which the radiography has gone through, has provided new and important challenges in the way the images are acquired and displayed. There is several acquisition system of digital image, such as for example, the computerized system, which uses Image Plates (IP). This system was used in the accomplishment of this work with the aim to study a technique capable of optimizing the acquisition of digital image. A methodology for the evaluation of image quality is through the parameter signal differential-to- noise ratio (SdNR). However, in order to compare different radiographic techniques through this system it is also necessary to calculate the Figure of Merit (FOM) that in this in case, it is given by the square of the SdNR per unit of applied dose. The method proposed in this work is about the use of IP to carry out SdNR experimental measurements and consequently FOM measurements in applications of the x-ray of pieces in aluminum. This proceeding was performed varying some specific parameters of the system, as high voltage, exposition and the use of filters in the X-rays tube exit. As a result, an SdNR was obtained for each technique, allowing in this way, to verify the behavior of the FOM in each one of them. (author)

  13. Pilot scale experiments on radiation vulcanization of NR latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridwan, M.

    The potential of irradiated latex as raw material of commercial use is under testing on pilot plant scale in Indonesia which has 225 kCi Co-60 irradiation facility and can irradiate 1000 tonnes of centrifuged latex per annum. The facility was jointly designed by BATAN of Indonesia and JAERI of Japan and was jointly financed by UNDP/IAEA, Government of Japan and Government of Indonesia under UNDP/IAEA Regional Cooperative Agreement Project on Industrial Application of Isotopes and Radiation Technology. The facility is a water pool type and can accomodate 400 kCi Co-60. The Co-60 rack has two shapes, plate and cylindrical shapes. The plate shape source is used for natural rubber latex irradiation and the cylindrical one is used for other irradiation services. The vulcanization system consists of three major components : emulsification unit ( height : 650 mm, diameter 500 mm ), mixing unit ( height : 1900mm, diameter 1200 mm ) and vulcanization reactor ( height : 1800 mm, diameter 1300 mm ). The first two components are located outside shielded room while the third one-in irradiation room. The radiation vulcanization process is a much simpler energy saving process comparedto the conventional thermal process which has two vulcanization steps before and after dipping. The physical and mechanical properties of irradiated NR Latex are comparable to those of sulfur vulcanized, and depend on many factors such as irradiation dose, sensitizer content, dry rubber content and storage time.

  14. High brightness--multiple beamlets source for patterned X-ray production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo [Hercules, CA; Ji, Qing [Albany, CA; Barletta, William A [Oakland, CA; Jiang, Ximan [El Cerrito, CA; Ji, Lili [Albany, CA

    2009-10-27

    Techniques for controllably directing beamlets to a target substrate are disclosed. The beamlets may be either positive ions or electrons. It has been shown that beamlets may be produced with a diameter of 1 .mu.m, with inter-aperture spacings of 12 .mu.m. An array of such beamlets, may be used for maskless lithography. By step-wise movement of the beamlets relative to the target substrate, individual devices may be directly e-beam written. Ion beams may be directly written as well. Due to the high brightness of the beamlets from extraction from a multicusp source, exposure times for lithographic exposure are thought to be minimized. Alternatively, the beamlets may be electrons striking a high Z material for X-ray production, thereafter collimated to provide patterned X-ray exposures such as those used in CAT scans. Such a device may be used for remote detection of explosives.

  15. Lifestyle behavior pattern is associated with different levels of risk for incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease: the Cache County study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Maria C; Dew, Jeffrey; Smith, Heeyoung; Fauth, Elizabeth; Piercy, Kathleen W; Breitner, John C S; Tschanz, JoAnn; Wengreen, Heidi; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    To identify distinct behavioral patterns of diet, exercise, social interaction, church attendance, alcohol consumption, and smoking and to examine their association with subsequent dementia risk. Longitudinal, population-based dementia study. Rural county in northern Utah, at-home evaluations. Two thousand four hundred ninety-one participants without dementia (51% male, average age 73.0 ± 5,7; average education 13.7 ± 4.1 years) initially reported no problems in activities of daily living and no stroke or head injury within the past 5 years. Six dichotomized lifestyle behaviors were examined (diet: high ≥ median on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension scale; exercise: ≥5 h/wk of light activity and at least occasional moderate to vigorous activity; church attendance: attending church services at least weekly; social Interaction: spending time with family and friends at least twice weekly; alcohol: currently drinking alcoholic beverages ≥ 2 times/wk; nonsmoker: no current use or fewer than 100 cigarettes ever). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify patterns among these behaviors. Proportional hazards regression modeled time to dementia onset as a function of behavioral class, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E status. Follow-up averaged 6.3 ± 5.3 years, during which 278 cases of incident dementia (200 Alzheimer's disease (AD)) were diagnosed. LCA identified four distinct lifestyle classes. Unhealthy-religious (UH-R; 11.5%), unhealthy-nonreligious (UH-NR; 10.5%), healthy-moderately religious (H-MR; 38.5%), and healthy-very religious (H-VR; 39.5%). UH-NR (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54, P = .028), H-MR (HR = 0.56, P = .003), and H-VR (HR = 0.58, P = .005) had significantly lower dementia risk than UH-R. Results were comparable for AD, except that UH-NR was less definitive. Functionally independent older adults appear to cluster into subpopulations with distinct patterns of lifestyle behaviors with different levels of risk for subsequent

  16. Activity patterns of Californians: Use of and proximity to indoor pollutant sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Peggy L.; Phillips, Thomas J.; Mulberg, Elliot J.; Hui, Steve P.

    The California Air Resources Board funded a statewide survey of activity patterns of Californians over 11 years of age in order to improve the accuracy of exposure assessments for air pollutants. Telephone interviews were conducted with 1762 respondents over the four seasons from fall 1987 through summer 1988. In addition to completing a 24-h recall diary of activities and locations, participants also responded to questions about their use of and proximity to potential pollutant sources. Results are presented regarding time spent by Californians in different activities and locations relevant to pollutant exposure, and their frequency of use of or proximity to pollutant sources including cigarettes, consumer products such as paints and deodorizers, combustion appliances and motor vehicles. The results show that Californians spend, on average, 87% of their time indoors, 7% in enclosed transit and 6% outdoors. At least 62% of the population over 11 years of age and 46% of nonsmokers are near others' tobacco smoke at some time during the day. Potential exposure to different pollutant sources appears to vary among different gender and age groups. For example, women are more likely to use or be near personal care products and household cleaning agents, while men are more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, solvents and paints. Data from this study can be used to reduce significantly the uncertainty associated with risk assessments for many pollutants.

  17. Assessing the potential of amino acid 13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-08-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing the biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on naturally occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions, and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results emphasize that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e., isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterially derived amino acids ranged from 10 to 15 % in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years, and up to 35 % during the last glacial period. The greater bacterial contributions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a

  18. Eesti NSV Ministrite Nõukogu 15. mai 1989. a. määruse nr. 168 osalise muutmise kohta

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1990-01-01

    Nõukogude valuuta, välisvaluuta ning muude valuuta- ja teiste väärtuste välismaalt ja välismaale sisse- ja väljaveo, saatmise ja ülekandmise määrustiku" kinnitamise kohta. - Lisatud: NSV Liidu MN määrus "Nõukogude valuuta, välisvaluuta ning muude valuuta- ja teiste väärtuste välismaalt ja välismaale sisse- ja väljaveo, saatmise ja ülekandmise määrustikus" muudatuste tegemise kohta (13. dets. 1989 nr. 1108) ; NSVL MN määrus "MSV Liidu sisetarbijaturu kaitse ning Nõukogude valuuta ja tarbekaupade üle NSV Liidu riigipiiri toimetamisel kuritarvituste vältimise abinõude kohta" (7. dets. 1989 nr. 1093)

  19. Effect of fibre treatments on tensile properties of ethylene vinyl acetate/natural rubber/mengkuang leaf fibre (EVA/NR/MLF) thermoplastic elastomer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Faiezah; Ismail, Hanafi; Rusli, Arjulizan

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, a great attention has been dedicated to natural fibers as reinforcement for polymer composites. Natural fibers, compared to glass fibers, exhibit better mechanical properties, such as stiffness, impact strength, flexibility and modulus. However, certain drawbacks, such as the incompatibility between fibers and polymer matrices, the tendency to form aggregates during processing and the poor resistance to moisture, reduce the use of these natural fibers as reinforcements in polymers. Several treatments and modifications are being used to improve the adhesion between fibre and matrix. In this work, the effect of bleaching treatments using hydrogen peroxide in the Mengkuang leaf fibre (MLF) was evaluated on tensile properties of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA)/Natural Rubber (NR)/MLF composites. Treated MLF were mixed with the EVA/NR blend in Haake internal mixer at 120 °C and rotor speed of 50 rpm for 10 minutes. Fibre morphology and the fibre/matrix interface ware further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tensile strength was increased by about 8% as compared to the composites with untreated fibers. The increased adhesion between fiber and matrix was also observed by SEM. Thus, EVA/NR/MLF composites reinforced with the treated fibres exhibited better tensile properties than untreated EVA/NR/MLF composites.

  20. Efeito de um resíduo do processo de galvanoplastia sobre a vulcanização da borracha natural (NR Effect from the waste from the electroplating process on the natural rubber (NR vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. S. Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Um resíduo gerado no processo de galvanoplastia (RG, rico em metais, foi incorporado em composições de borracha natural (NR em substituição parcial ou total ao ativador comum do processo de vulcanização, o óxido de zinco (ZnO. As diferentes misturas foram preparadas em um misturador de calandras e, após a reometria, foram vulcanizadas a 150 °C. As propriedades mecânicas de resistência à tração e rasgo foram determinadas, além do teor de gel. Além disso, o efeito do resíduo RG sobre a cinética de vulcanização foi analisado através do modelo de Coran, usando-se as temperaturas de 150, 160 e 170 °C. Os resultados mostraram que RG desenvolve algum efeito catalítico sobre a vulcanização de NR, embora exista uma considerável perda na resistência à tração quando o teor de RG excede o do ZnO nas composições. Quanto ao rasgo, a propriedade é mantida em um patamar satisfatório enquanto teores menores de RG são utilizados.A waste generated in the electroplating process (RG, rich in metals, was incorporated in natural rubber (NR compositions, as a partial or complete replacement of zinc oxide (ZnO, which is a typical activator of the vulcanization process. Different mixtures were prepared in a two-roll mixer, which were vulcanized at 150 ºC after the rheometry measurements. Mechanical properties such as tensile and tear strength were evaluated, as well as the gel content. In addition, the effect of RG waste upon the vulcanization kinetics was analyzed with the Coran model using temperatures at 150, 160 and 170 ºC. The results showed that RG develops some catalytic effect upon NR vulcanization, but there is a poor mechanical performance when RG loading is higher than that of ZnO in the compositions. For the tear strength, the property is maintained at a reasonable level if a small RG loading is utilized.

  1. Eduard Tubina "Kogutud teoste" köidetest I/I (sümfooniad nr. 1 ja 2) ning I/VII (orkestrisüidid) / Timo Virtanen ; (tõlkinud Merike Vaitmaa)

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Virtanen, Timo, 1956-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Lauri Sirp, Toomas Trass (toim.). Kogutud teosed. I seeria, I köide : Sümfoonia nr. 1 ; Sümfoonia nr. 2 : Legendaarne / Eduard Tubin. Stockholm : Rahvusvaheline Eduard Tubina Ühing ; Gehrmans Musikförlag, 2012

  2. [Effect of electroacupuncture on phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the spinal dorsal horn of CFA rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Fang, Jun-Fan; Du, Jun-Ying; Qiu, Yu-Jie; Liu, Jin

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on phosphorylation of spinal NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammatory pain rats. METHods Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal group (N group, n = 10), the model group (CFA group, n = 15), and the EA group (n = 15). The inflammatory pain model was established by subcutaneous injecting CFA (0.1 mL per rat) into the right hind paw. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured before CFA injection (as the base), as well as at 24 h, 25 h, 3rd day, and 7th day after CFA injection. Phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn at the 3rd day post-injection were detected using immunohistochemical assay. PWTs in the CFA group were significantly lower than those of the N group at every detective time point post-injection (P CFA group at 25 h and 3rd day post-injection (P CFA group was up-regulated. Compared with the CFA group, the ratio of p-NR2B positive cells in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn of rats showed a decreasing tendency in the EA group. EA might effectively inhibit CFA-induced inflammatory pain possibly associated with down-regulating phosphorylation of NR2B at Tyr 1742 site in the ispilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  3. Characterization of vNr-13, the first alphaherpesvirus gene of the bcl-2 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Banyai, Michelle; Rigal, Dominique; Schmidt, Carl J.; Gillet, Germain

    2003-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family, including antiapoptotic and proapoptotic members, plays key regulating roles in programmed cell death. We report the characterization of a new member of the bcl-2 family, encoded by herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT). The product of this gene shares 80% homology with Nr-13, an apoptosis inhibitor, which is overexpressed in avian cells transformed by the v-src oncogene. This new gene, that we propose to call vnr-13, is the first member of the bcl-2 family to be isolated among α-herpesviruses. Results from cells expressing the HVT-vnr-13 gene product show that the encoded protein inhibits apoptosis and also reduces the rate of cellular proliferation. Contrary to all bcl-2 homologues found in γ-herpesvirus, which are intronless, vnr-13 has the same organization as the cellular nr-13 gene. Hence, the HVT vnr-13 gene may have been acquired from a reverse transcriptase product of an unspliced precursor RNA, or via direct recombination with the host chromosomal DNA

  4. Patterns and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Gewurtz, Sarah B.; Reiner, Eric J.; MacPherson, Karen A.; Kolic, Terry M.; Helm, Paul A.; Brindle, Ian D.; Marvin, Chris H.

    2008-01-01

    This study determines spatial trends and congener patterns of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in surficial sediments of Lakes Erie and Ontario. Sediments are enriched in 2378-PCDFs in Lake Ontario, and the PCDD/F concentrations increased from shallow near-shore sediments towards deep-water depositional zone sediments. In Lake Erie, sediments were dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the highest PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the western basin and the southern shoreline of the central basin with a decrease towards the eastern basin and the northern shoreline of the central basin. Principal components analysis revealed that chemical manufacture and disposal of chemical waste along the Niagara River has been a major PCDD/F source to Lake Ontario; while PCDD/Fs in Lake Erie are from multiple sources including industrial sources along the Detroit River, major tributaries along the southern shoreline of the lake, and atmospherically-derived material from the upper lakes and connecting channels. - Lake-wide 2378-PCDD/F congener patterns are first reported in L. Erie and L. Ontario sediments

  5. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allès

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. Methods: The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712 and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596 were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI. Results: Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. Conclusion: The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  6. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in Older Persons from France and Quebec: Dietary and Lifestyle Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allès, Benjamin; Samieri, Cécilia; Lorrain, Simon; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Shatenstein, Bryna; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Payette, Hélène; Laurin, Danielle; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2016-04-19

    Dietary and nutrient patterns have been linked to health outcomes related to aging. Food intake is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare nutrient patterns across two elderly populations sharing a common ancestral cultural background, but living in different environments. The diet quality, lifestyle and socioeconomic characteristics of participants from the Three-City Study (3C, France, n = 1712) and the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge, Quebec, Canada, n = 1596) were analyzed. Nutrient patterns and their food sources were identified in the two samples using principal component analysis. Diet quality was compared across sample-specific patterns by describing weekly food intake and associations with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI). Three nutrient patterns were retained in each study: a healthy, a Western and a more traditional pattern. These patterns accounted for 50.1% and 53.5% of the total variance in 3C and NuAge, respectively. Higher education and non-physical occupations over lifetime were associated with healthy patterns in both studies. Other characteristics such as living alone, having a body mass index lower than 25 and being an ex-smoker were associated with the healthy pattern in NuAge. No association between these characteristics and the nutrient patterns was noted in 3C. The healthy and Western patterns from each sample also showed an inverse association with C-HEI. The two healthy patterns showed important similarities: adequate food variety, consumption of healthy foods and associations with common sociodemographic factors. This work highlights that nutrient patterns derived using a posteriori methods may be useful to compare the nutritional quality of the diet of distinct populations.

  7. Analysis of the gene coding for steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1, NR5A1) in a cohort of 50 Egyptian patients with 46,XY disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantawy, Sally; Mazen, Inas; Soliman, Hala; Anwar, Ghada; Atef, Abeer; El-Gammal, Mona; El-Kotoury, Ahmed; Mekkawy, Mona; Torky, Ahmad; Rudolf, Agnes; Schrumpf, Pamela; Grüters, Annette; Krude, Heiko; Dumargne, Marie-Charlotte; Astudillo, Rebekka; Bashamboo, Anu; Biebermann, Heike; Köhler, Birgit

    2014-05-01

    Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1, NR5A1) is a key transcriptional regulator of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recently, SF1 mutations were found to be a frequent cause of 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) in humans. We investigate the frequency of NR5A1 mutations in an Egyptian cohort of XY DSD. Clinical assessment, endocrine evaluation and genetic analysis of 50 Egyptian XY DSD patients (without adrenal insufficiency) with a wide phenotypic spectrum. Molecular analysis of NR5A1 gene by direct sequencing followed by in vitro functional analysis of the two novel missense mutations detected. Three novel heterozygous mutations of the coding region in patients with hypospadias were detected. p.Glu121AlafsX25 results in severely truncated protein, p.Arg62Cys lies in DNA-binding zinc finger, whereas p.Ala154Thr lies in the hinge region of SF1 protein. Transactivation assays using reporter constructs carrying promoters of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), CYP11A1 and TESCO core enhancer of Sox9 showed that p.Ala154Thr and p.Arg62Cys mutations result in aberrant biological activity of NR5A1. A total of 17 patients (34%) harboured the p.Gly146Ala polymorphism. We identified two novel NR5A1 mutations showing impaired function in 23 Egyptian XY DSD patients with hypospadias (8.5%). This is the first study searching for NR5A1 mutations in oriental patients from the Middle East and Arab region with XY DSD and no adrenal insufficiency, revealing a frequency similar to that in European patients (6.5-15%). We recommend screening of NR5A1 in patients with hypospadias and gonadal dysgenesis. Yearly follow-ups of gonadal function and early cryoconservation of sperms should be performed in XY DSD patients with NR5A1 mutations given the risk of future fertility problems due to early gonadal failure.

  8. Fabrication of TiO2 nanorod assembly grafted rGO (rGO@TiO2-NR) hybridized flake-like photocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Kangle; Fang, Shun; Si, Lingling; Xia, Yang; Ho, Wingkei; Li, Mei

    2017-01-01

    To efficiently separate the photo-generated electron-hole pairs of TiO2 hybrid, anatase TiO2 nanorod assembly grafted reduced graphene oxides (rGO@TiO2-NR) hybrid was successfully fabricated using potassium titanium oxalate (PTO) and graphene oxides (GO) as starting materials and diethylene glycol (DEG) as reductant. The effect of GO content on the structure and photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO2-NR composite was systematically studied. Results show that, in the absence of GO, only TiO2 microsphere assembly is obtained from TiO2 nanorods. The presence of GO results in the formation of a flake-like TiO2-nanorod-assembled grafted rGO hybrid. The photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO2-NR composite increases first and then decreases with increase in the amount of GO from 0 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The hybridized S4 sample prepared with 4 wt.% GO possesses the highest photocatalytic activity with a constant rate of 0.039 min-1 in the photocataytic degradation of Brilliant X-3B dye (X3B); this sample was enhanced more than three times when compared with pure TiO2 sample (0.012 min-1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the rGO@TiO2-NR hybrid was attributed to the strong interaction between TiO2 nanorods and rGO. The unique hierarchical structure of 1D nanorod assembly TiO2-rGO flakes facilitates the injection and transfer of photo-generated electrons from TiO2 to graphene, thus retarding the recombination of electron-hole pairs and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. The enlarged BET surface areas, not only increasing the number of active sites, but also facilitating the adsorption of the dye, and improved light-harvesting ability also contribute to the enhanced photoreactivity of rGO@TiO2-NR hybrid.

  9. Water Data Analysis 393937093090901 TURKEY CREEK NR SUMNER MO, FULBRIGHT RD NEAR SWAN LAKE NWR-2013-2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — WATER MONITORING STATION ANALYSIS – CALENDAR YEAR 2013 to 2016 SITE NUMBER: 393937093090901 SITE NAME: Turkey Creek nr Sumner MO, Fulbright Rd COOPERATION: Swan Lake...

  10. Rho-kinase signaling controls nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of class IIa Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) and transcriptional activation of orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compagnucci, Claudia; Barresi, Sabina [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Petrini, Stefania [Research Laboratories, Confocal Microscopy Core Facility, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Bertini, Enrico [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy); Zanni, Ginevra, E-mail: ginevra.zanni@opbg.net [Unit of Molecular Medicine for Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurosciences, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS, Rome (Italy)

    2015-04-03

    Rho-kinase (ROCK) has been well documented to play a key role in RhoA-induced actin remodeling. ROCK activation results in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation either by direct action on MLC kinase (MLCK) or by inhibition of MLC phosphatase (MLCP), modulating actin–myosin contraction. We found that inhibition of the ROCK pathway in induced pluripotent stem cells, leads to nuclear export of HDAC7 and transcriptional activation of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 while in cells with constitutive ROCK hyperactivity due to loss of function of the RhoGTPase activating protein Oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1), the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 is downregulated. Our study identify a new target of ROCK signaling via myosin phosphatase subunit (MYPT1) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC7) at the nuclear level and provide new insights in the cellular functions of ROCK. - Highlights: • ROCK regulates nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC7 via phosphorylation of MYPT1. • Nuclear export of HDAC7 and upregulation of NR4A1 occurs with low ROCK activity. • High levels of ROCK activity due to OPHN1 loss of function downregulate NR4A1.

  11. Patterns-based evaluation of open source BPM systems : the cases of jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Andersson, B.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The abundance of approaches towards business process specification and enactment is well-known and is an ongoing source of confusion. One of the objectives of the Workflow Patterns Initiative is to provide insights into comparative strenghts and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art in Process Aware

  12. Patterns-based evaluation of open source BPM systems : the cases of jBPM, OpenWFE, and Enhydra Shark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Andersson, B.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The abundance of approaches towards business process specification and enactment is well-known and is an ongoing source of confusion. One of the objectives of the Workflow Patterns Initiative is to provide insights into comparative strengths and weaknesses of the state-of-the-art in Process Aware

  13. The LIM domain protein FHL2 interacts with the NR5A family of nuclear receptors and CREB to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matulis, Christina K; Mayo, Kelly E

    2012-08-01

    Nuclear receptor transcriptional activity is enhanced by interaction with coactivators. The highly related nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) subfamily members liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 bind to and activate several of the same genes, many of which are important for reproductive function. To better understand transcriptional activation by these nuclear receptors, we sought to identify interacting proteins that might function as coactivators. The LIM domain protein four and a half LIM domain 2 (FHL2) was identified as interacting with the NR5A receptors in a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human ovary cDNA library. FHL2, and the closely related FHL1, are both expressed in the rodent ovary and in granulosa cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FHL1 and FHL2 in primary mouse granulosa cells reduced expression of the NR5A target genes encoding inhibin-α and P450scc. In vitro assays confirmed the interaction between the FHL and NR5A proteins and revealed that a single LIM domain of FHL2 is sufficient for this interaction, whereas determinants in both the ligand binding domain and DNA binding domain of NR5A proteins are important. FHL2 enhances the ability of both liver receptor homolog 1 and steroidogenic factor 1 to activate the inhibin-α subunit gene promoter in granulosa cells and thus functions as a transcriptional coactivator. FHL2 also interacts with cAMP response element-binding protein and substantially augments activation of inhibin gene expression by the combination of NR5A receptors and forskolin, suggesting that FHL2 may facilitate integration of these two signals. Collectively these results identify FHL2 as a novel coactivator of NR5A nuclear receptors in ovarian granulosa cells and suggest its involvement in regulating target genes important for mammalian reproduction.

  14. Measurement of dose equivalent with personal dosemeters and instrumentation of radiological protection in the new operative ICRU magnitudes, for external fields of beta radiation. Part III. Determination of the joint of factors of angular conversion for the secondary source pattern Nr. - 86 Of (1850) MBq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1994-02-01

    It determined the assembly of factors of angular conversion T(0;α), for the source secondary pattern of 90 Sr/ 90 Y (1850 MBq) at a distance detecting source of 30 cm, in the following angles: 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 0 . Obtaining the values of: 1.01, 1.05, 1.13, 1.19 and 0.95, respectively. Their Global uncertainty is smaller to 1.5% for all the cases and its percentage differences with regard to the values reported by the Draft of the norm ISO 6980(1992) they are smaller to 3.0% for all the cases.The technique employee was that of the extrapolation Chamber and the treatment of the uncertainties is made of agreement with the recommendations of the BIPM. (Author)

  15. Curcumin attenuates the expression of NMDAR-NR1 in Chronic Constructive Injury model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdi Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neuropathic pain is a prevalent desease that greatly impairs the patients’ quality of life. A lack of the understanding of its aetiology, inadequate relief, and development of tolerance and potential toxicity of classical antinociceptives warrant the investigation of the newer agents to relieve this pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptic effect of curcumin and its effect on expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion in chronic constriction injury (CCI mode of neuropathic pain of rats. Methods: Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL of rats were measured on 2th pre-operative and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 post-operative days, and the expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG was measured by Immunohistochemical staining and western-blot. Results: CCI rats exhibited significant hyperalgesia after operation as compared with control rats. Chronic treatment with curcumin 100mg/kg/day for 14days starting from the 1 th day after CCI operation significantly attenuated PWMT and PWTL. Curcumin also inhibited the expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Conclusion: These results indicate an antinociceptive activity of curcumin possibly through its inhibitory action on expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG and point towards its potential to attenuate neuropathic pain.

  16. Ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Shady R.; Elsayed, Ahmed A.; Sabry, Yasser M.; Khalil, Diaa

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing number of spectroscopy applications in the near-infrared (NIR) range including gas sensing, food analysis, pharmaceutical and industrial applications that requires highly efficient, more compact and low-cost miniaturized spectrometers. One of the key components for such systems is the wideband light source that can be fabricated using Silicon technology and hence integrated with other components on the same chip. In this work, we report a ring-patterned plasmonic photonic crystal (PC) thermal light source for miniaturized near-infrared spectrometers. The design is based on silicon and tuned to achieve wavelength selectivity in the emitted spectrum. The design is optimized by using Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA) simulation, which is used to compute the power reflectance and transmittance that are used to predict the emissivity of the structure. The design consists of a PC of silicon rings coated with platinum. The period of the structure is about 2 μm and the silicon is highly-doped with n-type doping level in the order of 1019-1020 cm-3 to enhance the free-carrier absorption. The ring etching depth, diameter and shell thickness are optimized to increase its emissivity within a specific wavelength range of interest. The simulation results show an emissivity exceeding 0.9 in the NIR range up to 2.5 μm, while the emissivity is decreased significantly for longer wavelengths suppressing the emission out of the range of interest, and hence increasing the efficiency for the source. The reported results open the door for black body radiation engineering in integrated silicon sources for spectrometer miniaturization.

  17. Medtner: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester Nr. 1 c-Moll op. 33 / Volkmar Fischer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fischer, Volkmar

    1992-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Medtner: Konzert für Klavier und Orchester Nr. 1 c-Moll op. 33, Sonaten-Ballade für Klavier Fis-Dur op. 27. London Philharmonic Orchestra / Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD9039 (WD:54'28")

  18. Do clinical features and MRI suggest the same nerve root in acute cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different proposed pathophysiological mechanisms can result in variable clinical presentations of cervical radiculopathy (CR, often making it difficult to detect minor nerve root (NR conditions. This descriptive study determined (1 the level(s of  NR involvement suggested by the distribution patterns of clinical features and detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and (2 the most common associations between the different variables in patients diagnosed with acute CR by a neurosurgeon. A physiotherapist blinded to the level(s of NR involvement performed a standardized interview on 21 subjects to determine the distribution patterns of pain and paraesthesia, and a neurological examination. The Fisher exact test was used to determine associations between the different variables. Only seven subjects presented clinically and radiologically with the same single-level NR involvement. Multiple- level presentations occurred which might be due to dermatomal overlapping, central sensitization or the possible involvement of two adjacent NR levels. Distribution patterns of motor weakness, pain and paraesthesia, and to a lesser extent sensory and reflex changes, have value in identifying the compressed NR level. For this sample the distri-bution patterns of radicular features identified C6 and C8 with more certainty than C7.

  19. Compound-specific amino acid δ15N patterns in marine algae: Tracer potential for cyanobacterial vs. eukaryotic organic nitrogen sources in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Matthew D.; Lehman, Jennifer; Kudela, Raphael

    2013-02-01

    Stable nitrogen isotopic analysis of individual amino acids (δ15N-AA) has unique potential to elucidate the complexities of food webs, track heterotrophic transformations, and understand diagenesis of organic nitrogen (ON). While δ15N-AA patterns of autotrophs have been shown to be generally similar, prior work has also suggested that differences may exist between cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae. However, δ15N-AA patterns in differing oceanic algal groups have never been closely examined. The overarching goals of this study were first to establish a more quantitative understanding of algal δ15N-AA patterns, and second to examine whether δ15N-AA patterns have potential as a new tracer for distinguishing prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic N sources. We measured δ15N-AA from prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton cultures and used a complementary set of statistical approaches (simple normalization, regression-derived fractionation factors, and multivariate analyses) to test for variations. A generally similar δ15N-AA pattern was confirmed for all algae, however significant AA-specific variation was also consistently identified between the two groups. The relative δ15N fractionation of Glx (glutamine + glutamic acid combined) vs. total proteinaceous N appeared substantially different, which we hypothesize could be related to differing enzymatic forms. In addition, the several other AA (most notably glycine and leucine) appeared to have strong biomarker potential. Finally, we observed that overall patterns of δ15N values in algae correspond well with the Trophic vs. Source-AA division now commonly used to describe variable AA δ15N changes with trophic transfer, suggesting a common mechanistic basis. Overall, these results show that autotrophic δ15N-AA patterns can differ between major algal evolutionary groupings for many AA. The statistically significant multivariate results represent a first approach for testing ideas about relative eukaryotic vs. prokaryotic

  20. Concordance between phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns in the Brazilian Cerrado: diversification of the endemic tree Dalbergia miscolobium (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lemos-Filho, José Pires; Lovato, Maria Bernadete

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have addressed the phylogeography of species of the Cerrado, the largest savanna biome of South America. Here we aimed to investigate the phylogeographical structure of Dalbergia miscolobium, a widespread tree from the Cerrado, and to verify its concordance with plant phylogeographical and biogeographical patterns so far described. A total of 287 individuals from 32 populations were analyzed by sequencing the trnL intron of the chloroplast DNA and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Analysis of population structure and tests of population expansion were performed and the time of divergence of haplotypes was estimated. Twelve and 27 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nrDNA data, respectively. The star-like network configuration and the mismatch distributions indicated a recent spatial and demographic expansion of the species. Consistent with previous tree phylogeographical studies of Cerrado trees, the cpDNA also suggested a recent expansion towards the southern Cerrado. The diversity of D. miscolobium was widespread but high levels of genetic diversity were found in the Central Eastern and in the southern portion of Central Western Cerrado. The combined analysis of cpDNA and nrDNA supported a phylogeographic structure into seven groups. The phylogeographical pattern showed many concordances with biogeographical and phylogeographical studies in the Cerrado, mainly with the Cerrado phytogeographic provinces superimposed to our sampling area. The data reinforced the uniqueness of Northeastern and Southeastern Cerrados and the differentiation between Eastern and Western Central Cerrados. The recent diversification of the species (estimated between the Pliocene and the Pleistocene) and the 'genealogical concordances' suggest that a shared and persistent pattern of species diversification might have been present in the Cerrado over time. This is the first time that an extensive 'genealogical concordance' between

  1. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the properties of natural rubber (NR)/styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) blend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshaie, R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri Khorasani, S., E-mail: saied@cc.iut.ac.i [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanbani Veshare, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei Abadchi, M. [Department of Polymer Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, physico-mechanical properties of NR/SBR blends cured by electron beam irradiation and sulfur were compared. The NR/SBR blends were prepared using a two-roll mill. Electron beam irradiations of 100-400 kGy were applied to cure the blends and changes in physico-mechanical properties were studied as a function of irradiation. Also, oil resistance and the effect of thermal ageing on mechanical properties of the blends were investigated. The results show that the irradiated blends have better mechanical properties than those cured by sulfur system. The irradiation cured samples also exhibited better heat stability than the sulfur cured samples. The blend cured by the highest dose shows the lowest swelling and high oil resistance compared with the other samples cured by irradiation.

  2. SRC Inhibition Reduces NR2B Surface Expression and Synaptic Plasticity in the Amygdala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinai, Laleh; Duffy, Steven; Roder, John C.

    2010-01-01

    The Src protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the regulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity by regulating NMDAR subunit 2B (NR2B) surface expression. In the amygdala, NMDA-dependent synaptic plasticity resulting from convergent somatosensory and auditory inputs contributes to emotional memory; however, the role of Src…

  3. Kinetika vulkanisasi campuran NR/EPDM dengan pendekatan model Deng-Isayev dan Kamal-Sorour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihda Novia Indrajati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Curing kinetics of natural rubber/ethylene propylene diene monomer (NR/EPDM blends at different ratios of 2,2’-dithiobis(benzothiazole (MBTS and zinc diethyl dithiocarbamate (ZDEC were studied. NR/EPDM blends were prepared using curative migration control technique. Kinetics studies employ Deng-Isayev and Kamal-Sorour models and kinetics parameters were evaluated using measured data from Moving Die Rheometer. Rate constant (k and orders of reaction (n and m were estimated through multivariable optimization using Matlab and activation energy (E was determined using Arrhenius relationship. From the results, it is evident that the experimental data were in a good agreement with Kamal-Sorour model. It is also found that autocatalytic mechanism was more controlling than the others as indicated by k2>k1. Results also shows that rate constants were greatly influenced by temperature and the types of accelerator, while orders of reaction were dependent on temperature and independent on the types and amounts of accelerator. Combination of MBTS and ZDEC reduces energy activation of autocatalytic reaction. For desirable rate of curing, its ratio of 1.4 to 0.2 gave the lowest activation energy.

  4. The Intermediate-mass Young Stellar Object 08576nr292: Discovery of A Disk-Jet System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellerbroek, L.E.; Kaper, L.; Bik, A.; de Koter, A.; Horrobin, M.; Puga, E.; Sana, H.; Waters, L.B.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of the embedded massive young stellar object (YSO) candidate 08576nr292, obtained with X-shooter and SINFONI on the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). The flux-calibrated, medium-resolution X-shooter spectrum (300–2500 nm) includes over 300 emission lines, but no (photospheric)

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of non-point source nitrogen loss in an agricultural catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Xu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source nitrogen loss poses a risk to sustainable aquatic ecosystems. However, non-point sources, as well as impaired river segments with high nitrogen concentrations, are difficult to monitor and regulate because of their diffusive nature, budget constraints, and resource deficiencies. For the purpose of catchment management, the Bayesian maximum entropy approach and spatial regression models have been used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of non-point source nitrogen loss. In this study, a total of 18 sampling sites were selected along the river network in the Hujiashan Catchment. Over the time period of 2008–2012, water samples were collected 116 times at each site and analyzed for non-point source nitrogen loss. The morphometric variables and soil drainage of different land cover types were studied and considered potential factors affecting nitrogen loss. The results revealed that, compared with the approach using the Euclidean distance, the Bayesian maximum entropy approach using the river distance led to an appreciable 10.1% reduction in the estimation error, and more than 53.3% and 44.7% of the river network in the dry and wet seasons, respectively, had a probability of non-point source nitrogen impairment. The proportion of the impaired river segments exhibited an overall decreasing trend in the study catchment from 2008 to 2012, and the reduction in the wet seasons was greater than that in the dry seasons. High nitrogen concentrations were primarily found in the downstream reaches and river segments close to the residential lands. Croplands and residential lands were the dominant factors affecting non-point source nitrogen loss, and explained up to 70.7% of total nitrogen in the dry seasons and 54.7% in the wet seasons. A thorough understanding of the location of impaired river segments and the dominant factors affecting total nitrogen concentration would have considerable importance for catchment management.

  6. Assessing the potential of amino acid δ13C patterns as a carbon source tracer in marine sediments: effects of algal growth conditions and sedimentary diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, T.; Bach, L. T.; Salvatteci, R.; Wang, Y. V.; Andersen, N.; Ventura, M.; McCarthy, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Burial of organic carbon in marine sediments has a profound influence in marine biogeochemical cycles, and provides a sink for greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4. However, tracing organic carbon from primary production sources as well as its transformations in the sediment record remains challenging. Here we examine a novel but growing tool for tracing biosynthetic origin of amino acid carbon skeletons, based on natural occurring stable carbon isotope patterns in individual amino acids (δ13CAA). We focus on two important aspects for δ13CAA utility in sedimentary paleoarchives: first, the fidelity of source diagnostic of algal δ13CAA patterns across different oceanographic growth conditions; and second, the ability of δ13CAA patterns to record the degree of subsequent microbial amino acid synthesis after sedimentary burial. Using the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, we tested under controlled conditions how δ13CAA patterns respond to changing environmental conditions, including light, salinity, temperature, and pH. Our findings show that while differing oceanic growth conditions can change macromolecular cellular composition, δ13CAA isotopic patterns remain largely invariant. These results underscore that δ13CAA patterns should accurately record biosynthetic sources across widely disparate oceanographic conditions. We also explored how δ13CAA patterns change as a function of age, total nitrogen and organic carbon content after burial, in a marine sediment core from a coastal upwelling area off Peru. Based on the four most informative amino acids for distinguishing between diatom and bacterial sources (i.e. isoleucine, lysine, leucine and tyrosine), bacterial derived amino acids ranged from 10-15% in the sediment layers from the last 5000 years to 35% during the last glacial period. The larger bacterial fractions in older sediments indicate that bacterial activity and amino acid resynthesis progressed, approximately as a function of sediment age, to

  7. Fabrication of TiO_2 nanorod assembly grafted rGO (rGO@TiO_2-NR) hybridized flake-like photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Kangle; Fang, Shun; Si, Lingling; Xia, Yang; Ho, Wingkei; Li, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO_2 nanorod assembly grafted with GO hybrid was successfully fabricated. • TiO_2 nanorods can reduce the aggregation of TiO_2 nanoparticles on graphene. • This unique structure facilitates the injection of electron from TiO_2 to graphene. - Abstract: To efficiently separate the photo-generated electron–hole pairs of TiO_2 hybrid, anatase TiO_2 nanorod assembly grafted reduced graphene oxides (rGO@TiO_2-NR) hybrid was successfully fabricated using potassium titanium oxalate (PTO) and graphene oxides (GO) as starting materials and diethylene glycol (DEG) as reductant. The effect of GO content on the structure and photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO_2-NR composite was systematically studied. Results show that, in the absence of GO, only TiO_2 microsphere assembly is obtained from TiO_2 nanorods. The presence of GO results in the formation of a flake-like TiO_2-nanorod-assembled grafted rGO hybrid. The photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO_2-NR composite increases first and then decreases with increase in the amount of GO from 0 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The hybridized S4 sample prepared with 4 wt.% GO possesses the highest photocatalytic activity with a constant rate of 0.039 min"−"1 in the photocataytic degradation of Brilliant X-3B dye (X3B); this sample was enhanced more than three times when compared with pure TiO_2 sample (0.012 min"−"1). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the rGO@TiO_2-NR hybrid was attributed to the strong interaction between TiO_2 nanorods and rGO. The unique hierarchical structure of 1D nanorod assembly TiO_2–rGO flakes facilitates the injection and transfer of photo-generated electrons from TiO_2 to graphene, thus retarding the recombination of electron–hole pairs and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. The enlarged BET surface areas, not only increasing the number of active sites, but also facilitating the adsorption of the dye, and improved light-harvesting ability also contribute to the enhanced photoreactivity

  8. Influence of protein source on amino acid uptake patterns and protein utilization in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolland, Marine; Holm, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    induces reduced growth performances that remain partly unexplained. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of exchanging the protein source on protein utilization. Marine (fish meal) and vegetable (pea protein) sources were used with or without supplementation of crystalline amino......Matrixes of different protein sources (fish and plant products) combined with the use of crystalline amino acids allow for formulation of diets that meet fish requirements with little or no effect on protein digestibility and/or feed intake. Despite this, a total or partial replacement of fish meal...... acids to the fishmeal diet level (see Table 1). Amino acid uptake patterns were assessed by the appearance of amino acids in the blood stream following the ingestion of a meal, while dietary protein utilization was evaluated by examining the metabolic response to digestion and ammonium and urea...

  9. The Optimum Processing Parameter of Carbon Nano tubes and Thermoplastic Natural Rubber (NR/LNR/LLDPE) Composites Based on Tensile Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazwani Halim; Syed Yusainee Syed Yahya; Sahrim Ahmad; Tarawneh, M.A.; Shamsul Bahri, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the exact processing parameter including mixing time, rotor speed and temperature of CNTs and TPNR (NR/LNR/LLDPE) composite has been examined using tensile properties. To prepare the composite, the matrix NR/LLDPE will compatabilized using liquid natural rubber (LNR) with 40 % NR, 10 % LNR and 50 % LLDPE. Then, 2 % CNTs will be incorporated into the matrix using different processing temperature, rotor speed and mixing time. For the temperature, different temperature that used are 135, 140, 145, 150 and 155 degree and for the rotor speed 45, 50, 55, 60 and 65 rpm have been used. As for the mixing time, five different time have been investigated which is 9 min,11 min, 13 min, 15 min and 17 min. The results for Young's modulus and elongation at break show that there is the maximum increment for the composite that have been prepared using 140 degree Celsius, 55 rpm and 13 min. However when the temperature has been increased, both of these properties has been decreased. Based on these results we can conclude that the optimum processing parameter for these CNTs composite is quite similar with the composite of the matrix (TPNR) itself. (author)

  10. 78 FR 24073 - Reconsideration of Certain New Source Issues: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... \\b\\....... 1.0 lb/MWh Total non-mercury metals......... NR 4.0E-1 lb/GWh NR Antimony, Sb NR 2.0E-2 lb... a LEE for total non-mercury HAP metals, individual non-mercury HAP metals, or filterable particulate... (including mercury), individual metals (including mercury), or filterable PM you must demonstrate compliance...

  11. Phase boundary estimation in electrical impedance tomography using the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khambampati, Anil Kumar; Kim, Kyung Youn; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Lee, Jeong Seong; Kim, Sin

    2010-01-01

    In industrial processes, monitoring of heterogeneous phases is crucial to the safety and operation of the engineering structures. Particularly, the visualization of voids and air bubbles is advantageous. As a result many studies have appeared in the literature that offer varying degrees of functionality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has already been proved to be a hallmark for process monitoring and offers not only the visualization of the resistivity profile for a given flow mixture but is also used for detection of phase boundaries. Iterative image reconstruction algorithms, such as the modified Newton–Raphson (mNR) method, are commonly used as inverse solvers. However, their utility is problematic in a sense that they require the initial solution in close proximity of the ground truth. Furthermore, they also rely on the gradient information of the objective function to be minimized. Therefore, in this paper, we address all these issues by employing a direct search algorithm, namely the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search method, to estimate the phase boundaries that directly minimizes the cost function and does not require the gradient information. It is assumed that the resistivity profile is known a priori and therefore the unknown information will be the size and location of the object. The boundary coefficients are parameterized using truncated Fourier series and are estimated using the relationship between the measured voltages and injected currents. Through extensive simulation and experimental result and by comparison with mNR, we show that the Hooke and Jeeves pattern search method offers a promising prospect for process monitoring

  12. Sibelius. Lemminkäinen-Legenden op. 22 Nr. 1-4 / Christoph Schlüren

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Schlüren, Christoph

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius. Lemminkäinen-Legenden op. 22 Nr. 1-4, Pohjolas Tochter op. 49, Nächtlicher Ritt und Sonnenaufgang op. 55; Göteborger Sinfoniker, Neeme Järvi; DG CD 453 426-2 (WD: 70'37") DDD Võrreldud: Opus 22: Segerstam (Ondine 852-2); op. 22 und 55; Paavo Järvi" (Virgin 545 213-2); op. 49: Segerstam (Chandos 8965)

  13. Item Strength Influences Source Confidence and Alters Source Memory zROC Slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Ksander, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the number of study trials creates a crossover pattern in source memory zROC slopes; that is, the slope is either below or above 1 depending on which source receives stronger learning. This pattern can be produced if additional learning affects memory processes such as the relative contribution of recollection and familiarity to source…

  14. Intensity response function of the photopic negative response (PhNR): effect of age and test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nabin R; Ly, Emma; Viswanathan, Suresh

    2017-08-01

    To assess the effect of age and test-retest reliability of the intensity response function of the full-field photopic negative response (PhNR) in normal healthy human subjects. Full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded from one eye of 45 subjects, and 39 of these subjects were tested on two separate days with a Diagnosys Espion System (Lowell, MA, USA). The visual stimuli consisted of brief (test-retest reliability was assessed with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Bland-Altman analysis. Holm's correction was applied to account for multiple comparisons. V max of BT was significantly smaller than that of PT and b-wave, and the V max of PT and b-wave was not significantly different from each other. The slope parameter n was smallest for BT and the largest for b-wave and the difference between the slopes of all three measures were statistically significant. Small differences observed in the mean values of K for the different measures did not reach statistical significance. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated no significant differences between the two test visits for any of the Naka-Rushton parameters for the three ERG measures, and the Bland-Altman plots indicated that the mean difference between test and retest measurements of the different fit parameters was close to zero and within 6% of the average of the test and retest values of the respective parameters for all three ERG measurements, indicating minimal bias. While the coefficient of reliability (COR, defined as 1.96 times the standard deviation of the test and retest difference) of each fit parameter was more or less comparable across the three ERG measurements, the %COR (COR normalized to the mean test and retest measures) was generally larger for BT compared to both PT and b-wave for each fit parameter. The Naka-Rushton fit parameters did not show statistically significant changes with age for any of the ERG measures when corrections were applied for multiple comparisons. However, the V max of

  15. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labas, R.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ( 11 C or 18 F)

  16. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  18. NR4A nuclear receptors mediate carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A gene expression by the rexinoid HX600

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizawa, Michiyasu [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan); Kagechika, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062 (Japan); Makishima, Makoto, E-mail: makishima.makoto@nihon-u.ac.jp [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nihon University School of Medicine, 30-1 Oyaguchi-kamicho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-8610 (Japan)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The function of RXR heterodimers with NR4 receptors remains unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The RXR ligand HX600 induces expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HX600-induced CPT1A expression is mediated by the NR4 receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CPT1A induction by HX600 is not mediated by de novo protein synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CPT1A could be a target of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers. -- Abstract: Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and can be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid (9CRA). RXRs form homodimers and heterodimers with other nuclear receptors such as the retinoic acid receptor and NR4 subfamily nuclear receptors, Nur77 and NURR1. Potential physiological roles of the Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR heterodimers have not been elucidated. In this study, we identified a gene regulated by these heterodimers utilizing HX600, a selective RXR agonist for Nur77-RXR and NURR1-RXR. While 9CRA induced many genes, including RAR-target genes, HX600 effectively induced only carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) in human teratocarcinoma NT2/D1 cells, which express RXR{alpha}, Nur77 and NURR1. HX600 also increased CPT1A expression in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and hepatocyte-derived HepG2 cells. Although HX600 induced CPT1A less effectively than 9CRA, overexpression of Nur77 or NURR1 increased the HX600 response to levels similar to 9CRA in NT2/D1 and HEK293 cells. A dominant-negative form of Nur77 or NURR1 repressed the induction of CPT1A by HX600. A protein synthesis inhibitor did not alter HX600-dependent CPT1A induction. Thus, the rexinoid HX600 directly induces expression of CPT1A through a Nur77 or NURR1-mediated mechanism. CPT1A, a gene involved in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation, could be a target of RXR-NR4 receptor heterodimers.

  19. The roles of liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) as compatibiliser in NR/HDPE blends: structural studies by electron microscopy and SANS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Mahathir Mohamed; Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Further works have been carried out to determine the roles of LENRA in inducing compatibility between immiscible blends of NR/HDPE 60/40. In addition to electron microscopy images, SANS technique has been used to determine the interface thickness between the blend components. Phase-separated structures of HDPE domain embedded in NR matrix were observed by electron microscopy technique. From the results so far, the combination of 15% LENRA and 200 kGy EB radiation gives us the best Porod plot indicating the more meaningful SANS results. (Author)

  20. H2O2 attenuates IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties in neuronal cells via NR2B containing NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhiwen; Wang, Dejun; Gaur, Uma; Rifang, Liao; Wang, Haitao; Zheng, Wenhua

    2017-09-12

    Impairment of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) signaling plays an important role in the development of neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the effect of H 2 O 2 on the survival signaling of IGF-1 and its underlying mechanisms in human neuronal cells SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that IGF-1 promoted cell survival and stimulated phosphorylation of IGF-1R as well as its downstream targets like AKT and ERK1/2 in these cells. Meanwhile, these effects of IGF-1 were abolished by H 2 O 2 at 200μM concentration which did not cause any significant toxicity to cells itself in our experiments. Moreover, studies using various glutamate receptor subtype antagonists displayed that N-methyl-D -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) blocked the effects of H 2 O 2 , whereas other glutamate receptor subtype antagonists, such as non-NMDA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX), metabolic glutamate receptor antagonists LY341495 and CPCCOEt, had no effect. Further studies revealed that NR2B-containing NMDARs are responsible for these effects as its effects were blocked by pharmacological inhibitor Ro25-698 or specific siRNA for NR2B, but not NR2A. Finally, our data also showed that Ca 2+ influx contributes to the effects of H 2 O 2 . Similar results were obtained in primary cultured cortical neurons. Taken together, the results from the present study suggested that H 2 O 2 attenuated IGF-1R tyrosine phosphorylation and its survival signaling properties via NR2B containing NMDA receptors and Ca 2+ influx in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, NMDAR antagonists, especially NR2B-selective ones, combined with IGF-1 may serve as an alternative therapeutic agent for oxidative stress related neurodegenerative disease.

  1. A Nitrogen Inventory of Major Water Regions Across the USA as a Benchmark for Future Progress in Mitigating Nitrogen Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Alexander, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs and, air, and surface waters throughout major water regions in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory can be used as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed in varying regions of the country, amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

  2. A contemporary national nitrogen inventory as a benchmark for future progress in mitigating nitrogen pollution in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Alexander, R. B.

    2011-12-01

    We present a contemporary inventory of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inputs to land, air, and water in the United States. Inputs of Nr to the nation and the world have been increasing, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of Nr in the environment are large. Most of the Nr created by anthropogenic activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of Nr to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects, caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and Nr overload that can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia and habitat loss. Here, we present a consistent accounting method for quantifying Nr sources and transport that was used in our inventory, and discuss associated data needs for tallying Nr inputs at regional scales. The inventory is a necessary tool for exploring the role of Nr contributed to the environment from various sources (e.g., from fertilizers, manure, biological fixation, human waste, atmospheric deposition) and from various industrial sectors (e.g., from agriculture, transportation, electricity generation). Agriculture and use of fertilizers to produce food, feed, and fiber (including bioenergy and biological nitrogen fixation) and combustion of fossil fuels are the largest sources of Nr released into the environment in the USA. Our inventory is currently being used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a benchmark of the current Nr situation against which future progress can be assessed -- amidst changing Nr inputs and implementation of policy and management strategies to mitigate Nr pollution.

  3. Investigation of associations between NR1D1, RORA and RORB genes and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Chieh Lai

    Full Text Available Several genes that are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are implicated in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder (BD. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between genetic variants in NR1D1 RORA, and RORB genes and BD in the Han Chinese population. We conducted a case-control genetic association study with two samples of BD patients and healthy controls. Sample I consisted of 280 BD patients and 200 controls. Sample II consisted of 448 BD patients and 1770 healthy controls. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NR1D1, RORA, and RORB genes were genotyped using GoldenGate VeraCode assays in sample I, and 492 markers in the three genes were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide CHB Array in sample II. Single marker and gene-based association analyses were performed using PLINK. A combined p-value for the joining effects of all markers within a gene was calculated using the rank truncated product method. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was also applied to test gene-gene interactions in sample I. All markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.001. In sample I, the associations with BD were observed for rs4774388 in RORA (OR = 1.53, empirical p-value, P = 0.024, and rs1327836 in RORB (OR = 1.75, P = 0.003. In Sample II, there were 45 SNPs showed associations with BD, and the most significant marker in RORA was rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and in RORB was rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0.027. A combined p-value of 1.6×10-6, 0.7, and 1.0 was obtained for RORA, RORB and NR1D1, respectively, indicting a strong association for RORA with the risk of developing BD. A four way interaction was found among markers in NR1D1, RORA, and RORB with the testing accuracy 53.25% and a cross-validation consistency of 8 out of 10. In sample II, 45 markers had empirical p-values less than 0.05. The most significant markers in RORA and RORB genes were rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and rs17611535 (OR = 3

  4. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ 14 PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, pschool classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River (China) using neural-based modeling and multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shiliang; Zhi, Junjun; Lou, Liping; Huang, Fang; Chen, Xia; Wu, Jiaping

    Characterizing the spatio-temporal patterns and apportioning the pollution sources of water bodies are important for the management and protection of water resources. The main objective of this study is to describe the dynamics of water quality and provide references for improving river pollution control practices. Comprehensive application of neural-based modeling and different multivariate methods was used to evaluate the spatio-temporal patterns and source apportionment of pollution in Qiantang River, China. Measurement data were obtained and pretreated for 13 variables from 41 monitoring sites for the period of 2001-2004. A self-organizing map classified the 41 monitoring sites into three groups (Group A, B and C), representing different pollution characteristics. Four significant parameters (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total lead) were identified by discriminant analysis for distinguishing variations of different years, with about 80% correct assignment for temporal variation. Rotated principal component analysis (PCA) identified four potential pollution sources for Group A (domestic sewage and agricultural pollution, industrial wastewater pollution, mineral weathering, vehicle exhaust and sand mining), five for Group B (heavy metal pollution, agricultural runoff, vehicle exhaust and sand mining, mineral weathering, chemical plants discharge) and another five for Group C (vehicle exhaust and sand mining, chemical plants discharge, soil weathering, biochemical pollution, mineral weathering). The identified potential pollution sources explained 75.6% of the total variances for Group A, 75.0% for Group B and 80.0% for Group C, respectively. Receptor-based source apportionment was applied to further estimate source contributions for each pollution variable in the three groups, which facilitated and supported the PCA results. These results could assist managers to develop optimal strategies and determine priorities for river

  6. Fringe patterns generated by micro-optical sensors for pattern recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamee, Kreangsak; Chaiwong, Khomyuth; Yothapakdee, Kriengsak; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2015-01-01

    We present a new result of pattern recognition generation scheme using a small-scale optical muscle sensing system, which consisted of an optical add-drop filter incorporating two nonlinear optical side ring resonators. When light from laser source enters into the system, the device is stimulated by an external physical parameter that introduces a change in the phase of light propagation within the sensing device, which can be formed by the interference fringe patterns. Results obtained have shown that the fringe patterns can be used to form the relationship between signal patterns and fringe pattern recognitions.

  7. Phase II trial of yttrium-90-DOTA-biotin pretargeted by NR-LU-10 antibody/streptavidin in patients with metastatic colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, S J.; Goris, M L.; Tempero, M.; Weiden, P L.; Gentner, L.; Breitz, H.; Adams, G. P.; Axworthy, D.; Gaffigan, S.; Bryan, K.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Colcher, D; Horak, I D.; Weiner, L M.

    1999-01-01

    A Phase II study of yttrium-90-tetra-azacyclododecanetetra-acetic acid-biotin (Y-90-DOTA-biotin) pretargeted by NR-LU-10 antibody/streptavidin (SA) was performed. The primary objectives of the study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy in patients with metastatic colon cancer. Twenty-five patients were treated with a single dose of 110 mCi/m 2 (mean administered dose, 106.5-10.3 mCi/m 2 ) of Y-90-DOTA-biotin. There were three components of the therapy. Patients first received NR-LU-10/SA on day 1. A clearing agent (biotin-galactose-human serum albumin) was administered 48 h after the NR-LU-10/SA to remove residual circulating unbound NR-LU-10/SA. Lastly, 24 h after administration of clearing agent, patients received biotin-DOTA-labeled with 110 mCi/m 2 Y-90. All three components of the therapy were administered i.v. Both hematological and nonhematological toxicities were observed. Diarrhea was the most frequent grade 4 nonhematological toxicity (16%; with 16% grade 3 diarrhea). Hematological toxicity was less severe with 8% grade 3 and 8% grade 4 neutropenia and 8% grade 3 and 16% grade 4 thrombocytopenia. The overall response rate was 8%. Two partial responders had freedom from progression of 16 weeks. Four patients (16%) had stable disease with freedom from progression of 10-20 weeks. Despite the relatively disappointing results of this study in terms of therapeutic efficacy and toxicity, proof of principle was obtained for the pretargeting approach. In addition, valuable new information was obtained about normal tissue tolerance to low-dose-rate irradiation that will help to provide useful guidelines for future study designs

  8. Tangent modulus in numerical integration of constitutive relations and its influence on convergence of N-R method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poruba Z.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For the numerical solution of elasto-plastic problems with use of Newton-Raphson method in global equilibrium equation it is necessary to determine the tangent modulus in each integration point. To reach the parabolic convergence of Newton-Raphson method it is convenient to use so called algorithmic tangent modulus which is consistent with used integration scheme. For more simple models for example Chaboche combined hardening model it is possible to determine it in analytical way. In case of more robust macroscopic models it is in many cases necessary to use the approximation approach. This possibility is presented in this contribution for radial return method on Chaboche model. An example solved in software Ansys corresponds to line contact problem with assumption of Coulomb's friction. The study shows at the end that the number of iteration of N-R method is higher in case of continuum tangent modulus and many times higher with use of modified N-R method, initial stiffness method.

  9. Locating sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material smuggling: a spatial information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Jay; Taylor, Jeffrey; Zhou, Xuesong

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM) smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  10. Locating Sensors for Detecting Source-to-Target Patterns of Special Nuclear Material Smuggling: A Spatial Information Theoretic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a spatial information-theoretic model is proposed to locate sensors for detecting source-to-target patterns of special nuclear material (SNM smuggling. In order to ship the nuclear materials from a source location with SNM production to a target city, the smugglers must employ global and domestic logistics systems. This paper focuses on locating a limited set of fixed and mobile radiation sensors in a transportation network, with the intent to maximize the expected information gain and minimize the estimation error for the subsequent nuclear material detection stage. A Kalman filtering-based framework is adapted to assist the decision-maker in quantifying the network-wide information gain and SNM flow estimation accuracy.

  11. Development of radiotracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography; Developpement de radiotraceurs pour la visualisation des recepteurs NMDA de sous-type NR2B par tomographie par emission de positons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labas, R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this thesis was to develop new radioactive tracers for imaging NR2B subtype NMDA receptors with positron emission tomography. Several compounds including 4-(4-fluoro-benzyl)piperidine and presenting interesting in vivo biological properties were the object of a labelling with a positrons emitter atom ({sup 11}C or {sup 18}F)

  12. Limited field investigation report for the 100-NR-1 operable unit. Draft A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This limited field investigation (LFI) report summarizes the data collection and analysis activities conducted during the 100-NR-1 Source Operable Unit LFI and the associated qualitative risk assessment (QRA), and makes recommendations on the continued candidacy of high-priority sites for interim remedial measures (IRM). The results and recommendations presented in this report are generally independent of future land-use scenarios. An LFI report is required when waste sites are to be considered for IRM and existing data are insufficient to formulate a conceptual model or perform a QRA. The purpose of the report is to identify those sites that are recommended to remain as candidates for IRM, provide a preliminary summary of site characterization studies, refine the conceptual model as needed, identify potential contaminant and location-specific applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARAR), and provide a qualitative assessment of the risks associated with the sites. This assessment includes consideration of whether contaminant concentrations pose a risk to human health or the environment that warrants action through IRM. Seven sites were intrusively investigated: 1322-N, 116-N-2, 119-N, 120-N-2, 120-N-1, South Settling Pond, and the 166-N Tank Farm (UN-100-N-17) unplanned release at the 166-N Tank Farm. Vadose zone sediments from these sites were sampled and analyzed. Radiological contamination is the primary concern as confirmed through this study

  13. The ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway is involved in H2O2 induced apoptosis of resident cardiac stem cells via autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingxing; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Honghong; Yin, Deling; Zhao, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Cardiac stem cells (CSCs)-based therapy provides a promising avenue for the management of ischemic heart diseases. However, engrafted CSCs are subjected to acute cell apoptosis in the ischemic microenvironment. Here, stem cell antigen 1 positive (Sca-1 + ) CSCs proved to own therapy potential were cultured and treated with H 2 O 2 to mimic the ischemia situation. As autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), inhibited H 2 O 2 -induced CSCs apoptosis, thus we demonstrated that H 2 O 2 induced autophagy-dependent apoptosis in CSCs, and continued to find key proteins responsible for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4 Group A Member 2 (NR4A2), increased upon cardiomyocyte injury with unknown functions in CSCs, was increased by H 2 O 2 . NR4A2 siRNA attenuated H 2 O 2 induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested an important role of NR4A2 in CSCs survival in ischemia conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB (P65) subunit were both increased by H 2 O 2 . Either the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or NF-κB signaling inhibitor, bay11-7082 could attenuate H 2 O 2 -induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs, which suggested they were involved in this process. Furthermore, NAC inhibited NF-κB activities, while bay11-7082 inhibited NR4A2 expression, which revealed a ROS/NF-κB/NR4A2 pathway responsible for H 2 O 2 -induced autophagy and apoptosis in CSCs. Our study supports a new clue enhancing the survival rate of CSCs in the infarcted myocardium for cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  14. Clinical utility of circulating anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A/B antibody for the diagnosis of neuropsychiatric syndromes in systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sen Hee; Fairhurst, Anna-Marie; Mak, Anselm

    2017-02-01

    Neuropsychiatric (NP) events are found in patients with rheumatic diseases, commonly in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The standard nomenclature and case definitions for 19 NPSLE syndromes by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Committee on Research cover a wide range of NP events seen in both SLE and SS. Despite advances in the understanding of SLE and SS, NP syndromes continue to pose diagnostic challenges. Correct attribution of NP events is critical in determining the correct treatment and prognosis. Anti-N-methyl- d -aspartate receptor subunits NR2A/B (anti-NR2A/B) antibodies have been demonstrated in the sera of SLE and SS patients and have been associated with collective or specific NP syndromes, though not consistently. Interpretation of anti-NR2A/B antibody data in the medical literature is rendered difficult by small sample size of patient groups. By combining different studies to generate a pooled effect size, a meta-analysis can increase the power to detect differences in the presence or absence of NP syndromes. Hence, we set out to perform a meta-analysis to assess the association between anti-NR2A/B antibodies and NP syndromes in SLE and SS. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and other databases from inception to June 2016. We abstracted data relating to anti-NR2A/B antibodies from the identified studies. The random effects model was used to calculate overall combined odds ratio (OD) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) to evaluate the relationship between anti-NR2A/B antibodies and NP syndromes in SLE and SS patients with and without NP events. We also included our own cohort of 57 SLE patients fulfilling the ACR 1997 revised classification criteria and 58 healthy controls (HCs). In total, 17 studies with data on anti-NR2A/B antibodies in 2212 SLE patients, 66 SS patients, 99 disease controls (DCs) (e.g. antiphospholipid syndrome, myasthenia gravis and autoimmune polyendocrine

  15. Radiation cross-linking of small electrical wire insulator fabricated from NR/LDPE blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)], E-mail: chyagrit@chula.ac.th; Punnachaiya, Suvit [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2007-12-15

    A low voltage, radiation-crosslinked wire insulator has been fabricated from blends of natural rubber block (STR-5L) and LDPE with phthalic anhydride (PA) as a compatibilizer. Physical properties of the NR/LDPE blend ratios of 50/50 and 60/40 with 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt% PA were evaluated. The gel content increased as the radiation dose increased. Tensile at break exhibited a maximum value of 12 MPa at 120 kGy for 1.0 and 1.5 wt% PA of both blend ratios. A higher PA content yielded a higher modulus for the same blend ratio. Blends of 60/40 ratio with 1.0 wt% PA and 0.8 wt% antimony oxide flame retardant gave the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of >30% at above 150 kGy. Other electrical properties of the wire insulator were investigated. It was found that an insulator fabricated from a PA content of 1.0 wt% in the NR/LDPE blend ratio of 50/50, after gamma ray cross-linked at a dose of 180 kGy in low vacuum (1 mm Hg), met the Thai Industrial Standard 11-2531 for low voltage wire below 1.0 kV. To comply with the standard for vertical flame test, a more suitable flame retardant was needed for the insulator.

  16. Amateur Sources Breaking the News, Meta Sources Authorizing the News of Gaddafi's Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette; Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    access to information from war zones, but are instead brought in to comment on, validate and grant legitimacy to amateur sources as a form of explicit source criticism that we would like to term metasourcing. This new pattern of information gathering and sourcing within war reporting manifests itself......This article takes its point of departure in the thesis that today’s global, digitalized and conver- gent media environment has promoted new patterns of information gathering and dissemina- tion within journalism, and war journalism in particular, which involve changing forms and various degrees...... of interplay between elite and non-elite sources as well as media professionals and amateur sources. On account of their proximity to unfolding events, amateur sources often break the news by means of raw and fragmented bits of visual and verbal information. Elite sources rarely possess the same exclusive...

  17. Effective closed form mathematical approach to determine kinetic constants of NR vulcanized with sulphur and accelerators at different concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, Gabriele, E-mail: milani@stru.polimi.it, E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, Thomas; Donetti, Raffaella [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, Federico [CHEMCO Consultant, Via J.F. Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    The basic reaction scheme due to Han and co-workers for NR vulcanized with sulphur is adopted and modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators, focusing in particular on some experimental data ad hoc obtained at Pirelli’s laboratories, where NR was vulcanized at different temperatures (from 150 to 180 °C) and concentrations of sulphur, using TBBS and DPG in the mixture as co-agents. Typically, the chain reactions are initiated by the formation of macro-compounds that are responsible of the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer. This first reaction depends on the reciprocal concentrations of all components and their chemical nature. In presence of two accelerators, it was considered that the reactions between each single accelerator and the NR raw material occur in parallel, making the reasonable assumption that there are no mutual reactions between the two accelerators. From the kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution was found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. Even kinetic constants are evaluated in closed form, avoiding a numerically demanding least-squares best fitting on rheometer experimental data. Two series of experiments available, relying into rheometer curves at different temperatures and different concentrations of sulphur and accelerator, are utilized to evaluate the fitting capabilities of the mathematical model. Very good agreement between numerical output and experimental data is experienced in all cases analysed.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of tritium labeled N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Hynes, John; Tian, Yuan; Balasubramanian, Balu; Bonacorsi, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    N-((R)-1-((S)-4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxy-3,3-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-3-sulfamoylbenzamide is a potent C-C chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) antagonist. The compound, possessing benzamide functionality, successfully underwent tritium/hydrogen (T/H) exchange with an organoiridium catalyst (Crabtree's catalyst). The labeling pattern in the product was studied with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and (3) H-NMR. Overall, multiple labeled species were identified. In addition to the anticipated incorporation of tritium in the benzamide moiety, tritium labeling was observed in the valine portion of the molecule including substitution at its chiral carbon. Using authentic standards, liquid chromatography analysis of the labeled compound showed complete retention of stereochemical configuration. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Real time measurements of submicrometer aerosols in Seoul, Korea: Sources, characteristics, and processing of organic aerosols during winter time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of non-refractory submicrometer particulate matter (NR-PM1) was conducted in Seoul, the capital of Korea, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The measurements were performed during winter when persistent air quality problems associated with elevated PM concentrations were observed. The average NR-PM1 concentration was 27.5 µg m-3 and the average mass was dominated by organics (44%), followed by nitrate (24%) and sulfate (10%). Five distinct sources of organic aerosol (OA) were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: vehicle emissions represented by a hydrocarbon-like OA factor (HOA), cooking represented by a cooking OA factor (COA), wood combustion represented by a biomass burning OA factor (BBOA), and secondary aerosol formation in the atmosphere that is represented by a semi-volatile oxygenated OA factor (SVOOA) and a low volatile oxygenated OA factor (LVOOA). These factors, on average, contributed 16, 20, 23, 15 and 26% to the total OA mass, respectively, with primary organic aerosol (POA = HOA + COA + BBOA) accounting for 59% of the OA mass. On average, both primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation are important factors affecting air quality in Seoul during winter, contributing approximately equal. However, differences in the fraction of PM source and properties were observed between high and low loading PM period. For example, during stagnant period with low wind speed (WS) (0.99 ± 0.7 m/s) and high RH (71%), high PM loadings (43.6 ± 12.4 µg m-3) with enhanced fractions of nitrate (27%) and SVOOA (8%) were observed, indicating a strong influence from locally generated secondary aerosol. On the other hand, when low PM loadings (12.6 ± 7.1 µg m-3), which were commonly associated with high WS (1.8 ± 1.1 m/s) and low RH (50 %), were observed, the fraction of regional sources, such as sulfate (12%) and LVOOA (21

  20. Shikonin, a constituent of Lithospermum erythrorhizon exhibits anti-allergic effects by suppressing orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a family gene expression as a new prototype of calcineurin inhibitors in mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Hayashi, Shusaku; Umezaki, Masahito; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kageyama-Yahara, Natsuko; Kondo, Takashi; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-12-05

    Over the last few decades, food allergy (FA) has become a common disease in infants in advanced countries. However, anti-allergic medicines available in the market have no effect on FA, and consequently effective drug therapies for FA are not yet available. We have already demonstrated that mucosal mast cells play an essential role in the development of FA in a murine model. Thus, we screened many constituents from medicinal herbs for the ability to inhibit rat basophilic leukemia-2H3 mast-like cell degranulation, and found that shikonin, a naphthoquinone dye from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, exhibited the most potent inhibitory effect among them. Furthermore, shikonin extremely inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in mucosal-type bone marrow-derived mast cells (mBMMCs). Global gene expression analysis confirmed by real-time PCR revealed that shikonin drastically inhibited the IgE/antigen-induced and calcium ionophore-induced upregulation of mRNA expression of the nuclear orphan receptor 4a family (Nr4a1, Nr4a2 and Nr4a3) in mBMMCs, and knockdown of Nr4a1 or Nr4a2 suppressed the IgE/antigen-induced upregulation of TNF-α mRNA expression. Computational docking simulation of a small molecule for a target protein is a useful technique to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of drugs. Therefore, the simulation revealed that the predicted binding sites of shikonin to immunophilins (cyclophilin A and FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 12) were almost the same as the binding sites of immunosuppressants (cyclosporin A and FK506) to immunophilins. Indeed, shikonin inhibited the calcineurin activity to a similar extent as cyclosporin A that markedly suppressed the IgE/antigen-enhanced mRNA expression of TNF-α and the Nr4a family in mBMMCs. These findings suggest that shikonin suppresses mucosal mast cell activation by reducing Nr4a family gene expression through the

  1. 40 CFR 80.572 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Labeling Requirements § 80.572 What labeling requirements... retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of NR and NRLM diesel fuel and heating oil beginning June 1...

  2. Patterns of Peeragogy

    OpenAIRE

    Corneli, Joseph; Danoff, Charles Jeffrey; Pierce, Charlotte; Ricaurte, Paola; MacDonald, Lisa Snow

    2015-01-01

    We describe nine design patterns that we have developed in our work on the Peeragogy project, in which we aim to help design the future of learning, inside and outside of institutions, drawing on the principles of free/libre/open source software and open culture. We use these patterns to build an “emergent roadmap” for the project. Our use of design patterns has some novel features that will be relevant to others working in projects with emergent structure.

  3. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted rGO (rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR) hybridized flake-like photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Kangle, E-mail: lvkangle@mail.scuec.edu.cn [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Taipo, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, Shun; Si, Lingling; Xia, Yang [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ho, Wingkei, E-mail: keithho@ied.edu.hk [Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Taipo, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Li, Mei [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted with GO hybrid was successfully fabricated. • TiO{sub 2} nanorods can reduce the aggregation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene. • This unique structure facilitates the injection of electron from TiO{sub 2} to graphene. - Abstract: To efficiently separate the photo-generated electron–hole pairs of TiO{sub 2} hybrid, anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod assembly grafted reduced graphene oxides (rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR) hybrid was successfully fabricated using potassium titanium oxalate (PTO) and graphene oxides (GO) as starting materials and diethylene glycol (DEG) as reductant. The effect of GO content on the structure and photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR composite was systematically studied. Results show that, in the absence of GO, only TiO{sub 2} microsphere assembly is obtained from TiO{sub 2} nanorods. The presence of GO results in the formation of a flake-like TiO{sub 2}-nanorod-assembled grafted rGO hybrid. The photocatalytic activity of rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR composite increases first and then decreases with increase in the amount of GO from 0 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The hybridized S4 sample prepared with 4 wt.% GO possesses the highest photocatalytic activity with a constant rate of 0.039 min{sup −1} in the photocataytic degradation of Brilliant X-3B dye (X3B); this sample was enhanced more than three times when compared with pure TiO{sub 2} sample (0.012 min{sup −1}). The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the rGO@TiO{sub 2}-NR hybrid was attributed to the strong interaction between TiO{sub 2} nanorods and rGO. The unique hierarchical structure of 1D nanorod assembly TiO{sub 2}–rGO flakes facilitates the injection and transfer of photo-generated electrons from TiO{sub 2} to graphene, thus retarding the recombination of electron–hole pairs and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. The enlarged BET surface areas, not only increasing the number of active sites, but also facilitating the adsorption of

  4. Phylogeography and molecular diversity analysis of Jatropha curcas L. and the dispersal route revealed by RAPD, AFLP and nrDNA-ITS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheer Pamidimarri, D V N; Reddy, Muppala P

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) has acquired a great importance as a renewable source of energy with a number of environmental benefits. Very few attempts were made to understand the extent of genetic diversity and its distribution. This study was aimed to study the diversity and deduce the phylogeography of Jatropha curcas L. which is said to be the most primitive species of the genus Jatropha. Here we studied the intraspecific genetic diversity of the species distributed in different parts of the globe. The study also focused to understand the molecular diversity at reported probable center of origin (Mexico), and to reveal the dispersal route to other regions based on random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism and nrDNA-ITS sequences data. The overall genetic diversity of J. curcas found in the present study was narrow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in the germplasm collected from Mexico and supports the earlier hypothesis based on morphological data and natural distribution, it is the center for origin of the species. Least genetic diversity found in the Indian germplasm and clustering results revealed that the species was introduced simultaneously by two distinct germplasm and subsequently distributed in different parts of India. The present molecular data further revealed that J. curcas might have spread from the center of the origin to Cape Verde, than to Spain, Portuguese to other neighboring countries and simultaneously to Africa. The molecular evidence supports the Burkill et al. (A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, Governments of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1966) view of Portuguese might have introduced the species to India. The clustering pattern suggests that the distribution was interfered by human activity.

  5. Phylogeography and molecular diversity analysis of Jatropha curcas L. and the dispersal route revealed by RAPD, AFLP and nrDNA-ITS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Sudheer Pamidimarri, D. V N

    2014-01-29

    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) has acquired a great importance as a renewable source of energy with a number of environmental benefits. Very few attempts were made to understand the extent of genetic diversity and its distribution. This study was aimed to study the diversity and deduce the phylogeography of Jatropha curcas L. which is said to be the most primitive species of the genus Jatropha. Here we studied the intraspecific genetic diversity of the species distributed in different parts of the globe. The study also focused to understand the molecular diversity at reported probable center of origin (Mexico), and to reveal the dispersal route to other regions based on random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism and nrDNA-ITS sequences data. The overall genetic diversity of J. curcas found in the present study was narrow. The highest genetic diversity was observed in the germplasm collected from Mexico and supports the earlier hypothesis based on morphological data and natural distribution, it is the center for origin of the species. Least genetic diversity found in the Indian germplasm and clustering results revealed that the species was introduced simultaneously by two distinct germplasm and subsequently distributed in different parts of India. The present molecular data further revealed that J. curcas might have spread from the center of the origin to Cape Verde, than to Spain, Portuguese to other neighboring countries and simultaneously to Africa. The molecular evidence supports the Burkill et al. (A dictionary of the economic products of the Malay Peninsula, Governments of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1966) view of Portuguese might have introduced the species to India. The clustering pattern suggests that the distribution was interfered by human activity. © Springer Science+Business Media 2014.

  6. Effect of liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR) on mechanical properties and morphology of natural rubber/high density polyethylene/mengkuang fiber (NR/HDPE/MK) bio-composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piah, Mohd Razi Mat; Baharum, Azizah

    2016-11-01

    The use of mengkuang fiber (MK) fibers in NR/HDPE (40/60) blend was studied via surface modification of fiber. The MK fiber was pre-washed with 5%wt/v sodium hydroxide solution prior to treatment with liquid epoxidized natural rubber (LENR). The concentration of LENR were varied from 5%-20%wt in toluene. The effects of LENR concentrations were studied in terms of mechanical properties and morphology formed. Melt-blending was performed using an internal mixer (Haake Rheomix 600). The processing parameters identified were 135°C temperature, 45 rpm rotor speed, 12 minutes processing time and at 20%wt MK fiber loading. The optimum LENR treatment concentration was obtained at 5%wt with tensile strength, tensile modulus, and impact strength of 10.3 MPa, 414.2 MPa and 14.4 kJ/m2 respectively. The tensile modulus of LENR-treated MK fiber filled NR/HDPE bio-composite has shown enhancement up to 16.7% higher than untreated MK fiber. The tensile and impact strength were decreased with increasing LENR concentration due to the broken of MK fibers to smaller particles and adhered to each other. FESEM micrographs confirmed the formation of fiber-fiber agglomeration in NR/HDPE blends. The optical microscope analysis shows MK fibers is shorter than original fiber lengths after NaOH-LENR surface modification. The internal bonding forces of MK fiber seems to be weaker than external force exerted on it, therefore, the MK fiber has broken to smaller particles and reduced the mechanical properties of NR/HDPE/MK(20%) bio-composite.

  7. Tetrahalide complexes of the [U(NR)2]2+ ion: synthesis, theory, and chlorine K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Liam P; Yang, Ping; Minasian, Stefan G; Jilek, Robert E; Batista, Enrique R; Boland, Kevin S; Boncella, James M; Conradson, Steven D; Clark, David L; Hayton, Trevor W; Kozimor, Stosh A; Martin, Richard L; MacInnes, Molly M; Olson, Angela C; Scott, Brian L; Shuh, David K; Wilkerson, Marianne P

    2013-02-13

    Synthetic routes to salts containing uranium bis-imido tetrahalide anions [U(NR)(2)X(4)](2-) (X = Cl(-), Br(-)) and non-coordinating NEt(4)(+) and PPh(4)(+) countercations are reported. In general, these compounds can be prepared from U(NR)(2)I(2)(THF)(x) (x = 2 and R = (t)Bu, Ph; x = 3 and R = Me) upon addition of excess halide. In addition to providing stable coordination complexes with Cl(-), the [U(NMe)(2)](2+) cation also reacts with Br(-) to form stable [NEt(4)](2)[U(NMe)(2)Br(4)] complexes. These materials were used as a platform to compare electronic structure and bonding in [U(NR)(2)](2+) with [UO(2)](2+). Specifically, Cl K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and both ground-state and time-dependent hybrid density functional theory (DFT and TDDFT) were used to probe U-Cl bonding interactions in [PPh(4)](2)[U(N(t)Bu)(2)Cl(4)] and [PPh(4)](2)[UO(2)Cl(4)]. The DFT and XAS results show the total amount of Cl 3p character mixed with the U 5f orbitals was roughly 7-10% per U-Cl bond for both compounds, which shows that moving from oxo to imido has little effect on orbital mixing between the U 5f and equatorial Cl 3p orbitals. The results are presented in the context of recent Cl K-edge XAS and DFT studies on other hexavalent uranium chloride systems with fewer oxo or imido ligands.

  8. Food sources of free sugars in children's diet and identification of lifestyle patterns associated with free sugars intake: the GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajian, Paul; Risvas, Grigoris; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Zampelas, Antonis

    2016-09-01

    Excessive free sugars consumption has a possible role in health issues, diet quality and obesity development. The present cross-sectional study aimed to identify the major food sources of free sugars in Greek children's diet and investigate possible associations of dietary patterns with free sugars intake. Anthropometric measurements and information on dietary and physical activity habits were obtained. Energy and free sugars intake coming from foods were estimated and principal components analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. The GRECO (Greek Childhood Obesity) study. Nationwide sample of 3089 children (aged 10-12 years). Adopting WHO criteria, 44·2 % of participants were categorized as having free sugars intake above 10 % of total energy intake. Mean contribution of free sugars to energy intake was 11·2 %, and the major food sources of free sugars differed from those of other childhood populations. Free sugars intake was not associated with overweight/obesity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that two lifestyle and dietary patterns, characterized by higher consumption of sweets, fast foods, fries, sugared drinks, frequently ordering/eating outside home and having meals in front of a screen (pattern 1) and higher consumption of whole fruits, 100 % fruit juices, vegetables, legumes and honey/jam (pattern 2), were positively associated with free sugars intake. A large proportion of children exceeded the recommended cut-off and free sugars intake was associated with lifestyle patterns rather than single foods. Public health programmes aiming to reduce free sugars consumption should be tailored on promoting the correct dietary habits of specific childhood populations.

  9. 78 FR 65875 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wisconsin; Removal of Gasoline Vapor... Administrative Code, Chapter NR 420 Control of Organic Compound Emissions from Petroleum and Gasoline Sources... FROM PETROLEUM AND GASOLINE SOURCES. NR 420.01 as published in the (Wisconsin) Register, February, 1990...

  10. A Methodology for Examining Collateral Effects on Military Operations during a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and/or Nuclear Attack - Operational Effectiveness Loss Multiplier (OELM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    nr 7.0% 35.8% Vomiting 10.9% 1.5% 4.4% Nr nr 5% 2.0% nr 2.0% Note: nr – not reported. Sources: a S. L. Andersen et al., “Successful Double...http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9182474. c James D. Arthur et al., “A Comparative Study of Gastrointestinal Infections in United States Soldiers...Recent Military Experience with Malaria Chemoprophylaxis,” 448; S. L. Andersen et al., “Successful Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Field

  11. PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-02

    In 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary. Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing strontium-90 flux to the Columbia River. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the PNNL Apatite Investigation at 100-NR-2 Project. The plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  12. Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Helge Grünewald

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Grünewald, Helge

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Schmidt. Sinfonie Nr. 1 E-Dur; Strauss. Vier sinfonische Zwischenspiele aus Intermezzo. Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos/Koch CD 9357 (WD: 68'20") DDD (WD:114'36")

  13. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Ariel; Tessler, Nir; Einziger, Pinchas D.; Roberts, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  14. Analytical estimation of emission zone mean position and width in organic light-emitting diodes from emission pattern image-source interference fringes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Ariel, E-mail: ariel.epstein@utoronto.ca; Tessler, Nir, E-mail: nir@ee.technion.ac.il; Einziger, Pinchas D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Roberts, Matthew, E-mail: mroberts@cdtltd.co.uk [Cambridge Display Technology Ltd, Building 2020, Cambourne Business Park, Cambourne, Cambridgeshire CB23 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-14

    We present an analytical method for evaluating the first and second moments of the effective exciton spatial distribution in organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) from measured emission patterns. Specifically, the suggested algorithm estimates the emission zone mean position and width, respectively, from two distinct features of the pattern produced by interference between the emission sources and their images (induced by the reflective cathode): the angles in which interference extrema are observed, and the prominence of interference fringes. The relations between these parameters are derived rigorously for a general OLED structure, indicating that extrema angles are related to the mean position of the radiating excitons via Bragg's condition, and the spatial broadening is related to the attenuation of the image-source interference prominence due to an averaging effect. The method is applied successfully both on simulated emission patterns and on experimental data, exhibiting a very good agreement with the results obtained by numerical techniques. We investigate the method performance in detail, showing that it is capable of producing accurate estimations for a wide range of source-cathode separation distances, provided that the measured spectral interval is large enough; guidelines for achieving reliable evaluations are deduced from these results as well. As opposed to numerical fitting tools employed to perform similar tasks to date, our approximate method explicitly utilizes physical intuition and requires far less computational effort (no fitting is involved). Hence, applications that do not require highly resolved estimations, e.g., preliminary design and production-line verification, can benefit substantially from the analytical algorithm, when applicable. This introduces a novel set of efficient tools for OLED engineering, highly important in the view of the crucial role the exciton distribution plays in determining the device performance.

  15. The NR-radon intensity impact on floral environment around NAPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, A.N.; Sharma, M.; Singh, B.; Kumar, R.; Swarup, R.

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear radiation level around Narora Atomic Power Plant (NAPP), District Buladshehar (Uttar Pradesh) has been observed by experimental irradiation of CR-39 plastic track detectors, mounted in a self assembled box installed at height from the ground level 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm. The plants being most sensitive to nuclear radiation, constituting the floral component of bio-diversity, look more frequent and effective means to regulate the nuclear radiation and hence employed as potential alternative to SSNTD, named as BSNTD (the Bio-Species-Nuclear Track Detector) after appropriate calibrations. The five sites selected with similar settings of NR experimental 45 days exposures for Radon alpha, also accompanied by vegetable plants, oil yielding and ornamental plants such as radish, onion, mustard and marigold (under various physical as well as chemical treatments such as magnetic fields, fertilizers) placed at: (1)The open space nearly ∼ 100 meter away from NAPP Reactor Unit No. 1, (2) Village Ratanpur about 10 Km from NAPP, (3) Village Shehdol near Atrauli about 20 Km from NAPP, (4) Kasimpur Thermal power Plant near Aligarh, about 40 Km from NAPP and (5) The D.S. College, Physics research laboratory at Aligarh proper. The isolated and mixed treated plants were grown under controlled favourable conditions and their regular biological growth like total shoot yield, flowers/fruits and seed yield were recorded and these were correlated with the observed radioactive data. The experimental findings seem to match with all these parameters proportionally to CR-39 recording and thus proposing much cheaper Bio-Species Nuclear Track Detection as dynamical physiological changes but not as rigid geometrical damages recorded in SSNTD under cumbersome experimental procedures. The plant growth performance under different environmental conditions such as presence of track elements and heavy metals, our research group had set an unique experimentation relating complex bio

  16. Evaluation of Two Robot Vision Control Algorithms Developed Based on N-R and EKG Methods for Slender Bar Placement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jae Kyung; Jang, Wan Shik; Hong, Sung Mun [Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Many problems need to be solved before vision systems can actually be applied in industry, such as the precision of the kinematics model of the robot control algorithm based on visual information, active compensation of the camera's focal length and orientation during the movement of the robot, and understanding the mapping of the physical 3-D space into 2-D camera coordinates. An algorithm is proposed to enable robot to move actively even if the relative positions between the camera and the robot is unknown. To solve the correction problem, this study proposes vision system model with six camera parameters. To develop the robot vision control algorithm, the N-R and EKG methods are applied to the vision system model. Finally, the position accuracy and processing time of the two algorithms developed based based on the EKG and the N-R methods are compared experimentally by making the robot perform slender bar placement task.

  17. Evaluation of Two Robot Vision Control Algorithms Developed Based on N-R and EKG Methods for Slender Bar Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Jae Kyung; Jang, Wan Shik; Hong, Sung Mun

    2013-01-01

    Many problems need to be solved before vision systems can actually be applied in industry, such as the precision of the kinematics model of the robot control algorithm based on visual information, active compensation of the camera's focal length and orientation during the movement of the robot, and understanding the mapping of the physical 3-D space into 2-D camera coordinates. An algorithm is proposed to enable robot to move actively even if the relative positions between the camera and the robot is unknown. To solve the correction problem, this study proposes vision system model with six camera parameters. To develop the robot vision control algorithm, the N-R and EKG methods are applied to the vision system model. Finally, the position accuracy and processing time of the two algorithms developed based based on the EKG and the N-R methods are compared experimentally by making the robot perform slender bar placement task

  18. Complete Mapping of Complex Disulfide Patterns with Closely-Spaced Cysteines by In-Source Reduction and Data-Dependent Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Christian N; Kelstrup, Christian D; Olsen, Jesper V

    2017-01-01

    bonds are present in complicated patterns. This includes the presence of disulfide bonds in nested patterns and closely spaced cysteines. Unambiguous mapping of such disulfide bonds typically requires advanced MS approaches. In this study, we exploited in-source reduction (ISR) of disulfide bonds during...... the electrospray ionization process to facilitate disulfide bond assignments. We successfully developed a LC-ISR-MS/MS methodology to use as an online and fully automated partial reduction procedure. Postcolumn partial reduction by ISR provided fast and easy identification of peptides involved in disulfide bonding......Mapping of disulfide bonds is an essential part of protein characterization to ensure correct cysteine pairings. For this, mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely used technique due to fast and accurate characterization. However, MS-based disulfide mapping is challenged when multiple disulfide...

  19. Misturas NR/SBR: influência da composição e do modo de preparação sobre propriedades mecânicas e reométricas NR/SBR mixtures: influence of composition and preparation mode on the mechanical and rheological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hérlon M. B. Abreu Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de produtos à base de borracha diversas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades as quais, geralmente, não são fornecidas por um único elastômero. Dessa forma, um dos recursos utilizados é a mistura de dois ou mais polímeros para obtenção de novas propriedades. Neste caso, os demais ingredientes que são adicionados, normalmente distribuem-se de forma irregular, dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá então influenciar a velocidade de cura e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências nas propriedades do produto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR nas proporções de 75:25 e 50:50, em massa. As composições foram preparadas empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Os resultados das propriedades mecânicas mostraram que, apesar da utilização de uma mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.Frequently a set of properties required for a given application cannot be accomplished by one elastomer only and, thus, mixtures of two or more polymers must be employed. In these cases, the other ingredients added are normally dispersed in a non homogeneous way, depending on their affinity to each polymer. The degree of dispersion each additive experiences in each elastomeric phase will influence the rate and the degree of vulcanization and will certainly have consequences on the properties of the final product. In this work, natural rubber (NR was mixed with styrene-butadiene elastomer (SBR in 75:25 and 50:50 w/w ratios. The compositions were prepared in a two-roll mill, by introducing the additives according to

  20. Deserts and holy mountains of medieval Serbia: Written sources, spatial patterns, architectural designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential concepts in Christian thought and practice, the desert and holy mountain denote a particular kind of monastic and sacral space. They are secluded from the world, intended for asceticism, and ambivalent in nature they are inhospitable and menacing zones populated with demons, but also a monastic paradise, places for spiritual conversion and encounter with the divine. From earliest times, deserts and holy mountains had a few distinguishing characteristics. All forms of monastic life, from communal to solitary, were practiced side by side there. Monks of a special make-up and distinction known as holy men who were also often founders of illustrious communities, future saints and miracle-workers acted there. Furthermore these locales were important spiritual and bookmaking centre's, and therefore, strongholds of Orthodoxy. When trying to research Serbian material on this topic, we face a specific situation: few surviving sources on the one hand, and devastated monuments on the other. The ultimate consequence is that the entire subject has been neglected. Therefore the study of the Serbian deserts and holy mountains requires a very complex interdisciplinary approach with systematic field work as its essential part. It should address the following issues: corroboration, on the basis of written sources, of the reception of the concept of the monastic desert and holy mountain in a particular, regional, context; the distinct means and mechanisms employed in their physical realization; interpretation of their function; the recognition of patterns preserved in the surviving physical structures. Even the results obtained so far appear to be relevant enough to become included in the sacral topography of the Christian world. The author of this study gives particular attention to the detailed analysis of written sources of various genres - diplomatic sources, hagiographic material, liturgical texts, observation notes - in order to establish the

  1. Leadership succession patterns in the apostolic church as a template for critique of contemporary charismatic leadership succession patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cephas Tushima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of leadership succession observed globally in most contemporary Pentecostal movements and churches can be characterised as dynastic succession. Yet historic modern Pentecostalism (in the Azusa tradition prided itself on being biblical. This article explores the biblical sources, examining first the leadership structure and then the leadership succession patterns in the apostolic church as well as the extra-biblical sources of the apostolic patristic era. Our findings from this New Testament (and patristic sources survey of leadership succession in the apostolic church and post-apostolic churches furnish a template for critical evaluation of the prevalent succession approaches of contemporary Pentecostal groups. Critical elements of apostolic and leadership structure and succession patterns are highlighted, and needed inferences are drawn for the re-shaping of leadership and its succession in contemporary Christian ministries and churches. Keywords: Azusa; Apostolic Leadership; Leadership Succession; Pentecostalism; Evangelicals; Leadership Patterns

  2. New truncation mutation of the NR2E3 gene in a Japanese patient with enhanced S-cone syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Hayashi, Takaaki; Sakuramoto, Hiroyuki; Mishima, Hiroshi; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Iwata, Takeshi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2016-11-01

    The enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) is a rare hereditary retinal degeneration that has enhanced short wavelength-sensitive cone (S-cone) functions. The longitudinal clinical course of this disease has been rarely reported, and the genetic aspects of ESCS have not been well investigated in the Japanese population. In this report, we present our clinical and genetic findings for 2 patients with ESCS. The patients were 2 unrelated Japanese men. Standard ophthalmic examinations and mutation screening for the NR2E3 gene were performed. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old man, and his clinical findings were typical of ESCS. His decimal best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1.0 OD and 0.5 OS after removal of cataracts. Genetic investigations revealed a homozygous truncation frameshift, the p.I307LfsX33 mutation. Patient 2 was an 11-year-old boy when he was first examined by us. His clinical findings were typical of ESCS except for uveitis in the left eye. His decimal BCVA at the age of 39 years was maintained at 1.5 in each eye, although the retinal degeneration and visual field impairments had progressed during the follow-up period. The genetic investigations revealed homozygous mutations of p.R104Q in the NR2E3 gene. The frameshift mutation, p.I307LfsX33, in the NR2E3 gene is a new causative mutation for ESCS. The clinical observations for patient 2 are the longest ever reported. The retinal degeneration caused by this mutation is slowly progressive, and these patients maintained good vision with maintenance of the foveal structure until their late thirties.

  3. Effect of heterogeneous distribution of crosslink density on physical properties of radiation vulcanized NR (Natural Rubber) latex film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizo Makuuchi; Fumio Yoshii; Miura, H.; Murakami, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thus a study has been carried out to investigate the effect of particle to particle variation in crosslink density on physical properties of radiation vulcanized NR latex film. NR latex was irradiated in small bottle by γ rays without vulcanization accelerator to provide latex rubber particles having homogeneous distribution of crosslink density. The doses were 30, 50, 100, 250, 300, 400, 500 and 600 kGy. Weight swelling ratio, gel fraction, tensile strength and elongation at break of the latex film from the mixed latex were measured. The vulcanization dose of this latex was 250 kGy. Then the two different latexes were mixed in a such way to adjust the average dose of 250 kGy to prepare a latex consisting of rubber particles having heterogeneous distribution of crosslink density. Tensile strength of the latex film was depressed by mixing. The reduction increased with increasing the decrease of gel fraction by mixing. However the reduction was not serious when the dose difference of two latexes was less than 200 kGy

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of nitrogen pollution in a typical headwater agricultural watershed in Southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; He, Bin; Nover, Daniel; Duan, Weili; Luo, Chuan; Zhao, Kaiyan; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Excessive nitrogen (N) discharge from agriculture causes widespread problems in aquatic ecosystems. Knowledge of spatiotemporal patterns and source attribution of N pollution is critical for nutrient management programs but is poorly studied in headwaters with various small water bodies and mini-point pollution sources. Taking a typical small watershed in the low mountains of Southeastern China as an example, N pollution and source attribution were studied for a multipond system around a village using the Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) model. The results exhibited distinctive spatio-seasonal variations with an overall seriousness rank for the three indicators: total nitrogen (TN) > nitrate/nitrite nitrogen (NO x - -N) > ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), according to the Chinese Surface Water Quality Standard. TN pollution was severe for the entire watershed, while NO x - -N pollution was significant for ponds and ditches far from the village, and the NH 3 -N concentrations were acceptable except for the ponds near the village in summer. Although food and cash crop production accounted for the largest source of N loads, we discovered that mini-point pollution sources, including animal feeding operations, rural residential sewage, and waste, together contributed as high as 47% of the TN and NH 3 -N loads in ponds and ditches. So, apart from eco-fertilizer programs and concentrated animal feeding operations, the importance of environmental awareness building for resource management is highlighted for small farmers in headwater agricultural watersheds. As a first attempt to incorporate multipond systems into the process-based modeling of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution, this work can inform other hydro-environmental studies on scattered and small water bodies. The results are also useful to water quality improvement for entire river basins.

  5. Linking potential heat source and sink to urban heat island: Heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on land surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Cao, Qiwen; Lang, Kun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2017-05-15

    Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated. Then, the heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on LST were examined by using semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) models. The results showed that landscape composition has more significant effects on thermal environment than configuration. For a strong source, the percentage of patches has a positive impact on LST. Additionally, when mosaicked with some heat sink, even a small improvement in the degree of dispersion of a strong source helps to alleviate UHI. For a weak source, the percentage and density of patches have positive impacts on LST. For a strong sink, the percentage, density, and degree of aggregation of patches have negative impacts on LST. The effects of edge density and patch shape complexity vary spatially with the fragmentation of a strong sink. Similarly, the impacts of a weak sink are mainly exerted via the characteristics of percent, density, and shape complexity of patches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of high-frame rate neutron radiography and quantitative measurement method for multiphase flow research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Hibiki, T.

    1998-01-01

    Neutron radiography (NR) is one of the radiographic techniques which makes use of the difference in attenuation characteristics of neutrons in materials. Fluid measurement using the NR technique is a non-intrusive method which enables visualization of dynamic images of multiphase flow of opaque fluids and/or in a metallic duct. To apply the NR technique to multiphase flow research, high frame-rate NR was developed by combining up-to-date technologies for neutron sources, scintillator, high-speed video and image intensifier. This imaging system has several advantages such as a long recording time (up to 21 minutes), high-frame-rate (up to 1000 frames/s) imaging and there is no need for a triggering signal. Visualization studies of air-water two-phase flow in a metallic duct and molten metal-water interaction were performed at recording speeds of 250, 500 and 1000 frames/s. The qualities of the consequent images were sufficient to observe the flow pattern and behavior. It was also demonstrated that some characteristics of two-phase flow could be measured from these images in collaboration with image processing techniques. By utilizing geometrical information extracted from NR images, data on flow regime, bubble rise velocity, and wave height and interfacial area in annular flow were obtained. By utilizing attenuation characteristics of neutrons in materials, measurements of void profile and average void fraction were performed. It was confirmed that this new technique may have significant advantages both in visualizing and measuring high-speed fluid phenomena when other methods, such as an optical method and X-ray radiography, cannot be applied. (author)

  7. The sex-dependent role of the glucocorticoid receptor in depression: variations in the NR3C1 gene are associated with major depressive disorder in women but not in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarubin, Nina; Hilbert, Sven; Naumann, Felix; Zill, Peter; Wimmer, Anna-Maria; Nothdurfter, Caroline; Rupprecht, Rainer; Baghai, Thomas C; Bühner, Markus; Schüle, Cornelius

    2017-03-01

    Genetic variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) have been associated with maladaptive stress responses and major depressive disorder (MDD). In a case-control study design, we examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haploid genotype (haplotype) associations of MR gene NR3C2, GR gene NR3C1 and genes of GR chaperone molecules FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and corticotrophin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) differed between healthy subjects (n = 634) and inpatients with major depressive disorder (n = 412). All analyses were conducted for women and men separately. After conservative correction of Type-I-error to obtain reliable p values, one SNP in the NR3C1 gene, namely rs6195, showed a significant association with the presence of a major depression (p = 0.048) in females. In contrast, NR3C2, FKBP5 and CRHR1 polymorphisms were not significantly associated with MDD. No haplotype effects could be identified. Our results support the notion of an association between variants of GR-related genes in women and the pathophysiology of depression: females suffering from MDD showed a more than three times higher frequency of the T/C polymorphism compared to controls, which thus seems to increase the vulnerability to depression in females.

  8. Acute effects of transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation on respiratory pattern in COPD patients: cross-sectional and comparative clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina M. Cancelliero-Gaiad

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcutaneous electrical diaphragmatic stimulation (TEDS has been used to improve respiratory muscle strength in patients with respiratory muscle weakness. However, this physical therapy resource has not been studied in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the respiratory pattern during one session of TEDS in COPD patients. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients participated in one TEDS session for plethysmographic analysis and assessment of peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and heart rate (HR. After the session, patients were divided into two groups: Responder (R; n=9 and Non-Responder (NR; n=6 to TEDS. Statistic analysis was performed using the Shapiro-Wilk normality test and two-way ANOVA. For the parameters that showed interaction, the Student t test was used (P<0.05. RESULTS: R group consisted mainly of men, with lower SpO2 and higher HR than NR group. When time (before and during and groups (R and NR were compared (interaction, there were differences in the parameters minute ventilation (Vent, inspiratory tidal volume (ViVol, expiratory tidal volume (VeVol, and respiratory rate (Br/M. In the intergroup comparison, differences were observed in the parameters Vent, ViVol, and VeVol. A significant effect was also observed for time in change in end-expiratory lung volume level (qDEEL, phase relation during inspiration (PhRIB; phase relation during expiration (PhREB; phase relation of entire breath (PhRTB, and phase angle (PhAng. During TEDS, there was an increase in SpO2 and a reduction in HR in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The most hypoxemic group with greater HR responded to TEDS and there was interaction between group and time of analysis for the pulmonary volumes. The time factor had an influence on the two groups with an increase in thoracoabdominal asynchrony.

  9. Associations between the neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) Bcl-1 polymorphisms and suicide in cancer patients within the first year of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Lee, Jong-Keuk; Park, Young-Mi; Park, Yangsoon; Jeon, Juri; Ahn, Myeong Hee; Yoon, Se Chang

    2016-07-11

    Cancer diagnosis is associated with an increased suicide risk, particularly within the first 1 year after diagnosis of cancer. Abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. We examined genetic associations of the functional Bcl-1 polymorphism of (rs41423247) neuron-specific glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) gene, with death by suicide in cancer patients. Suicides occurring within a year of cancer diagnosis ('early suicide') were considered separately from those suicides during the second or subsequent year ('late suicide') after cancer diagnosis. The subjects consisted of 343 cancer patients admitted to a general hospital in Seoul, South Korea from 1996 to 2009, of which 182 had died by suicide and 161 were alive on December 31, 2009. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sample of patients with cancer. We conducted a case-control association analysis of Bcl-1 polymorphism of NR3C1 gene. Subjects carrying the GG genotype of Bcl-1 polymorphism were at increased risk of early suicide when compared to those carrying the CC genotype (OR 3.80, 95 % CI 1.02-14.16, p = .047). Similarly, those individuals carrying the GG genotype (recessive mode) had an increased risk of early suicide relative to the CC or CG genotype (OR 3.71, 95 % CI 1.03-13.43, p = .045). However, there were no differences in the genotype distributions of the NR3C1 Bcl-1 polymorphism between late suicide cases and controls. Our findings suggest that the NR3C1 Bcl-1 polymorphisms may be involved in the susceptibility to suicide within the first year after cancer diagnosis among cancer patients in Korean population.

  10. O efeito de EPDM modificado com grupos mercapto ou tioacetato na cinética de vulcanização de misturas NR/EPDM The effect of mercapto- and thioacetate-modified EPDM on the vulcanization kinetics of NR/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex S. Sirqueira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A cinética de vulcanização de misturas envolvendo borracha natural (NR e copolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno (EPDM na proporção 70:30 % em peso foi estudada em função da compatibilização. Para esse estudo foram utilizados 2,5 phr de EPDM funcionalizado com grupos tioacetato (EPDMTA ou mercaptana (EPDMSH. O estudo foi realizado em reômetro de disco oscilatório (curômetro. Ambos os copolímeros funcionalizados atuaram como aceleradores do processo de vulcanização das misturas NR/EPDM (70:30 na presença de enxofre e CBS, sendo EPDMSH mais efetivo do que EPDMTA pelo modelo de Chough e Chang. Entretanto, ao utilizar o modelo de Coran, observou-se que EPDMTA e EP-DMSH atuam em distintas etapas da vulcanização: EPDMSH atua preferencialmente no início do processo de vulcanização enquanto que EPDMTA aumenta a velocidade da formação das reticulações propriamente ditas. Além disso, EPDMTA diminuiu consideravelmente a tendência à degradação de reticulações, indicada pela menor taxa de reversão.Vulcanization kinetics for natural rubber (NR/ ethylene-propylene-diene rubber (EPDM blends was studied as a function of the compatibilization, by using an oscillatory disk rheometer. For this study, 2.5 phr of thioacetate- (EPDMTA or mercapto-modified EPDM (EPDMSH were employed in blends vulcanized with sulfur/CBS curing system. Both functionalized copolymers increased the curing velocity of the blends, but the higher overall rate was achieved with EPDMSH-modified systems, using the Chough and Chang model. However, when using the Coran model, we observed that they act in distinct vulcanization steps: EPDMSH acts preferentially at the beginning of the curing process whereas EPDMTA increases the rate of the crosslink formation. In addition, EPDMTA decreased the tendency for crosslink decomposition, as indicated by the lower value of reversion degree.

  11. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family regulates 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) gene expression in steroidogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yunfeng; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Imamichi, Yoshitaka; Yazawa, Takashi; Matsumura, Takehiro; Kawabe, Shinya; Kanno, Masafumi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Miyamoto, Kaoru

    2012-11-01

    5-Aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 (ALAS1) is a rate-limiting enzyme for heme biosynthesis in mammals. Heme is essential for the catalytic activities of P450 enzymes including steroid metabolic enzymes. Nuclear receptor 5A (NR5A) family proteins, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1), and liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) play pivotal roles in regulation of steroidogenic enzymes. Recently, we showed that expression of SF-1/LRH-1 induces differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into steroidogenic cells. In this study, genome-wide analysis revealed that ALAS1 was a novel SF-1-target gene in differentiated mesenchymal stem cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays revealed that SF-1/LRH-1 up-regulated ALAS1 gene transcription in steroidogenic cells via binding to a 3.5-kb upstream region of ALAS1. The ALAS1 gene was up-regulated by overexpression of SF-1/LRH-1 in steroidogenic cells and down-regulated by knockdown of SF-1 in these cells. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, a coactivator of nuclear receptors, also strongly coactivated expression of NR5A-target genes. Reporter analysis revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α strongly augmented ALAS1 gene transcription caused by SF-1 binding to the 3.5-kb upstream region. Finally knockdown of ALAS1 resulted in reduced progesterone production by steroidogenic cells. These results indicate that ALAS1 is a novel NR5A-target gene and participates in steroid hormone production.

  12. Large-eddy simulation of convective boundary layer generated by highly heated source with open source code, OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi; Shirai, Koji; Ishihara, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Spatial- and temporal-characteristics of turbulence structures in the close vicinity of a heat source, which is a horizontal upward-facing round plate heated at high temperature, are examined by using well resolved large-eddy simulations. The verification is carried out through the comparison with experiments: the predicted statistics, including the PDF distribution of temperature fluctuations, agree well with measurements, indicating that the present simulations have a capability to appropriately reproduce turbulence structures near the heat source. The reproduced three-dimensional thermal- and fluid-fields in the close vicinity of the heat source reveals developing processes of coherence structures along the surface: the stationary- and streaky-flow patterns appear near the edge, and such patterns randomly shift to cell-like patterns with incursion into the center region, resulting in thermal-plume meandering. Both the patterns have very thin structures, but the depth of streaky structure is considerably small compared with that of cell-like patterns; this discrepancy causes the layered structures. The structure is the source of peculiar turbulence characteristics, the prediction of which is quite difficult with RANS-type turbulence models. The understanding such structures obtained in present study must be helpful to improve the turbulence model used in nuclear engineering. (author)

  13. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  14. Misturas NR/SBR: modos de preparação e propriedades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visconte Leila L. Y.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplicações de artefatos de borracha muitas vezes requerem um conjunto de propriedades que não podem ser fornecidas por um único elastômero sendo, então necessário, que misturas de dois ou mais polímeros sejam empregadas. Nesses casos, os demais ingredientes que normalmente são adicionados, distribuem-se de modo diferente dependendo de sua afinidade com cada uma das borrachas. O grau de dispersão de cada um desses ingredientes em cada fase elastomérica irá influenciar a velocidade e o grau de vulcanização e, certamente, terá conseqüências sobre o desempenho do composto final. Neste trabalho, a borracha natural (NR foi misturada ao elastômero de butadieno-estireno (SBR na proporção de 1:1 em peso. As composições foram preparadas em misturador de cilindros, segundo a norma ASTM D 3182, empregando-se quatro maneiras distintas para a incorporação dos aditivos. Após a vulcanização foram estudadas propriedades mecânicas, como resistências à tração e ao rasgamento e dureza, propriedades termo-dinâmico-mecânicas e a morfologia de cada uma das composições. As propriedades mecânicas foram avaliadas de acordo com as normas ASTM específicas para cada ensaio. Os resultados mostram que, apesar de se usar a mesma formulação, o modo de preparo tem grande influência sobre as propriedades, o que é detectável pelas propriedades mecânicas e pela análise morfológica, e evidenciado através de testes sensíveis, como o dinâmico-mecânico. No caso da mistura NR/SBR as melhores propriedades são obtidas quando é favorecida a vulcanização da borracha que, isoladamente, apresenta propriedades inferiores.

  15. The human orphan nuclear receptor tailless (TLX, NR2E1 is druggable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Benod

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs are an important group of ligand-dependent transcriptional factors. Presently, no natural or synthetic ligand has been identified for a large group of orphan NRs. Small molecules to target these orphan NRs will provide unique resources for uncovering regulatory systems that impact human health and to modulate these pathways with drugs. The orphan NR tailless (TLX, NR2E1, a transcriptional repressor, is a major player in neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cell (NSC derived brain tumors. No chemical probes that modulate TLX activity are available, and it is not clear whether TLX is druggable. To assess TLX ligand binding capacity, we created homology models of the TLX ligand binding domain (LBD. Results suggest that TLX belongs to an emerging class of NRs that lack LBD helices α1 and α2 and that it has potential to form a large open ligand binding pocket (LBP. Using a medium throughput screening strategy, we investigated direct binding of 20,000 compounds to purified human TLX protein and verified interactions with a secondary (orthogonal assay. We then assessed effects of verified binders on TLX activity using luciferase assays. As a result, we report identification of three compounds (ccrp1, ccrp2 and ccrp3 that bind to recombinant TLX protein with affinities in the high nanomolar to low micromolar range and enhance TLX transcriptional repressive activity. We conclude that TLX is druggable and propose that our lead compounds could serve as scaffolds to derive more potent ligands. While our ligands potentiate TLX repressive activity, the question of whether it is possible to develop ligands to de-repress TLX activity remains open.

  16. The human orphan nuclear receptor tailless (TLX, NR2E1) is druggable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benod, Cindy; Villagomez, Rosa; Filgueira, Carly S; Hwang, Peter K; Leonard, Paul G; Poncet-Montange, Guillaume; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Fletterick, Robert J; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Webb, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are an important group of ligand-dependent transcriptional factors. Presently, no natural or synthetic ligand has been identified for a large group of orphan NRs. Small molecules to target these orphan NRs will provide unique resources for uncovering regulatory systems that impact human health and to modulate these pathways with drugs. The orphan NR tailless (TLX, NR2E1), a transcriptional repressor, is a major player in neurogenesis and Neural Stem Cell (NSC) derived brain tumors. No chemical probes that modulate TLX activity are available, and it is not clear whether TLX is druggable. To assess TLX ligand binding capacity, we created homology models of the TLX ligand binding domain (LBD). Results suggest that TLX belongs to an emerging class of NRs that lack LBD helices α1 and α2 and that it has potential to form a large open ligand binding pocket (LBP). Using a medium throughput screening strategy, we investigated direct binding of 20,000 compounds to purified human TLX protein and verified interactions with a secondary (orthogonal) assay. We then assessed effects of verified binders on TLX activity using luciferase assays. As a result, we report identification of three compounds (ccrp1, ccrp2 and ccrp3) that bind to recombinant TLX protein with affinities in the high nanomolar to low micromolar range and enhance TLX transcriptional repressive activity. We conclude that TLX is druggable and propose that our lead compounds could serve as scaffolds to derive more potent ligands. While our ligands potentiate TLX repressive activity, the question of whether it is possible to develop ligands to de-repress TLX activity remains open.

  17. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  18. "NR3C1" Methylation as a Moderator of the Effects of Maternal Support and Stress on Insecure Attachment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the prediction that the interaction between Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene ("NR3C1") methylation, stress, and experienced maternal support predicts anxious and avoidant attachment development. This was tested in a general population sample of 487 children and adolescents (44% boys, M[subscript age] = 11.84, SD[subscript age] =…

  19. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This…

  20. Common polymorphisms within the NR4A3 locus, encoding the orphan nuclear receptor Nor-1, are associated with enhanced β-cell function in non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuusisto Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuron-derived orphan receptor (Nor 1, nuclear receptor (Nur 77, and nuclear receptor-related protein (Nurr 1 constitute the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors which were recently found to modulate hepatic glucose production, insulin signalling in adipocytes, and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. In this study, we assessed whether common genetic variation within the NR4A3 locus, encoding Nor-1, contributes to the development of prediabetic phenotypes, such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, or β-cell dysfunction. Methods We genotyped 1495 non-diabetic subjects from Southern Germany for the five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs7047636, rs1526267, rs2416879, rs12686676, and rs10819699 (minor allele frequencies ≥ 0.05 covering 100% of genetic variation within the NR4A3 locus (with D' = 1.0, r2 ≥ 0.9 and assessed their association with metabolic data derived from the fasting state, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (subgroup, N = 506. SNPs that revealed consistent associations with prediabetic phenotypes were subsequently genotyped in a second cohort (METSIM Study; Finland; N = 5265 for replication. Results All five SNPs were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p ≥ 0.7, all. The minor alleles of three SNPs, i.e., rs1526267, rs12686676, and rs10819699, consistently tended to associate with higher insulin release as derived from plasma insulin at 30 min(OGTT, AUCC-peptide-to-AUCGluc ratio and the AUCIns30-to-AUCGluc30 ratio with rs12686676 reaching the level of significance (p ≤ 0.03, all; additive model. The association of the SNP rs12686676 with insulin secretion was replicated in the METSIM cohort (p ≤ 0.03, additive model. There was no consistent association with glucose tolerance or insulin resistance in both study cohorts. Conclusion We conclude that common genetic variation within the NR4A3 locus determines insulin secretion. Thus, NR4A3

  1. Specificity of DNA-binding by the FAX-1 and NHR-67 nuclear receptors of Caenorhabditis elegans is partially mediated via a subclass-specific P-box residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Eric L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors of the NR2E class play important roles in pattern formation and nervous system development. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of DNA-binding domains, we define two conserved groups of orthologous NR2E genes: the NR2E1 subclass, which includes C. elegans nhr-67, Drosophila tailless and dissatisfaction, and vertebrate Tlx (NR2E2, NR2E4, NR2E1, and the NR2E3 subclass, which includes C. elegans fax-1 and vertebrate PNR (NR2E5, NR2E3. PNR and Tll nuclear receptors have been shown to bind the hexamer half-site AAGTCA, instead of the hexamer AGGTCA recognized by most other nuclear receptors, suggesting unique DNA-binding properties for NR2E class members. Results We show that NR2E3 subclass member FAX-1, unlike NHR-67 and other NR2E1 subclass members, binds to hexamer half-sites with relaxed specificity: it will bind hexamers with the sequence ANGTCA, although it prefers a purine to a pyrimidine at the second position. We use site-directed mutagenesis to demonstrate that the difference between FAX-1 and NHR-67 binding preference is partially mediated by a conserved subclass-specific asparagine or aspartate residue at position 19 of the DNA-binding domain. This amino acid position is part of the "P box" that plays a critical role in defining binding site specificity and has been shown to make hydrogen-bond contacts to the second position of the hexamer in co-crystal structures for other nuclear receptors. The relaxed specificity allows FAX-1 to bind a much larger repertoire of half-sites than NHR-67. While NR2E1 class proteins bind both monomeric and dimeric sites, the NR2E3 class proteins bind only dimeric sites. The presence of a single strong site adjacent to a very weak site allows dimeric FAX-1 binding, further increasing the number of dimeric binding sites to which FAX-1 may bind in vivo. Conclusion These findings identify subclass-specific DNA-binding specificities and dimerization properties for the NR2E1

  2. Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of carbon-11 labelled N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[11C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine as a PET tracer for NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiaans, Johannes A.M.; Klein, Pieter J.; Metaxas, Athanasios; Kooijman, Esther J.M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Leysen, Josée E.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Windhorst, Albert D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor plays an important role in learning and memory. Overactivation is thought to play an important role in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Currently, it is not possible to assess N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) bio-availability in vivo. The purpose of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) ligand for the NR2B binding site of the NMDA receptor. Methods: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was radiolabelled with carbon-11 in the phenyl moiety. Biodistribution and blocking studies were carried out in anaesthetized mice and in non-anaesthetized rats. Results: N-((5-(4-fluoro-2-[ 11 C]methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl)methyl)cyclopentanamine was prepared in 49 ± 3% (decay-corrected) yield, affording 4.1 ± 0.3 GBq of formulated product at the end of synthesis with a radiochemical purity of > 99% and with a specific activity of 78 ± 10 GBq/μmol. Conclusion: A new NR2B PET ligand was developed in high yield. [ 11 C]4 readily enters the brain and binds to the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr in the rodent brain. High sigma-1 receptor binding may, however, limit its future application as a PET probe for imaging the NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr. Anaesthesia has an effect on NMDAr function and therefore can complicate interpretation of preclinical in vivo results. In addition, effects of endogenous compounds cannot be excluded. Despite these potential limitations, further studies are warranted to investigate the values of [ 11 C]4 as an NR2B PET ligand

  3. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  4. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  5. Radiation pattern synthesis of planar antennas using the iterative sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis method is presented for determining an excitation of an arbitrary (but fixed) planar source configuration. The desired radiation pattern is specified over all or part of the visible region. It may have multiple and/or shaped main beams with low sidelobes. The iterative sampling method is used to find an excitation of the source which yields a radiation pattern that approximates the desired pattern to within a specified tolerance. In this paper the method is used to calculate excitations for line sources, linear arrays (equally and unequally spaced), rectangular apertures, rectangular arrays (arbitrary spacing grid), and circular apertures. Examples using these sources to form patterns with shaped main beams, multiple main beams, shaped sidelobe levels, and combinations thereof are given.

  6. Pattern recognition methods for acoustic emission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.; Harrington, T.P.; Hutton, P.H.

    1979-07-01

    Models have been developed that relate the rate of acoustic emissions to structural integrity. The implementation of these techniques in the field has been hindered by the noisy environment in which the data must be taken. Acoustic emissions from noncritical sources are recorded in addition to those produced by critical sources, such as flaws. A technique is discussed for prescreening acoustic events and filtering out those that are produced by noncritical sources. The methodology that was investigated is pattern recognition. Three different pattern recognition techniques were applied to a data set that consisted of acoustic emissions caused by crack growth and acoustic signals caused by extraneous noise sources. Examination of the acoustic emission data presented has uncovered several features of the data that can provide a reasonable filter. Two of the most valuable features are the frequency of maximum response and the autocorrelation coefficient at Lag 13. When these two features and several others were combined with a least squares decision algorithm, 90% of the acoustic emissions in the data set were correctly classified. It appears possible to design filters that eliminate extraneous noise sources from flaw-growth acoustic emissions using pattern recognition techniques

  7. Combined experimental and numerical kinetic characterization of NR vulcanized with sulphur, N terbutyl, 2 benzothiazylsulphenamide and N,N diphenyl guanidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani, G., E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Hanel, T.; Donetti, R. [Pirelli Tyre, Via Alberto e Piero Pirelli 25, 20126 Milan (Italy); Milani, F. [Chem. Co, Via J.F.Kennedy 2, 45030 Occhiobello (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    The paper presents the final results of a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis aimed at deeply investigating the behavior of Natural Rubber (NR) vulcanized with sulphur in presence of different accelerators during standard rheometer tests. NR in presence of sulphur and two different accelerators (DPG and TBBS) in various concentrations is investigated, changing the curing temperature in the range 150-180°C and obtaining rheometer curves with a step of 10°C. Sulphur-TBBS concentrations considered are 1-1, 1-3, 3-3 and 3-1, with DPG at 1-4 phr respectively. A total of 48 experimental rheometer curves is so obtained. To fit experimental data, the general reaction scheme proposed by Han and co-workers for vulcanized sulphur NR is re-adapted and suitably modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators. Chain reactions initiated by the formation of macro-compounds responsible for the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer are accounted for. In presence of two accelerators, reactions are assumed to proceed in parallel, making the practically effective hypothesis that there is no interaction between the two accelerators. From the simplified kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution is found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. For each experimented case on the same blend, reaction kinetic constants provided by the model are utilized to deduce their trend in the Arrhenius space, also outside the temperature range inspected. Rather close linearity is found in the majority of the cases. A comparative analysis is carefully conducted among the constants at the different concentrations of S, TBBS and DPG investigated, allowing a prediction of curing behavior at any vulcanization temperature and with concentrations not experimentally tested, without the need of addition costly experimentation.

  8. Dexmedetomidine attenuates neuropathic pain in chronic constriction injury by suppressing NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective treatment of patients suffering from neuropathic pain remains challenging. Dexmedetomidine (DEX possesses anti-inflammatory activity. However, the role of DEX in neuropathic pain is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine DEX an α2-adrenoceptor agonist could improve pain hypersensitivity and reduce inflammatory in a chronic constriction injury (CCI model of the sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats. Dex was intrathecally administrated 1-h after operation. The paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL were measured on day 1 before operation and on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after operation, respectively. On day 21, all the rats were decapitated to collect the L4-6 segments of the spinal cord to examine IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS mRNA levels using RT-PCR. The postoperative MWT and PWTL were significantly decreased in CCI, and DEX groups as compared to those before surgery and Sham group (P < 0.05. And DEX reversed this trend (P < 0.05. Interleukin 1 (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, IL-6 mRNA expression significantly increased postsurgery in CCI group as compared to that of Sham group (P < 0.05; DEX blocked increased IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB, and inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA levels (P < 0.05. DEX may alleviate neuropathic hypersensitivity and inflammation partially by inhibiting NR2B, NF-κB, and iNOS expression in the spinal cord of rats with neuropathic pain resulting from CCI of the sciatic nerve.

  9. Combined experimental and numerical kinetic characterization of NR vulcanized with sulphur, N terbutyl, 2 benzothiazylsulphenamide and N,N diphenyl guanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, G.; Hanel, T.; Donetti, R.; Milani, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the final results of a comprehensive experimental and numerical analysis aimed at deeply investigating the behavior of Natural Rubber (NR) vulcanized with sulphur in presence of different accelerators during standard rheometer tests. NR in presence of sulphur and two different accelerators (DPG and TBBS) in various concentrations is investigated, changing the curing temperature in the range 150-180°C and obtaining rheometer curves with a step of 10°C. Sulphur-TBBS concentrations considered are 1-1, 1-3, 3-3 and 3-1, with DPG at 1-4 phr respectively. A total of 48 experimental rheometer curves is so obtained. To fit experimental data, the general reaction scheme proposed by Han and co-workers for vulcanized sulphur NR is re-adapted and suitably modified taking into account the single contributions of the different accelerators. Chain reactions initiated by the formation of macro-compounds responsible for the formation of the unmatured crosslinked polymer are accounted for. In presence of two accelerators, reactions are assumed to proceed in parallel, making the practically effective hypothesis that there is no interaction between the two accelerators. From the simplified kinetic scheme adopted, a closed form solution is found for the crosslink density, with the only limitation that the induction period is excluded from computations. For each experimented case on the same blend, reaction kinetic constants provided by the model are utilized to deduce their trend in the Arrhenius space, also outside the temperature range inspected. Rather close linearity is found in the majority of the cases. A comparative analysis is carefully conducted among the constants at the different concentrations of S, TBBS and DPG investigated, allowing a prediction of curing behavior at any vulcanization temperature and with concentrations not experimentally tested, without the need of addition costly experimentation.

  10. Radiation Crosslinking of Small Electrical Wire Insulator Fabricated from NR-LDPE Blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyagrit, S.

    2006-01-01

    Blending of block natural rubber (STR-5L) and LDPE with phthalic anhydride (PA) as copatibilizer was put to the test for the purpose of a fabrication into small electrical wire insulator. It was found that PA at concentration of 1.0 - 1.5% in NR/PE of 50/50 so fabricated into the insulator, after gamma ray cross-linked at a dose of 180 kGy in limited air, could meet Thai Industrial Standard (TIS) 11-2531 of small eletrical insulator (<300 V). Effect of radiation dose on tensile, hardness, elongation at break, modulus 100%, limiting oxigen index (LOI) were investigated. It was noted that to comply with TIS 11-2531 for vertical flame retardance test, a suitable flame retardance was needed for the insulator

  11. Pubertal androgenization and gonadal histology in two 46, XY adolescents with NR5A1 mutations and predominantly female phenotype at birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Cools (Martine); P. Hoebeke (Piet); K.P. Wolffenbuttel (Katja); J.A. Stoop (Hans); R. Hersmus (Remko); M. Barbaro (M.); A. Wedell; H.T. Brüggenwirth (Hennie); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Most patients with NR5A1 (SF-1) mutations and poor virilization at birth are sex-assigned female and receive early gonadectomy. Although studies in pituitary-specific Sf-1 knockout mice suggest hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, little is known about endocrine function at puberty

  12. OBSERVAŢII REFERITOARE LA AMENDAMENTELE OPERATE ÎN CODUL PENAL PRIN LEGEA NR.60/2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalie STATI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Obiectul prezentului studiu îl constituie modificările şi completările operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. Acestea vizează: persoana juridică în calitate de subiect al infracţiunii; confiscarea specială; spălarea banilor; actul terorist; finanţarea terorismului; abuzul de putere sau abuzul de serviciu. În procesul analizei, sunt examinate proiectul care se află la baza Legii nr.60/2016, Nota informativă la acest proiect şi alte asemenea acte preparatorii. De asemenea, se face referire la Convenţia privind spălarea, descoperirea, sechestrarea şi confiscarea produselor infracţiunii şi finan­ţarea terorismului, adoptată la Varşovia la 16.05.2005, precum şi la raportul explicativ la această Convenţie. Scopul prezentului studiu constă în stabilirea efectelor pozitive şi a celor negative ale adoptării modificărilor şi completărilor operate în Codul penal prin Legea nr.60/2016. În rezultatul investigaţiei efectuate se ajunge la concluzia că nu toate amendamentele operate prin legea amintită au tangenţă cu domeniile ce ţin de prevenirea şi combaterea spălării banilor şi a finanţării terorismului. Nu toate aceste amendamente pot asigura armonizarea legislaţiei naţionale penale cu stan­dardele stabilite de Curtea Europeană pentru Drepturile Omului. Unele din aceste amendamente sunt îndoielnice sub aspectul calităţii lor tehnico-legislative şi/sau în ce priveşte aportul lor în planul eficientizării apărării ordinii de drept. Impresia de ansamblu este că nu preocuparea pentru interesul social a constituit scopul principal al adoptării Legii nr.60/2016.SOME REMARKS ON THE AMENDMENTS OPERATED TO THE PENAL CODE BY LAW No.60/2016The object of this study is formed by the modifications and additions operated to the Penal Code by Law No.60/2016. The content of the respective initiatives addresses the following elements: the legal person as the subject of the offence; special confiscation

  13. Aquatic studies at the 100-HR-3 and 100-NR-1 operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1993-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a program to characterize selected aquatic biological populations to determine (1) existing levels of inorganic chemical and radionuclide contamination, and (2) the populations' suitability as indicators of chemical releases during cleanup activities at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Following work plans for the ground-water operable units, lower trophic levels in the aquatic habitat (periphyton and caddisfly larvae) were evaluated for contaminants at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit and 100-NR-1 Operable Unit. The results were evaluated to determine the need for further sampling. If the results showed no significant contamination compared to upriver levels, sampling would be discontinued. The periphyton community appears to be suitable for determining contamination levels. Baseline concentrations for stable chromium were established and will be useful for comparing samples collected when contaminant release is expected. Concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr, and 137 Cs in periphyton were essentially below detectable limits, which will also make this community useful in detecting potential releases of radionuclides during cleanup activities. Levels for both stable chromium and radionuclides were essentially below detection limits for caddisfly larvae. Thus, these organisms may be used to monitor suspected contaminant releases from cleanup activities; if concentrations exceed detection limits, they may be related to these activities. Two candidate threatened and endangered species of molluscs occur in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River. These are the shortface lanx (Fisherola nuttalli), which is a Washington State candidate species, and the Columbia pebblesnail (Fluminicola columbiana), which is both a state and federal candidate species. Specimens of the shortface lanx were observed in the vicinity of N Springs (100-NR-1 Operable Unit); they likely occur throughout this area

  14. Synthesis of Room Impulse Responses for Variable Source Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kunkemoeller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Every acoustic source, e.g. a speaker, a musical instrument or a loudspeaker, generally has a frequency dependent characteristic radiation pattern, which is preeminent at higher frequencies. Room acoustic measurements nowadays only account for omnidirectional source characteristics. This motivates a measurement method that is capable of obtaining room impulse responses for these specific radiation patterns by using a superposition approach of several measurements with technically well-defined sound sources. We propose a method based on measurements with a 12-channel independentlydriven dodecahedron loudspeaker array rotated by an automatically controlled turntable.Radiation patterns can be efficiently described with the use of spherical harmonics representation. We propose a method that uses this representation for the spherical loudspeaker array used for the measurements and the target radiation pattern to be used for the synthesis.We show validating results for a deterministic test sound source inside in a small lecture hall.

  15. Quantitative analysis of contents and volatile emissions from a-copaene and quercivorol lures, and longevity for attraction of Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles in the cryptic species complex Euwallacea nr. fornicatus vector a fungal pathogen responsible for Fusarium dieback, a disease that impacts avocado (Persea americana) and numerous native trees in the USA (California, Florida), Israel, and other countries. Currently, these pests are d...

  16. Transmission imaging with a coded source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, W.W.; Sage, J.P.; Braun, M.; Wilson, D.T.; Barrett, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    The conventional approach to transmission imaging is to use a rotating anode x-ray tube, which provides the small, brilliant x-ray source needed to cast sharp images of acceptable intensity. Stationary anode sources, although inherently less brilliant, are more compatible with the use of large area anodes, and so they can be made more powerful than rotating anode sources. Spatial modulation of the source distribution provides a way to introduce detailed structure in the transmission images cast by large area sources, and this permits the recovery of high resolution images, in spite of the source diameter. The spatial modulation is deliberately chosen to optimize recovery of image structure; the modulation pattern is therefore called a ''code.'' A variety of codes may be used; the essential mathematical property is that the code possess a sharply peaked autocorrelation function, because this property permits the decoding of the raw image cast by th coded source. Random point arrays, non-redundant point arrays, and the Fresnel zone pattern are examples of suitable codes. This paper is restricted to the case of the Fresnel zone pattern code, which has the unique additional property of generating raw images analogous to Fresnel holograms. Because the spatial frequency of these raw images are extremely coarse compared with actual holograms, a photoreduction step onto a holographic plate is necessary before the decoded image may be displayed with the aid of coherent illumination

  17. Response patterns of phytoplankton growth to variations in resuspension in the German Bight revealed by daily MERIS data in 2003 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Su

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (chl a concentration in coastal seas exhibits variability on various spatial and temporal scales. Resuspension of particulate matter can somewhat limit algal growth, but can also enhance productivity because of the intrusion of nutrient-rich pore water from sediments or bottom water layers into the whole water column. This study investigates whether characteristic changes in net phytoplankton growth can be directly linked to resuspension events within the German Bight. Satellite-derived chl a were used to derive spatial patterns of net rates of chl a increase/decrease (NR in 2003 and 2004. Spatial correlations between NR and mean water column irradiance were analysed. High correlations in space and time were found in most areas of the German Bight (R2 > 0.4, suggesting a tight coupling between light availability and algal growth during spring. These correlations were reduced within a distinct zone in the transition between shallow coastal areas and deeper offshore waters. In summer and autumn, a mismatch was found between phytoplankton blooms (chl a > 6 mg m−3 and spring-tidal induced resuspension events as indicated by bottom velocity, suggesting that there is no phytoplankton resuspension during spring tides. It is instead proposed here that frequent and recurrent spring-tidal resuspension events enhance algal growth by supplying remineralized nutrients. This hypothesis is corroborated by a lag correlation analysis between resuspension events and in-situ measured nutrient concentrations. This study outlines seasonally different patterns in phytoplankton productivity in response to variations in resuspension, which can serve as a reference for modelling coastal ecosystem dynamics.

  18. Estimating and correcting the amplitude radiation pattern of a virtual source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Neut, J.; Bakulin, A.

    2009-01-01

    In the virtual source (VS) method we crosscorrelate seismic recordings at two receivers to create a new data set as if one of these receivers were a virtual source and the other a receiver. We focus on the amplitudes and kinematics of VS data, generated by an array of active sources at the surface

  19. Chemical composition, sources and evolution processes of aerosol at an urban site in Yangtze River Delta, China during wintertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunjiang; Tang, Lili; Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Zhuang; Sun, Yele; Qin, Wei; Chen, Wentai; Chen, Changhong; Ding, Aijun; Wu, Jing; Ge, Shun; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Hong-cang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the composition, sources and evolution processes of submicron aerosol during wintertime, a field experiment was conducted during December 1-31, 2013 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in Yangtze River Delta of China. Non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) species were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor. NR-PM1 is dominated by secondary inorganic aerosol (55%) and organic aerosol (OA, 42%) during haze periods. Six OA components were identified by positive matrix factorization of the OA mass spectra. The hydrocarbon-like OA and cooking-related OA represent the local traffic and cooking sources, respectively. A highly oxidized factor related to biomass burning OA accounted for 15% of the total OA mass during haze periods. Three types of oxygenated OA (OOA), i.e., a less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA), a more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA), and a low-volatility OOA (LV-OOA), were identified. LO-OOA is likely associated with fresh urban secondary OA. MO-OOA likely represents photochemical products showing a similar diurnal cycle to nitrate with a pronounced noon peak. LV-OOA appears to be a more oxidized factor with a pronounced noon peak. The OA composition is dominated by secondary species, especially during haze events. LO-OOA, MO-OOA and LV-OOA on average account for 11%, (18%), 24% (21%) and 23% (18%) of the total OA mass for the haze (clean) periods respectively. Analysis of meteorological influence suggested that regional transport from the northern and southeastern areas of the city is responsible for large secondary and low-volatility aerosol formation.

  20. 17 CFR 279.4 - Form ADV-NR, appointment of agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form ADV-NR, appointment of agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non-resident managing agent of an... agent for service of process by non-resident general partner and non-resident managing agent of an...

  1. Regional, temporal, and species patterns of mercury in Alaskan seabird eggs: Mercury sources and cycling or food web effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Rusty D.; Roseneau, David G.; Vander Pol, Stacy S.; Hobson, Keith A.; Donard, Olivier F.X.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Moors, Amanda J.; Becker, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury concentration ([Hg]), δ 15 N, and δ 13 C values were measured in eggs from common murres (Uria aalge), thick-billed murres (U. lomvia), glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), and glaucous-winged gulls (L. glaucescens) collected in Alaska from 1999 to 2005. [Hg] was normalized to a common trophic level using egg δ 15 N values and published Hg trophic magnification factors. Egg [Hg] was higher in murres from Gulf of Alaska, Cook Inlet, and Norton Sound regions compared to Bering Sea and Bering Strait regions, independent of trophic level. We believe the Yukon River outflow and terrestrial Hg sources on the southern Seward Peninsula are responsible for the elevated [Hg] in Norton Sound eggs. Normalizing for trophic level generally diminished or eliminated differences in [Hg] among taxa, but temporal variability was unrelated to trophic level. Normalizing murre egg [Hg] by trophic level improves the confidence in regional comparisons of Hg sources and biogeochemical cycling in Alaska. - Highlights: ► Seabird eggs used for monitoring Hg in Alaskan marine environment. ► Egg Hg concentrations normalized to common trophic level using δ 15 N. ► Geographic Hg patterns persist independent of trophic normalization. ► Trophic normalization reduces difference among taxa, but not temporal variability. ► Measuring δ 15 N and δ 13 C improve interpretation of seabird mercury monitoring data. - Normalizing mercury concentrations in seabird eggs to a common trophic level reveals that geographic patterns of mercury contamination exist in the Alaskan marine environment that are independent of food web effects.

  2. Cinacalcet – Clinical and Laboratory Effectiveness, Concomitant Treatment Patterns and Treatment Cost: Could We Do Better and How?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smržová, J.; Urbánek, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2010), s. 333-342 ISSN 1420-4096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Cinacalcet * Itching * Phosphate binders Subject RIV: FE - Other Internal Medicine Disciplines Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2010 http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowAbstract&ArtikelNr=317935&Ausgabe=254503&ProduktNr=224258

  3. Data analysis and pattern recognition in multiple databases

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Animesh; Pedrycz, Witold

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition in data is a well known classical problem that falls under the ambit of data analysis. As we need to handle different data, the nature of patterns, their recognition and the types of data analyses are bound to change. Since the number of data collection channels increases in the recent time and becomes more diversified, many real-world data mining tasks can easily acquire multiple databases from various sources. In these cases, data mining becomes more challenging for several essential reasons. We may encounter sensitive data originating from different sources - those cannot be amalgamated. Even if we are allowed to place different data together, we are certainly not able to analyse them when local identities of patterns are required to be retained. Thus, pattern recognition in multiple databases gives rise to a suite of new, challenging problems different from those encountered before. Association rule mining, global pattern discovery, and mining patterns of select items provide different...

  4. Development of rubber-enriched dandelion varieties by metabolic engineering of the inulin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolze, Anna; Wanke, Alan; van Deenen, Nicole; Geyer, Roland; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Natural rubber (NR) is an important raw material for a large number of industrial products. The primary source of NR is the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, but increased worldwide demand means that alternative sustainable sources are urgently required. The Russian dandelion (Taraxacum koksaghyz Rodin) is such an alternative because large amounts of NR are produced in its root system. However, rubber biosynthesis must be improved to develop T. koksaghyz into a commercially feasible crop. In addition to NR, T. koksaghyz also produces large amounts of the reserve carbohydrate inulin, which is stored in parenchymal root cell vacuoles near the phloem, adjacent to apoplastically separated laticifers. In contrast to NR, which accumulates throughout the year even during dormancy, inulin is synthesized during the summer and is degraded from the autumn onwards when root tissues undergo a sink-to-source transition. We carried out a comprehensive analysis of inulin and NR metabolism in T. koksaghyz and its close relative T. brevicorniculatum and functionally characterized the key enzyme fructan 1-exohydrolase (1-FEH), which catalyses the degradation of inulin to fructose and sucrose. The constitutive overexpression of Tk1-FEH almost doubled the rubber content in the roots of two dandelion species without any trade-offs in terms of plant fitness. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that energy supplied by the reserve carbohydrate inulin can be used to promote the synthesis of NR in dandelions, providing a basis for the breeding of rubber-enriched varieties for industrial rubber production. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  6. Nanocomposites of NR/SBR Blend Prepared by Latex Casting Method: Effects of Nano-TiO2 and Polystyrene-Encapsulated Nano-TiO2 on the Cure Characteristics, Physical Properties, and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of 80/20 (w/w natural rubber (NR/styrene butadiene rubber (SBR blend with four loadings of either nanosized titanium dioxide (nTiO2 or polystyrene-encapsulated nTiO2 (PS-nTiO2, ranging from 3 to 9 parts by weight per hundred of rubber (phr, were prepared by latex casting method. The PS-nTiO2 synthesized via in situ differential microemulsion polymerization displayed a core-shell morphology (nTiO2 core and PS shell with an average diameter of 42 nm. The cure characteristics (scorch time, cure time, and cure rate index, mechanical properties (tensile properties, tear strength, and hardness, thermal stability, glass transition temperature, and morphology of the prepared nanocomposites were quantified and compared. The results showed that the cure characteristics of all the nanocomposites were not significantly changed compared to those of the neat NR/SBR blend. The inclusion of an appropriate amount of either nTiO2 or PS-nTiO2 into the NR/SBR blend apparently improved the tensile strength, modulus at 300% strain, tear strength, hardness, and thermal stability but deteriorated the elongation at break of the nanocomposites. Based on differential scanning calorimetry, the glass transition temperature of all the nanocomposites was similar to that of the neat NR/SBR blend. Moreover, the morphology of the PS-nTiO2-filled rubber nanocomposites fractured surface analyzed by scanning electron microscopy showed an improvement in the interfacial adhesion between the rubber phase and the nanoparticles.

  7. Electrically robust silver nanowire patterns transferrable onto various substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gui-Shi; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Hui-Jiuan; Cao, Wu; Qiu, Jing-Shen; Shieh, Han-Ping D.; Yang, Bo-Ru

    2016-03-01

    glycol terephthalate (PET) exhibits remarkable durability under the bending test, tape test, ultrasonic treatment in water, and immersion of chemical solvents. In addition, we demonstrate that the AgNW-EPR composite work well as conductive patterns on the oxidized PDMS, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), paper, and curved glass. The facile technique extends the applicability of AgNWs in the field of electronics, and it is potentially applicable to other nanomaterials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06237c

  8. Molecular inference of sources and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in internally displaced persons settlements in Myanmar-China border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Zhou, Guofa; Oo, Winny; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Baum, Elisabeth; Felgner, Philip L; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2015-07-01

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and establishment of internally displaced persons (IDP) settlement along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. The growing IDP populations raise deep concerns about health impact on local communities. Microsatellite markers were used to examine the source and spreading patterns of Plasmodium falciparum between IDP settlement and surrounding villages in Myanmar along the China border. Genotypic structure of P. falciparum was compared over the past three years from the same area and the demographic history was inferred to determine the source of recent infections. In addition, we examined if border migration is a factor of P. falciparum infections in China by determining gene flow patterns across borders. Compared to local community, the IDP samples showed a reduced and consistently lower genetic diversity over the past three years. A strong signature of genetic bottleneck was detected in the IDP samples. P. falciparum infections from the border regions in China were genetically similar to Myanmar and parasite gene flow was not constrained by geographical distance. Reduced genetic diversity of P. falciparum suggested intense malaria control within the IDP settlement. Human movement was a key factor to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrogen-rich saline controls remifentanil-induced hypernociception and NMDA receptor NR1 subunit membrane trafficking through GSK-3β in the DRG in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Shu, Ruichen; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Haiyun; Li, Nan; Wang, Guolin

    2014-07-01

    Although NMDAR trafficking mediated by GSK-3β involvement in transmission of pronociceptive messages in the spinal cord has been confirmed by our previous studies, whether NMDAR trafficking is implicated in peripheral sensitization remains equivocal. It is demonstrated that inflammation is associated with spinal NMDAR-containing nociceptive neurons activation and the maintenance of opioid induced pain hypersensitivity. However, whether and how hydrogen-rich saline, as an effective anti-inflammatory drug, could prevent hyperalgesia through affecting peripheral sensitization caused by NMDAR activation remains to be explored. To test these effects, hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5 or 10 ml/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after remifentanil infusion, NMDAR antagonist MK-801 or GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8 was administrated intravenously before remifentanil infusion in rats. We examined time course of hydrogen concentration in blood after hydrogen-rich saline administration. Mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia were evaluated by measuring PWT and PWL for 48 post-infusion hours, respectively. Western blotting and real-time qPCR assay were applied to analyze the NR1 membrane trafficking, GSK-3β expression and activity in DRG. Inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) expressions in DRG were also analyzed. We found that NR1 membrane trafficking in DRG increased, possibly due to GSK-3β activation after remifentanil infusion. We also discovered that hydrogen-rich saline not 2.5 ml/kg but 5 and 10 ml/kg could dose-dependently attenuate mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia without affecting baseline nociceptive threshold, reduce expressions of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) and decrease NR1 trafficking mediated by GSK-3β, and minimal effective concentration was observed to be higher than 10 μmol/L, namely peak concentration in arterial blood after administration of HRS 2.5 ml/kg without any influence on hyperalgesia. Our results indicated that

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air : concentration levels and patterns and source analysis in Nairobi, Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthini, M.; Yoshimichi, H.; Yutaka, K.; Shigeki, M. [Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences

    2005-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are often the result of incomplete combustion processes. This paper reported concentration levels and patterns of high molecular weight PAHs in Nairobi, Kenya. Daily air samples for 30 different PAHs were collected at residential, industrial and business sites within the city. Samples were then extracted using deuterated PAH with an automated Soxhlet device. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with a capillary column was used to analyze the extracts using a selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Statistical analyses were then performed. PAH concentration levels were reported for average, median, standard deviation, range, and Pearson's correlation coefficients. Data were then analyzed for sources using a principal component analysis (PCA) technique and isomer ratio analysis. Nonparametric testing was then conducted to detect inherent differences in PAH concentration data obtained from the different sites. Results showed that pyrene was the most abundant PAH. Carcinogenic PAHs were higher in high-traffic areas. The correlation coefficient between coronene and benzo(ghi)pyrene was high. The PAH isomer ratio analysis demonstrated that PAHs in Nairobi are the product of traffic emissions and oil combustion. Results also showed that PAH profiles were not well separated. It was concluded that source distinction methods must be improved in order to better evaluate PAH emissions in the city. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMillan, Colin; Boardman, Richard; McKellar, Michael; Sabharwall, Piyush; Ruth, Mark; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  12. Generation and Use of Thermal Energy in the Industrial Sector and Opportunities to Reduce its Carbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Colin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sabharwall, Piyush [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Changes are occurring throughout the U.S. economy, especially in regard to how energy is generated and used in the electricity, buildings, industrial, and transportation sectors. These changes are being driven by environmental and energy security concerns and by economics. The electric-sector market share of natural gas and variable renewable generation, such as wind and solar photovoltaics (PV), continues to grow. The buildings sector is evolving to meet efficiency standards, the transportation sector is evolving to meet efficiency and renewable fuels standards, and the industrial sector is evolving to reduce emissions. Those changes are driving investment and utilization strategies for generation and other assets. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector’s evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are jointly investigating potential synergies between technologies exploiting nuclear and renewable energy sources. The two laboratories have held several joint workshops since 2011. Those workshops brought together experts in both areas to identify synergies and potential opportunities to work together. Workshop participants identified nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs) as one of the opportunities and recommended investigating whether N-R HESs could both generate dispatchable electricity without carbon emissions and provide clean energy to industrial processes. They also recommended analyzing the potential for N-R HESs to provide dispatchable capacity to a grid with high penetrations of non-dispatchable resources and to investigate whether real inertia provided by thermal power cycles within N-R HESs provides value to the grid. This report is one of a series of reports INL and NREL are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of N-R HESs. Previous reports

  13. A nitrogen source-dependent inducible and repressible gene expression system in the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki eFujiwara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae is a model organism for studying the basic biology of photosynthetic organisms. The C. merolae cell is composed of an extremely simple set of organelles. The genome is completely sequenced. Gene targeting and a heat-shock inducible gene expression system has been recently established. However, a conditional gene knockdown system has not been established, which is required for the examination of function of genes that are essential to cell viability and primary mutant defects. In the current study, we first evaluated the expression of a transgene from two chromosomal neutral loci located in the intergenic region between CMD184C and CMD185C, and a region upstream of the URA5.3 gene. There was no significant difference in expression between them and this result suggests that both may be used as neutral loci. We then designed an inducible and repressible gene expression by using promoters of nitrate-assimilation genes. The expression of nitrate-assimilation genes such as NR (nitrate reductase, NIR (nitrite reductase and NRT (the nitrate/nitrite transporter are reversibly regulated by their dependence on nitrogen sources. We constructed stable strains in which a cassette containing the NR, NIR or NRT promoter and sfGFP gene was inserted in a region upstream of URA5.3 and examined the efficacy of the promoters. The NR, NIR, and NRT promoters were constitutively activated in the nitrate medium, whereas their activities were extremely low in presence of ammonium. The activation of each promoter was immediately inhibited within a period of 1 hour by the addition of ammonium. Thus, a conditional knockdown system in C. merolae was successfully established. The activity varies among the promoters, and each is selectable according to the expression level of a target gene estimated by RNA-sequencing. This method is applicable to defects in genes of interest in photosynthetic organism.

  14. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuel, Gregory; Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2010-01-26

    In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well as biological patterns of

  15. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Matthew C; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2012-05-01

    1. For large predators living in seasonal environments, patterns of predation are likely to vary among seasons because of related changes in prey vulnerability. Variation in prey vulnerability underlies the influence of predators on prey populations and the response of predators to seasonal variation in rates of biomass acquisition. Despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2. We assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves Canis lupus living on the Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park. Our assessment was based on data collected over 14 winters (1995-2009) and five spring-summers between 2004 and 2009. 3. The species composition of wolf-killed prey and the age and sex composition of wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (the primary prey for NR wolves) varied among seasons. 4. One's understanding of predation depends critically on the metric used to quantify kill rate. For example, kill rate was greatest in summer when quantified as the number of ungulates acquired per wolf per day, and least during summer when kill rate was quantified as the biomass acquired per wolf per day. This finding contradicts previous research that suggests that rates of biomass acquisition for large terrestrial carnivores tend not to vary among seasons. 5. Kill rates were not well correlated among seasons. For example, knowing that early-winter kill rate is higher than average (compared with other early winters) provides little basis for anticipating whether kill rates a few months later during late winter will be higher or lower than average (compared with other late winters). This observation indicates how observing, for example, higher-than-average kill rates throughout any particular season is an unreliable basis for inferring that the year-round average kill rate would be higher than average. 6. Our work shows how a large carnivore living in a seasonal environment displays marked seasonal variation in

  16. Modulation of haloperidol-induced patterns of the transcription factor Nur77 and Nor-1 expression by serotonergic and adrenergic drugs in the mouse brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Jérôme; Vuillier, Laura; Mahfouz, Mylène; Rouillard, Claude; Lévesque, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Different patterns of expression of the transcription factors of Nur77 and Nor-1 are induced following acute administration of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. The pharmacological profile of atypical antipsychotics suggests that serotonergic and/or adrenergic receptors might contribute to these reported differences. In order to test this possibility, we examined the abilities of serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A/2C, and α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor drugs to modify the pattern of Nur77 (NR4A1) and Nor-1 (NR4A3) mRNA expression induced by haloperidol. Various groups of mice were treated with either saline, DOI, a 5-HT2A/2C agonist, MDL11939, a 5-HT2A antagonist, 8-OH-DPAT, a 5-HT1A agonist, prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist and idazoxan, an α2-adrenergic antagonist, alone or in combination with haloperidol. The 5-HT2A/2C agonist DOI alone significantly increased Nur77 expression in the medial striatum and nucleus accumbens. DOI reduced Nor-1 expression, while MDL11939 increased the expression of this transcript in the cortex. Prazosin reduced Nur77 expression in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, 8-OH-DPAT and MDL11939 partially prevented haloperidol-induced Nur77 up-regulation, while MDL11939 completely abolished Nor-1 expression in the striatum. In addition, MDL11939 decreased haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 mRNA levels in the ventral tegmental area. On the contrary, idazoxan (α2 antagonist) consistently potentiated haloperidol-induced Nur77, but not Nor-1 mRNA levels in the striatum, whereas prazosin (α1 antagonist) remained without effect. Taken together, these results show the ability of a 5-HT1A agonist or a 5-HT2A antagonist to reduce haloperidol-induced Nur77 and Nor-1 striatal expression, suggesting that these serotonin receptor subtypes participate in the differential pattern of gene expression induced by typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs. PMID:21524335

  17. Polarization Patterns of Transmitted Celestial Light under Wavy Water Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanhua Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model to describe the polarization patterns of celestial light, which includes sunlight and skylight, when refracted by wavy water surfaces. The polarization patterns and intensity distribution of refracted light through the wave water surface were calculated. The model was validated by underwater experimental measurements. The experimental and theoretical values agree well qualitatively. This work provides a quantitative description of the repolarization and transmittance of celestial light transmitted through wave water surfaces. The effects of wind speed and incident sources on the underwater refraction polarization patterns are discussed. Scattering skylight dominates the polarization patterns while direct solar light is the dominant source of the intensity of the underwater light field. Wind speed has an influence on disturbing the patterns under water.

  18. Uranium metalla-allenes with carbene imido R_2C=U"I"V=NR' units (R=Ph_2PNSiMe_3; R'=CPh_3): alkali-metal-mediated push-pull effects with an amido auxiliary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Erli; Tuna, Floriana; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; Liddle, Stephen T.; Lewis, William

    2016-01-01

    We report uranium(IV)-carbene-imido-amide metalla-allene complexes [U(BIPM"T"M"S)(NCPh_3)(NHCPh_3)(M)] (BIPM"T"M"S=C(PPh_2NSiMe_3)_2; M=Li or K) that can be described as R_2C=U=NR' push-pull metalla-allene units, as organometallic counterparts of the well-known push-pull organic allenes. The solid-state structures reveal that the R_2C=U=NR' units adopt highly unusual cis-arrangements, which are also reproduced by gas-phase theoretical studies conducted without the alkali metals to remove their potential structure-directing roles. Computational studies confirm the double-bond nature of the U=NR' and U=CR_2 interactions, the latter increasingly attenuated by potassium then lithium when compared to the hypothetical alkali-metal-free anion. Combined experimental and theoretical data show that the push-pull effect induced by the alkali metal cations and amide auxiliary gives a fundamental and tunable structural influence over the C=U"I"V=N units. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. HPA axis dysregulation, NR3C1 polymorphisms and glucocorticoid receptor isoforms imbalance in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Clarissa Silva; Elias, Daniel; Colli, Leandro Machado; Couri, Carlos Eduardo; Souza, Manoel Carlos L A; Moreira, Ayrton C; Foss, Milton C; Elias, Lucila L K; de Castro, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) shares several similarities with hypercortisolism. To evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis sensitivity to dexamethasone (DEX), NR3C1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) isoforms and cytokines in peripheral immune cells of MetS patients and controls. Prospective study with 40 MetS patients and 40 controls was conducted at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital. Plasma and salivary cortisol were measured in basal conditions and after 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg of DEX given at 2300 h. In addition, p.N363S (rs6195), p.ER22/23EK (rs6189-6190), and BclI (rs41423247) SNPs were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction allelic discrimination. Exons 3 to 9 and exon/intron boundaries of NR3C1 were sequenced. GR isoforms and cytokines (IL1B, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IFNγ, TNFα) expression were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Plasma and salivary cortisol (nmol/L) after 1-mg DEX were higher in MetS patients compared with controls (PF: 70.2 ± 17.3 vs 37.9 ± 2.6, P = .02, and SF: 4.9 ± 1.7 vs 2.2 ± 0.3, P molecular mechanism of glucocorticoid resistance in MetS. Thus, HPA axis dysregulation might contribute to MetS pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Fatigue Resistance of Filled NR with PMMA-Wrapped and Rare Earth-Doped Alumina-Siloxane Gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was used to wrap alumina-siloxane sol which was produced by water glass, aluminum nitrate and α-methacrylic acid, and as a result, alumina-siloxane gel wrapped by PMMA was obtained. Meanwhile, rare earth ions were employed to dope in the course of reaction, and the formed rare earth doped PMMA microcapsule powder was filled into natural rubber (NR). It is found through the analysis of mechanical properties that Young′s modulus universally improves and a remarkable resistance to fatigue is displayed. Retention rate of tensile strength is twice that of the controlled sample after ten thousand times of extension fatigue.

  1. Experiment list: SRX372174 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SRX372174 hg19 TFs and others NR2F2 Uterus Endometrial stromal cells NA 35284736,98....5,22.9,25632 GSM1257396: NR2F2 ChIP-seq; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq source_name=Endometrial stromal cells || ce

  2. Nitrate Reductases Are Relocalized to the Nucleus by AtSIZ1 and Their Levels Are Negatively Regulated by COP1 and Ammonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Yong Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate reductases (NRs catalyze the first step in the reduction of nitrate to ammonium. NR activity is regulated by sumoylation through the E3 ligase activity of AtSIZ1. However, it is not clear how NRs interact with AtSIZ1 in the cell, or how nitrogen sources affect NR levels and their cellular localization. Here, we show that the subcellular localization of NRs is modulated by the E3 SUMO (Small ubiquitin-related modifier ligase AtSIZ1 and that NR protein levels are regulated by nitrogen sources. Transient expression analysis of GFP fusion proteins in onion epidermal cells showed that the NRs NIA1 and NIA2 localize to the cytoplasmic membrane, and that AtSIZ1 localizes to the nucleoplasm, including nuclear bodies, when expressed separately, whereas NRs and AtSIZ1 localize to the nucleus when co-expressed. Nitrate did not affect the subcellular localization of the NRs, but it caused AtSIZ1 to move from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. NRs were not detected in ammonium-treated cells, whereas the localization of AtSIZ1 was not altered by ammonium treatment. NR protein levels increased in response to nitrate but decreased in response to ammonium. In addition, NR protein levels increased in response to a 26S proteasome inhibitor and in cop1-4 and DN-COP1-overexpressing transgenic plants. NR protein degradation occurred later in cop1-4 than in the wild-type, although the NR proteins did not interact with COP1. Therefore, AtSIZ1 controls nuclear localization of NR proteins, and ammonium negatively regulates their levels. The function and stability of NR proteins might be post-translationally modulated by ubiquitination.

  3. A comprehensive data mining study shows that most nuclear receptors act as newly proposed homeostasis-associated molecular pattern receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luqiao; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Yang, Qian; Tan, Hongmei; Drummer, Charles; Sun, Yu; Shao, Ying; Fu, Hangfei; Cueto, Ramon; Shan, Huimin; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Li, Ya-Feng; Johnson, Candice; Yang, William Y; Yang, Fan; Xu, Yanjie; Xi, Hang; Liu, Weiqing; Yu, Jun; Choi, Eric T; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-24

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) can regulate gene expression; therefore, they are classified as transcription factors. Despite the extensive research carried out on NRs, still several issues including (1) the expression profile of NRs in human tissues, (2) how the NR expression is modulated during atherosclerosis and metabolic diseases, and (3) the overview of the role of NRs in inflammatory conditions are not fully understood. To determine whether and how the expression of NRs are regulated in physiological/pathological conditions, we took an experimental database analysis to determine expression of all 48 known NRs in 21 human and 17 murine tissues as well as in pathological conditions. We made the following significant findings: (1) NRs are differentially expressed in tissues, which may be under regulation by oxygen sensors, angiogenesis pathway, stem cell master regulators, inflammasomes, and tissue hypo-/hypermethylation indexes; (2) NR sequence mutations are associated with increased risks for development of cancers and metabolic, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases; (3) NRs have less tendency to be upregulated than downregulated in cancers, and autoimmune and metabolic diseases, which may be regulated by inflammation pathways and mitochondrial energy enzymes; and (4) the innate immune sensor inflammasome/caspase-1 pathway regulates the expression of most NRs. Based on our findings, we propose a new paradigm that most nuclear receptors are anti-inflammatory homeostasis-associated molecular pattern receptors (HAMPRs). Our results have provided a novel insight on NRs as therapeutic targets in metabolic diseases, inflammations, and malignancies.

  4. Regulation of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 3-Like 1 (Creb3l1 Expression by Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Greenwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP (cAMP inducible transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1 is strongly activated in the hypothalamus in response to hyperosmotic cues such as dehydration (DH. We have recently shown that Creb3l1 expression is upregulated by cAMP pathways in vitro, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Here we show that increasing Creb3l1 transcription by raising cAMP levels in mouse pituitary AtT20 cells automatically initiates cleavage of Creb3l1, leading to a greater abundance of the transcriptionally active N-terminal portion. Inhibiting protein synthesis indicated that de novo protein synthesis of an intermediary transcription factor was required for Creb3l1 induction. Strategic mining of our microarray data from dehydrated rodent hypothalamus revealed four candidates, reduced to two by analysis of acute hyperosmotic-induced transcriptional activation profiles in the hypothalamus, and one, orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a1, by direct shRNA mediated silencing in AtT20 cells. We show that activation of Creb3l1 transcription by Nr4a1 involves interaction with a single NBRE site in the promoter region. The ability to activate Creb3l1 transcription by this pathway in vitro is dictated by the level of methylation of a CpG island within the proximal promoter/5′UTR of this gene. We thus identify a novel cAMP-Nr4a1-Creb3l1 transcriptional pathway in AtT20 cells and also, our evidence would suggest, in the hypothalamus.

  5. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Karl-F; Nguyen, Chloé M A; Cardinal, Tatiana; Charrier, Baptiste; Silversides, David W; Pilon, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line - obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development - is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Upregulation of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair in murine neural crest cells results in a complex phenotype reminiscent of Waardenburg syndrome type 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-F. Bergeron

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Waardenburg syndrome is a neurocristopathy characterized by a combination of skin and hair depigmentation, and inner ear defects. In the type 4 form, these defects show comorbidity with Hirschsprung disease, a disorder marked by an absence of neural ganglia in the distal colon, triggering functional intestinal obstruction. Here, we report that the Spot mouse line – obtained through an insertional mutagenesis screen for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC development – is a model for Waardenburg syndrome type 4. We found that the Spot insertional mutation causes overexpression of an overlapping gene pair composed of the transcription-factor-encoding Nr2f1 and the antisense long non-coding RNA A830082K12Rik in NCCs through a mechanism involving relief of repression of these genes. Consistent with the previously described role of Nr2f1 in promoting gliogenesis in the central nervous system, we further found that NCC-derived progenitors of the enteric nervous system fail to fully colonize Spot embryonic guts owing to their premature differentiation in glial cells. Taken together, our data thus identify silencer elements of the Nr2f1-A830082K12Rik gene pair as new candidate loci for Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

  7. Measurement of dose speed absorbed in depth imparted by sources external secondary patterns of beta radiation. Part 1 Measurement of dose speed absorbed in the surface of soft fabric for isotopes of 90Sr/90Y, 147Pm and 204TI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez R, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The dose speed was measured absorbed for depth zero, (superficial) in soft equivalent fabric, for the secondary pattern s four sources of beta radiation, (Nr. 86): 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq and 74 MBq respectively); 147 Pm, (518 MBq) and 204 TI, (18.5 MBq). The measurement is carried out to different distances of source-detecting separation, (11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm for the source of 1850 MBq, 30.0 cm for that of 74 MBq; 11.00 cm for the source of 147 Pmand to contact for all the sources); maintaining the radiation sheaf aligned the one axis of symmetry of the detector, (α 0 degrees). The detector employed was a extrapolation chambers of variable electrodes and electrode fixed collector, (30 mm of diameter). In accordance with the principle of Bragg-Gray the volume of the chambers is varied and they register the variations of the current of collected ionization, correcting until for a maximum of thirteen correction factors that take into account the deviation to the suppositions that it establishes this principle. The certain values of the speed of superficial absorbed dose are in the following intervals: 90 Sr/ 90 Y, (1850 MBq, 0.0, 11.0, 30.0 and 50.0 cm): 43.164 mGy S-t, 0.544 mGy s-1 ,0.075 mGy s -1 and 0.027 mGy s -1 , respectively, with a Global Analysis of the order of 1.17%, 1.17%, 1.14% and 1.66%, K J; 90 Sr / 90 Y, (74 MBq, 0.0 and 30 cm): 1.536 mGy s -1 and 0.002 mGy s -1 , with Global Analysis of 1.19.0% and 5.22%, (K = 1) respectively, for the 147 Pm, (0.0 and 11.0 in the interval of: 0.36 μGy s -1 and 0.43 μGy s -1 , with one Global Analysis of 1 .42% and 4.28%, (K = 1), respectively; and finally for the 204 TI, (0.0 cm) in the interval of 0.10 μGy s -1 with a Global Analysis of 1.27%. He calculates of the Global Analysis one carries out of agreement with those recommendations of the BIPM. In all the cases of source-detecting arrangement with separations different from zero, models of simple lineal regression were used. However for the case of the

  8. Source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol collected from Atlanta, Georgia, during 2014-2015 using the aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanavaraha, Weruka; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Budisulistiorini, Sri Hapsari; Croteau, Philip L.; Baumann, Karsten; Canonaco, Francesco; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Edgerton, Eric S.; Zhang, Zhenfa; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Gold, Avram; Shaw, Stephanie L.; Surratt, Jason D.

    2017-10-01

    The Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was redeployed at the Jefferson Street (JST) site in downtown Atlanta, Georgia (GA) for 1 year (March 20, 2014-February 08, 2015) to chemically characterize non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1) in near real-time and to assess whether organic aerosol (OA) types and amounts change from year-to-year. Submicron organic aerosol (OA) mass spectra were analyzed by season using multilinear engine (ME-2) to apportion OA subtypes to potential sources and chemical processes. A suite of real-time collocated measurements from the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) network was compared with ME-2 factor solutions to aid in the interpretation of OA subtypes during each season. OA tracers measured from high-volume filter samples using gas chromatography interfaced with electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) also aided in identifying OA sources. The initial application of ME-2 to the yearlong ACSM dataset revealed that OA source apportionment by season was required to better resolve sporadic OA types. Spring and fall OA mass spectral datasets were separated into finer periods to capture potential OA sources resulting from non-homogeneous emissions during transitioning periods. NR-PM1 was highest in summer (16.7 ± 8.4 μg m-3) and lowest in winter (8.0 ± 5.7 μg m-3), consistent with prior studies. OA dominated NR-PM1 mass (56-74% on average) in all seasons. Hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) from primary emissions was observed in all seasons, averaging 5-22% of total OA mass. Strong correlations of HOA with carbon monoxide (CO) (R = 0.71-0.88) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) (R = 0.55-0.79) indicated that vehicular traffic was the likely source. Biomass burning OA (BBOA) was observed in all seasons, with lower contributions (2%) in summer and higher in colder seasons (averaging 8-20% of total OA mass). BBOA correlated strongly with levoglucosan (R = 0.78-0.95) during colder seasons

  9. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Daniel S.; Moser, Dominik A.; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane; Stenz, Ludwig; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Aue, Tatjana; Adouan, Wafae; Cordero, María I.; Suardi, Francesca; Manini, Aurelia; Sancho Rossignol, Ana; Merminod, Gaëlle; Ansermet, Francois; Dayer, Alexandre G.; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis), characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother–child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12–42 months) participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother–child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother–child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress and PTSD

  10. Methylation of NR3C1 is related to maternal PTSD, parenting stress and maternal medial prefrontal cortical activity in response to child separation among mothers with histories of violence exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Scott Schechter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that mothers with Interpersonal Violence-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (IPV-PTSD report greater difficulty in parenting their toddlers. Relative to their frequent early exposure to violence and maltreatment, these mothers display dysregulation of their hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA-axis, characterized by hypocortisolism. Considering methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 as a marker for HPA-axis functioning, with less methylation likely being associated with less circulating cortisol, the present study tested the hypothesis that the degree of methylation of this gene would be negatively correlated with maternal IPV-PTSD severity and parenting stress, and positively correlated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of stressful versus non-stressful mother-child interactions. Following a mental health assessment, 45 mothers and their children (ages 12-42 months participated in a behavioral protocol involving free-play and laboratory stressors such as mother-child separation. Maternal DNA was extracted from saliva. Interactive behavior was rated on the CARE-Index. During subsequent fMRI scanning, mothers were shown films of free-play and separation drawn from this protocol. Maternal PTSD severity and parenting stress were negatively correlated with the mean percentage of methylation of NR3C1. Maternal mPFC activity in response to video-stimuli of mother-child separation versus play correlated positively to NR3C1 methylation, and negatively to maternal IPV-PTSD and parenting stress. Among interactive behavior variables, child cooperativeness in play was positively correlated with NR3C1 methylation. Thus, the present study is the first published report to our knowledge, suggesting convergence of behavioral, epigenetic, and neuroimaging data that form a psychobiological signature of parenting-risk in the context of early life stress

  11. Quantification of variability in trichome patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGreese

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While pattern formation is studied in various areas of biology, little is known about the intrinsic noise leading to variations between individual realizations of the pattern. One prominent example for de novo pattern formation in plants is the patterning of trichomes on Arabidopsis leaves, which involves genetic regulation and cell-to-cell communication. These processes are potentially variable due to , e.g., the abundance of cell components or environmental conditions. To elevate the understanding of the regulatory processes underlying the pattern formation it is crucial to quantitatively analyze the variability in naturally occurring patterns. Here, we review recent approaches towards characterization of noise on trichome initiation. We present methods for the quantification of spatial patterns, which are the basis for data-driven mathematical modeling and enable the analysis of noise from different sources. Besides the insight gained on trichome formation, the examination of observed trichome patterns also shows that highly regulated biological processes can be substantially affected by variability.

  12. Rapport om kystsikringsforsøg ved anvendelse af lodrette drænrør langs Hjørring Kommunes kyststrækning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    Med økonomisk støtte fra Erhversfremmestyrelsen har Hjørring Kommune i samarbejde med Skagen Innovationscenter, SIC, gennemført et kystsikringsforsøg med anvendelse af lodrette drænrør over en 3.7 km lang kyststraekning fra Skallerup Klit ti1 Nørlev nord. Strækningen er stationeret St. 0,0 - St 3...

  13. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  14. Radiation processing of natural rubber and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Hj. Mohd

    2007-01-01

    Research in natural rubber (NR) is still offering good and exciting opportunities especially in making NR into superior products and as a source for new chemicals by modification of its structure. As in the case of liquid epoxidised natural rubber acrylic (LENRA), it has been shown that it has the ability to induce the interfacial interaction between NR and polyolefin i.e. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) as demonstrated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. For NR/HDPE blend, without deuteration technique, SANS was also to induce some scattering data leading to fruitful information on the interfacial interaction between the blend compositions. (author)

  15. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  16. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren

    2013-07-05

    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  17. Geodesy and Mapping (Selected Articles),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-16

    August 1979 MICROFICHE NR. C-0/O GEODESY AND MAPPING (SELECTED ARTICLES) English pages: 53 Source: Geodezja i Kartograflia, Vol. 27, Nr. 2, 1978, pp. 83...Hausbrandt S., Wyrdwnanie sieci trygonemetryernych z odrzuceniem zalolenia bezbIfdneil pwo- ktdw dowiqzania, Geodezja i Kartografia. T III, z. 1, 1954. [2

  18. Germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) with a 10 nm channel length: analog performance, doping and temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Vali, Mehran; Dideban, Daryoosh; Moezi, Negin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a scheme of the germanene nanoribbon tunneling field effect transistor (GeNR-TFET) is proposed. The characteristics and analog performance of the device were theoretically investigated by exploiting the electrical properties of a germanene nanoribbon and applying the doping concentration in the source and drain regions at 300 K and 4 K temperatures. The device parameters were obtained using a non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method within the tight binding (TB) Hamiltonian. The TB Hamiltonian was extracted from the density functional theory (DFT) through the Wannier function. We find that by increasing the doping concentration the I on current increases which leads to an improvement of the I on /I off ratio to 10 5 . Moreover, decreasing the temperature from 300 K to 4 K causes the I off to become ten times smaller. We find that the device output characteristic displays a negative differential conductance with a good peak-to-valley ratio which is improved by increasing the doping concentration. The analog performance of the device is also investigated in the subthreshold regime of operation by varying the doping concentration. It is observed that by increasing the device doping concentration, the analog figures of merit can be improved. (paper)

  19. Relating hearing loss and executive functions to hearing aid users’ preference for, and speech recognition with, different combinations of binaural noise reduction and microphone directionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eNeher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of how executive functions relate to preferred hearing aid (HA processing is sparse and seemingly inconsistent with related knowledge for speech recognition outcomes. This study thus aimed to find out if (1 performance on a measure of reading span (RS is related to preferred binaural noise reduction (NR strength, (2 similar relations exist for two different, nonverbal measures of executive function, (3 pure-tone average hearing loss (PTA, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and microphone directionality (DIR also influence preferred NR strength, and (4 preference and speech recognition outcomes are similar. Sixty elderly HA users took part. Six HA conditions consisting of omnidirectional or cardioid microphones followed by inactive, moderate, or strong binaural NR as well as linear amplification were tested. Outcome was assessed at fixed SNRs using headphone simulations of a frontal target talker in a busy cafeteria. Analyses showed positive effects of active NR and DIR on preference, and negative and positive effects of, respectively, strong NR and DIR on speech recognition. Also, while moderate NR was the most preferred NR setting overall, preference for strong NR increased with SNR. No relation between RS and preference was found. However, larger PTA was related to weaker preference for inactive NR and stronger preference for strong NR for both microphone modes. Equivalent (but weaker relations between worse performance on one nonverbal measure of executive function and the HA conditions without DIR were found. For speech recognition, there were relations between HA condition, PTA, and RS, but their pattern differed from that for preference. Altogether, these results indicate that, while moderate NR works well in general, a notable proportion of HA users prefer stronger NR. Furthermore, PTA and executive functions can account for some of the variability in preference for, and speech recognition with, different binaural NR and DIR settings.

  20. Diagnóstico do cumprimento da NR-18, pelas empresas construtoras da grande João Pessoa, vinte anos após sua revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Oliveira Medeiros

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A NR-18 é a primeira norma específica criada para uma indústria. Essa norma visa a melhoria das condições de trabalho na indústria da construção, tendo por objetivos a promoção da saúde e a melhoria da qualidade de vida do trabalhador e a prevenção de acidentes de trabalho. O artigo em foco é resultado de uma pesquisa exploratória descritiva que teve como objetivo elaborar um diagnóstico quanto ao cumprimento da NR-18 pelas empresas construtoras da grande João Pessoa, vinte anos após sua revisão. O universo da pesquisa foi composto pelas empresas construtoras de edificações verticais cadastradas junto ao Sindicato da Indústria da Construção Civil de João Pessoa (Sinduscon-JP. Já a amostra, esta foi composta por dezesseis empresas construtoras que aceitaram participar da pesquisa e que possuíam, no momento da pesquisa, canteiros de obras na grande João Pessoa. Os resultados revelam que as empresas construtoras têm buscado o efetivo cumprimento das disposições que compõem a NR-18 nos seus canteiros de obras. Constata-se que os canteiros pesquisados possuem nota média igual a 9, sendo a menor nota obtida 8,45, e que a interpretação da norma, para alguns itens, ainda é realizada de forma distinta pela fiscalização e pelos gestores.

  1. Patterned, highly stretchable and conductive nanofibrous PANI/PVDF strain sensors based on electrospinning and in situ polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gui-Feng; Yan, Xu; Yu, Miao; Jia, Meng-Yang; Pan, Wei; He, Xiao-Xiao; Han, Wen-Peng; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Yu, Liang-Min; Long, Yun-Ze

    2016-01-01

    motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the patterned nanofibrous membrane in flexible electronic fields. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08618c

  2. Citation Analysis and Authorship Patterns of Two Linguistics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ifeanyi J.; Asogwa, Brendan E.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the sources cited in articles published in two linguistics journals, "Applied Linguistics and Journal of Linguistics," from 2001 to 2010. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted using bibliometric indicators, such as types of cited sources, timeliness of cited sources, authorship patterns, rank lists of the…

  3. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, Mark; Cutler, Dylan; Flores-Espino, Francisco; Stark, Greg; Jenkin, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  4. Management of Excess Reactive Nitrogen in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, J. N.; Theis, T.; Doering, O.

    2011-12-01

    Managing the impacts of excessive reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the environment is a complex problem that begins with the recognition of the obligate dietary need for Nr by all living populations. The human solution to this need has been to devise ways to bring Nr into the biosphere (via the Haber-Bosch process) to grow food. Other Nr is created as a by-product of fossil-fuel combustion. The net result is the introduction of more than five times the Nr created by natural processes in the U.S., only a fraction of which is converted back to diatomic nitrogen through denitrification. This presentation summarizes findings and recommendations of the newly-released US EPA Science Advisory Board's Integrated Nitrogen Committee report, "Reactive Nitrogen in the United States: An Analysis of Flows, Consequences, and Management Options", that deal specifically with approaches for solving the excess Nr problem. These can be grouped into four general areas: (1) Recognition of the Problem. Until there is recognition that excess Nr is a serious problem with economic, health, and societal consequences, there will be little willingness to expend resources on this issue. Education, communication and outreach are critically important to engender in regulators, and the public at large, sufficient will to undertake the large scale effort needed to reduce Nr in the environment. (2) Development of Integrated Regulatory Approaches. Given what is known about the way Nr behaves, efforts to deal with excess Nr must be organized in a way that reflects the nature of the problem. Unfortunately, most approaches tend to conceive of Nr issues within a narrowly focused disciplinary model, and our policy and regulatory institutions are often bound by enabling legislation that stresses source-by-source, chemical-by-chemical, and media-by-media. The resulting regulatory structure that has evolved for problems such as Nr that affect human health and the environment is apt to miss the complex nature of the

  5. The sources of primary data for the development potentially dangerous patterns of cyber-attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Грищук, Руслан Валентинович; Житомирський військовий інститут імені С. П. Корольова; Охрімчук, Володимир Васильович; Житомирський військовий інститут імені С. П. Корольова; Ахтирцева, Влада Сергіївна; в/ч А1912

    2016-01-01

    It was established fact that the efficiency of modern systems of information and cyber security essentially de-pends on correct and timely development by vendors of antivirus software patterns of the detected cyber-attacks and timely update databases pattern of attacks these users of security. However, the constant improvement of the technological complexity of cyber-attacks requires from vendors constant improvement of mechanisms of development patterns of cyber-attacks. One of the promising...

  6. The Internet as a source of health information among Singaporeans: prevalence, patterns of health surfing and impact on health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siow, T R; Soh, I P; Sreedharan, S; Das De, S; Tan, P P; Seow, A; Lun, K C

    2003-11-01

    The Internet is an increasingly popular source of healthcare information. This study describes the prevalence of health surfers in Singapore and their health-surfing patterns. It also assesses their confidence in online health information and the impact the Internet has on health-seeking behaviour. A cross-sectional survey using a standardised questionnaire was carried out among residents aged 13 to 55 years in 1852 units in Bishan North. These units were selected by single-stage simple random cluster sampling method. The household response rate was 51% (n = 950) and the individual response rate was 69% (n = 1646). Responding and non-responding households were similar in terms of ethnicity and housing type. Of the responders, 62.9% surfed the Internet and 37.7% have surfed for health information. Health surfers tended to be younger (20 to 39 years) and have higher education status. Indians were also more likely than other ethnic groups to surf for health. Professional health-related sites comprised the majority (68%) of sites visited, and the most common search keywords concern chronic degenerative diseases, e.g. hypertension. The top preferred sources of health information were doctors (25.9%), the Internet (25.3%) and the traditional mass media (20.5%). Almost half (45.1%) considered online health information trustworthy if it was from a professional source or if the website displayed the source, while 10.6% trusted the information if it concurred with the doctors' advice. The vast majority (91.7%) had taken some action in response to the information. The Internet is being used as an accessible source of health information by a substantial proportion of the lay public. While this can facilitate greater partnership in healthcare, it underlines the need for doctors to be pro-active in the practice of evidence-based medicine, and for guidelines to enable patients to use this tool in a discerning manner.

  7. A new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenze; Ma, Yayun; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Yulin; Liu, Fei; Zhai, Yu

    2018-06-01

    One of the most important goals of research on three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging systems is the improvement of the illumination system. In this paper, a new three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system based on the illumination pattern of a point-light-source array is proposed. This array is obtained using a fiber array connected to a laser array with each unit laser having independent control circuits. This system uses a point-to-point imaging process, which is realized using the exact corresponding optical relationship between the point-light-source array and a linear-mode avalanche photodiode array detector. The complete working process of this system is explained in detail, and the mathematical model of this system containing four equations is established. A simulated contrast experiment and two real contrast experiments which use the simplified setup without a laser array are performed. The final results demonstrate that unlike a conventional three-dimensional nonscanning laser imaging system, the proposed system meets all the requirements of an eligible illumination system. Finally, the imaging performance of this system is analyzed under defocusing situations, and analytical results show that the system has good defocusing robustness and can be easily adjusted in real applications.

  8. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  9. Chemical composition, sources and secondary processes of aerosols in Baoji city of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. C.; Huang, R.-J.; Ni, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Q. Y.; Li, G. H.; Tie, X. X.; Shen, Z. X.; Huang, Y.; Liu, S. X.; Dong, W. M.; Xue, P.; Fröhlich, R.; Canonaco, F.; Elser, M.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Bozzetti, C.; El Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Worsnop, D. R.; Cao, J. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particulate air pollution is a severe environmental problem in China, affecting visibility, air quality, climate and human health. However, previous studies focus mainly on large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In this study, an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor was deployed in Baoji, a middle size inland city in northwest China from 26 February to 27 March 2014. The non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) was dominated by organics (55%), followed by sulfate (16%), nitrate (15%), ammonium (11%) and chloride (3%). A source apportionment of the organic aerosol (OA) was performed with the Sofi (Source Finder) interface of ME-2 (Multilinear Engine), and six main sources/factors were identified and classified as hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking OA (COA), biomass burning OA (BBOA), coal combustion OA (CCOA), less oxidized oxygenated OA (LO-OOA) and more oxidized oxygenated OA (MO-OOA), which contributed 20%, 14%, 13%, 9%, 23% and 21% of total OA, respectively. The contribution of secondary components shows increasing trends from clean days to polluted days, indicating the importance of secondary aerosol formation processes in driving particulate air pollution. The formation of LO-OOA and MO-OOA is mainly driven by photochemical reactions, but significantly influenced by aqueous-phase chemistry during periods of low atmospheric oxidative capacity.

  10. Liquid natural rubber (LNR) as a compatibiliser in NR/LLDPE blends: the mixing and mechanical property studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan Mohd; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Ibrahim Abdullah

    2000-01-01

    The plastograms of mixing were able to give information on the compatibility of NR/LLDPE 60/40 blends studied. Using the conversion method, torques obtained from a plasticorder mixer could be converted to standard rheological properties in order to investigate fusing behaviour of the blends as the results of LNR additions. Improvements in the mechanical properties such as tensile, elongation and hardness were found in consonance with the increase in gel contents of the blends. The additions of LNR in the blends were able to reduce the interfacial tension, therefore improved the interaction between the phases of the blends. (author)

  11. Identification of Pollution Patterns and Sources in a Semi-Arid Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Markogianni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact and occurrence of human-induced pollution sources have been investigated in one of the few remaining urban streams located in Attica, Greece. Baseline information is provided on the presence and concentration of physicochemical parameters, nutrients, total coliforms, hydrocarbons and phenols in 12 key points along the Pikrodafni stream. The aim was to evaluate the relative importance of key water quality variables and their sources. Indicator substances (i.e. concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and total coliforms in certain stations indicating wastewater exposure; PAHs indicating petroleum sources successfully related the water quality variables to pollution sources. Furthermore, a pollution pressure map has been developed with the activities identified from in-situ visits and Google Earth surveys, while the statistical analysis (CA and PCA has contributed to the further exploration of the relative magnitude of pollution sources effects. Our results underline initially the importance of diffuse pollution management accompanied by the necessity for continuous environmental monitoring and the application of legal and environmental restoration actions if water quality is to be improved according to WFD 2000/60/EC.

  12. Medial temporal lobe reinstatement of content-specific details predicts source memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jackson C.; Preston, Alison R.

    2016-01-01

    Leading theories propose that when remembering past events, medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures reinstate the neural patterns that were active when those events were initially encoded. Accurate reinstatement is hypothesized to support detailed recollection of memories, including their source. While several studies have linked cortical reinstatement to successful retrieval, indexing reinstatement within the MTL network and its relationship to memory performance has proved challenging. Here, we addressed this gap in knowledge by having participants perform an incidental encoding task, during which they visualized people, places, and objects in response to adjective cues. During a surprise memory test, participants saw studied and novel adjectives and indicated the imagery task they performed for each adjective. A multivariate pattern classifier was trained to discriminate the imagery tasks based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses from hippocampus and MTL cortex at encoding. The classifier was then tested on MTL patterns during the source memory task. We found that MTL encoding patterns were reinstated during successful source retrieval. Moreover, when participants made source misattributions, errors were predicted by reinstatement of incorrect source content in MTL cortex. We further observed a gradient of content-specific reinstatement along the anterior-posterior axis of hippocampus and MTL cortex. Within anterior hippocampus, we found that reinstatement of person content was related to source memory accuracy, whereas reinstatement of place information across the entire hippocampal axis predicted correct source judgments. Content-specific reinstatement was also graded across MTL cortex, with PRc patterns evincing reactivation of people and more posterior regions, including PHc, showing evidence for reinstatement of places and objects. Collectively, these findings provide key evidence that source recollection relies on reinstatement of past

  13. Diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma in the thigh using EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Kikuta, Kazutaka; Sekita, Tetsuya; Susa, Michiro; Nishimoto, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Aya; Kameyama, Kaori; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo

    2016-11-10

    Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma that has unusual ultrastructural and molecular features. However, unlike other soft tissue sarcomas, it does not have specific clinical symptoms or radiological features, which can make its diagnosis difficult. Nevertheless, extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma has a rare gene fusion (EWSR1-NR4A3) that is useful for making a differential diagnosis. A 43-year-old Japanese man presented with a soft tissue mass in his right thigh. A physical examination and radiography revealed a large soft tissue mass. During magnetic resonance imaging, the mass exhibited isointensity on T1-weighted images and high intensity on T2-weighted images, as well as gadolinium enhancement at the side edge of the partition structure. Thus, we considered a possible diagnosis of a malignant myxoid soft tissue tumor, such as myxoid liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma, or metastatic carcinomas, including myoepithelial tumor and neuroendocrine tumor, and performed an incisional biopsy to make a definitive diagnosis. The pathological findings revealed a lobulated tumor with a myxoid structure and atypical spindle-shaped cells that created eosinophilic cord-like forms. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the tumor was positive for S-100 and negative for synaptophysin, chromogranin A, and pan keratin (AE1/AE3). The percentage of Ki-67 was 10 % in the hot spot area. Based on these clinicopathological findings, we initially considered the possibility of a myxoid liposarcoma, although we did not observe any lipoblasts. Therefore, we considered the possibility of an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. As this tumor is very rare, we searched for the EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion using fluorescence in situ hybridization, which confirmed the diagnosis of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography did not identify any obvious metastases, and we performed radical resection of our patient's vastus medialis and

  14. Seasonality in polyps of a tropical cubozoan: A latina nr mordens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Courtney

    Full Text Available A latina nr mordens have been located in large predictable spawning aggregations near Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea eight to ten days after a full moon; however, polyps have never been located in-situ. The polyp stage contributes to the abundance of medusae through asexual reproduction and metamorphosis, and may influence the periodicity of medusae by metamorphosis of the polyp. To elucidate the relationship between medusae periodicity and polyp ecology, polyps were exposed to thermal and osmotic treatments in order to determine the theoretical environmental limits to their distribution. Maximum fecundity occurred in thermal treatments of 21 to 25ºC and the theoretical minimum thermal requirement for population stability was approximately 17ºC. Polyps were also exposed to five feeding regimes and fecundity was found to be positively correlated with feeding frequency. Thermal and osmotic variations did not induce metamorphosis in this species, however, reduced food did. The implications of asexual reproduction and cues for metamorphosis in relation to population dynamics of this species are discussed.

  15. A pattern recognition account of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, D W

    1994-09-01

    In the domain of pattern recognition, experiments have shown that perceivers integrate multiple sources of information in an optimal manner. In contrast, other research has been interpreted to mean that decision making is nonoptimal. As an example, Tversky and Kahneman (1983) have shown that subjects commit a conjunction fallacy because they judge it more likely that a fictitious person named Linda is a bank teller and a feminist than just a bank teller. This judgment supposedly violates probability theory, because the probability of two events can never be greater than the probability of either event alone. The present research tests the hypothesis that subjects interpret this judgment task as a pattern recognition task. If this hypothesis is correct, subjects' judgments should be described accurately by the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP)--a successful model of pattern recognition. In the first experiment, the Linda task was extended to an expanded factorial design with five vocations and five avocations. The probability ratings were described well by the FLMP and described poorly by a simple probability model. The second experiment included (1) two fictitious people, Linda and Joan, as response alternatives and (2) both ratings and categorization judgments. Although the ratings were accurately described by both the FLMP and an averaging of the sources of information, the categorization judgments were described better by the FLMP. These results reveal important similarities in recognizing patterns and in decision making. Given that the FLMP is an optimal method for combining multiple sources of information, the probability judgments appear to be optimal in the same manner as pattern-recognition judgments.

  16. Using pattern classification and nuclear forensic signatures to link UOC to source rocks and purification processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, N.; Robel, M.; Borg, M.; Hutcheon, I.; Kristo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is a scientific discipline interfacing law enforcement, nuclear science and nonproliferation. Information on the history and on the potential origin of unknown nuclear material can be obtained through nuclear forensic analysis. Using commonly available techniques of mass spectrometry, microscopy and x-ray diffraction, we have gained insight into the processing and origin of a suite of uranium ore concentrate (UOC) samples. We have applied chemometric techniques to investigate the relationships between uranium ore deposits and UOC samples in order to identify chemical and isotopic signatures of nuclear forensic importance. We developed multivariate signatures based on elemental concentrations and isotope ratios using a database of characteristics of UOC originating throughout the world. By introducing detailed and specific information about the source rock geology for each sample, we improved our understanding of the preservation of forensic signatures in UOC. Improved characterization of sample processing and provenance allows us to begin to assess the statistical significance of different groupings of samples and identify underlying patterns. Initial results indicate the concentration of uranium in the ore body, the geochemical conditions associated with uranium emplacement, and host rock petrogenesis exert controlling influences on the impurities preserved in UOC. Specific ore processing techniques, particularly those related to In-Situ Recovery, are also reflected in UOC impurity signatures. Stable and radiogenic isotope geochemistry can be used in conjunction with rare earth element patterns and other characteristics to link UOCs to specific geologic deposits of origin. We will present a number of case studies illustrating the ways in which nuclear forensic analysis can provide insight into the ore geology and production and purification processes used to produce UOC. (author)

  17. Interacting noise sources shape patterns of arm movement variability in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apker, Gregory A; Darling, Timothy K; Buneo, Christopher A

    2010-11-01

    Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and execution related noise during the production of unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects performed sequences of two movements to targets arranged in three vertical planes separated in depth. The starting position for each sequence was also varied in depth with the target plane; thus required movement sequences were largely contained within the vertical plane of the targets. Each final target in a sequence was approached from two different directions, and these movements were made with or without visual feedback of the moving hand. These combined aspects of the design allowed us to probe the interaction of execution and planning related noise with respect to reach endpoint variability. In agreement with previous studies, we found that reach endpoint distributions were highly anisotropic. The principal axes of movement variability were largely aligned with the depth axis, i.e., the axis along which visual planning related noise would be expected to dominate, and were not generally well aligned with the direction of the movement vector. Our results suggest that visual planning-related noise plays a dominant role in determining anisotropic patterns of endpoint variability in three-dimensional space, with execution noise adding to this variability in a movement direction-dependent manner.

  18. Mechanical properties of chemically modified Sansevieria trifasciata/natural rubber/high density polyethylene (STF/NR/HDPE) composites: Effect of silane coupling agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nurzam Ezdiani; Baharum, Azizah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to study the effects of chemical modification on the mechanical properties of treated Sansevieria trifasciata fiber/natural rubber/high density polyethylene (TSTF/NR/HDPE) composites. Processing of STF/NR/HDPE composites was done by using an internal mixer. The processing parameters used were 135°C for temperature and a mixing rotor speed of 55 rpm for 15 minutes. Filler loading was varied from 10% to 40% of STF and the fiber size used was 125 µm. The composite blends obtained then were pressed with a hot press machine to get test samples of 1 mm and 3 mm of thickness. Samples were evaluated via tensile tests, Izod impact test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that tensile strength and strain value decreased while tensile modulus increased when filler loading increased. Impact strength increased when filler loading increased and began to decrease after 10% of filler amount for treated composites. For untreated composites, impact strength began to decrease after 20% of filler loading. Chemical modification by using silane coupling agent has improved certain mechanical properties of the composites such as tensile strength, strain value and tensile modulus. Adding more amount of filler will also increase the viscosity and the stiffness of the materials.

  19. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile

    2016-01-01

    stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate...... promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly...... the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest...

  20. Progress and status of neutron radiography and gauging in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasko, Marton

    1996-01-01

    European neutron radiography (NR) stations, applications and main trends of progress are surveyed. NR laboratories installed at research reactors operating in eight countries. DIANE transportable neutron source has been constructed within the framework of EURECA project. High resolution film techniques and video imaging are used in various applications. In several cases NR is combined with other non-destructive methods. The European Neutron Radiography Working Group organizes annual meetings and international projects (COST, INCO Copernicus) to promote personal contacts and scientific cooperation in this field. (author)

  1. Enhancement of SPES source performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagotti, E.; Palmieri, A.; Ren, X.

    2008-01-01

    Installation of SPES source at LNL was finished in July 2006 and the first beam was extracted in September 2006. Commissioning results confirmed very good performance of the extracted current density. Conversely, source reliability was very poor due to glow-discharge phenomena, which were caused by the ion source axial magnetic field protruding in the high-voltage column. This problem was fixed by changing the stainless steel plasma electrode support with a ferromagnetic one. This new configuration required us to recalculate ion source solenoids positions and fields in order to recover the correct resonance pattern. Details on magnetic simulations and experimental results of high voltage column shielding are presented

  2. Development of Spatial Distribution Patterns by Biofilm Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Hansen, Susse Kirkelund; Bak Christensen, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    -pattern by Acinetobacter sp. C6. Ecological spatial pattern analyses revealed that the microcolonies were not entirely randomly distributed, and instead arranged in a uniform pattern. Detailed time-lapse confocal microscopy at the single cell level demonstrated that the spatial pattern was the result of an intriguing self......-organization: Small multicellular clusters moved along the surface to fuse with one another to form microcolonies. This active distribution capability was dependent on environmental factors (carbon source, oxygen) and historical contingency (formation of phenotypic variants). The findings of this study are discussed...

  3. Tracking code patterns over multiple software versions with Herodotos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palix, Nicolas Jean-Michel; Lawall, Julia; Muller, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    An important element of understanding a software code base is to identify the repetitive patterns of code it contains and how these evolve over time. Some patterns are useful to the software, and may be modularized. Others are detrimental to the software, such as patterns that represent defects...... pattern occurrences over multiple versions of a software project, independent of other changes in the source files. Guided by a user-provided configuration file, Herodotos builds various graphs showing the evolution of the pattern occurrences and computes some statistics. We have evaluated this approach...

  4. Heavy Metal Pollution of Lakes along the Mid-Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River in China: Intensity, Sources and Spatial Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Haiao; Wu, Jinglu

    2013-01-01

    Lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River form a shallow lake group unique in the World that is becoming increasingly polluted by heavy metals. Previous studies have largely focused on individual lakes, with limited exploration of the regional pattern of heavy metal pollution of the lake group in this area. This paper explores the sources, intensity and spatial patterns of heavy metal pollution of lake sediments. A total of 45 sample lakes were selected and the concentrations of key metal elements in the sediments of each lake were measured. The cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Geo-accumulation index (Ig) analysis permitted analysis of the source and pollution intensity of the target lakes. Results suggested a notable spatial variation amongst the sample lakes. Lakes in the upper part of the lower reach of the Yangtze River surrounded by typical urban landscapes were strongly or extremely polluted, with high concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu and Cd in their sediments. This was attributed to large amount of untreated industrial discharges and municipal sewage produced within the lake catchments. In contrast, the heavy-metal pollution of lakes in the Taihu Delta area was notably lower due to industrial restructuring and implementation of effective environmental protection measures. Lakes along the middle reach of Yangtze River surrounded by agricultural areas were unpolluted to moderately polluted by heavy metals overall. Our results suggested that lakes in the central part of China require immediate attention and efforts should be made to implement management plans to prevent further degradation of water quality in these lakes. PMID:23442559

  5. Sources and Characterization of Submicron Aerosols in a Rural Forest During the PROPHET-AMOS 2016 Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, A. T.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Alvarez, S. L.; Erickson, M.; Alwe, H. D.; May, N.; Cook, R.; Connor, M.; Slade, J. H., Jr.; Shi, Q.; Kavassalis, S.; Tyndall, G. S.; Shepson, P. B.; Pratt, K.; Ault, A. P.; Millet, D. B.; Murphy, J. G.; Usenko, S.; Sheesley, R. J.; Flynn, J. H., III; Griffin, R. J.; Wang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Forests are a rich source of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Oxidation of BVOCs can result in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and in the presence of NOx (NO+NO2) produce organic nitrate-containing particles. However, the distribution of both BVOCs and oxidants can be dramatically altered by the physical barriers provided by a forest canopy. Global models currently neglect the effect of these canopies on SOA formation in forested regions. In this work, we characterize non-refractory submicron aerosol (NR-PM1) using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) during the 2016 Program on Oxidants: Photochemistry, Emissions, and Transport-Atmospheric Measurements of Oxidants in Summer (PROPHET-AMOS) campaign. This site is located in a rural forest in northern Michigan and features a tower that allowed for both above and below canopy measurements. Our results indicate that organic aerosols (OA) account for a substantial portion of the NR-PM1 measured at this site. Organic nitrate aerosol can contribute up to 18% of the total OA and an average of 75% of the total measured nitrate aerosol. Episodes of above- and below-canopy NR-PM1 concentration differences indicate that above-canopy OA concentrations can be up to 40% greater than below-canopy, which represents an increase of up to 1.5 µg/m3. Organic fragment ions such as CxHy, CxHyOz, and CxHyO1 contribute to enhanced above-canopy OA concentrations. Positive matrix factorization analysis of the high-resolution OA mass spectra identified three SOA factors: low volatility oxygenated OA (LVOOA), isoprene-derived OOA (ISOOA), and oxygenated organic aerosol. Analysis of air mass backward trajectories and correlations with external data indicate that LVOOA correlates well with sulfate and aged, urban-influenced air masses, whereas ISOOA correlates well with isoprene SOA tracers and air masses originating from semi-remote areas. Our results indicate that the OA at this

  6. Unexpected Patterns in Snow and Dirt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 30 years, Albert A. Bartlett published "Thermal patterns in the snow" in this journal. These are patterns produced by heat sources underneath the snow. Bartlett's articles encouraged me to pay attention to patterns in snow and to understanding them. At winter's end the last snow becomes dirty and is heaped into piles. This snow comes from the final clearing of sidewalks and driveways. The patterns observed in these piles defied my intuition. This melting snow develops edges where dirt accumulates, in contrast to ice cubes, which lose sharp edges and become more spherical upon melting. Furthermore, dirt absorbs more radiation than snow and yet doesn't melt and round the sharp edges of snow, where dirt accumulates.

  7. Masalah dan Cara Mengatasi Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Siklus Pengeluaran Kas di PT NR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelwati Gani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem in accounting information systems of expenditure cash cycle in PT NR is estimated purchase raw materials often left over and valuable. To overcome it, accounting information with computer-based systems was designed related to raw material purchase that is expected to speed up procurement process and avoid fraud and error. The system processes waste materials that will be stored and used properly, so as to increase efficiency in purchasing raw materials. The analysis used for the construction of this system was business process analysis, problem identification, and analysis of information needs. The result achieved is accounting information systems of expenditure cash cycle to overcome the problem existing in the company. Research concludes the use of information systems can speed up purchase process and avoid fraud. Raw material management with system will make it easier to perform the calculation of actual costs and improve internal control.

  8. The Economic Potential of Three Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems Providing Thermal Energy to Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stark, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that Idaho National Laboratory and National Renewable Energy Laboratory are producing to investigate the technical and economic aspects of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems (N-R HESs). Previous reports provided results of an analysis of two N-R HES scenarios. This report builds that analysis with a Texas-synthetic gasoline scenario providing the basis in which the N-R HES sells heat directly to an industrial customer. Subsystems were included that convert electricity to heat, thus allowing the renewable energy subsystem to generate heat and benefit from that revenue stream. Nuclear and renewable energy sources are important to consider in the energy sector's evolution because both are considered to be clean and non-carbon-emitting energy sources.

  9. Report on Integration of Existing Grid Models for N-R HES Interaction Focused on Balancing Authorities for Sub-hour Penalties and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McJunkin, Timothy; Epiney, Aaron; Rabiti, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the effort in the Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (N-R HES) project on the level 4 milestone to consider integration of existing grid models into the factors for optimization on shorter time intervals than the existing electric grid models with the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) and Modelica [1] optimizations and economic analysis that are the focus of the project to date.

  10. Report on Integration of Existing Grid Models for N-R HES Interaction Focused on Balancing Authorities for Sub-hour Penalties and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McJunkin, Timothy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Epiney, Aaron [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report provides a summary of the effort in the Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy System (N-R HES) project on the level 4 milestone to consider integration of existing grid models into the factors for optimization on shorter time intervals than the existing electric grid models with the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) and Modelica [1] optimizations and economic analysis that are the focus of the project to date.

  11. Global Sourcing of Heterogeneous Firms: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Wilhelm; Smolka, Marcel

    the Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales (ESEE). We find a pattern of effects whereby productivity stimulates vertical integration in industries of low sourcing intensity, but favors outsourcing in industries of high sourcing intensity. Moreover, we find that productivity boosts offshoring throughout all...

  12. Multi-element sewer slime impact pattern--a quantitative characteristic enabling identification of the source of heavy metal discharges into sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintrup, J; Wünsch, G

    2001-11-01

    The capability of sewer slime to accumulate heavy metals from municipal wastewater can be exploited to identify the sources of sewage sludge pollution. Former investigations of sewer slime looked for a few elements only and could, therefore, not account for deviations of the enrichment efficiency of the slime or for irregularities from sampling. Results of ICP-MS multi element determinations were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. A new dimensionless characteristic "sewer slime impact" is proposed, which is zero for unloaded samples. Patterns expressed in this data format specifically extract the information required to identify the type of pollution and polluter quicker and with less effort and cost than hitherto.

  13. Deficiency of the NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptor NOR1 attenuates Neointima Formation Following Vascular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomiyama, Takashi; Zhao, Yue; Gizard, Florence; Findeisen, Hannes M.; Heywood, Elizabeth B.; Jones, Karrie L.; Conneely, Orla M.; Bruemmer, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Background The neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR1) belongs to the evolutionary highly conserved and most ancient NR4A subfamily of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Members of this subfamily function as early response genes regulating key cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Although NOR1 has previously been demonstrated to be required for smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation in vitro, the role of this nuclear receptor for the proliferative response underlying neointima formation and target genes trans-activated by NOR1 remain to be defined. Methods and Results Using a model of guide wire-induced arterial injury, we demonstrate decreased neointima formation in NOR1-/- mice compared to wildtype mice. In vitro, NOR1-deficient SMC exhibit decreased proliferation due to a G1→S phase arrest of the cell cycle and increased apoptosis in response to serum deprivation. NOR1-deficiency alters phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein by preventing mitogen-induced cyclin D1 and D2 expression. Conversely, overexpression of NOR1 induces cyclin D1 expression and the transcriptional activity of the cyclin D1 promoter in transient reporter assays. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays identified a putative response element for NR4A receptors in the cyclin D1 promoter, to which NOR1 is recruited in response to mitogenic stimulation. Finally, we provide evidence that these observations are applicable in vivo by demonstrating decreased cyclin D1 expression during neointima formation in NOR1-deficient mice. Conclusions These experiments characterize cyclin D1 as a NOR1-regulated target gene in SMC and demonstrate that NOR1 deficiency decreases neointima formation in response to vascular injury. PMID:19153266

  14. Background removal in X-ray fiber diffraction patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millane, R.P.; Arnott, S.

    1985-01-01

    Background can be a major source of error in measurement of diffracted intensities in fiber diffraction patterns. Errors can be large when poorly oriented less-crystalline specimens give diffraction patterns with little uncontaminated background. A method for estimating and removing a general global background in such cases is described and illustrated with an example. (orig.)

  15. Creating von Laue patterns in crystal scattering with partially coherent sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.Y.D.; Kuebel, D.; Visser, T.D.; Wolf, E.

    2016-01-01

    When spatially coherent radiation is diffracted by a crystalline object, the field is scattered in specific directions, giving rise to so-called von Laue patterns. We examine the role of spatial coherence in this process. Using the first-order Born approximation, a general analytic expression for

  16. Giant Panda movement patterns in the Foping Nature Reserve, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wang, T.; Yong, Y.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    Observing the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in the remote mountains of Foping Nature Reserve (NR), China, is difficult due to the dense vegetation and steep terrain. Radiotracking is an effective way to study this animal and understand its behavior and habitat use. We used radiotracking data

  17. SMED-TLX-1 (NR2E1) is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in Schmidtea mediterranea in fasting/feeding cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raška, O; Kostrouchová, V; Behenský, F; Yilma, P; Saudek, V; Kostrouch, Z; Kostrouchová, M

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs), or nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), are transcription factors that regulate development and metabolism of most if not all animal species. Their regulatory networks include conserved mechanisms that are shared in-between species as well as mechanisms that are restricted to certain phyla or even species. In search for conserved members of the NHR family in Schmidtea mediterranea, we identified a molecular signature of a class of NRs, NR2E1, in the S. mediterranea genome and cloned its complete cDNA coding sequence. The derived amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation of both DNA-binding domain and ligand- binding domain and a remarkably high homology to vertebrate NR2E1 and C. elegans NHR-67. Quantitative PCR detected approximately ten-fold higher expression of Smed-tlx-1 in the proximal part of the head compared to the tail region. The expression of Smed-tlx-1 is higher during fed state than during fasting. Smed-tlx-1 down-regulation by RNA interference affects the ability of the animals to maintain body plan and induces defects of brain, eyes and body shape during fasting and re-growing cycles. These results suggest that SMED-TLX-1 is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in planaria.

  18. Design Pattern Mining Using Distributed Learning Automata and DNA Sequence Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilpour, Mansour; Naderifar, Vahideh; Shukur, Zarina

    2014-01-01

    Context Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. Objective This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences alignment. Method The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. Results The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. Conclusion The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns. PMID:25243670

  19. Design pattern mining using distributed learning automata and DNA sequence alignment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Esmaeilpour

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Over the last decade, design patterns have been used extensively to generate reusable solutions to frequently encountered problems in software engineering and object oriented programming. A design pattern is a repeatable software design solution that provides a template for solving various instances of a general problem. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a new method for pattern mining, isolating design patterns and relationship between them; and a related tool, DLA-DNA for all implemented pattern and all projects used for evaluation. DLA-DNA achieves acceptable precision and recall instead of other evaluated tools based on distributed learning automata (DLA and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences alignment. METHOD: The proposed method mines structural design patterns in the object oriented source code and extracts the strong and weak relationships between them, enabling analyzers and programmers to determine the dependency rate of each object, component, and other section of the code for parameter passing and modular programming. The proposed model can detect design patterns better that available other tools those are Pinot, PTIDEJ and DPJF; and the strengths of their relationships. RESULTS: The result demonstrate that whenever the source code is build standard and non-standard, based on the design patterns, then the result of the proposed method is near to DPJF and better that Pinot and PTIDEJ. The proposed model is tested on the several source codes and is compared with other related models and available tools those the results show the precision and recall of the proposed method, averagely 20% and 9.6% are more than Pinot, 27% and 31% are more than PTIDEJ and 3.3% and 2% are more than DPJF respectively. CONCLUSION: The primary idea of the proposed method is organized in two following steps: the first step, elemental design patterns are identified, while at the second step, is composed to recognize actual design patterns.