WorldWideScience

Sample records for source interactive height

  1. Determining the VLF/ULF source height using phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, A.; Kotik, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Generation of ULF/VLF waves in the ionosphere using powerful RF facilities has been studied for the last 40 years, both theoretically and experimentally. During this time, it was proposed several mechanisms for explaining the experimental results: modulation of ionospheric currents based on thermal nonlinearity, ponderomotive mechanisms for generation both VLF and ULF signals, cubic nonlinearity, etc. According mentioned above mechanisms the VLF/ULF signal source could be located in the lower or upper ionosphere. The group velocity of signal propagation in the ionosphere is significantly smaller than speed of light. As a result the appreciable time delay of the received signals will occur at the earth surface. This time delay could be determine by measuring the phase difference between received and reference signals, which are GPS synchronized. The experiment on determining the time delay of ULF signal propagation from the ionospheric source was carried out at SURA facility in 2012 and the results are presented in this paper. The comparison with numerical simulation of the time delay using the adjusted IRI model and ionosonde data shows well agreement with the experimental observations. The work was supported by RFBR grant 11-02-00419-a and RF Ministry of education and science by state contract 16.518.11.7066.

  2. THE HEIGHT OF A WHITE-LIGHT FLARE AND ITS HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Oliveros, Juan-Carlos; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Saem; Lin, R. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lindsey, Charles [North West Research Associates, CORA Division, Boulder, CO (United States); Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Thompson, W. T. [Adnet Systems, Inc., NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, code 671, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 A from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30-80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0.''2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Angstrom-Sign image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; {tau} = 1 at 5000 A) of 305 {+-} 170 km and 195 {+-} 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of {tau} = 1 for the 6173 Angstrom-Sign and the {approx}40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  3. The Height of a White-Light Flare and its Hard X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Juan-Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Kriucker, Saem; Lin, R. P.; Lindsey, Charles; Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 Ang. from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30 -80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0".2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Ang. image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; tau = 1 at 5000 Ang.) of 305 +/- 170 km and 195 +/- 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of tau = 1 for the 6173 Ang and the approx 40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  4. Relationship between eruption plume heights and seismic source amplitudes of eruption tremors and explosion events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A.; Kumagai, H.

    2016-12-01

    It is crucial to analyze and interpret eruption tremors and explosion events for estimating eruption size and understanding eruption phenomena. Kumagai et al. (EPS, 2015) estimated the seismic source amplitudes (As) and cumulative source amplitudes (Is) for eruption tremors and explosion events at Tungurahua, Ecuador, by the amplitude source location (ASL) method based on the assumption of isotropic S-wave radiation in a high-frequency band (5-10 Hz). They found scaling relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events. However, the universality of these relations is yet to be verified, and the physical meanings of As and Is are not clear. In this study, we analyzed the relations between As and Is for eruption tremors and explosion events at active volcanoes in Japan, and estimated As and Is by the ASL method. We obtained power-law relations between As and Is, in which the powers were different between eruption tremors and explosion events. These relations were consistent with the scaling relations at Tungurahua volcano. Then, we compared As with maximum eruption plume heights (H) during eruption tremors analyzed in this study, and found that H was proportional to 0.21 power of As. This relation is similar to the plume height model based on the physical process of plume rise, which indicates that H is proportional to 0.25 power of volumetric flow rate for plinian eruptions. This suggests that As may correspond to volumetric flow rate. If we assume a seismic source with volume changes and far-field S-wave, As is proportional to the source volume rate. This proportional relation and the plume height model give rise to the relation that H is proportional to 0.25 power of As. These results suggest that we may be able to estimate plume heights in realtime by estimating As during eruptions from seismic observations.

  5. Interacting effects of grass height and herbivores on the establishment of an encroaching savanna shrub

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenah, N.; Munkert, H.; Gerhardt, K.; Olff, H.

    2009-01-01

    Shrub encroachment is a widely observed problem in Southern African savannas. Although the effects of herbivory and grass height on woody species recruitment have been studied individually, little information exists about how these factors interact. In this study seeds and seedlings of the

  6. Wake interaction and power production of variable height model wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vested, M H; Sørensen, J N; Hamilton, N; Cal, R B

    2014-01-01

    Understanding wake dynamics is an ongoing research topic in wind energy, since wakes have considerable effects on the power production when wind turbines are placed in a wind farm. Wind tunnel experiments have been conducted to study the wake to wake interaction in a model wind farm in tandem with measurements of the extracted power. The aim is to investigate how alternating mast height influences the interaction of the wakes and the power production. Via the use of stereo-particle image velocimetry, the flow field was obtained in the first and last rows of the wind turbine array as a basis of comparison. It was found that downstream of the exit row wind turbine, the power was increased by 25% in the case of a staggered height configuration. This is partly due to the fact that the taller turbines reach into a flow area with a softened velocity gradient. Another aspect is that the wake downstream of a tall wind turbine to some extent passes above the standard height wind turbine. Overall the experiments show that the velocity field downstream of the exit row changes considerably when the mast height is alternating

  7. Interaction between sapwood and foliage area in alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) trees of different heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokany, Karel; McMurtrie, Ross E; Atwell, Brian J; Keith, Heather

    2003-10-01

    In native stands of Eucalyptus delegatensis R. T. Baker, sapwood area (As) to foliage area (Af) ratios (As:Af) decreased as tree height increased, contradicting the common interpretation of the Pipe Model Theory as well as the generally observed trend of increasing As:Af ratios with tree height. To clarify this relationship, we estimated sapwood hydraulic conductivity theoretically based on measurements of sapwood vessel diameters and Poiseuille's law for fluid flow through pipes. Despite the observed decrease in As:Af ratios with tree height, leaf specific conductivity increased with total tree height, largely as a result of an increase in the specific conductivity of sapwood. This observation supports the proposition that the stem's ability to supply foliage with water must increase as trees grow taller, to compensate for the increased hydraulic path length. The results presented here highlight the importance of measuring sapwood hydraulic conductivity in analyses of sapwood-foliage interactions, and suggest that measurements of sapwood hydraulic conductivity may help to resolve conflicting observations of how As:Af ratios change as trees grow taller.

  8. Penis size interacts with body shape and height to influence male attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautz, Brian S; Wong, Bob B M; Peters, Richard A; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-04-23

    Compelling evidence from many animal taxa indicates that male genitalia are often under postcopulatory sexual selection for characteristics that increase a male's relative fertilization success. There could, however, also be direct precopulatory female mate choice based on male genital traits. Before clothing, the nonretractable human penis would have been conspicuous to potential mates. This observation has generated suggestions that human penis size partly evolved because of female choice. Here we show, based upon female assessment of digitally projected life-size, computer-generated images, that penis size interacts with body shape and height to determine male sexual attractiveness. Positive linear selection was detected for penis size, but the marginal increase in attractiveness eventually declined with greater penis size (i.e., quadratic selection). Penis size had a stronger effect on attractiveness in taller men than in shorter men. There was a similar increase in the positive effect of penis size on attractiveness with a more masculine body shape (i.e., greater shoulder-to-hip ratio). Surprisingly, larger penis size and greater height had almost equivalent positive effects on male attractiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that female mate choice could have driven the evolution of larger penises in humans. More broadly, our results show that precopulatory sexual selection can play a role in the evolution of genital traits.

  9. Mapping Forest Canopy Height over Continental China Using Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatially-detailed forest height data are useful to monitor local, regional and global carbon cycle. LiDAR remote sensing can measure three-dimensional forest features but generating spatially-contiguous forest height maps at a large scale (e.g., continental and global is problematic because existing LiDAR instruments are still data-limited and expensive. This paper proposes a new approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN for modeling of forest canopy heights over the China continent. Our model ingests spaceborne LiDAR metrics and multiple geospatial predictors including climatic variables (temperature and precipitation, forest type, tree cover percent and land surface reflectance. The spaceborne LiDAR instrument used in the study is the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS, which can provide within-footprint forest canopy heights. The ANN was trained with pairs between spatially discrete LiDAR metrics and full gridded geo-predictors. This generates valid conjugations to predict heights over the China continent. The ANN modeled heights were evaluated with three different reference data. First, field measured tree heights from three experiment sites were used to validate the ANN model predictions. The observed tree heights at the site-scale agreed well with the modeled forest heights (R = 0.827, and RMSE = 4.15 m. Second, spatially discrete GLAS observations and a continuous map from the interpolation of GLAS-derived tree heights were separately used to evaluate the ANN model. We obtained R of 0.725 and RMSE of 7.86 m and R of 0.759 and RMSE of 8.85 m, respectively. Further, inter-comparisons were also performed with two existing forest height maps. Our model granted a moderate agreement with the existing satellite-based forest height maps (R = 0.738, and RMSE = 7.65 m (R2 = 0.52, and RMSE = 8.99 m. Our results showed that the ANN model developed in this paper is capable of estimating forest heights over the China continent with a

  10. Genotype-environment interaction and stability in ten-year height growth of Norway spruce Clones (Picea abies Karst.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; J. Kleinschmit

    1986-01-01

    Norway spruce cuttings of 40 clones were tested on seven contrasting sites in northern Germany. Analysis of variance for ten-year height growth indicate a highly significant clone x site interaction. This interaction may be reduced by selection of stable clones. Several measures of stability were calculated and discussed. Characterization of sites by the method of...

  11. X-Ray Source Heights in a Solar Flare: Thick-Target Versus Thermal Conduction Front Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, J. W.; Bradshaw, S. J.; Holman, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of solar flares with RHESSI have shown X-ray sources traveling along flaring loops, from the corona down to the chromosphere and back up. The 2002 November 28 C1.1 flare, first observed with RHESSI by Sui et al. and quantitatively analyzed by O'Flannagain et al., very clearly shows this behavior. By employing numerical experiments, we use these observations of X-ray source height motions as a constraint to distinguish between heating due to a non-thermal electron beam and in situ energy deposition in the corona. We find that both heating scenarios can reproduce the observed light curves, but our results favor non-thermal heating. In situ heating is inconsistent with the observed X-ray source morphology and always gives a height dispersion with photon energy opposite to what is observed.

  12. Two-dimensional transport of dust from an infinite line source at ground level: non-zero roughness height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Eltayeb, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    The previous study (Eltayeb and Hassan, 1992) of the two-dimensional diffusion equation of dust over a rough ground surface, which acts as a dust source of variable strength, under the influence of horizontal wind and gravitational attraction is here extended to all finite values of the roughness height Z 0 . An analytic expression is obtained for the concentration of dust for a general strength of the source. The result reduces to the previously known solutions as special cases. The expression for the concentration has been evaluated for some representative example of the source strength g(X). It is found that the concentration decreases with roughness height at any fixed point above ground level. (author). 4 refs, 2 figs

  13. Validation Study for an Atmospheric Dispersion Model, Using Effective Source Heights Determined from Wind Tunnel Experiments in Nuclear Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Oura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For more than fifty years, atmospheric dispersion predictions based on the joint use of a Gaussian plume model and wind tunnel experiments have been applied in both Japan and the U.K. for the evaluation of public radiation exposure in nuclear safety analysis. The effective source height used in the Gaussian model is determined from ground-level concentration data obtained by a wind tunnel experiment using a scaled terrain and site model. In the present paper, the concentrations calculated by this method are compared with data observed over complex terrain in the field, under a number of meteorological conditions. Good agreement was confirmed in near-neutral and unstable stabilities. However, it was found to be necessary to reduce the effective source height by 50% in order to achieve a conservative estimation of the field observations in a stable atmosphere.

  14. The Interaction between the Plane Wave and the Plate with Limited Height in Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Lokteva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A solution of the two-dimensional task on interaction between the harmonic wave and the plate with the limited height in soil has been provided. The plate surrounded on both sides with the half-spaces filled with soil medium has been used as a vibro-absorbing obstacle. The mechanical behavior of the plate has been described by S.P. Timoshenko's shift model and the mechanical behavior of soil by a linear elasticity theory equation. The main purpose of the paper is to determine the total acceleration vector field inducted by the penetrated and radiated waves in the second half-space. The mathematical formulation of the task includes a model of upcoming wave, soil medium and plate movement equation, infinity conditions, and conditions of soil contact with obstacle. Conditions of free slip have been taken as the contact conditions between the soil and the obstacle. We have considered a closed system of equations, which includes wave equations for scalar and vector potentials, elasticity theory equations for soil mediums, Koshi's relations, physical law, and plate movement equation. The boundary conditions for the plate correspond to a hinged support. To solve this task, all functions have been expanded in trigonometric series that allowed to obtain potential values in the coefficients of the series. To define the integrations constants, the contact conditions between the obstacle and soil have been used. On the basis of the revealed potentials, we have defined displacements on the boundary between the plate and soil and in other points of the second half-space. The vibro-absorbing properties of the plate have been investigated depending on the frequency of the harmonic wave falling on the plate. From the practical point of view, this task is related to protection of buildings from vibrations formed at a distance from underground railways.

  15. Phenotypic characterization, genetic mapping and candidate gene analysis of a source conferring reduced plant height in sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, María Laura; Altieri, Emiliano; Bulos, Mariano; Sala, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Reduced height germplasm has the potential to increase stem strength, standability, and also yields potential of the sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L. var. macrocarpus Ckll.). In this study, we report on the inheritance, mapping, phenotypic and molecular characterization of a reduced plant height trait in inbred lines derived from the source DDR. This trait is controlled by a semidominant allele, Rht1, which maps on linkage group 12 of the sunflower public consensus map. Phenotypic effects of this allele include shorter height and internode length, insensibility to exogenous gibberellin application, normal skotomorphogenetic response, and reduced seed set under self-pollination conditions. This later effect presumably is related to the reduced pollen viability observed in all DDR-derived lines studied. Rht1 completely cosegregated with a haplotype of the HaDella1 gene sequence. This haplotype consists of a point mutation converting a leucine residue in a proline within the conserved DELLA domain. Taken together, the phenotypic, genetic, and molecular results reported here indicate that Rht1 in sunflower likely encodes an altered DELLA protein. If the DELPA motif of the HaDELLA1 sequence in the Rht1-encoded protein determines by itself the observed reduction in height is a matter that remains to be investigated.

  16. Wake interaction and power production of variable height model wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Malene Hovgaard; Hamilton, N.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    of comparison. It was found that downstream of the exit row wind turbine, the power was increased by 25% in the case of a staggered height configuration. This is partly due to the fact that the taller turbines reach into a flow area with a softened velocity gradient. Another aspect is that the wake downstream...

  17. Interactive effect of genetic susceptibility with height, body mass index, and hormone replacement therapy on the risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlid Sophia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer today has many established risk factors, both genetic and environmental, but these risk factors by themselves explain only part of the total cancer incidence. We have investigated potential interactions between certain known genetic and phenotypic risk factors, specifically nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and height, body mass index (BMI and hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Methods We analyzed samples from three different study populations: two prospectively followed Swedish cohorts and one Icelandic case–control study. Totally 2884 invasive breast cancer cases and 4508 controls were analysed in the study. Genotypes were determined using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-TOF and phenotypic variables were derived from measurements and/or questionnaires. Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with the inclusion of an interaction term in the logistic regression model. Results One SNP (rs851987 in ESR1 tended to interact with height, with an increasingly protective effect of the major allele in taller women (p = 0.007 and rs13281615 (on 8q24 tended to confer risk only in non users of HRT (p-for interaction = 0.03. There were no significant interactions after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions We conclude that much larger sample sets would be necessary to demonstrate interactions between low-risk genetic polymorphisms and the phenotypic variables height, BMI and HRT on the risk for breast cancer. However the present hypothesis-generating study has identified tendencies that would be of interest to evaluate for gene-environment interactions in independent materials.

  18. Initial data release of regular blood drip stain created by varying fall height, angle of impact and source dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Basu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The dataset developed consists of 108 blood drip stains developed with fresh porcine blood, blood admixed with different dosage of Warfarin and Heparin, respectively. For each particular blood type (i.e. fresh blood, blood admixed with Warfarin at different dosage and blood admixed with Heparin at varied dosage stain patterns were created by passive dripping of blood from a 2.5 cm3 subcutaneous syringe with needle filled to capacity, at 30°, 60° and 90° angle of impact with corresponding fall height of 20, 40 and 60 cm respectively. In the other dataset of 162 datapoints, 81 regular drip stains were formed from blood that had dripped passively from a subcutaneous syringe without needle at the aforementioned angle of impact and fall height, while the other stains were formed as a result of dripping of blood from a subcutaneous syringe with needle. In order to compare stains formed, all stains were recorded on the same representative, non-porous, smooth target surface under similar physical conditions. The interpretations relevant to the dataset are available in the article titled ‘2D Source Area prediction based on physical characteristics of a regular, passive blood drip stain’ (Basu and Bandyopadhyay, 2016 [7]. An image pre-processing algorithm for extracting ROI has also been incorporated in this article. Keywords: Drip stain, Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Source Dimension prediction

  19. Boson-mediated interactions between static sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsterli, M.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques are now available for doing accurate computations of static potentials arising from the exchange of virtual mesons. Such computations must take account of the fact that different approximation methods must be used in the regions where R is large and where R is small. In the asymptotic region, the distorted-field approximation provides an appropriate starting-point, but it must be improved before trustworthy results are obtained for all but the largest values of R. In the region of small R, accurate strong-coupling methods are based on the use of states with coherent meson pairs. For small R, it is also important to take account of the possibility of meson emission or near-emission. Current work is aimed at applying the techniques described to the case of static sources interacting via pion field. In particular, it will be interesting to see how sensitive the potential is to the value of the cutoff Λ. Other areas of application are the study of the effects of nonlinearity and models of quark-quark and quark-antiquark potentials. 17 references

  20. Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sources of law, voluntary obedience and human interactions: an analysis. ... Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper examines ways in which the various sources of law can be modified in such ...

  1. Source of parental reports of child height and weight during phone interviews and influence on obesity prevalence estimates among children aged 3-17 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Miles, Donna; Perrin, Eliana M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Ford, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We compared parental reports of children's height and weight when the values were estimated vs. parent-measured to determine how these reports influence the estimated prevalence of childhood obesity. In the 2007 and 2008 North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program surveys, parents reported height and weight for children aged 3-17 years. When parents reported the values were not measured (by doctor, school, or home), they were asked to measure their child and were later called back. We categorized body mass index status using standard CDC definitions, and we used Chi-square tests and the Stuart-Maxwell test of marginal homogeneity to examine reporting differences. About 80% (n=509) of the 638 parents who reported an unmeasured height and/or weight participated in a callback and provided updated measures. Children originally classified as obese were subsequently classified as obese (67%), overweight (13%), and healthy weight (19%). An estimated 28% of younger children (children (aged ≥10 years) were reclassified on callback. Having parents who guessed the height and weight of their children and then reported updated values did not significantly change the overall population estimates of obesity. Our findings demonstrate that using parent-reported height and weight values may be sufficient to provide reasonable estimates of obesity prevalence. Systematically asking the source of height and weight information may help improve how it is applied to research of the prevalence of childhood obesity when gold-standard measurements are not available.

  2. Source fault model of the 2011 off the pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, estimated from the detailed distribution of tsunami run-up heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuta, Nobuhisa; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sugito, Nobuhiko; Nakata, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tsunami run-up heights generally has spatial variations, because run-up heights are controlled by coastal topography including local-scale landforms such as natural levees, in addition to land use. Focusing on relationships among coastal topography, land conditions, and tsunami run-up heights of historical tsunamis—Meiji Sanriku (1896 A.D.), Syowa Sanriku (1933 A.D.), and Chilean Sanriku (1960 A.D.) tsunamis—along the Sanriku coast, it is found that the wavelength of a tsunami determines inundation areas as well as run-up heights. Small bays facing the Pacific Ocean are sensitive to short wavelength tsunamis, and large bays are sensitive to long wavelength tsunamis. The tsunami observed off Kamaishi during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake was composed of both short and long wavelength components. We examined run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami, and found that: (1) coastal areas north of Kamaishi and south of Yamamoto were mainly attacked by short wavelength tsunamis; and (2) no evidence of short wavelength tsunamis was observed from Ofunato to the Oshika Peninsula. This observation coincides with the geomorphologically proposed source fault model, and indicates that the extraordinary large slip along the shallow part of the plate boundary off Sendai, proposed by seismological and geodesic analyses, is not needed to explain the run-up heights of the Tohoku tsunami. To better understand spatial variations of tsunami run-up heights, submarine crustal movements, and source faults, a detailed analysis is required of coastal topography, land conditions, and submarine tectonic landforms from the perspective of geomorphology. (author)

  3. Bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis for identifying systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources from electroencephalographic or magnetoencephalographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chella, Federico; Pizzella, Vittorio; Zappasodi, Filippo; Nolte, Guido; Marzetti, Laura

    2016-05-01

    Brain cognitive functions arise through the coordinated activity of several brain regions, which actually form complex dynamical systems operating at multiple frequencies. These systems often consist of interacting subsystems, whose characterization is of importance for a complete understanding of the brain interaction processes. To address this issue, we present a technique, namely the bispectral pairwise interacting source analysis (biPISA), for analyzing systems of cross-frequency interacting brain sources when multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) or magnetoencephalographic (MEG) data are available. Specifically, the biPISA makes it possible to identify one or many subsystems of cross-frequency interacting sources by decomposing the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra between EEG or MEG signals, based on the assumption that interactions are pairwise. Thanks to the properties of the antisymmetric components of the cross-bispectra, biPISA is also robust to spurious interactions arising from mixing artifacts, i.e., volume conduction or field spread, which always affect EEG or MEG functional connectivity estimates. This method is an extension of the pairwise interacting source analysis (PISA), which was originally introduced for investigating interactions at the same frequency, to the study of cross-frequency interactions. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated in simulations for up to three interacting source pairs and for real MEG recordings of spontaneous brain activity. Simulations show that the performances of biPISA in estimating the phase difference between the interacting sources are affected by the increasing level of noise rather than by the number of the interacting subsystems. The analysis of real MEG data reveals an interaction between two pairs of sources of central mu and beta rhythms, localizing in the proximity of the left and right central sulci.

  4. Fear of heights and visual height intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Huppert, Doreen

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this review is, first, to cover the different aspects of visual height intolerance such as historical descriptions, definition of terms, phenomenology of the condition, neurophysiological control of gaze, stance and locomotion, and therapy, and, second, to identify warranted epidemiological and experimental studies. Vivid descriptions of fear of heights can be found in ancient texts from the Greek, Roman, and Chinese classics. The life-time prevalence of visual height intolerance is as high as 28% in the general population, and about 50% of those who are susceptible report an impact on quality of life. When exposed to heights, visual exploration by eye and head movements is restricted, and the velocity of locomotion is reduced. Therapy for fear of heights is dominated by the behavioral techniques applied during real or virtual reality exposure. Their efficacy might be facilitated by the administration of D-cycloserine or glucocorticoids. Visual height intolerance has a considerable impact on daily life and interpersonal interactions. It is much more frequent than fear of heights, which is defined as an environmental subtype of a specific phobia. There is certainly a continuum stretching from acrophobia to a less-pronounced visual height intolerance, to which the categorical distinction of a specific phobia does not apply.

  5. Plasma-surface interaction in negative hydrogen ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Motoi

    2018-05-01

    A negative hydrogen ion source delivers more beam current when Cs is introduced to the discharge, but a continuous operation of the source reduces the beam current until more Cs is added to the source. This behavior can be explained by adsorption and ion induced desorption of Cs atoms on the plasma grid surface of the ion source. The interaction between the ion source plasma and the plasma grid surface of a negative hydrogen ion source is discussed in correlation to the Cs consumption of the ion source. The results show that operation with deuterium instead of hydrogen should require more Cs consumption and the presence of medium mass impurities as well as ions of the source wall materials in the arc discharge enlarges the Cs removal rate during an ion source discharge.

  6. Development of a computer program to determine the pulse-height distribution in a gamma-ray detector from an arbitrary geometry source -feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, G.D.; Marshall, M.

    1989-03-01

    The feasibility of developing a computer program suitable for evaluating the pulse-height spectrum in a gamma-ray detector from a complex geometry source has been examined. A selection of relevant programs, Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, have been identified and their applicability to this study discussed. It is proposed that the computation be performed in two parts: the evaluation of the photon fluence at the detector using a photon transport code, and calculation of the pulse-height distribution from this spectrum using response functions determined with an electron-photon transport code. The two transport codes selected to perform this procedure are MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon code), and EGS4 (Electron Gamma Shower code). (Author)

  7. Wuthering Heights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronte, Emily

    2005-01-01

    Wuthering Heights tells the story of a romance between two youngsters: Catherine Earnshaw and an orphan boy, Heathcliff. After she rejects him for a boy from a better background he develops a lust for revenge that takes over his life. In attempting to win her back and destroy those he blames for his

  8. POKEHEAD: An Open Source Interactive Headphone Based HCI Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie; Trento, Stefano; Goudarzi, Visda

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel interactive, human-computer interface and remote social communication system based on an augmented, hi-fidelity audio headphone platform. Specifically, this system- named Pokehead, currently utilizes the DUL embedded open-source accelerometer platform to gather 3-axis......, open source implementation. Our rapid prototype proved to be robust enough to work in performance for demonstration purposes and serves as a working proof of concept. In this paper we provide a technical description of our prototype, illustrate the context and motivation behind the project, and offer...

  9. Interacting massless scalar and source-free electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyangar, B.R.N.; Mohanty, G.

    1985-01-01

    The relativistic field equations for interacting massless attractive scalar and source-free electromagnetic fields in a cylindrically symmetric spacetime of one degree of freedom with reflection symmetry have been reduced to a first order implicit differential equation depending on time which enables one to generate a class of solution to the field equations. The nature of the scalar and electromagnetic fields is discussed. It is shown that the geometry of the spacetime admits of an irrotational stiff fluid distribution without prejudice to the interacting electromagnetic fields. 10 refs. (author)

  10. A numerical study on the effects of wave-current-surge interactions on the height and propagation of sea surface waves in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian

    2009-06-01

    The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.

  11. pp waves of conformal gravity with self-interacting source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2005-01-01

    Recently, Deser, Jackiw and Pi have shown that three-dimensional conformal gravity with a source given by a conformally coupled scalar field admits pp wave solutions. In this paper, we consider this model with a self-interacting potential preserving the conformal structure. A pp wave geometry is also supported by this system and, we show that this model is equivalent to topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant whose value is given in terms of the potential strength

  12. Ionizing radiation sources. Ionizing radiation interaction with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popits, R.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals of nuclear physics are reviewed under the headings: obtaining of X-rays and their properties; modes of radioactive decay of natural or man-made radionuclides; radioactive neutron sources; nuclear fission as basis for devising nuclear reactors and weapons; thermonuclear reactions; cosmic radiation. Basic aspects of ionizing radiation interactions with matter are considered with regard to charged particles, photon radiation, and neutrons. (A.B.)

  13. New effects in the interaction between electromagnetic sources mediated by nonminimal Lorentz violating interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C.; Ferrari, A.F. [Universidade Federal do ABC, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, IFQ, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    This paper is dedicated to the study of interactions between external sources for the electromagnetic field in the presence of Lorentz symmetry breaking. We focus on a higher derivative, Lorentz violating interaction that arises from a specific model that was argued to lead to interesting effects in the low energy phenomenology of light pseudoscalars interacting with photons. The kind of higher derivative Lorentz violating interaction we discuss are called nonminimal. They are usually expected to be relevant only at very high energies, but we argue they might also induce relevant effects in low energy phenomena. Indeed, we show that the Lorentz violating background considered by us leads to several phenomena that have no counterpart in Maxwell theory, such as nontrivial torques on isolated electric dipoles, as well as nontrivial forces and torques between line currents and point like charges, as well as among Dirac strings and other electromagnetic sources. (orig.)

  14. ASSESSING AND COMBINING RELIABILITY OF PROTEIN INTERACTION SOURCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEACH, SONIA; GABOW, AARON; HUNTER, LAWRENCE; GOLDBERG, DEBRA S.

    2008-01-01

    Integrating diverse sources of interaction information to create protein networks requires strategies sensitive to differences in accuracy and coverage of each source. Previous integration approaches calculate reliabilities of protein interaction information sources based on congruity to a designated ‘gold standard.’ In this paper, we provide a comparison of the two most popular existing approaches and propose a novel alternative for assessing reliabilities which does not require a gold standard. We identify a new method for combining the resultant reliabilities and compare it against an existing method. Further, we propose an extrinsic approach to evaluation of reliability estimates, considering their influence on the downstream tasks of inferring protein function and learning regulatory networks from expression data. Results using this evaluation method show 1) our method for reliability estimation is an attractive alternative to those requiring a gold standard and 2) the new method for combining reliabilities is less sensitive to noise in reliability assignments than the similar existing technique. PMID:17990508

  15. Simulation of Coulomb interaction effects in electron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouse, John; Zhu Xieqing; Liu Haoning; Munro, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Over many years, we have developed electron source simulation software that has been used widely in the electron optics community to aid the development of rotationally symmetric electron and ion guns. The simulation includes the modelling of cathode emission and the effects of volumetric space charge. In the present paper we describe the existing software and explain how we have extended this software to include the effects of discrete Coulomb interactions between the electrons as they travel from the cathode surface to the exit of the gun. In the paper, we will describe the numerical models we have employed, the techniques we have used to maximize the speed of the Coulomb force computation and present several illustrative examples of cases analyzed using the new software, including thermal field emitters, LaB 6 guns and flat dispenser-type cathodes.

  16. Effects of air-sea interaction on extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa over the northern extratropical region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xujia; Zheng, Zhihai; Feng, Guolin

    2018-04-01

    The contribution of air-sea interaction on the extended-range prediction of geopotential height at 500 hPa in the northern extratropical region has been analyzed with a coupled model form Beijing Climate Center and its atmospheric components. Under the assumption of the perfect model, the extended-range prediction skill was evaluated by anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC), root mean square error (RMSE), and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The coupled model has a better prediction skill than its atmospheric model, especially, the air-sea interaction in July made a greater contribution for the improvement of prediction skill than other months. The prediction skill of the extratropical region in the coupled model reaches 16-18 days in all months, while the atmospheric model reaches 10-11 days in January, April, and July and only 7-8 days in October, indicating that the air-sea interaction can extend the prediction skill of the atmospheric model by about 1 week. The errors of both the coupled model and the atmospheric model reach saturation in about 20 days, suggesting that the predictable range is less than 3 weeks.

  17. Composition and Sources of Particulate Matter Measured near Houston, TX: Anthropogenic-Biogenic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey K. Bean

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter was measured in Conroe, Texas (~60 km north of downtown Houston, Texas during the September 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign to determine the sources of particulate matter in the region. The measurement site is influenced by high biogenic emission rates as well as transport of anthropogenic pollutants from the Houston metropolitan area and is therefore an ideal location to study anthropogenic-biogenic interactions. Data from an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM suggest that on average 64 percent of non-refractory PM1 was organic material, including a high fraction (27%–41% of organic nitrates. There was little diurnal variation in the concentrations of ammonium sulfate; however, concentrations of organic and organic nitrate aerosol were consistently higher at night than during the day. Potential explanations for the higher organic aerosol loadings at night include changing boundary layer height, increased partitioning to the particle phase at lower temperatures, and differences between daytime and nighttime chemical processes such as nitrate radical chemistry. Positive matrix factorization was applied to the organic aerosol mass spectra measured by the ACSM and three factors were resolved—two factors representing oxygenated organic aerosol and one factor representing hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol. The factors suggest that the measured aerosol was well mixed and highly processed, consistent with the distance from the site to major aerosol sources, as well as the high photochemical activity.

  18. Proteins interacting with cloning scars: a source of false positive protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Charles A S; Boanca, Gina; Lee, Zachary T; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P

    2015-02-23

    A common approach for exploring the interactome, the network of protein-protein interactions in cells, uses a commercially available ORF library to express affinity tagged bait proteins; these can be expressed in cells and endogenous cellular proteins that copurify with the bait can be identified as putative interacting proteins using mass spectrometry. Control experiments can be used to limit false-positive results, but in many cases, there are still a surprising number of prey proteins that appear to copurify specifically with the bait. Here, we have identified one source of false-positive interactions in such studies. We have found that a combination of: 1) the variable sequence of the C-terminus of the bait with 2) a C-terminal valine "cloning scar" present in a commercially available ORF library, can in some cases create a peptide motif that results in the aberrant co-purification of endogenous cellular proteins. Control experiments may not identify false positives resulting from such artificial motifs, as aberrant binding depends on sequences that vary from one bait to another. It is possible that such cryptic protein binding might occur in other systems using affinity tagged proteins; this study highlights the importance of conducting careful follow-up studies where novel protein-protein interactions are suspected.

  19. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyrer, Markus; Linkenauger, Sally A; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Mohler, Betty J

    2015-01-01

    In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  20. The importance of postural cues for determining eye height in immersive virtual reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Leyrer

    Full Text Available In human perception, the ability to determine eye height is essential, because eye height is used to scale heights of objects, velocities, affordances and distances, all of which allow for successful environmental interaction. It is well understood that eye height is fundamental to determine many of these percepts. Yet, how eye height itself is provided is still largely unknown. While the information potentially specifying eye height in the real world is naturally coincident in an environment with a regular ground surface, these sources of information can be easily divergent in similar and common virtual reality scenarios. Thus, we conducted virtual reality experiments where we manipulated the virtual eye height in a distance perception task to investigate how eye height might be determined in such a scenario. We found that humans rely more on their postural cues for determining their eye height if there is a conflict between visual and postural information and little opportunity for perceptual-motor calibration is provided. This is demonstrated by the predictable variations in their distance estimates. Our results suggest that the eye height in such circumstances is informed by postural cues when estimating egocentric distances in virtual reality and consequently, does not depend on an internalized value for eye height.

  1. Strategic Sourcing Development–Emerging Resource Combination and Knowledge Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Jørgensen, Claus; Mathiasen, John Bang

    2013-01-01

    are conducted. Especially the last five years both companies experience change in the resource combination, first the physical and then the organizational, adjusting the mechanisms to improve knowledge interaction and competence within their value chain and inter- and intra-organizational processes. One SME, re...

  2. The Case for Open Source Software: The Interactional Discourse Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seongsook

    2016-01-01

    Computational techniques and software applications for the quantitative content analysis of texts are now well established, and many qualitative data software applications enable the manipulation of input variables and the visualization of complex relations between them via interactive and informative graphical interfaces. Although advances in…

  3. Young adult outcomes in the follow-up of the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: symptom persistence, source discrepancy, and height suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, James M; Arnold, L Eugene; Molina, Brooke S G; Sibley, Margaret H; Hechtman, Lily T; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Abikoff, Howard B; Stehli, Annamarie; Owens, Elizabeth B; Mitchell, John T; Nichols, Quyen; Howard, Andrea; Greenhill, Laurence L; Hoza, Betsy; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Jensen, Peter S; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Tamm, Leanne; Lakes, Kimberly D; Waxmonsky, James; Lerner, Marc; Etcovitch, Joy; Murray, Desiree W; Muenke, Maximilian; Acosta, Maria T; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Pelham, William E; Kraemer, Helena C

    2017-06-01

    The Multimodal Treatment Study (MTA) began as a 14-month randomized clinical trial of behavioral and pharmacological treatments of 579 children (7-10 years of age) diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type. It transitioned into an observational long-term follow-up of 515 cases consented for continuation and 289 classmates (258 without ADHD) added as a local normative comparison group (LNCG), with assessments 2-16 years after baseline. Primary (symptom severity) and secondary (adult height) outcomes in adulthood were specified. Treatment was monitored to age 18, and naturalistic subgroups were formed based on three patterns of long-term use of stimulant medication (Consistent, Inconsistent, and Negligible). For the follow-up, hypothesis-generating analyses were performed on outcomes in early adulthood (at 25 years of age). Planned comparisons were used to estimate ADHD-LNCG differences reflecting persistence of symptoms and naturalistic subgroup differences reflecting benefit (symptom reduction) and cost (height suppression) associated with extended use of medication. For ratings of symptom severity, the ADHD-LNCG comparison was statistically significant for the parent/self-report average (0.51 ± 0.04, p ADHD group was 1.29 ± 0.55 cm shorter than the LNCG (p ADHD group showed symptom persistence compared to local norms from the LNCG. Within naturalistic subgroups of ADHD cases, extended use of medication was associated with suppression of adult height but not with reduction of symptom severity. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Interaction between two adjacent grounded sources in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haigen; Lin, Jun; Liu, Changsheng; Kang, Lili; Li, Gang; Zeng, Xinsen

    2016-03-01

    Multi-source and multi-frequency emission method can make full use of the valuable and short flight time in frequency domain semi-airborne electromagnetic (FSAEM) exploration, which has potential to investigate the deep earth structure in complex terrain region. Because several sources are adjacent in multi-source emission method, the interaction of different sources should be considered carefully. An equivalent circuit model of dual-source is established in this paper to assess the interaction between two individual sources, where the parameters are given with the typical values based on the practical instrument system and its application. By simulating the output current of two sources in different cases, the influence from the adjacent source is observed clearly. The current waveforms show that the mutual resistance causes the fluctuation and drift in another source and that the mutual inductance causes transient peaks. A field test with dual-source was conducted to certify the existence of interaction between adjacent sources. The simulation of output current also shows that current errors at low frequency are mainly caused by the mutual resistance while those at high frequency are mainly due to the mutual inductance. Increasing the distance between neighboring sources is a proposed measure to reduce the emission signal errors with designed ones. The feasible distance is discussed in the end. This study gives a useful guidance to lay multi sources to meet the requirement of measurement accuracy in FSAEM survey.

  5. Fall from heights: does height really matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizo, G; Sciarretta, J D; Gibson, S; Muertos, K; Romano, A; Davis, J; Pepe, A

    2018-06-01

    Fall from heights is high energy injuries and constitutes a fraction of all fall-related trauma evaluations while bearing an increase in morbidity and mortality. We hypothesize that despite advancements in trauma care, the overall survivability has not improved in this subset of trauma patients. All adult trauma patients treated after sustaining a fall from heights during a 40-month period were retrospectively reviewed. Admission demographics, clinical data, fall height (ft), injury patterns, ISS, GCS, length of stay, and mortality were reviewed. 116 patients sustained a fall from heights, 90.4% accidental. A mean age of 37± 14.7 years, 86% male, and a fall height of 19 ± 10 ft were encountered. Admission GCS was 13 ± 2 with ISS 10 ± 11. Overall LOS was 6.6 ± 14.9 days and an ICU LOS of 2.8 ± 8.9 days. Falls ≥ 25 ft.(16%) had lower GCS 10.4 ± 5.8, increased ISS 22.6 ± 13.8, a fall height 37.9 ± 13.1 ft and associated increased mortality (p < 0.001). Mortality was 5.2%, a mean distance fallen of 39 ± 22 ft. and an ISS of 31.5 ±16.5. Brain injury was the leading cause of death, 50% with open skull fractures. Level of height fallen is a good predictor of overall outcome and survival. Despite advances in trauma care, death rates remain unchanged. Safety awareness and injury prevention programs are needed to reduce the risk of high-level falls.

  6. Modelling RF-plasma interaction in ECR ion sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascali David

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes three-dimensional self-consistent numerical simulations of wave propagation in magnetoplasmas of Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS. Numerical results can give useful information on the distribution of the absorbed RF power and/or efficiency of RF heating, especially in the case of alternative schemes such as mode-conversion based heating scenarios. Ray-tracing approximation is allowed only for small wavelength compared to the system scale lengths: as a consequence, full-wave solutions of Maxwell-Vlasov equation must be taken into account in compact and strongly inhomogeneous ECRIS plasmas. This contribution presents a multi-scale temporal domains approach for simultaneously including RF dynamics and plasma kinetics in a “cold-plasma”, and some perspectives for “hot-plasma” implementation. The presented results rely with the attempt to establish a modal-conversion scenario of OXB-type in double frequency heating inside an ECRIS testbench.

  7. Source-sink interaction: a century old concept under the light of modern molecular systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tian-Gen; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Raines, Christine

    2017-07-20

    Many approaches to engineer source strength have been proposed to enhance crop yield potential. However, a well-co-ordinated source-sink relationship is required finally to realize the promised increase in crop yield potential in the farmer's field. Source-sink interaction has been intensively studied for decades, and a vast amount of knowledge about the interaction in different crops and under different environments has been accumulated. In this review, we first introduce the basic concepts of source, sink and their interactions, then summarize current understanding of how source and sink can be manipulated through both environmental control and genetic manipulations. We show that the source-sink interaction underlies the diverse responses of crops to the same perturbations and argue that development of a molecular systems model of source-sink interaction is required towards a rational manipulation of the source-sink relationship for increased yield. We finally discuss both bottom-up and top-down routes to develop such a model and emphasize that a community effort is needed for development of this model. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Sources of Embodied Creativity: Interactivity and Ideation in Contact Improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Michael; Hristova, Dayana; Kussmaul, Kerstin

    2018-05-23

    Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence. (2) Most frequently, CI creativity occurs in tightly coupled behavior and is radically emergent. This means that interpersonal synergies emerge without anybody’s prior design or planned coordination. The creative feat is interpersonally “distributed” over cascades of cross-scaffolding. Our micro-genetic data validate notions from dynamic systems theory such as interpersonal self-organization , although we criticize the theory for failing to explain where precisely this leaves skilled intentionality on the individuals’ part. Our answer is that dancers produce a stream of momentary micro-intentions that say “yes, and”, or “no, but” to short-lived micro-affordances, which allows both individuals to skillfully continue, elaborate, tweak, or redirect the collective movement dynamics. Both dancers can invite emergence as part of their playful exploration, while simultaneously bringing to bear global constraints, such as dance scores, and guide the collective dynamics with a set of specialized skills we shall term emergence management .

  9. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    OpenAIRE

    Glushkov, Dmitry Olegovich; Strizhak, Pavel Alexandrovich; Vershinina, Kseniya Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc.) in the vicinity of storage areas, tra...

  10. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc. in the vicinity of storage areas, transportation, transfer and processing of flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel.

  11. Theory of Maxwell's fish eye with mutually interacting sources and drains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Sahebdivan, Sahar

    2015-11-01

    Maxwell's fish eye is predicted to image with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. However, interactions between sources and drains may ruin the subwavelength imaging capabilities of this and similar absolute optical instruments. Nevertheless, as we show in this paper, at resonance frequencies of the device, an array of drains may resolve a single source, or alternatively, a single drain may scan an array of sources, no matter how narrowly spaced they are. It seems that near-field information can be obtained from far-field distances.

  12. Pesticide Interactions with N source and Tillage: Effects on soil biota and ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John; Petersen, Søren O; Elsgaard, Lars

    . This study was planned to evaluate interactions between pesticide use and other soil management factors. The study was carried out within a long-term tillage experiment using two tillage practices (no-till (NT) and mouldboard ploughing (MP), two contrasting N sources (manure and mineral fertiliser), and two...

  13. Prototype of interactive Web Maps: an approach based on open sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Philips

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To explore the potentialities available in the World Wide Web (WWW, a prototype with interactive Web map was elaborated using standardized codes and open sources, such as eXtensible Markup Language (XML, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG, Document Object Model (DOM , script languages ECMAScript/JavaScript and “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor”, and PostgreSQL and its extension, the PostGIS, to disseminate information related to the urban real estate register. Data from the City Hall of São José - Santa Catarina, were used, referring to Campinas district. Using Client/Server model, a prototype of a Web map with standardized codes and open sources was implemented, allowing a user to visualize Web maps using only the Adobe’s plug-in Viewer 3.0 in his/her browser. Aiming a good cartographic project for the Web, it was obeyed rules of graphical translation and was implemented different functionalities of interaction, like interactive legends, symbolization and dynamic scale. From the results, it can be recommended the use of using standardized codes and open sources in interactive Web mapping projects. It is understood that, with the use of Open Source code, in the public and private administration, the possibility of technological development is amplified, and consequently, a reduction with expenses in the acquisition of computer’s program. Besides, it stimulates the development of computer applications targeting specific demands and requirements.

  14. Interactions between electricity generation sources and economic activity in Greece: A VECM approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, António Cardoso; Fuinhas, José Alberto; Menegaki, Angeliki N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adjustment dynamics in electricity sources and industrial production are examined. • The Johansen’s method with a conditional VEC model was pursued. • Results confirm endogeneity among variables. • Cointegration relationships for fossil and for renewables sources were founded. • Renewables are less affected by disturbance in economic activity. - Abstract: The interactions between electricity generation sources and industrial production in Greece were analysed from August 2004 to October 2013. Greece has been subject to a tough economic adjustment under external financial assistance guidelines. In the meantime, the country has remained committed to international agreements concerning the use of renewables. The variables interact with each other, and this endogeneity has been analysed using a VECM model. A short-run, causal relationship from conventional fossil sources to economic growth, was proved. However, there is no evidence of causal relationships from renewable electricity to economic growth, either in the short- or long-run. Only economic growth gives rise to renewable electricity, whether in the short- or long-run. A fresh insight on the current state of dynamics between electricity sources within an electricity generation system, is thus added to the literature. These findings will inform energy policymakers in designing policies both to encourage the incorporation of national technology into renewables and to reduce electricity consumption without hampering economic growth

  15. Predicting protein-protein interactions from multimodal biological data sources via nonnegative matrix tri-factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Heng; Ding, Chris; Nie, Feiping

    2013-04-01

    Protein interactions are central to all the biological processes and structural scaffolds in living organisms, because they orchestrate a number of cellular processes such as metabolic pathways and immunological recognition. Several high-throughput methods, for example, yeast two-hybrid system and mass spectrometry method, can help determine protein interactions, which, however, suffer from high false-positive rates. Moreover, many protein interactions predicted by one method are not supported by another. Therefore, computational methods are necessary and crucial to complete the interactome expeditiously. In this work, we formulate the problem of predicting protein interactions from a new mathematical perspective--sparse matrix completion, and propose a novel nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF)-based matrix completion approach to predict new protein interactions from existing protein interaction networks. Through using manifold regularization, we further develop our method to integrate different biological data sources, such as protein sequences, gene expressions, protein structure information, etc. Extensive experimental results on four species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, Homo sapiens, and Caenorhabditis elegans, have shown that our new methods outperform related state-of-the-art protein interaction prediction methods.

  16. Analysis of jet-airfoil interaction noise sources by using a microphone array technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Vincent; Davy, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    The paper is concerned with the characterization of jet noise sources and jet-airfoil interaction sources by using microphone array data. The measurements were carried-out in the anechoic open test section wind tunnel of Onera, Cepra19. The microphone array technique relies on the convected, Lighthill's and Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings' acoustic analogy equation. The cross-spectrum of the source term of the analogy equation is sought. It is defined as the optimal solution to a minimal error equation using the measured microphone cross-spectra as reference. This inverse problem is ill-posed yet. A penalty term based on a localization operator is therefore added to improve the recovery of jet noise sources. The analysis of isolated jet noise data in subsonic regime shows the contribution of the conventional mixing noise source in the low frequency range, as expected, and of uniformly distributed, uncorrelated noise sources in the jet flow at higher frequencies. In underexpanded supersonic regime, a shock-associated noise source is clearly identified, too. An additional source is detected in the vicinity of the nozzle exit both in supersonic and subsonic regimes. In the presence of the airfoil, the distribution of the noise sources is deeply modified. In particular, a strong noise source is localized on the flap. For high Strouhal numbers, higher than about 2 (based on the jet mixing velocity and diameter), a significant contribution from the shear-layer near the flap is observed, too. Indications of acoustic reflections on the airfoil are also discerned.

  17. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  18. Hidden sources of grapefruit in beverages: potential interactions with immunosuppressant medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auten, Ashley A; Beauchamp, Lauren N; Joshua Taylor; Hardinger, Karen L

    2013-06-01

    The interaction between grapefruit-containing beverages and immunosuppressants is not well defined in the literature. This study was conducted to investigate possible sources of grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract in common US-manufactured beverages. The goal was to identify those products that might serve as hidden sources of dietary grapefruit intake, increasing a transplant patient's risk for drug interactions. A careful review of the ingredients of the 3 largest US beverage manufacturer's product lines was conducted through manufacturer correspondence, product labeling examination, and online nutrition database research. Focus was placed on citrus-flavored soft drinks, teas, and juice products and their impact on a patient's immunosuppressant regimens. Twenty-three beverages were identified that contained grapefruit. Five did not contain the word "grapefruit" in the product name. In addition to the confirmed grapefruit-containing products, 17 products were identified as possibly containing grapefruit juice or grapefruit extract. A greater emphasis should be placed upon properly educating patients regarding hidden sources of grapefruit in popular US beverages and the potential for food-drug interactions.

  19. Analysis of core-concrete interaction event with flooding for the Advanced Neutron Source reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; Navarro-Valenti, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses salient aspects of the methodology, assumptions, and modeling of various features related to estimation of source terms from an accident involving a molten core-concrete interaction event (with and without flooding) in the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Various containment configurations are considered for this postulated severe accident. Several design features (such as rupture disks) are examined to study containment response during this severe accident. Also, thermal-hydraulic response of the containment and radionuclide transport and retention in the containment are studied. The results are described as transient variations of source terms, which are then used for studying off-site radiological consequences and health effects for the support of the Conceptual Safety Analysis Report for ANS. The results are also to be used to examine the effectiveness of subpile room flooding during this type of severe accident

  20. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  1. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  2. Accuracy of recumbent height measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Crider, J B; Kelley, C; Dickinson, L C

    1985-01-01

    Since many patients requiring specialized nutritional support are bedridden, measurement of height for purposes of nutritional assessment or prescription must often be done with the patient in bed. This study examined the accuracy of measuring body height in bed in the supine position. Two measurements were performed on 108 ambulatory inpatients: (1) standing height using a standard height-weight scale, and (2) bed height using a flexible tape. Patients were divided into four groups based on which of two researchers performed each of the two measurements. Each patient was also weighed and self-reported height, weight, sex, and age were recorded. Bed height was significantly longer than standing height by 3.68 cm, but the two measurements were equally precise. It was believed, however, that this 2% difference was probably not clinically significant in most circumstances. Bed height correlated highly with standing height (r = 0.95), and the regression equation was standing height = 13.82 +/- 0.09 bed height. Patients overestimated their heights. Heights recorded by nurses were more accurate when patients were measured than when asked about their heights, but the patients were more often asked than measured.

  3. Preliminary results of a broad beam RF ion source with electron plasma interaction. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A; Abdel-Ghaffar, A M [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A new design of a broad beam RF ion source is made to be capable to deliver wide and uniform beam with currents reaching (100 {mu} A up to 30 mA) at extraction voltages (200 V up to 2 kV). Its plasma intensifying system is made with the addition of electrons from an immersed filament in the discharge and axial magnetic field (70 up to 300 G). A uniform beam distribution is made with a planner graphite cathode which has a number of holes arranged to produce perveance matching with the normal Gaussian distribution of the beam density. These holes are arranged in a consequent orbits with equal distance between the adjacent holes in each orbit. These holes increase in diameter with increasing the orbit radius. This allows increasing the extracted ion currents at the source outer edges and decreases its value at the source inner region; producing wide and uniform beam which is suitable for material modifications. The beam profiles are traced with electromechanical scanner and X-Y recorder. The perveance matching is found to produce a beam uniformity of =66% of its width which reaches =6 cm. The variation of the output currents are with the variation of extraction voltages, magnetic field, discharge pressure and electron injection into the plasma. The extracted current increases with the increase of the discharge pressure, RF power and magnetic field intensity. The influence of electron plasma interaction is found to have a great effect on increasing the ion currents to about four times its value without electron interaction, however, this increase is limited due to presence of breakdown at V{sub ex} > 2 kV. The simple design of this source, its cleanness due to the use of pyrex discharge bottle, easy operation and maintenance adds other features to this broad beam type ion source which makes it suitable for metallurgical applications in broad beam accelerators. 6 figs.

  4. Acidic precipitation. Volume 3: Sources, deposition, and canopy interactions. Advances in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, S.E.; Page, A.L.; Norton, S.A. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    As has been the case with many environmental issues of the twentieth century, acidic precipitation has its origin in emissions to the atmosphere of numerous compounds from both natural and man-made sources. This volume emphasizes the atmospheric aspects of acidic precipitation and all that this term has come to include (e.g. toxic gases such as ozone, trace metals, aluminum, and oxides of nitrogen). It progresses from emissions of the precursors of acidic precipitation to their eventual deposition on environmental surfaces. The chapters describe the sources of acidic and basic airborne substances, their interactions in the atmosphere and with rain droplets, and their reactions with other airborne constituents such as aluminum and other metals. Also discussed are the use of metals as tracers of sources of the precursors of acidic precipitation and as tracers of historical deposition rates, the processes controlling the removal of airborne material as dry deposition and deposition interactions with the forest canopy, and past and future trends in atmospheric emissions and options for their abatement.

  5. Interaction of electrons with biomolecules and development of a helium cluster source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denifl, S.

    2004-07-01

    In the main part of the present work electron interaction (attachment/ionization) with molecules of biological relevance has been studied in the electron energy range from about 0 to 70 eV. For these measurements a crossed neutral / high resolution electron beams apparatus in conjunction with a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been used. The present work should evaluate the description of the damage induced by high energy radiation since low secondary electrons with energies below 20 eV are created in a large amount in the interaction of the primary radiation with cell compounds. Thus dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and electron impact ionization near the threshold of biomulecules has been studied below 20 eV under isolated conditions. DEA to the DNA/RNA molecules thymine, cytosine and uracil has been carried out. As for most of the recently studied simple biomolecules (like isolated DNA bases, amino acids and sugars) no parent ion has been observed. It turned out that the most abundant fragment ions for DNA/RNA bases are the dehydrogenated bases. In addition to DNA/RNA bases also electron interaction with 6-Chlorouracil has been studied. Another part of this thesis is the construction of a He cluster source. Helium clusters are most difficult to produce as temperatures of about 10 K have to be reached in the stagnation chamber at the stagnation pressure of about 20 bar. The newly developed source allows achieving stagnation conditions for a helium cluster production. (author)

  6. An Open Source Approach for Modern Teaching Methods: The Interactive TGUI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde Dinges

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate teaching complex topics in an interactive way, the authors developed a computer-assisted teaching system, a graphical user interface named TGUI (Teaching Graphical User Interface. TGUI was introduced at the beginning of 2009 in the Austrian Journal of Statistics (Dinges and Templ 2009 as being an effective instrument to train and teach staff on mathematical and statistical topics. While the fundamental principles were retained, the current TGUI system has been undergone a complete redesign. The ultimate goal behind the reimplementation was to share the advantages of TGUI and provide teachers and people who need to hold training courses with a strong tool that can enrich their lectures with interactive features. The idea was to go a step beyond the current modular blended-learning systems (see, e.g., Da Rin 2003 or the related teaching techniques of classroom-voting (see, e.g., Cline 2006. In this paper the authors have attempted to exemplify basic idea and concept of TGUI by means of statistics seminars held at Statistics Austria. The powerful open source software R (R Development Core Team 2010a is the backend for TGUI, which can therefore be used to process even complex statistical contents. However, with specifically created contents the interactive TGUI system can be used to support a wide range of courses and topics. The open source R packages TGUICore and TGUITeaching are freely available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://CRAN.R-project.org/.

  7. Memory for target height is scaled to observer height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Crawford, L Elizabeth; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2012-04-01

    According to the embodied approach to visual perception, individuals scale the environment to their bodies. This approach highlights the central role of the body for immediate, situated action. The present experiments addressed whether body scaling--specifically, eye-height scaling--occurs in memory when action is not immediate. Participants viewed standard targets that were either the same height as, taller than, or shorter than themselves. Participants then viewed a comparison target and judged whether the comparison was taller or shorter than the standard target. Participants were most accurate when the standard target height matched their own heights, taking into account postural changes. Participants were biased to underestimate standard target height, in general, and to push standard target height away from their own heights. These results are consistent with the literature on eye-height scaling in visual perception and suggest that body scaling is not only a useful metric for perception and action, but is also preserved in memory.

  8. A proton point source produced by laser interaction with cone-top-end target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jinqing; Jin, Xiaolin; Zhou, Weimin; Zhao, Zongqing; Yan, Yonghong; Li, Bin; Hong, Wei; Gu, Yuqiu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a proton point source by the interaction of laser and cone-top-end target and investigate it by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D-PIC) simulations as the proton point sources are well known for higher spatial resolution of proton radiography. Our results show that the relativistic electrons are guided to the rear of the cone-top-end target by the electrostatic charge-separation field and self-generated magnetic field along the profile of the target. As a result, the peak magnitude of sheath field at the rear surface of cone-top-end target is higher compared to common cone target. We test this scheme by 2D-PIC simulation and find the result has a diameter of 0.79λ 0 , an average energy of 9.1 MeV and energy spread less than 35%.

  9. Interactions of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) from different sources with unfractionated heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Angel; Litinas, Evangelos; Jeske, Walter; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified as the main contaminant in recalled heparin. Oversulfated chondroitin sulfate can be prepared from bovine (B), porcine (P), shark (Sh), or skate (S) origin and may produce changes in the antithrombotic, bleeding, and hemodynamic profile of heparins. This study examines the interactions of various OSCSs on heparin in animal models of thrombosis and bleeding, as well as on the anticoagulant and antiprotease effects in in vitro assays. Mixtures of 70% unfractionated heparin (UFH) with 30% OSCS from different sources were tested. In the in vitro activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) assay, all contaminant mixtures showed a decrease in clotting times. In addition, a significant increase in bleeding time compared to the control (UFH/saline) was observed. In the thrombosis model, no significant differences were observed. The OSCSs significantly increased anti-Xa activity in ex vivo blood samples. These results indicate that various sources of OSCS affect the hemostatic properties of heparin.

  10. Concordant preferences for actual height and facial cues to height

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Physical height has a well-documented effect on human mate preferences. In general, both sexes prefer opposite-sex romantic relationships in which the man is taller than the woman, while individual preferences for height are affected by a person’s own height. Research in human mate choice has demonstrated that attraction to facial characteristics, such as facial adiposity, may reflect references for body characteristics. Here, we tested preferences for facial cues to height. In general, incre...

  11. Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veira, A.; Kloster, Silvia; Schutgens, N. A. J.; Kaiser, Johannes W.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires represent a major source for aerosols impacting atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry and cloud micro-physical properties. Previous case studies indicated that the height of the aerosol–radiation interaction may crucially affect atmospheric radiation, but the sensitivity to emission

  12. Sexual Orientation, Objective Height, and Self-Reported Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F

    2017-01-01

    Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.

  13. Aerosol-Cloud Interactions During Puijo Cloud Experiments - The effects of weather and local sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komppula, Mika; Portin, Harri; Leskinen, Ari; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Brus, David; Neitola, Kimmo; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Kortelainen, Aki; Hao, Liqing; Miettinen, Pasi; Jaatinen, Antti; Ahmad, Irshad; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.

    2013-04-01

    The Puijo measurement station has provided continuous data on aerosol-cloud interactions since 2006. The station is located on top of the Puijo observation tower (306 m a.s.l, 224 m above the surrounding lake level) in Kuopio, Finland. The top of the tower is covered by cloud about 15 % of the time, offering perfect conditions for studying aerosol-cloud interactions. With a twin-inlet setup (total and interstitial inlets) we are able to separate the activated particles from the interstitial (non-activated) particles. The continuous twin-inlet measurements include aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption. In addition cloud droplet number and size distribution are measured continuously with weather parameters. During the campaigns the twin-inlet system was additionally equipped with aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP-2). This way we were able to define the differences in chemical composition of the activated and non-activated particles. Potential cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in different supersaturations were measured with two CCN counters (CCNC). The other CCNC was operated with a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) to obtain size selected CCN spectra. Other additional measurements included Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA) for particle hygroscopicity. Additionally the valuable vertical wind profiles (updraft velocities) are available from Halo Doppler lidar during the 2011 campaign. Cloud properties (droplet number and effective radius) from MODIS instrument onboard Terra and Aqua satellites were retrieved and compared with the measured values. This work summarizes the two latest intensive campaigns, Puijo Cloud Experiments (PuCE) 2010 & 2011. We study especially the effect of the local sources on the cloud activation behaviour of the aerosol particles. The main local sources include a paper mill, a heating plant, traffic and residential areas. The sources can be categorized and identified

  14. Metabolite transport and associated sugar signalling systems underpinning source/sink interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A; Paul, Matthew J; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-10-01

    Metabolite transport between organelles, cells and source and sink tissues not only enables pathway co-ordination but it also facilitates whole plant communication, particularly in the transmission of information concerning resource availability. Carbon assimilation is co-ordinated with nitrogen assimilation to ensure that the building blocks of biomass production, amino acids and carbon skeletons, are available at the required amounts and stoichiometry, with associated transport processes making certain that these essential resources are transported from their sites of synthesis to those of utilisation. Of the many possible posttranslational mechanisms that might participate in efficient co-ordination of metabolism and transport only reversible thiol-disulphide exchange mechanisms have been described in detail. Sucrose and trehalose metabolism are intertwined in the signalling hub that ensures appropriate resource allocation to drive growth and development under optimal and stress conditions, with trehalose-6-phosphate acting as an important signal for sucrose availability. The formidable suite of plant metabolite transporters provides enormous flexibility and adaptability in inter-pathway coordination and source-sink interactions. Focussing on the carbon metabolism network, we highlight the functions of different transporter families, and the important of thioredoxins in the metabolic dialogue between source and sink tissues. In addition, we address how these systems can be tailored for crop improvement. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Interacting noise sources shape patterns of arm movement variability in three-dimensional space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apker, Gregory A; Darling, Timothy K; Buneo, Christopher A

    2010-11-01

    Reaching movements are subject to noise in both the planning and execution phases of movement production. The interaction of these noise sources during natural movements is not well understood, despite its importance for understanding movement variability in neurologically intact and impaired individuals. Here we examined the interaction of planning and execution related noise during the production of unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects performed sequences of two movements to targets arranged in three vertical planes separated in depth. The starting position for each sequence was also varied in depth with the target plane; thus required movement sequences were largely contained within the vertical plane of the targets. Each final target in a sequence was approached from two different directions, and these movements were made with or without visual feedback of the moving hand. These combined aspects of the design allowed us to probe the interaction of execution and planning related noise with respect to reach endpoint variability. In agreement with previous studies, we found that reach endpoint distributions were highly anisotropic. The principal axes of movement variability were largely aligned with the depth axis, i.e., the axis along which visual planning related noise would be expected to dominate, and were not generally well aligned with the direction of the movement vector. Our results suggest that visual planning-related noise plays a dominant role in determining anisotropic patterns of endpoint variability in three-dimensional space, with execution noise adding to this variability in a movement direction-dependent manner.

  16. Optimizing height presentation for aircraft cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Chris S.; Croft, D.; Selcon, Stephen J.; Markin, H.; Jackson, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes an experiment conducted to investigate the type of display symbology that most effectively conveys height information to users of head-down plan-view radar displays. The experiment also investigated the use of multiple information sources (redundancy) in the design of such displays. Subjects were presented with eight different height display formats. These formats were constructed from a control, and/or one, two, or three sources of redundant information. The three formats were letter coding, analogue scaling, and toggling (spatially switching the position of the height information from above to below the aircraft symbol). Subjects were required to indicate altitude awareness via a four-key, forced-choice keyboard response. Error scores and response times were taken as performance measures. There were three main findings. First, there was a significant performance advantage when the altitude information was presented above and below the symbol to aid the representation of height information. Second, the analogue scale, a line whose length indicated altitude, proved significantly detrimental to performance. Finally, no relationship was found between the number of redundant information sources employed and performance. The implications for future aircraft and displays are discussed in relation to current aircraft tactical displays and in the context of perceptual psychological theory.

  17. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events. Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania. The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of the hill country to the

  18. Interactive, open source, travel time scenario modelling: tools to facilitate participation in health service access analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rohan; Lassa, Jonatan

    2017-04-18

    Modelling travel time to services has become a common public health tool for planning service provision but the usefulness of these analyses is constrained by the availability of accurate input data and limitations inherent in the assumptions and parameterisation. This is particularly an issue in the developing world where access to basic data is limited and travel is often complex and multi-modal. Improving the accuracy and relevance in this context requires greater accessibility to, and flexibility in, travel time modelling tools to facilitate the incorporation of local knowledge and the rapid exploration of multiple travel scenarios. The aim of this work was to develop simple open source, adaptable, interactive travel time modelling tools to allow greater access to and participation in service access analysis. Described are three interconnected applications designed to reduce some of the barriers to the more wide-spread use of GIS analysis of service access and allow for complex spatial and temporal variations in service availability. These applications are an open source GIS tool-kit and two geo-simulation models. The development of these tools was guided by health service issues from a developing world context but they present a general approach to enabling greater access to and flexibility in health access modelling. The tools demonstrate a method that substantially simplifies the process for conducting travel time assessments and demonstrate a dynamic, interactive approach in an open source GIS format. In addition this paper provides examples from empirical experience where these tools have informed better policy and planning. Travel and health service access is complex and cannot be reduced to a few static modeled outputs. The approaches described in this paper use a unique set of tools to explore this complexity, promote discussion and build understanding with the goal of producing better planning outcomes. The accessible, flexible, interactive and

  19. An Open-Source Web-Based Tool for Resource-Agnostic Interactive Translation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Torregrosa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a web-based open-source tool for interactive translation prediction (ITP and describe its underlying architecture. ITP systems assist human translators by making context-based computer-generated suggestions as they type. Most of the ITP systems in literature are strongly coupled with a statistical machine translation system that is conveniently adapted to provide the suggestions. Our system, however, follows a resource-agnostic approach and suggestions are obtained from any unmodified black-box bilingual resource. This paper reviews our ITP method and describes the architecture of Forecat, a web tool, partly based on the recent technology of web components, that eases the use of our ITP approach in any web application requiring this kind of translation assistance. We also evaluate the performance of our method when using an unmodified Moses-based statistical machine translation system as the bilingual resource.

  20. Adult height, dietary patterns, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenjie; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Heianza, Yoriko; Sun, Qi; Rimm, Eric B; Qi, Lu

    2017-08-01

    Background: Adult height has shown directionally diverse associations with several age-related disorders, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, decline in cognitive function, and mortality. Objective: We investigated the associations of adult height with healthy aging measured by a full spectrum of health outcomes, including incidence of chronic diseases, memory, physical functioning, and mental health, among populations who have survived to older age, and whether lifestyle factors modified such relations. Design: We included 52,135 women (mean age: 44.2 y) from the Nurses' Health Study without chronic diseases in 1980 and whose health status was available in 2012. Healthy aging was defined as being free of 11 major chronic diseases and having no reported impairment of subjective memory, physical impairment, or mental health limitations. Results: Of all eligible study participants, 6877 (13.2%) were classified as healthy agers. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, we observed an 8% (95% CI: 6%, 11%) decrease in the odds of healthy aging per SD (0.062 m) increase in height. Compared with the lowest category of height (≤1.57 m), the OR of achieving healthy aging in the highest category (≥1.70 m) was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.73, 0.87; P -trend healthy aging ( P -interaction = 0.005), and among the individual dietary factors characterizing the prudent dietary pattern, fruit and vegetable intake showed the strongest effect modification ( P -interaction = 0.01). The association of greater height with reduced odds of healthy aging appeared to be more evident among women with higher adherence to the prudent dietary pattern rich in vegetable and fruit intake. Conclusions: Greater height was associated with a modest decrease in the likelihood of healthy aging. A prudent diet rich in fruit and vegetables might modify the relation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Height premium for job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyun; Han, Euna

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the relationship of height with wages, using the 1998 and 2012 Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data. The key independent variable was height measured in centimeters, which was included as a series of dummy indicators of height per 5cm span (wages to assess the heterogeneity in the height-wage relationship, across the conditional distribution of monthly wages. We found a non-linear relationship of height with monthly wages. For men, the magnitude of the height wage premium was overall larger at the upper quantile of the conditional distribution of log monthly wages than at the median to low quantile, particularly in professional and semi-professional occupations. The height-wage premium was also larger at the 90th quantile for self-employed women and salaried men. Our findings add a global dimension to the existing evidence on height-wage premium, demonstrating non-linearity in the association between height and wages and heterogeneous changes in the dispersion and direction of the association between height and wages, by wage level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Small-scale open ocean currents have large effects on wind wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah T.; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar B.; Rascle, Nicolas; Chapron, Bertrand; Gula, Jonathan; Molemaker, Jeroen

    2017-06-01

    Tidal currents and large-scale oceanic currents are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of open ocean currents have revealed the ubiquitous presence of eddies, fronts, and filaments at scales 10-100 km. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations down to 10 km. Model results are consistent with wave height variations along satellite altimeter tracks, resolved at scales larger than 50 km. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70>>2/>(g2>>2>) times the current spectrum, where >> is the spatially averaged significant wave height, >> is the energy-averaged period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This variability induced by currents has been largely overlooked in spite of its relevance for extreme wave heights and remote sensing.Plain Language SummaryWe show that the variations in currents at scales 10 to 100 km are the main source of variations in wave heights at the same scales. Our work uses a combination of realistic numerical models for currents and waves and data from the Jason-3 and SARAL/AltiKa satellites. This finding will be of interest for the investigation of extreme wave heights, remote sensing, and air-sea interactions. As an immediate application, the present results will help constrain the error budget of the up-coming satellite missions, in particular the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, and decide how the data will have to be processed to arrive at accurate sea level and wave measurements. It will also help in the analysis of wave measurements by the CFOSAT satellite.

  3. Desempenho de bezerros de corte alimentados com diferentes fontes protéicas associadas à silagem de sorgo colhida em duas alturas de corte Performance of beef calves fed with different protein sources associated with silage of sorghum harvested in two different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miranda Vargas Júnior

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três fontes protéicas (uréia - U, farinha penas - Fp e farelo soja - Fs associadas a duas silagens de sorgo (silagens de sorgo corte alto - SCA e corte baixo - SCB por intermédio do desempenho de bezerros de corte, confinados por 84 dias. Foram utilizados 36 bezerros mestiços (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore, castrados, com cinco meses de idade e pesando em média 146,44 kg. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD; o consumo de matéria seca expressos em kg/dia (CMS, percentagem de peso vivo (CMSPV e peso metabólico (CMSPM; e a conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado por intermédio de um fatorial 3x2. Houve efeito significativo na interação silagem versus fonte protéica para a variável GMD, com o maior GMD para SCAFp (1,61 kg/animal/dia versus a SCBFs (1,32 kg/animal/dia. Os demais parâmetros não diferiram estatisticamente quando analisada a interação ou isoladamente a silagem ou fonte protéica. A silagem de sorgo corte alto promoveu numericamente um maior GMD e CMS.Three protein sources (urea - U; feather meal - Fm; soybean meal - Sm associated to two sorghum silage (sorghum at high cutting - SHC; and sorghum at low cutting - SLC were evaluated by measuring beef calf performance, confined for 84 days. Thirty-six crossbred (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore castrated calves, with five months of age and average weight alive on the 146.44 kg, were used. Average daily weight gain (DWG; the dry matter intake expressed in kg/day (DMI, percentage live weight (DMILW and percentage of metabolic weight (DMIMW and the feed : gain ratio (FGR were evaluated. The treatments followed a 3x2 factorial in a completely randomized design. There was significant effect in the interaction silage versus protein source for variable DWG, with the higher DWG for SHCFm (1.61 kg/animal/day versus SLCSm (1.32 kg/animal/day. The other parameters did not differ when the interaction or separately the silage or protein

  4. SmartR: an open-source platform for interactive visual analytics for translational research data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzinger, Sascha; Gu, Wei; Satagopam, Venkata; Eifes, Serge; Rege, Kavita; Barbosa-Silva, Adriano; Schneider, Reinhard

    2017-07-15

    In translational research, efficient knowledge exchange between the different fields of expertise is crucial. An open platform that is capable of storing a multitude of data types such as clinical, pre-clinical or OMICS data combined with strong visual analytical capabilities will significantly accelerate the scientific progress by making data more accessible and hypothesis generation easier. The open data warehouse tranSMART is capable of storing a variety of data types and has a growing user community including both academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. tranSMART, however, currently lacks interactive and dynamic visual analytics and does not permit any post-processing interaction or exploration. For this reason, we developed SmartR , a plugin for tranSMART, that equips the platform not only with several dynamic visual analytical workflows, but also provides its own framework for the addition of new custom workflows. Modern web technologies such as D3.js or AngularJS were used to build a set of standard visualizations that were heavily improved with dynamic elements. The source code is licensed under the Apache 2.0 License and is freely available on GitHub: https://github.com/transmart/SmartR . reinhard.schneider@uni.lu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. CACTI: free, open-source software for the sequential coding of behavioral interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Lisa H; Hallgren, Kevin A; Houck, Jon M; Moyers, Theresa B

    2012-01-01

    The sequential analysis of client and clinician speech in psychotherapy sessions can help to identify and characterize potential mechanisms of treatment and behavior change. Previous studies required coding systems that were time-consuming, expensive, and error-prone. Existing software can be expensive and inflexible, and furthermore, no single package allows for pre-parsing, sequential coding, and assignment of global ratings. We developed a free, open-source, and adaptable program to meet these needs: The CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions (CACTI). Without transcripts, CACTI facilitates the real-time sequential coding of behavioral interactions using WAV-format audio files. Most elements of the interface are user-modifiable through a simple XML file, and can be further adapted using Java through the terms of the GNU Public License. Coding with this software yields interrater reliabilities comparable to previous methods, but at greatly reduced time and expense. CACTI is a flexible research tool that can simplify psychotherapy process research, and has the potential to contribute to the improvement of treatment content and delivery.

  6. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  8. More practical critical height sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2015-01-01

    Critical Height Sampling (CHS) (Kitamura 1964) can be used to predict cubic volumes per acre without using volume tables or equations. The critical height is defined as the height at which the tree stem appears to be in borderline condition using the point-sampling angle gauge (e.g. prism). An estimate of cubic volume per acre can be obtained from multiplication of the...

  9. SOURCE REGIONS OF THE TYPE II RADIO BURST OBSERVED DURING A CME–CME INTERACTION ON 2013 MAY 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäkelä, P.; Reiner, M. J.; Akiyama, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Krupar, V.

    2016-01-01

    We report on our study of radio source regions during the type II radio burst on 2013 May 22 based on direction-finding analysis of the Wind /WAVES and STEREO /WAVES (SWAVES) radio observations at decameter–hectometric wavelengths. The type II emission showed an enhancement that coincided with the interaction of two coronal mass ejections (CMEs) launched in sequence along closely spaced trajectories. The triangulation of the SWAVES source directions posited the ecliptic projections of the radio sources near the line connecting the Sun and the STEREO-A spacecraft. The WAVES and SWAVES source directions revealed shifts in the latitude of the radio source, indicating that the spatial location of the dominant source of the type II emission varies during the CME–CME interaction. The WAVES source directions close to 1 MHz frequencies matched the location of the leading edge of the primary CME seen in the images of the LASCO/C3 coronagraph. This correspondence of spatial locations at both wavelengths confirms that the CME–CME interaction region is the source of the type II enhancement. Comparison of radio and white-light observations also showed that at lower frequencies scattering significantly affects radio wave propagation.

  10. Height-Deterministic Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowotka, Dirk; Srba, Jiri

    2007-01-01

    We define the notion of height-deterministic pushdown automata, a model where for any given input string the stack heights during any (nondeterministic) computation on the input are a priori fixed. Different subclasses of height-deterministic pushdown automata, strictly containing the class...... of regular languages and still closed under boolean language operations, are considered. Several of such language classes have been described in the literature. Here, we suggest a natural and intuitive model that subsumes all the formalisms proposed so far by employing height-deterministic pushdown automata...

  11. Unified height systems after GOCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, Reiner; Gruber, Thomas; Sideris, Michael; Rangelova, Elena; Woodworth, Phil; Hughes, Chris; Ihde, Johannes; Liebsch, Gunter; Rülke, Axel; Gerlach, Christian; Haagmans, Roger

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of global height unification are twofold, (1) the realization of accurate geopotential numbers C together with their standard deviation σ(C) at a selected set of stations (datum points of national height systems, geodetic fundamental stations (IERS), primary tide gauges (PSMSL) and primary reference clocks (IERS)) and (2) the determination of height off-sets between all existing regional/national height systems and one global height reference. In the future the primary method of height determination will be GPS-levelling with very stringent requirements concerning the consistency of the positioning and the gravity potential difference part. Consistency is required in terms of the applied standards (ITRF, zero tide system, geodetic reference system). Geopotential differences will be based on a next generation geopotential model combining GOCE and GRACE and a best possible collection of global terrestrial and altimetric gravity and topographic data. Ultimately, the envisaged accuracy of height unification is about 10 cm2/s2 (or 1cm). At the moment, in well surveyed regions, an accuracy of about 40 to 60 cm2/s2 (or 4 to 6cm) is attainable. Objective One can be realized by straight forward computation of geopotential numbers C, i.e. geopotential differences relative to an adopted height reference. No adjustment is required for this. Objective Two, the unification of existing height systems is achieved by employing a least-squares adjustment based on the GBVP-approach. In order to attain a non-singular solution, this requires for each included datum zone at least one geo-referenced station per zone, i.e. its ellipsoidal height h and, in addition, the corresponding physical height H (geopotential number, normal height, orthometric height, etc.). Changes in geopotential numbers of consecutive realizations reflect (1) temporal changes of station heights, (2) improvements or changes of the applied geopotential (or geoid) model and (3) improvements of the

  12. Agreement between measured height, and height predicted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower limb measurements, such as knee height, as well as upper limb measures ... had with bone injuries/fractures affecting height or ulna length; and n = 1 had a ... and heels, buttocks and upper back in contact with the vertical surface of the .... found striking similarity in linear growth of infants to five-year- olds among all ...

  13. Returning Serve in Tennis: A Qualitative Examination of the Interaction of Anticipatory Information Sources Used by Professional Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Vernon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has largely focused on the individual contribution of either kinematic or contextual information sources to the anticipatory skill of an expert athlete during a time-stressed situation. Very little research has considered how these two sources of information interact with each other to influence anticipation. The current study used a qualitative interview methodology to investigate this interaction. Eight former or current top 250 professional male tennis players participated in a 30–60 min interview about the interaction of kinematic and contextual information sources and their influence on anticipation. Using an open-coding analysis approach, codes were identified by each researcher from the transcribed interviews and then brought together to identify common themes. The primary themes were consciousness, tactical awareness, contextual information sources, kinematic information sources, mentality/confidence, returner technique or strategy, and build pressure on the server. Secondary themes coded from the participants were returning characteristics and practice. Consequently, a temporal model was developed which demonstrated the sequence and interaction of both kinematic and contextual information sources known to influence expert tennis player’s anticipation.

  14. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  15. Open-source chemogenomic data-driven algorithms for predicting drug-target interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Bryant, Stephen H; Wang, Yanli

    2018-02-06

    While novel technologies such as high-throughput screening have advanced together with significant investment by pharmaceutical companies during the past decades, the success rate for drug development has not yet been improved prompting researchers looking for new strategies of drug discovery. Drug repositioning is a potential approach to solve this dilemma. However, experimental identification and validation of potential drug targets encoded by the human genome is both costly and time-consuming. Therefore, effective computational approaches have been proposed to facilitate drug repositioning, which have proved to be successful in drug discovery. Doubtlessly, the availability of open-accessible data from basic chemical biology research and the success of human genome sequencing are crucial to develop effective in silico drug repositioning methods allowing the identification of potential targets for existing drugs. In this work, we review several chemogenomic data-driven computational algorithms with source codes publicly accessible for predicting drug-target interactions (DTIs). We organize these algorithms by model properties and model evolutionary relationships. We re-implemented five representative algorithms in R programming language, and compared these algorithms by means of mean percentile ranking, a new recall-based evaluation metric in the DTI prediction research field. We anticipate that this review will be objective and helpful to researchers who would like to further improve existing algorithms or need to choose appropriate algorithms to infer potential DTIs in the projects. The source codes for DTI predictions are available at: https://github.com/minghao2016/chemogenomicAlg4DTIpred. Published by Oxford University Press 2018. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Interaction of 238PuO2 heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.H.; Nelson, G.B.; Matlack, G.M.; Waterbury, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators used in space missions are designed with a great factor of safety to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth, and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs, utilizing 238 PuO 2 fuel, have proved more than adequately safe. More data about the interaction of this material with terrestrial and aquatic environments is continually being sought to predict the behavior of these heat sources in the extremely unlikely contact of these materials with the land or ocean. Terrestrial environments are simulated with large environmental chambers that permit control of temperature, humidity, and rainfall using different kinds of soils. Rain falling on thermally hot chunks of 238 PuO 2 causes the spallation of the surface of the fuel into extremely fine particles, as small as 50 nm, that are later transported downward through the soil. Some of the plutonia particles become agglomerated with soil particles. Plutonium transport is more significant during winter than during summer because evaporation losses from the soil are less in winter. Aquatic environments are simulated with large aquaria that provide temperature and aeration control. Earlier fuel designs that employed a plutonia-molybdenum cermet showed plutonium release rates of about 10 μCi/m 2 - s, referred to the total surface area of the cermet. Present advanced fuels, employing pure plutonium oxide, show release rates of about 20 nCi/m 2 - s in seawater and about 150 nCi/m 2 - s in freshwater. The temperature of these more advanced heat sources does not seem to affect the release rate in seawater. (auth)

  17. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  18. Fluctuations in Schottky barrier heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1984-01-01

    A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity

  19. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolstad, Frode [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)]. E-mail: frode.kolstad@medisin.ntnu.no; Myhr, Gunnar [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Kvistad, Kjell Arne [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Nygaard, Oystein P. [National Centre of Spinal Disorders, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway); Leivseth, Gunnar [Department of Neuromedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Hospital of Trondheim, 7006 Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-09-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration.

  20. Degeneration and height of cervical discs classified from MRI compared with precise height measurements from radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, Frode; Myhr, Gunnar; Kvistad, Kjell Arne; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Study design: Descriptive study comparing MRI classifications with measurements from radiographs. Objectives: 1.Define the relationship between MRI classified cervical disc degeneration and objectively measured disc height. 2.Assess the level of inter- and intra-observer errors using MRI in defining cervical disc degeneration. Summary of background data: Cervical spine degeneration has been defined radiologically by loss of disc height, decreased disc and bone marrow signal intensity and disc protrusion/herniation on MRI. The intra- and inter-observer error using MRI in defining cervical degeneration influences data interpretation. Few previous studies have addressed this source of error. The relation and time sequence between cervical disc degeneration classified by MRI and cervical disc height decrease measured from radiographs is unclear. Methods: The MRI classification of degeneration was based on nucleus signal, prolaps identification and bone marrow signal. Two neuro-radiologists evaluated the MR-images independently in a blinded fashion. The radiographic disc height measurements were done by a new computer-assisted method compensating for image distortion and permitting comparison with normal level-, age- and gender-appropriate disc height. Results/conclusions: 1.Progressing disc degeneration classified from MRI is on average significantly associated with a decrease of disc height as measured from radiographs. Within each MRI defined category of degeneration measured disc heights, however, scatter in a wide range. 2.The inter-observer agreement between two neuro-radiologists in both defining degeneration and disc height by MRI was only moderate. Studies addressing questions related to cervical disc degeneration should take this into consideration

  1. Line-Interactive Transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a Fuel Cell as the Primary Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iftikhar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents line-interactive transformerless Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS with a fuel cell as the prime energy source. The proposed UPS consists of three major parts (i.e., an output inverter, a unidirectional DC–DC converter, and a battery charger/discharger. Non-isolated topologies of both the unidirectional converter and battery charger/discharger ensure transformerless operation of the UPS system. A new topology of high gain converter is employed for boosting the low voltage of the fuel cell to a higher DC link voltage, with minimum semiconductor count, and high efficiency. A high-gain battery charger/discharger realizes the bidirectional operation between the DC link and the battery bank. Besides, it regulates the DC link voltage during the cold start of fuel cells and keeps the battery bank voltage to only 24 V. A new inverter control scheme is introduced that regulates the output voltage and minimizes the total harmonic distortion for non-linear loading condition. The proposed control scheme integrates proportional-resonant control with slide mode control, which improves the controller’s performance in transient conditions. The proposed UPS system is validated by developing a 1-kVA experimental prototype.

  2. Interactive multicentre teleconferences using open source software in a team of thoracic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Junichi; Katoh, Daishiro; Nishimura, Motohiro; Yanada, Masashi; Okada, Satoru; Ishihara, Shunta; Ichise, Kaori

    2012-12-01

    Real-time consultation between a team of thoracic surgeons is important for the management of difficult cases. We established a system for interactive teleconsultation between multiple sites, based on open-source software. The graphical desktop-sharing system VNC (virtual network computing) was used for remotely controlling another computer. An image-processing package (OsiriX) was installed on the server to share the medical images. We set up a voice communication system using Voice Chatter, a free, cross-platform voice communication application. Four hospitals participated in the trials. One was connected by gigabit ethernet, one by WiMAX and one by ADSL. Surgeons at three of the sites found that it was comfortable to view images and consult with each other using the teleconferencing system. However, it was not comfortable using the client that connected via WiMAX, because of dropped frames. Apart from the WiMAX connection, the VNC-based screen-sharing system transferred the clinical images efficiently and in real time. We found the screen-sharing software VNC to be a good application for medical image interpretation, especially for a team of thoracic surgeons using multislice CT scans.

  3. Interaction with a high-versus low-competence influence source in inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Fabrizio; Caverni, Jean-Paul; Rossi, Sandrine

    2005-04-01

    Literature on inductive reasoning shows that when testing hypotheses, people are biased toward the use of confirmatory strategies (P. C. Wason, 1960). In the present article, the authors presented 2 studies showing how people use confirmation and disconfirmation strategies during actual interaction in problem solving. Study 1 showed that participants were able to learn to use disconfirmation when confronted with a low-competence, nonthreatening partner. When the partner was high in competence (thereby threatening the participant's competence), participants used confirmation, even when the partner used disconfirmation. In Study 2, the authors aimed at generalizing the aforementioned results by exploring the hypothesis that disconfirmation stems from the possibility of diverging from norms. Participants who were confronted with the violation of a conversational norm used a high proportion of disconfirmation, whatever the source of influence. When there was no violation but there was a low-competence partner, the proportion of disconfirmation was high; when there was no violation but there was a high-competence partner, the proportion of disconfirmation was low. The authors discussed the interpersonal functions of confirmation and disconfirmation.

  4. Pulse height model for deuterated scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haitang; Enqvist, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model of light pulse height distribution for finite deuterated scintillation detectors is created using the impulse approximation. Particularly, the energy distribution of a scattered neutron is calculated based on an existing collision probability scheme for general cylindrical shaped detectors considering double differential cross-sections. The light pulse height distribution is analytically and numerically calculated by convoluting collision sequences with the light output function for an EJ-315 detector from our measurements completed at Ohio University. The model provides a good description of collision histories capturing transferred neutron energy in deuterium-based scintillation materials. The resulting light pulse height distribution details pulse compositions and their corresponding contributions. It shows that probabilities of neutron collision with carbon and deuterium nuclei are comparable, however the light pulse amplitude due to collisions with carbon nuclei is small and mainly located at the lower region of the light pulse distribution axis. The model can explore those neutron interaction events that generate pulses near or below a threshold that would be imposed in measurements. A comparison is made between the light pulse height distributions given by the analytical model and measurements. It reveals a significant probability of a neutron generating a small light pulse due to collisions with carbon nuclei when compared to larger light pulse generated by collisions involving deuterium nuclei. This model is beneficial to understand responses of scintillation materials and pulse compositions, as well as nuclei information extraction from recorded pulses.

  5. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Takenobu Michioka; Koichi Sada; Kazuki Okabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking) on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the...

  6. Source Population and Acceleration Location of Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Corotating Interaction Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filwett, R. J.; Desai, M. I. [University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Dayeh, M. A.; Broiles, T. W. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2017-03-20

    We have analyzed the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} suprathermal (ST) heavy ion abundances in 41 corotating interaction regions (CIRs) observed by the Wind spacecraft from 1995 January to 2008 December. Our results are: (1) the CIR Fe/CNO and NeS/CNO ratios vary with the sunspot number, with values being closer to average solar energetic particle event values during solar maxima and lower than nominal solar wind values during solar minima. The physical mechanism responsible for the depleted abundances during solar minimum remains an open question. (2) The Fe/CNO increases with energy in the 6 events that occurred during solar maximum, while no such trends are observed for the 35 events during solar minimum. (3) The Fe/CNO shows no correlation with the average solar wind speed. (4) The Fe/CNO is well correlated with the corresponding upstream ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and not with the solar wind Fe/O measured by ACE in 31 events. Using the correlations between the upstream ∼20–40 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO and the ∼20–320 keV nucleon{sup −1} Fe/CNO in CIRs, we estimate that, on average, the ST particles traveled ∼2 au along the nominal Parker spiral field line, which corresponds to upper limits for the radial distance of the source or acceleration location of ∼1 au beyond Earth orbit. Our results are consistent with those obtained from recent surveys, and confirm that CIR ST heavy ions are accelerated more locally, and are at odds with the traditional viewpoint that CIR ions seen at 1 au are bulk solar wind ions accelerated between 3 and 5 au.

  7. The Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit: challenges and advances : 10 years of open-source development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Marco; Zelzer, Sascha; Seitel, Alexander; Wald, Diana; Müller, Michael; Franz, Alfred M; Maleike, Daniel; Fangerau, Markus; Baumhauer, Matthias; Maier-Hein, Lena; Maier-Hein, Klaus H; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Wolf, Ivo

    2013-07-01

    The Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) has been available as open-source software for almost 10 years now. In this period the requirements of software systems in the medical image processing domain have become increasingly complex. The aim of this paper is to show how MITK evolved into a software system that is able to cover all steps of a clinical workflow including data retrieval, image analysis, diagnosis, treatment planning, intervention support, and treatment control. MITK provides modularization and extensibility on different levels. In addition to the original toolkit, a module system, micro services for small, system-wide features, a service-oriented architecture based on the Open Services Gateway initiative (OSGi) standard, and an extensible and configurable application framework allow MITK to be used, extended and deployed as needed. A refined software process was implemented to deliver high-quality software, ease the fulfillment of regulatory requirements, and enable teamwork in mixed-competence teams. MITK has been applied by a worldwide community and integrated into a variety of solutions, either at the toolkit level or as an application framework with custom extensions. The MITK Workbench has been released as a highly extensible and customizable end-user application. Optional support for tool tracking, image-guided therapy, diffusion imaging as well as various external packages (e.g. CTK, DCMTK, OpenCV, SOFA, Python) is available. MITK has also been used in several FDA/CE-certified applications, which demonstrates the high-quality software and rigorous development process. MITK provides a versatile platform with a high degree of modularization and interoperability and is well suited to meet the challenging tasks of today's and tomorrow's clinically motivated research.

  8. Sensor Interaction as a Source of the Electromagnetic Field Measurement Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartansky R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analytical calculation and numerical simulation of interactive influence of electromagnetic sensors. Sensors are components of field probe, whereby their interactive influence causes the measuring error. Electromagnetic field probe contains three mutually perpendicular spaced sensors in order to measure the vector of electrical field. Error of sensors is enumerated with dependence on interactive position of sensors. Based on that, proposed were recommendations for electromagnetic field probe construction to minimize the sensor interaction and measuring error.

  9. Mexico Geoid Heights (MEXICO97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Mexico, and North-Central America, is the MEXICO97 geoid model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine gravity...

  10. Alaska Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' x 4' geoid height grid for Alaska is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 1.1 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the...

  11. Common sources of bias in gene-lifestyle interaction studies of cardiometabolic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2013-01-01

    The role of gene x lifestyle interactions in the development of cardiometabolic diseases is often highlighted, but very few robustly replicated examples of interactions exist in the literature. The slow pace of discoveries may largely be due to interaction effects being generally small in magnitude...

  12. Classification of light sources and their interaction with active and passive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G. S.; Faez, Sanli; Lagendijk, Ad

    2011-03-01

    Emission from a molecular light source depends on its optical and chemical environment. This dependence is different for various sources. We present a general classification in terms of constant-amplitude and constant-power sources. Using this classification, we have described the response to both changes in the local density of states and stimulated emission. The unforeseen consequences of this classification are illustrated for photonic studies by random laser experiments and are in good agreement with our correspondingly developed theory. Our results require a revision of studies on sources in complex media.

  13. Classification of light sources and their interaction with active and passive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dardiry, Ramy G. S.; Faez, Sanli; Lagendijk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    Emission from a molecular light source depends on its optical and chemical environment. This dependence is different for various sources. We present a general classification in terms of constant-amplitude and constant-power sources. Using this classification, we have described the response to both changes in the local density of states and stimulated emission. The unforeseen consequences of this classification are illustrated for photonic studies by random laser experiments and are in good agreement with our correspondingly developed theory. Our results require a revision of studies on sources in complex media.

  14. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Michioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  15. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  16. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  17. The Visual Code Navigator : An Interactive Toolset for Source Code Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommerse, Gerard; Nossin, Freek; Voinea, Lucian; Telea, Alexandru

    2005-01-01

    We present the Visual Code Navigator, a set of three interrelated visual tools that we developed for exploring large source code software projects from three different perspectives, or views: The syntactic view shows the syntactic constructs in the source code. The symbol view shows the objects a

  18. What's your favorite blend? Analyzing source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, over a million businesses regularly have to deal with complex matters imposed by the government (e.g., managing tax problems). To solve their problems, businesses have various potential sources to consult (e.g., Tax Office, advisor, friends/family). The myriad sources can be

  19. Source and Channel Choices in Business-to-Government Service Interactions: A Vignette Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem Jan; Arendsen, R.; de Groot, Manon; Janssen, Marijn; Scholl, Hans Jochen; Wimmer, Maria A.; Bannister, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To deal with tax matters, businesses have various potential sources (e.g., Tax Office, advisor, industry organization, friends/family) in their environment. Those sources can be coupled with an increasingly wide variety of channels (e.g., telephone, face-to-face, website, e-mail) through which

  20. Aging affects the interaction between attentional control and source memory: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-12-01

    Age-related source memory impairments may be due, at least in part, to deficits in executive processes mediated by the PFC at both study and test. Behavioral work suggests that providing environmental support at encoding, such as directing attention toward item-source associations, may improve source memory and reduce age-related deficits in the recruitment of these executive processes. The present fMRI study investigated the effects of directed attention and aging on source memory encoding and retrieval. At study, participants were shown pictures of objects. They were either asked to attend to the objects and their color (source) or to their size. At test, participants determined if objects were seen before, and if so, whether they were the same color as previously. Behavioral results showed that direction of attention improved source memory for both groups; however, age-related deficits persisted. fMRI results revealed that, across groups, direction of attention facilitated medial temporal lobe-mediated contextual binding processes during study and attenuated right PFC postretrieval monitoring effects at test. However, persistent age-related source memory deficits may be related to increased recruitment of medial anterior PFC during encoding, indicative of self-referential processing, as well as underrecruitment of lateral anterior PFC-mediated relational processes. Taken together, this study suggests that, even when supported, older adults may fail to selectively encode goal-relevant contextual details supporting source memory performance.

  1. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  2. Research on the Operation Mode of Intelligent-town Energy Internet Based on Source-Load Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Li, Wen; Miao, Bo; Li, Bin; Liu, Chang; Lv, Zhipeng

    2018-01-01

    On the background of the rise of intelligence and the increasing deepening of “Internet +”application, the energy internet has become the focus of the energy research field. This paper, based on the fundamental understanding on the energy internet of the intelligent town, discusses the mode of energy supply in the source-load interactive region, and gives an in-depth study on the output characteristics of the energy supply side and the load characteristics of the demand side, so as to derive the law of energy-load interaction of the intelligent-town energy internet.

  3. Preliminary design and optimization of a G-band extended interaction oscillator based on a pseudospark-sourced electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Y., E-mail: yong.yin@strath.ac.uk, E-mail: yinyong@uestc.edu.cn [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); He, W.; Zhang, L.; Yin, H.; Cross, A. W. [Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    The design and simulation of a G-band extended interaction oscillator (EIO) driven by a pseudospark-sourced electron beam is presented. The characteristic of the EIO and the pseudospark-based electron beam were studied to enhance the performance of the newly proposed device. The beam-wave interaction of the EIO can be optimized by choosing a suitable pseudospark discharging voltage and by widening the operating voltage region of the EIO circuit. Simulation results show that a peak power of over 240 W can be achieved at G-band using a pseudospark discharge voltage of 41 kV.

  4. Characterization of the plasma-switch interaction in the LBL HIF ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewett, D.W.; Rutkowski, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new way to characterize the performance of the LBL HIF ion source has been found. In the LBL source, ions are drawn from an arc-generated plasma reservoir in which the electrons are confined by a negative-biased ''switch'' mesh. Stagnation of the plasma is prevented by absorption of the excess ion flow on this mesh. The ion beam is generated by an external negative voltage that provides Child-Langmuir extraction of the ions through the switch mesh. We elucidate the physics requirements of the source and deduce switch mesh parameters needed for successful operation. 2 refs., 2 figs

  5. Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Veira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires represent a major source for aerosols impacting atmospheric radiation, atmospheric chemistry and cloud micro-physical properties. Previous case studies indicated that the height of the aerosol–radiation interaction may crucially affect atmospheric radiation, but the sensitivity to emission heights has been examined with only a few models and is still uncertain. In this study we use the general circulation model ECHAM6 extended by the aerosol module HAM2 to investigate the impact of wildfire emission heights on atmospheric long-range transport, black carbon (BC concentrations and atmospheric radiation. We simulate the wildfire aerosol release using either various versions of a semi-empirical plume height parametrization or prescribed standard emission heights in ECHAM6-HAM2. Extreme scenarios of near-surface or free-tropospheric-only injections provide lower and upper constraints on the emission height climate impact. We find relative changes in mean global atmospheric BC burden of up to 7.9±4.4 % caused by average changes in emission heights of 1.5–3.5 km. Regionally, changes in BC burden exceed 30–40 % in the major biomass burning regions. The model evaluation of aerosol optical thickness (AOT against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP observations indicates that the implementation of a plume height parametrization slightly reduces the ECHAM6-HAM2 biases regionally, but on the global scale these improvements in model performance are small. For prescribed emission release at the surface, wildfire emissions entail a total sky top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing (RF of −0.16±0.06 W m−2. The application of a plume height parametrization which agrees reasonably well with observations introduces a slightly stronger negative TOA RF of −0.20±0.07 W m−2. The standard ECHAM6-HAM2 model in which 25 % of the

  6. Food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Flores, Rocío Vianey; Aguirre, Armando; Anjos, Diego V.; Neves, Frederico S.; Campos, Ricardo I.; Dáttilo, Wesley

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we conducted a series of experiments in a population of Vachellia constricta (Fabaceae) in the arid Tehuacan-Cuicatláan valley, Mexico, in order to evaluate if the food source quality and ant dominance hierarchy influence the outcomes of ant-plant interactions. Using an experiment with artificial nectaries, we observed that ants foraging on food sources with higher concentration of sugar are quicker in finding and attacking potential herbivorous insects. More specifically, we found that the same ant species may increase their defence effectiveness according to the quality of food available. These findings indicate that ant effectiveness in plant protection is context-dependent and may vary according to specific individual characteristics of plants. In addition, we showed that competitively superior ant species tend to dominate plants in periods with high nectar activity, emphasizing the role of the dominance hierarchy structuring ant-plant interactions. However, when high sugar food sources were experimentally available ad libitum, the nocturnal and competitively superior ant species, Camponotus atriceps, did not dominate the artificial nectaries during the day possibly due to limitation of its thermal tolerance. Therefore, temporal niche partitioning may be allowing the coexistence of two dominant ant species (Camponotus rubritorax during the day and C. atriceps at night) on V. constricta. Our findings indicate that the quality of the food source, and temporal shifts in ant dominance are key factors which structure the biotic plant defences in an arid environment.

  7. Global existence and nonexistence for the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary damping-source interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.

  8. Ultra-short X-ray sources generated through laser-matter interaction and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, A.

    2004-04-01

    This work is dedicated to the sources of ultra-short X-rays. The K α source, the non-linear Thomson source, the betatron source and the X-γ source are presented. We show that a pump-probe experiment where the pump is a laser excitation and the probe is the X-K α ultra-short radiation, can be used to study the dynamics of material structure with a time resolution of 100 femtosecond. We describe 2 applications that have been achieved in the field of solid physics by using the diffraction technique with a time resolution in the range of the femtosecond. The first application has permitted the observation and characterization of the ultra-quick solid-phase transition that occurs on the surface of a semiconductor crystal. The second experiment deals with the role of optical phonons in the antecedent processes that lead to such ultra-quick solid-phase transitions. (A.C.)

  9. Congo Basin precipitation: Assessing seasonality, regional interactions, and sources of moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ellen L. E.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Nusbaumer, Jesse; Li, Harry; Collins, Owen; Vettoretti, Guido; Noone, David

    2017-07-01

    Precipitation in the Congo Basin was examined using a version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM) with water tagging capability. Using regionally defined water tracers, or tags, the moisture contribution from different source regions to Congo Basin precipitation was investigated. We found that the Indian Ocean and evaporation from the Congo Basin were the dominant moisture sources and that the Atlantic Ocean was a comparatively small source of moisture. In both rainy seasons the southwestern Indian Ocean contributed about 21% of the moisture, while the recycling ratio for moisture from the Congo Basin was about 25%. Near the surface, a great deal of moisture is transported from the Atlantic into the Congo Basin, but much of this moisture is recirculated back over the Atlantic in the lower troposphere. Although the southwestern Indian Ocean is a major source of Indian Ocean moisture, it is not associated with the bulk of the variability in precipitation over the Congo Basin. In wet years, more of the precipitation in the Congo Basin is derived from Indian Ocean moisture, but the spatial distribution of the dominant sources is shifted, reflecting changes in the midtropospheric circulation over the Indian Ocean. During wet years there is increased transport of moisture from the equatorial and eastern Indian Ocean. Our results suggest that reliably capturing the linkages between the large-scale circulation patterns over the Indian Ocean and the local circulation over the Congo Basin is critical for future projections of Congo Basin precipitation.

  10. Global existence and nonexistence for the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary damping-source interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Said-Houari, Belkacem; Nascimento, Flá vio A Falcã o

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study a model of the viscoelastic wave equation with nonlinear boundary/interior sources and a nonlinear interior damping. First, applying the Faedo-Galerkin approximations combined with the compactness method to obtain existence of regular global solutions to an auxiliary problem with globally Lipschitz source terms and with initial data in the potential well. It is important to emphasize that it is not possible to consider density arguments to pass from regular to weak solutions if one considers regular solutions of our problem where the source terms are locally Lipschitz functions. To overcome this difficulty, we use an approximation method involving truncated sources and adapting the ideas in [13] to show that the existence of weak solutions can still be obtained for our problem. Second, we show that under some restrictions on the initial data and if the interior source dominates the interior damping term, then the solution ceases to exist and blows up in finite time provided that the initial data are large enough.

  11. Studies of the relativistic electron source and related phenomena in Petawatt Laser matter interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Campbell, E.M.; Cowan, T.E.; Hatchett, S.P.; Henry, E.A.; Koch, J.A.; Landgon, A.B.; Lasinski, B.F.; Lee, R.W.; MacKinnon, A.; Offenberger, A.; Pennington, D.M.; Perry, M.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Yasuike, K.; Snavely, R.; Roth, M.; Phillips, T.W.; Stoyer, M.A.; Wilks, S.C.; Singh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of laser radiation with solid targets at 1 petawatt power and intensity up to 3x10 20 Wcm -2 has been studied with emphasis on relativistic electrons and high energy ions. Secondary effects including Bremsstrahlung radiation, nuclear interactions and heating have been characterized. A collimated beam of protons with up to 55 MeV energy is emitted normal to the rear surface of thin targets and its characteristics and origin are discussed. The significance of the data for radiography, fast ignition and proton beam applications is summarized

  12. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight...... are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator....

  13. Re-sourcing teacher work and interaction : new perspectives on resource design, use and teacher collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepin, B.; Gueudet, G.; Trouche, L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the theme of mathematics teachers’ work and interactions with resources, taking a particular perspective, the so-called ‘collective perspective’ on resources, their use and transformation. The review is presented under three headings: (1) theoretical frameworks

  14. Uses and Gratifications of Online Information Sources: Political Information Efficacy and the Effects of Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, David Lynn

    2011-01-01

    There are two distinct purposes to this investigation: to develop the predictive power of the theory of political information efficacy and to determine how exposure to political information formats on the Internet under distinctly different interactive conditions affects cognitive and affective processes. Examined in the first section of this…

  15. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on

  16. Heritability of adult body height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Sammalisto, Sampo; Perola, Markus

    2003-01-01

    /unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well...... countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes...... or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only...

  17. Interacting two-level defects as sources of fluctuating high-frequency noise in superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Clemens [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Lisenfeld, Juergen [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theory der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); LD Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Poletto, Stefano [IBM TJ Watson Research Centre, Yorktown Heights (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Since the very first experiments, superconducting circuits have suffered from strong coupling to environmental noise, destroying quantum coherence and degrading performance. In state-of-the-art experiments, it is found that the relaxation time of superconducting qubits fluctuates as a function of time. We present measurements of such fluctuations in a 3D-transmon circuit and develop a qualitative model based on interactions within a bath of background two-level systems (TLS) which emerge from defects in the device material. In our model, the time-dependent noise density acting on the qubit emerges from its near-resonant coupling to high-frequency TLS which experience energy fluctuations due to their interaction with thermally fluctuating TLS at low frequencies. We support the model by providing experimental evidence of such energy fluctuations observed in a single TLS in a phase qubit circuit.

  18. Carbon Rod Radiant Source for Blast/Fire Interaction Experiments: Proof of Concept and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-30

    traction motors , such as are used by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory for unique pulse powered fields/beams, and a powerful low cost homopolar generator...tapping a high voltage AC transmission line (those used in the electroplating industry appear to have the right specifications), and homopolar -type...flywheel) generators. The AC rectification to DC was eliminated due to the very limited peak power available at Camp Parks. The one homopolar power source

  19. Characteristics of emulsion chamber family events produced at low heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, G.; Jing, C.; Zhu, Q.; Ding, L.

    1985-01-01

    The uncertainty of primary cosmic ray composition at 10 to the 14th power -10 to the 16th power eV is well known making the study of nuclear interaction mechanisms more difficult. Experimentally if one can identify effectively the family events produced at low heights, then an induced by primary protons might be separated. In this paper an attempt is made to simulate a family of events under the conditions of a mountain emulsion chamber experiments using a reasonable model. The aim is to search for the dependence of some experimentally observable quantities on the interaction height

  20. Non double couple seismic sources, faults interaction and hypothesis of self-organized criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yunga

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Non double couple (NDC sources are considered in framework of the hypothesis that the process of seismic rupture can be viewed as a result of complicated fault geometry and its segmentation. Analytical approach is found to reveal reliability of NDC measure taking into consideration the values of seismic moment tensor errors. The study focuses on the comparison of the deformation modes of the NDC sources with the stress states in its vicinity. The deformation modes of faulting and fracturing at a small scale in NDC earthquake focus and at regional scale in geological unit were investigated using at the last case summation of seismic moment tensors. These local and regional deformation modes in some of geodynamic regimes confirm the self-similarity assumption. For the whole data set scaling relations seem to be more complicated. This feature implies that besides stresses second order factors, as the hydrothermal or magmatic pore fluids in rock, influence source characteristics and bring new complications in scaling relations.

  1. Laser Giant Ion Source and the Prepulse Effects for Picosecond Interaction for High Gain Laser Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.P.; Hoepfl, R.; Jungwirth, K.; Ullschmied, J.; Kralikova, B.; Krasa, J.; Laska, L.; Pfeifer, M.; Rohlena, K.; Skala, J.; Perina, V.

    2003-01-01

    By studying laser driven ion sources which produce giant ion emission current densities exceeding the few mA/cm2 of classical ion sources (MEVVA or ECR) by more than six orders of magnitude, we unexpectedly measured an anomalous low ion energy with ps laser pulses.The emission is basically different from that with the fastest ion energies in the MeV to GeV range due to relativistic self focusing and from the second fastest ion group due to quiver-thermalization processes. We report on specifically designed experiments with gold targets where 0.5 ns laser pulses produce MeV Au-ions in accordance with relativistic self focusing in strong contrast to ps pulses where a 400 times higher intensity from TW pulses is needed to arrive at the same ion energies. These can be explained by a basically new model without self-focusing as a skin layer effect where the absence of a prepulse is essential. This has consequences for the application of laser driven ion sources and may improve the hitherto highest published laser fusion gains with 50 TW-ps laser pulses without the usual spherical precompression

  2. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  3. Small scale currents and ocean wave heights: from today's models to future satellite observations with CFOSAT and SKIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Gille, Sarah; Menemenlis, Dimitris; Rocha, Cesar; Rascle, Nicolas; Gula, Jonathan; Chapron, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    Tidal currents and large oceanic currents, such as the Agulhas, Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, are known to modify ocean wave properties, causing extreme sea states that are a hazard to navigation. Recent advances in the understanding and modeling capability of ocean currents at scales of 10 km or less have revealed the ubiquitous presence of fronts and filaments. Based on realistic numerical models, we show that these structures can be the main source of variability in significant wave heights at scales less than 200 km, including important variations at 10 km. This current-induced variability creates gradients in wave heights that were previously overlooked and are relevant for extreme wave heights and remote sensing. The spectrum of significant wave heights is found to be of the order of 70⟨Hs ⟩2/(g2⟨Tm0,-1⟩2) times the current spectrum, where ⟨Hs ⟩ is the spatially-averaged significant wave height, ⟨Tm0,-1⟩ is the average energy period, and g is the gravity acceleration. This small scale variability is consistent with Jason-3 and SARAL along-track variability. We will discuss how future satellite mission with wave spectrometers can help observe these wave-current interactions. CFOSAT is due for launch in 2018, and SKIM is a proposal for ESA Earth Explorer 9.

  4. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Sáez

    Full Text Available Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus. We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  5. Interactive effects of large- and small-scale sources of feral honey-bees for sunflower in the Argentine Pampas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, Agustín; Sabatino, Malena; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Pollinators for animal pollinated crops can be provided by natural and semi-natural habitats, ranging from large vegetation remnants to small areas of non-crop land in an otherwise highly modified landscape. It is unknown, however, how different small- and large-scale habitat patches interact as pollinator sources. In the intensively managed Argentine Pampas, we studied the additive and interactive effects of large expanses (up to 2200 ha) of natural habitat, represented by untilled isolated "sierras", and narrow (3-7 m wide) strips of semi-natural habitat, represented by field margins, as pollinator sources for sunflower (Helianthus annus). We estimated visitation rates by feral honey-bees, Apis mellifera, and native flower visitors (as a group) at 1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 m from a field margin in 17 sunflower fields 0-10 km distant from the nearest sierra. Honey-bees dominated the pollinator assemblage accounting for >90% of all visits to sunflower inflorescences. Honey-bee visitation was strongly affected by proximity to the sierras decreasing by about 70% in the most isolated fields. There was also a decline in honey-bee visitation with distance from the field margin, which was apparent with increasing field isolation, but undetected in fields nearby large expanses of natural habitat. The probability of observing a native visitor decreased with isolation from the sierras, but in other respects visitation by flower visitors other than honey-bees was mostly unaffected by the habitat factors assessed in this study. Overall, we found strong hierarchical and interactive effects between the study large and small-scale pollinator sources. These results emphasize the importance of preserving natural habitats and managing actively field verges in the absence of large remnants of natural habitat for improving pollinator services.

  6. Coupling individual kernel-filling processes with source-sink interactions into GREENLAB-Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuntao; Chen, Youjia; Zhu, Jinyu; Meng, Lei; Guo, Yan; Li, Baoguo; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2018-02-13

    Failure to account for the variation of kernel growth in a cereal crop simulation model may cause serious deviations in the estimates of crop yield. The goal of this research was to revise the GREENLAB-Maize model to incorporate source- and sink-limited allocation approaches to simulate the dry matter accumulation of individual kernels of an ear (GREENLAB-Maize-Kernel). The model used potential individual kernel growth rates to characterize the individual potential sink demand. The remobilization of non-structural carbohydrates from reserve organs to kernels was also incorporated. Two years of field experiments were conducted to determine the model parameter values and to evaluate the model using two maize hybrids with different plant densities and pollination treatments. Detailed observations were made on the dimensions and dry weights of individual kernels and other above-ground plant organs throughout the seasons. Three basic traits characterizing an individual kernel were compared on simulated and measured individual kernels: (1) final kernel size; (2) kernel growth rate; and (3) duration of kernel filling. Simulations of individual kernel growth closely corresponded to experimental data. The model was able to reproduce the observed dry weight of plant organs well. Then, the source-sink dynamics and the remobilization of carbohydrates for kernel growth were quantified to show that remobilization processes accompanied source-sink dynamics during the kernel-filling process. We conclude that the model may be used to explore options for optimizing plant kernel yield by matching maize management to the environment, taking into account responses at the level of individual kernels. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Consideration of external hazards and multi-source interactions in the USNRC's site level 3 PSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Stutzke, M.; Drouin, M.; Tobin, K.; Coyne, K.; Kuritzky, A.

    2014-01-01

    U.S.NRC launched a project in September 2011 to evaluate the total risk at a selected reference NPP (the Vogtle plant) according to the entire initiators, including external hazards. The scope of this risk evaluation was given as 'reactor in all operational modes, including full power, low power and shutdown modes, spent fuel pool and dry cask storage, where all the internal and external hazards are considered'. As part of this study, an Integrated Site Risk Analysis (ISRA) addressing the combinations of and interactions between the different sources of radiological risk (reactors, spent fuel pool (SFP), dry casks) is underway. A number of modeling and implementation challenges were identified. The former include the problem of combinatorial explosion associated with the need to treat multiple sources over extended periods of time

  8. Nitrogen uptake by wheat seedlings, interactive effects of four nitrogen sources: NO3-, NO2-, NH4+, and urea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criddle, R. S.; Ward, M. R.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    The net influx (uptake) rates of NO3-, NH4+, NO2-, and urea into roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Yecora Rojo) seedlings from complete nutrient solutions containing all four compounds were monitored simultaneously. Although urea uptake was too slow to monitor, its presence had major inhibitory effects on the uptake of each of the other compounds. Rates of NO3-, NH4+, and NO2- uptake depended in a complex fashion on the concentration of all four N compounds. Equations were developed which describe the uptake rates of each of the compounds, and of total N, as functions of concentrations of all N sources. Contour plots of the results show the interactions over the range of concentrations employed. The coefficients of these equations provide quantitative values for evaluating primary and interactive effects of each compound on N uptake.

  9. THERMODYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE PRIMARY PROTON BEAM WITH A MERCURY JET TARGET AT A NEUTRINO FACTORY SOURCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMOS, N.; LUDEWIG, H.; KIRK, H.; THIEBERGER, P.; MCDONALD, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the thermodynamic interaction of an intense proton beam with the proposed mercury jet target at a neutrino factory or muon collider source, and the consequences of the generated pressure waves on the target integrity. Specifically, a 24 GeV proton beam with approximately 1.6e13 protons per pulse and a pulse length of 2 nanosec will interact with a 1 cm diameter mercury jet within a 20 Tesla magnetic field. In one option, a train of six such proton pulses is to be delivered on target within 2 microsec, in which case the state of the mercury jet following the interaction with each pulse is critical. Using the equation of state for mercury from the SESAME library, in combination with the energy deposition rates calculated the by the hadron interaction code MARS, the induced 3-D pressure field in the target is estimated. The consequent pressure wave propagation and attenuation in the mercury jet is calculated using an ANSYS code transient analysis, and the state of the mercury jet at the time of arrival of the subsequent pulse is assessed. The amplitude of the pressure wave reaching the nozzle that ejects the mercury jet into the magnetic field is estimated and the potential for mechanical damage is addressed

  10. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  11. Sources, potentials and fields in Lorenz and Coulomb gauge: Cancellation of instantaneous interactions for moving point charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wundt, B.J.; Jentschura, U.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the coupling of the electromagnetic sources (charge and current densities) to the scalar and vector potentials in classical electrodynamics, using Green function techniques. As is well known, the scalar potential shows an action-at-a-distance behavior in Coulomb gauge. The conundrum generated by the instantaneous interaction has intrigued physicists for a long time. Starting from the differential equations that couple the sources to the potentials, we here show in a concise derivation, using the retarded Green function, how the instantaneous interaction cancels in the calculation of the electric field. The time derivative of a specific additional term in the vector potential, present only in Coulomb gauge, yields a supplementary contribution to the electric field which cancels the gradient of the instantaneous Coulomb gauge scalar potential, as required by gauge invariance. This completely eliminates the contribution of the instantaneous interaction from the electric field. It turns out that a careful formulation of the retarded Green function, inspired by field theory, is required in order to correctly treat boundary terms in partial integrations. Finally, compact integral representations are derived for the Liénard–Wiechert potentials (scalar and vector) in Coulomb gauge which manifestly contain two compensating action-at-a-distance terms. - Highlights: ► We investigate action-at-a-distance effects in electrodynamics in detail. ► We calculate the instantaneous interactions for scalar and vector potentials. ► The cancellation mechanism involves the retarded Green function. ► The mechanism is confirmed on the example of moving point charges. ► The Green function has to be treated with care for nontrivial boundary terms.

  12. Interaction between the physical forms of starter and forage source on growth performance and blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi-Mirzaei, H; Azarfar, A; Kiani, A; Mirzaei, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the physical forms of starter and forage sources on feed intake, growth performance, rumen pH, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Forty male Holstein calves (41.3 ± 3.5 kg of body weight) were used (n = 10 calves per treatment) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with the factors being physical forms of starter (coarse mash and texturized) and forage source [alfalfa hay (AH) and wheat straw (WS)]. Individually housed calves were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments, including (1) coarsely mashed (CM; coarse ground grains combined with a mash supplement) starter feed with AH (CM-AH), (2) coarsely mashed starter feed with WS (CM-WS), (3) texturized feed starter (TF; includes steam-flaked corn, steam-rolled barley combined with a pelleted supplement) with AH (TF-AH), and (4) TF with WS (TF-WS). Both starters had the same ingredients and nutrient compositions but differed in their physical forms. Calves were weaned on d 56 and remained in the study until d 70. All calves had free access to drinking water and the starter feeding at all times. No interaction was detected between the physical forms of starter feeds and forage source concerning starter intake, dry matter intake, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, average daily gain (ADG)/ME intake, ADG, and feed efficiency (FE). The preweaning and overall starter feed intake, dry matter intake, and ME intake were greater for calves fed TF starter diets than those fed CM starter diets. The ADG/ME intake was greater for calves fed TF starter diets than that fed CM starter. The FE was greater for calves fed TF starter diets compared with those fed CM starter during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. The WS improved FE during the postweaning period compared with AH. The physical form of starter, forage source, and their interaction did not affect plasma glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipoprotein

  13. Bragging on Facebook: The Interaction of Content Source and Focus in Online Impression Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Graham G; Ravenscroft, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    Warranting Theory proposes that third-party testimonials are more influential in online impression formation than target-authored statements. Individuals posting content on social media accurately convey their offline personality while endeavoring to present themselves in a positive light. In doing so, they may misjudge the psychological distance of the majority of viewers, who could view this positive self-presentation as bragging and form resultant negative impressions. In this study, we asked 136 participants to view the Facebook timelines of four female targets. Timeline content varied by source (owner- vs. friend-authored) and focus (generally positive vs. personally positive). Participants were tasked with forming impressions of targets and rating them based on attractiveness, confidence, modesty, and popularity. We found that source and focus played distinct roles in impression formation. More positive impressions were formed when owner-authored content was general, and when friend-authored content was personal. This highlights the role played by content focus in impression formation, and the potentially damaging effect of perceived bragging. These results are discussed in relation to the application of the Warranting Theory of impression formation online, and discrepancies between these results and those from related articles are examined.

  14. Renewable energy sources in European energy supply and interactions with emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moest, Dominik; Fichtner, Wolf

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based approach, which allows to determine the optimised structure and operation of the EU-15 electricity supply under different political and economic framework conditions, with a focus on the integration of renewable energy sources for electricity generation (RES-E) in the EU-15 countries. The approach is designed to take into account the characteristics of power production from both renewable and conventional sources, including the technological and economic characteristics of existing plants as well as those of future capacity expansion options. Beyond that, fuel supply structures are modelled, as well as the international markets for power and CO 2 -certificates with their restrictions. Thus, a profound evaluation of the exploitation of mid-term renewable potentials and an assessment of the market penetration of the various renewable power generation technologies under the (normative) premise of a cost-optimised evolution of the power system becomes possible. Results show that a promotion of renewable energies reduces the scarcity of CO 2 -emission allowances and thus lowers marginal costs of CO 2 reduction up to 30% in 2030. Despite the higher overall costs, a diversification of the energy resource base by RES-E use is observed, as primarily natural gas and nuclear fuels are replaced.

  15. Encounter Probability of Individual Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1998-01-01

    wave height corresponding to a certain exceedence probability within a structure lifetime (encounter probability), based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme significant wave height. Then the design individual wave height is calculated as the expected maximum individual wave height...... associated with the design significant wave height, with the assumption that the individual wave heights follow the Rayleigh distribution. However, the exceedence probability of such a design individual wave height within the structure lifetime is unknown. The paper presents a method for the determination...... of the design individual wave height corresponding to an exceedence probability within the structure lifetime, given the long-term extreme significant wave height. The method can also be applied for estimation of the number of relatively large waves for fatigue analysis of constructions....

  16. Eternal triangle: the interaction of light source, electrical control gear, and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    S'heeren, Griet

    1998-04-01

    In this particular 'affair' the participants are less than human but have individual personalities they bring to their relationship with each other. High pressure metal halide lamps such as BriteArc lamps have the highest luminance and radiance of all continuously operating practical light source. Since these lamps have short arcs and are available in power ratings from about 30W to 30kW they have found applications with various optical systems. Besides the lamps, such systems include an electrical control device and an optical system. To fulfil the user's requirements for a specific application, it is not only important to choose the right lamp, but crucial to achieve a harmonious marriage between the light source, electrical control device and the optics. To run a high pressure discharge lamp an ignitor/ballast system is essential This stabilizes the lamp parameters. The chemical components inside the lamp determine the lamp voltage and the gear determines, via the current, the lamp power. These are directly related in the luminance and color temperature of the emitted light. Therefore lamp performance and effective life are dependent on the ignitor, control gear and lamp combination. Since the lamp emits radiation in all directions, collection of the light from a lamp can be improved by using reflectors to deliver the light into a lens system. Since lamps with short arc gaps approach a point source they appear ideal for optical system applications. The shape of the reflector and the focusing of the lamp determine which part of the light is collected out of the light-arc. In the case of an LCD projector, the final light output also depends on the transmission characteristics of the LCD panels. Their nonlinearity causes the color of the emitted light to be different from the lamp color. All these parameters have to be optimized to obtain the highest performance. This leads to the conclusion that a carefully matched combination of lamp, ignitor/ballast and optics

  17. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  18. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  19. On the Predictability of Hub Height Winds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draxl, Caroline

    Wind energy is a major source of power in over 70 countries across the world, and the worldwide share of wind energy in electricity consumption is growing. The introduction of signicant amounts of wind energy into power systems makes accurate wind forecasting a crucial element of modern electrical...... grids. These systems require forecasts with temporal scales of tens of minutes to a few days in advance at wind farm locations. Traditionally these forecasts predict the wind at turbine hub heights; this information is then converted by transmission system operators and energy companies into predictions...... of power output at wind farms. Since the power available in the wind is proportional to the wind speed cubed, even small wind forecast errors result in large power prediction errors. Accurate wind forecasts are worth billions of dollars annually; forecast improvements will result in reduced costs...

  20. Model of a source-driven plasma interacting with a wall in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahedo, E.; Carralero, D.

    2009-01-01

    A fluid model of a magnetized source-driven plasma is discussed for regimes with (Debye length)<<(ion Larmor radius)<<(plasma size and collisional mean-free path). Plasma collection by the wall is determined in terms of angle of incidence, magnetic strength, and plasma collisionality. For nonparallel incidence, a three-scale asymptotic analysis reveals a three-region matched structure consisting of a magnetically aligned bulk region, the Chodura layer, and the Debye sheath. Sonic Chodura and Bohm conditions define the singular region transitions. For near-parallel incidence, a separate analysis demonstrates the presence of a diffusive-collisional bulk region followed by a thin collisionless layer, which differs partially from the Chodura layer. A parametric analysis unveils the presence of four regimes depending on plasma collisionality: (1) a collisionless regime, with the magnetically channeled bulk region governed by plasma production; (2) a resistive semicollisional regime, where collisions retard the plasma transport in the bulk region; (3) a diffusive semicollisional regime, where the ExB drift dominates the ion flux in the bulk region; and (4) a collisional regime, where collisions cancel out magnetic effects. At grazing incidence, plasma collection is found to vary nonmonotonically with plasma collisionality. Nonzero Debye-length effects are discussed briefly.

  1. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are processed as subjective experiences and reflected in the interrelational space created in narrative interviews with trainee social educators. By using a combination of interactionist theory and psychosocial theory in the analysis of an interview with a student of social education, I demonstrate how the often conflicting demands and expectations are being played out in the interrelational tension between the researcher (myself and the interviewee or narrator. In a confrontation with “inner” expectations and concerns regarding a future profession and one’s ability to cope, and the “outer” socially and culturally embedded discourses as they are played out in the objectives of self-development and education, the narrative about a forthcoming internship is filled with tension and contradiction. In this article I will demonstrate how such tensions and contradictions are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator.

  2. Baseliner: An open-source, interactive tool for processing sap flux data from thermal dissipation probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christopher Oishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating transpiration from woody plants using thermal dissipation sap flux sensors requires careful data processing. Currently, researchers accomplish this using spreadsheets, or by personally writing scripts for statistical software programs (e.g., R, SAS. We developed the Baseliner software to help establish a standardized protocol for processing sap flux data. Baseliner enables users to QA/QC data and process data using a combination of automated steps, visualization, and manual editing. Data processing requires establishing a zero-flow reference value, or “baseline”, which varies among sensors and with time. Since no set of algorithms currently exists to reliably QA/QC and estimate the zero-flow baseline, Baseliner provides a graphical user interface to allow visual inspection and manipulation of data. Data are first automatically processed using a set of user defined parameters. The user can then view the data for additional, manual QA/QC and baseline identification using mouse and keyboard commands. The open-source software allows for user customization of data processing algorithms as improved methods are developed.

  3. D Web Visualization of Environmental Information - Integration of Heterogeneous Data Sources when Providing Navigation and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, L.; Řezník, T.

    2015-08-01

    3D information is essential for a number of applications used daily in various domains such as crisis management, energy management, urban planning, and cultural heritage, as well as pollution and noise mapping, etc. This paper is devoted to the issue of 3D modelling from the levels of buildings to cities. The theoretical sections comprise an analysis of cartographic principles for the 3D visualization of spatial data as well as a review of technologies and data formats used in the visualization of 3D models. Emphasis was placed on the verification of available web technologies; for example, X3DOM library was chosen for the implementation of a proof-of-concept web application. The created web application displays a 3D model of the city district of Nový Lískovec in Brno, the Czech Republic. The developed 3D visualization shows a terrain model, 3D buildings, noise pollution, and other related information. Attention was paid to the areas important for handling heterogeneous input data, the design of interactive functionality, and navigation assistants. The advantages, limitations, and future development of the proposed concept are discussed in the conclusions.

  4. Deuteron beam interaction with lithium jet in a neutron source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium-lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (≥14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d,n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities. (orig.)

  5. Deuteron beam interaction with Li jet for a neutron source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1995-09-01

    Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium-lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (>14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d,n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities

  6. Compact X-ray sources. Simulating the electron/strong laser interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartin, Anthony [DESY, CFEL, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The collision of an intense laser with an electron bunch can be used to produce X-rays via the inverse Compton scattering (ICS) mechanism. The ICS can be simulated via either a classical theory in which electrons and photons are treated in terms of classical electromagnetic waves - or a quantum theory in which charged particles interact with strong electromagnetic fields. The laser intensity used in a practical ICS collision is likely to be at such a level that quantum effects may be significant and the use of quantum theory may become a necessity. A simulation study is presented here comparing the classical and quantum approaches to the ICS. A custom particle-in-cell (PIC) software code, with photon generation by monte carlo of the exact quantum transition probability is used to simulate the quantum treatment. Peak resonant energies and the angular distribution of the X-rays are obtained and compared with those predicted by the classical theory. The conditions under which significant differences between the two theories emerges is obtained.

  7. Mental health among older adults in Japan: do sources of social support and negative interaction make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Hideki; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal; Akiyama, Hiroko; Sugisawa, Hidehiro

    2004-12-01

    This study addresses the question of whether social support and interpersonal strain from different sources (i.e., spouse, children, and other relatives and friends) have differential impact on mental health. Data for this research came from a national probability sample of 2200 persons aged 60 and over in Japan. Structural equation models were evaluated within the context of two types of social networks: (a) persons who had a spouse and children (n=1299), and (b) those with children only (n=677). Between these two networks, the links among social support, negative relations, and mental health were contrasted. The effects of various sources of social support and negative interactions on mental health vary depending on the specific dimension of mental health as well as the nature of social networks. Among older Japanese who are married with children, social support from spouse has a greater association with positive well-being than social support from children and others. However, cognitive functioning is uncorrelated with all sources of positive and negative social exchanges. In contrast, among those without a spouse, only greater support from children is significantly correlated with higher positive well-being, less distress, and less cognitive impairment.

  8. Thermal mapping on male genital and skin tissues of laptop thermal sources and electromagnetic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Mahdi; Mosleminiya, Navid; Abdolali, Ali

    2017-10-01

    Since the development of communication devices and expansion of their applications, there have been concerns about their harmful health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate laptop thermal effects caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields and thermal sources simultaneously; propose a nondestructive, replicable process that is less expensive than clinical measurements; and to study the effects of positioning any new device near the human body in steady state conditions to ensure safety by U.S. and European standard thresholds. A computer simulation was designed to obtain laptop heat flux from SolidWorks flow simulation. Increase in body temperature due to heat flux was calculated, and antenna radiation was calculated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software. Steady state temperature and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in user's body, and heat flux beneath the laptop, were obtained from simulations. The laptop in its high performance mode caused 420 (W/m 2 ) peak two-dimensional heat flux beneath it. The cumulative effect of laptop in high performance mode and 1 W antenna radiation resulted in temperatures of 42.9, 38.1, and 37.2 °C in lap skin, scrotum, and testis, that is, 5.6, 2.1, and 1.4 °C increase in temperature, respectively. Also, 1 W antenna radiation caused 0.37 × 10 -3 and 0.13 × 10 -1 (W/kg) peak three-dimensional SAR at 2.4 and 5 GHz, respectively, which could be ignored in reference to standards and temperature rise due to laptop use. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:550-558, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Maternal Height and Child Growth Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Addo, O. Yaw; Stein, Aryeh D.; Fall, Caroline H.; Gigante, Denise P.; Guntupalli, Aravinda M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Lee, Nanette; Norris, Shane A.; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Richter, Linda M.; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:\\ud To examine associations between maternal height and child growth during 4 developmental periods: intrauterine, birth to age 2 years, age 2 years to mid-childhood (MC), and MC to adulthood.\\ud \\ud STUDY DESIGN:\\ud Pooled analysis of maternal height and offspring growth using 7630 mother-child pairs from 5 birth cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa). We used conditional height measures that control for collinearity in height across periods. We estim...

  10. The taking of Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandilands, B.

    1993-01-01

    Plans for a new research reactor at Lucas Heights have sparked a 'civil war' in New South Wales. The author considers the arguments. The leading antagonists are the local government body - The Sutherland Shire Council, Greenpeace, and the Sutherland Shire Environment Centre. Many of the economic benefits claimed for the existing and proposed replacement reactor have been tagged with question marks. However, ANSTO is confident of refuting claims that the money could be better spent on alternative methods of producing medical isotopes and neutron streams for industry or research, such as particle accelerators. If ANSTO's critics have their way, non-reactor-dependent work like the laser enrichment project could continue without the alleged hazards of sustained nuclear fission. If ANSTO wins the day, a far more efficient reactor will be built which is capable of keeping pace with the emerging nuclear industries of Asia. ills

  11. Genetically Determined Height and Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Christopher P.; Hamby, Stephen E.; Saleheen, Danish; Hopewell, Jenna C.; Zeng, Lingyao; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Willenborg, Christina; Burgess, Stephen; Amouyel, Phillipe; Anand, Sonia; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Clarke, Robert J.; Collins, Rory; Dedoussis, George; Farrall, Martin; Franks, Paul W.; Groop, Leif; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ingelsson, Erik; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kee, Frank; König, Inke R.; Kooner, Jaspal; Lehtimäki, Terho; März, Winifred; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Peters, Annette; Perola, Markus; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ripatti, Samuli; Roberts, Robert; Salomaa, Veikko; Shah, Svati H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Siegbahn, Agneta; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Veronesi, Giovani; Wareham, Nicholas; Willer, Cristen J.; Zalloua, Pierre A.; Erdmann, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The nature and underlying mechanisms of an inverse association between adult height and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) are unclear. METHODS We used a genetic approach to investigate the association between height and CAD, using 180 height-associated genetic variants. We tested

  12. Heights of Coronal Mass Ejections and Shocks Inferred from Metric and DH Type II Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugaraju, A.; Bendict Lawrance, M.; Moon, Y. J.; Lee, Jae-Ok; Suresh, K.

    2017-09-01

    at the DH Type II end (0.19 to 1.94 R_{⊙}). Finally, the possibility of CME-streamer interactions at the start of DH Type IIs is checked, and it is found that many of the events with streamers have lower start frequencies. In addition, these results are discussed in comparison with the values reported in the literature. This study will be useful to find the source region of metric and DH Type IIs and to understand the CME-shock propagation.

  13. In defense of the classical height system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Ismael; Vaníček, Petr; Sheng, Michael; Kingdon, Robert William; Santos, Marcelo C.

    2017-11-01

    In many European countries, normal heights referred to the quasi-geoid as introduced by Molodenskij in the mid-20th century are preferred to the classical height system that consists of orthometric heights and the geoid as a reference surface for these heights. The rationale for this choice is supposed to be that in the classical height system, neither the geoid, nor the orthometric height can be ever known with centimetre level accuracy because one would need to know the topographical mass density to a level that can never be achieved. The aim of this paper is to question the validity of this rationale. The common way of assessing the congruency of a local geoid model and the orthometric heights is to compare the geoid heights with the difference between orthometric heights provided by leveling and geodetic heights provided by GNSS. On the other hand, testing the congruency of a quasi-geoidal model with normal height a similar procedure is used, except that instead of orthometric heights, normal heights are employed. For the area of Auvergne, France, which is now a more or less standard choice for precise geoid or quasi-geoid testing, only the normal heights are supplied by the Institute Geographic National, the provider of the data. This is clearly the consequence of the European preference for the Molodenskij system. The quality of the height system is to be judged by the congruency of the difference of the geoid/quasi-geoid heights subtracted from the geodetic heights and orthometric/normal heights. To assess the congruency of the classical height system, the Helmert approximation of orthometric heights is typically used as the transformation between normal and Helmert's heights is easily done. However, the evaluation of the differences between Helmert's and the rigorous orthometric heights is somewhat more involved as will be seen from the review in this paper. For the area of interest, the differences between normal and Helmert's heights at the control

  14. Quantifying Sources, Sinks and Gas-surface Interactions on the Moon from LADEE Measurements of Exospheric Na and K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A.; Sarantos, M.; Poppe, A. R.; Bennett, C.; Orlando, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present numerical simulations of the generation and loss of the sodium (Na) and potassium (K) exospheres of the Moon and compare these results to recent LADEE observations. While both species appear to migrate towards the poles like other volatiles, Na resides on the soil and exosphere for one to two months before getting lost to the solar wind or the subsurface. K exhibits a different evolutionary trend: it is lost much more quickly than ionization and sputtering rates allow for, suggesting that it is lost to the ground in just a few bounces. Thus, the two alkalis exhibit very different interactions with the lunar surface. Reproducing the monthly variation exhibited by Na requires higher source rates at Mare, or higher sink rates at Highlands, or a combination of both. The very different behavior of Na on Mare and Highlands soils is reminiscent of laboratory experiments of water binding on Apollo fine soils.

  15. MRMer, an interactive open source and cross-platform system for data extraction and visualization of multiple reaction monitoring experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel B; Holzman, Ted; May, Damon; Peterson, Amelia; Eastham, Ashley; Eng, Jimmy; McIntosh, Martin

    2008-11-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry identifies and quantifies specific peptides in a complex mixture with very high sensitivity and speed and thus has promise for the high throughput screening of clinical samples for candidate biomarkers. We have developed an interactive software platform, called MRMer, for managing highly complex MRM-MS experiments, including quantitative analyses using heavy/light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer parses and extracts information from MS files encoded in the platform-independent mzXML data format. It extracts and infers precursor-product ion transition pairings, computes integrated ion intensities, and permits rapid visual curation for analyses exceeding 1000 precursor-product pairs. Results can be easily output for quantitative comparison of consecutive runs. Additionally MRMer incorporates features that permit the quantitative analysis experiments including heavy and light isotopic peptide pairs. MRMer is open source and provided under the Apache 2.0 license.

  16. Reciprocity in computer-human interaction: source-based, norm-based, and affect-based explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Liang, Yuhua Jake

    2015-04-01

    Individuals often apply social rules when they interact with computers, and this is known as the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) effect. Following previous work, one approach to understand the mechanism responsible for CASA is to utilize computer agents and have the agents attempt to gain human compliance (e.g., completing a pattern recognition task). The current study focuses on three key factors frequently cited to influence traditional notions of compliance: evaluations toward the source (competence and warmth), normative influence (reciprocity), and affective influence (mood). Structural equation modeling assessed the effects of these factors on human compliance with computer request. The final model shows that norm-based influence (reciprocity) increased the likelihood of compliance, while evaluations toward the computer agent did not significantly influence compliance.

  17. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shand, P.; Darbyshire, D.P.F.; Love, A.J.; Edmunds, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Strontium isotopes ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  18. Sr isotopes in natural waters: Applications to source characterisation and water-rock interaction in contrasting landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shand, P., E-mail: paul.shand@csiro.au [CSIRO Land and Water/CRC LEME, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, SA 5064 (Australia); Darbyshire, D.P.F. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Love, A.J. [Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity Conservation, P.O. Box 2843, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Edmunds, W.M. [School of Geography, Oxford University Centre for the Environment, South Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Strontium isotopes ({sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) are routinely measured in hydrochemical studies to determine sources and mixing relationships. They have proved particularly useful in determining weathering processes and quantifying end-member mixing processes. A number of routine case studies are presented which highlight that Sr isotopes represent a powerful tool in the geochemists toolbox helping to constrain weathering reactions, weathering rates, flow pathways and mixing scenarios. Differences in methodologies for determining the weathering component in natural environments, inherent differences in weathering rates of different minerals, and mineral heterogeneity often cause difficulties in defining the weathering component of different catchments or aquifer systems. Nevertheless, Sr isotopes are useful when combined with other hydrochemical data, to constrain models of water-rock interaction and mixing as well as geochemical processes such as ion-exchange. This paper presents a summary of recent work by the authors in constraining the sources of waters and weathering processes in surface catchments and aquifers, and indicates cases where Sr isotopes alone are insufficient to solve hydrological problems.

  19. Measuring priming using 14C of respired CO2: effects on respiration source pools and interactions with warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Trumbore, S.

    2011-12-01

    The role of substrate availability on soil carbon turnover is a critical unknown in predicting future soil carbon stocks. Substrate composition and availability can be altered by land cover change, warming, and nitrogen deposition, which can in turn affect soil carbon stocks through the priming effect. In particular, little is understood about the interaction between warming and changing substrate concentration. We examined the interactions between global change factors and the priming effect using sucrose addition to incubations of soils from two forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke and Aspen). In addition to the in situ global change manipulations conducted at these sites, the CO2 fertilization procedure over the decade-long experiment labeled soil carbon pools with fossil-derived carbon (depleted in 14C relative to the background isotope content of soil carbon), allowing us to determine the effect of priming on respiration of soil carbon substrates of different ages. Thus, we used the carbon-13 signature of sucrose-derived CO2 to account for losses of substrate C, and the carbon-14 signature to partition fluxes of soil-derived CO2 between pre-FACE (> 10 y) and FACE derived (stocks, differences in the source of the priming effect between the two sites may be due to inherent differences in the relative role of stabilization factors within the soil carbon stock.

  20. Interactions of donor sources and media influence the histo-morphological quality of full-thickness skin models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Weil, Frederik; Riegler, Christoph; Groeber, Florian; Rebhan, Silke; Kurdyn, Szymon; Alb, Miriam; Kneitz, Hermann; Gelbrich, Götz; Walles, Heike; Mielke, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    Human artificial skin models are increasingly employed as non-animal test platforms for research and medical purposes. However, the overall histopathological quality of such models may vary significantly. Therefore, the effects of manufacturing protocols and donor sources on the quality of skin models built-up from fibroblasts and keratinocytes derived from juvenile foreskins is studied. Histo-morphological parameters such as epidermal thickness, number of epidermal cell layers, dermal thickness, dermo-epidermal adhesion and absence of cellular nuclei in the corneal layer are obtained and scored accordingly. In total, 144 full-thickness skin models derived from 16 different donors, built-up in triplicates using three different culture conditions were successfully generated. In univariate analysis both media and donor age affected the quality of skin models significantly. Both parameters remained statistically significant in multivariate analyses. Performing general linear model analyses we could show that individual medium-donor-interactions influence the quality. These observations suggest that the optimal choice of media may differ from donor to donor and coincides with findings where significant inter-individual variations of growth rates in keratinocytes and fibroblasts have been described. Thus, the consideration of individual medium-donor-interactions may improve the overall quality of human organ models thereby forming a reproducible test platform for sophisticated clinical research. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Interaction between dietary protein content and the source of carbohydrates along the gastrointestinal tract of weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Robert; Boudry, Christelle; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Although fermentable carbohydrates (CHO) can reduce metabolites derived from dietary protein fermentation in the intestine of pigs, the interaction between site of fermentation and substrate availability along the gut is still unclear. The current study aimed at determining the impact of two different sources of carbohydrates in diets with low or very high protein content on microbial metabolite profiles along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. Thirty-six piglets (n = 6 per group) were fed diets high (26%, HP) or low (18%, LP) in dietary protein and with or without two different sources of carbohydrates (12% sugar beet pulp, SBP, or 8% lignocellulose, LNC) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 3 weeks, contents from stomach, jejunum, ileum, caecum, proximal and distal colon were taken and analysed for major bacterial metabolites (D-lactate, L-lactate, short chain fatty acids, ammonia, amines, phenols and indols). Results indicate considerable fermentation of CHO and protein already in the stomach. HP diets increased the formation of ammonia, amines, phenolic and indolic compounds throughout the different parts of the intestine with most pronounced effects in the distal colon. Dietary SBP inclusion in LP diets favoured the formation of cadaverine in the proximal parts of the intestine. SBP mainly increased CHO-derived metabolites such as SCFA and lactate and decreased protein-derived metabolites in the large intestine. Based on metabolite profiles, LNC was partly fermented in the distal large intestine and reduced mainly phenols, indols and cadaverine, but not ammonia. Multivariate analysis confirmed more diet-specific metabolite patterns in the stomach, whereas the CHO addition was the main determinant in the caecum and proximal colon. The protein level mainly influenced the metabolite patterns in the distal colon. The results confirm the importance of CHO source to influence the formation of metabolites derived from protein fermentation along the intestinal

  2. INTERACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth; Borggreen, Gunhild; Murphey, TD

    This paper considers the impact of visual art and performance on robotics and human-computer interaction and outlines a research project that combines puppetry and live performance with robotics. Kinesics—communication through movement—is the foundation of many theatre and performance traditions ...

  3. Influence of real and virtual heights on standing balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleworth, Taylor W; Horslen, Brian C; Carpenter, Mark G

    2012-06-01

    Fear and anxiety induced by threatening scenarios, such as standing on elevated surfaces, have been shown to influence postural control in young adults. There is also a need to understand how postural threat influences postural control in populations with balance deficits and risk of falls. However, safety and feasibility issues limit opportunities to place such populations in physically threatening scenarios. Virtual reality (VR) has successfully been used to simulate threatening environments, although it is unclear whether the same postural changes can be elicited by changes in virtual and real threat conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of real and virtual heights on changes to standing postural control, electrodermal activity (EDA) and psycho-social state. Seventeen subjects stood at low and high heights in both real and virtual environments matched in scale and visual detail. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed increases with height, independent of visual environment, in EDA, anxiety, fear, and center of pressure (COP) frequency, and decreases with height in perceived stability, balance confidence and COP amplitude. Interaction effects were seen for fear and COP mean position; where real elicited larger changes with height than VR. This study demonstrates the utility of VR, as simulated heights resulted in changes to postural, autonomic and psycho-social measures similar to those seen at real heights. As a result, VR may be a useful tool for studying threat related changes in postural control in populations at risk of falls, and to screen and rehabilitate balance deficits associated with fear and anxiety. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Opinions on Drug Interaction Sources in Anticancer Treatments and Parameters for an Oncology-Specific Database by Pharmacy Practitioners in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy are particularly susceptible to drug-drug interactions (DDIs. Practitioners should keep themselves updated with the most current DDI information, particularly involving new anticancer drugs (ACDs. Databases can be useful to obtain up-to-date DDI information in a timely and efficient manner. Our objective was to investigate the DDI information sources of pharmacy practitioners in Asia and their views on the usefulness of an oncology-specific database for ACD interactions. A qualitative, cross-sectional survey was done to collect information on the respondents' practice characteristics, sources of DDI information and parameters useful in an ACD interaction database. Response rate was 49%. Electronic databases (70%, drug interaction textbooks (69% and drug compendia (64% were most commonly used. Majority (93% indicated that a database catering towards ACD interactions was useful. Essential parameters that should be included in the database were the mechanism and severity of the detected interaction, and the presence of a management plan (98% each. This study has improved our understanding on the usefulness of various DDI information sources for ACD interactions among pharmacy practitioners in Asia. An oncology-specific DDI database targeting ACD interactions is definitely attractive for clinical practice.

  5. Regional Distribution of Forest Height and Biomass from Multisensor Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yifan; Saatchi, Sassan; Heath, Linda S.; LaPoint, Elizabeth; Myneni, Ranga; Knyazikhin, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    Elevation data acquired from radar interferometry at C-band from SRTM are used in data fusion techniques to estimate regional scale forest height and aboveground live biomass (AGLB) over the state of Maine. Two fusion techniques have been developed to perform post-processing and parameter estimations from four data sets: 1 arc sec National Elevation Data (NED), SRTM derived elevation (30 m), Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) bands (30 m), derived vegetation index (VI) and NLCD2001 land cover map. The first fusion algorithm corrects for missing or erroneous NED data using an iterative interpolation approach and produces distribution of scattering phase centers from SRTM-NED in three dominant forest types of evergreen conifers, deciduous, and mixed stands. The second fusion technique integrates the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) ground-based plot data to develop an algorithm to transform the scattering phase centers into mean forest height and aboveground biomass. Height estimates over evergreen (R2 = 0.86, P forests (R2 = 0.93, P forests were less accurate because of the winter acquisition of SRTM data and loss of scattering phase center from tree ]surface interaction. We used two methods to estimate AGLB; algorithms based on direct estimation from the scattering phase center produced higher precision (R2 = 0.79, RMSE = 25 Mg/ha) than those estimated from forest height (R2 = 0.25, RMSE = 66 Mg/ha). We discuss sources of uncertainty and implications of the results in the context of mapping regional and continental scale forest biomass distribution.

  6. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Frobin, W.; Brinckmann, P.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this 'physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean' was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the 'physiological sequence of lumbar disc height' leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [de

  7. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnenburg, S L; Raemaekers, S; van den Berg, H; van Dijk, I W E M; Lieverst, J A; van der Pal, H J; Jaspers, M W M; Caron, H N; Kremer, L C; van Santen, H M

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of 573 CCS. Multivariable regression analyses were carried out to estimate the influence of different determinants on height SDS at follow-up. Overall, survivors had a normal height SDS at cancer diagnosis. However, at follow-up in adulthood, 8.9% had a height ≤-2 SDS. Height SDS at diagnosis was an important determinant for adult height SDS. Children treated with (higher doses of) radiotherapy showed significantly reduced final height SDS. Survivors treated with total body irradiation (TBI) and craniospinal radiation had the greatest loss in height (-1.56 and -1.37 SDS, respectively). Younger age at diagnosis contributed negatively to final height. Height at diagnosis was an important determinant for height SDS at follow-up. Survivors treated with TBI, cranial and craniospinal irradiation should be monitored periodically for adequate linear growth, to enable treatment on time if necessary. For correct interpretation of treatment-related late effects studies in CCS, pre-treatment data should always be included.

  8. Measuring the height-to-height correlation function of corrugation in suspended graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirilenko, D.A.; Brunkov, P.N.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocorrugation of 2D crystals is an important phenomenon since it affects their electronic and mechanical properties. The corrugation may have various sources; one of them is flexural phonons that, in particular, are responsible for the thermal conductivity of graphene. A study of corrugation of just the suspended graphene can reveal much of valuable information on the physics of this complicated phenomenon. At the same time, the suspended crystal nanorelief can hardly be measured directly because of high flexibility of the 2D crystal. Moreover, the relief portion related to rapid out-of-plane oscillations (flexural phonons) is also inaccessible by such measurements. Here we present a technique for measuring the Fourier components of the height–height correlation function H(q) of suspended graphene which includes the effect of flexural phonons. The technique is based on the analysis of electron diffraction patterns. The H(q) is measured in the range of wavevectors q≈0.4–4.5 nm"−"1. At the upper limit of this range H(q) does follow the T/κq"4 law. So, we measured the value of suspended graphene bending rigidity κ=1.2±0.4 eV at ambient temperature T≈300 K. At intermediate wave vectors, H(q) follows a slightly weaker exponent than theoretically predicted q"−"3"."1"5 but is closer to the results of the molecular dynamics simulation. At low wave vectors, the dependence becomes even weaker, which may be a sign of influence of charge carriers on the dynamics of undulations longer than 10 nm. The technique presented can be used for studying physics of flexural phonons in other 2D materials. - Highlights: • A technique for measuring free-standing 2D crystal corrugation is proposed. • The height-to-height correlation function of the suspended graphene corrugation is measured. • Various parameters of the intrinsic graphene properties are experimentally determined.

  9. Imagery and fear influence height perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Cody, Meghan W; Stefanucci, Jeanine K; Proffitt, Dennis R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2009-04-01

    The current study tested whether height overestimation is related to height fear and influenced by images of falling. To assess perceptual biases, participants high (n=65) versus low (n=64) in height fear estimated the vertical extents of two balconies using a visual matching task. On one of the balconies, participants engaged in an imagery exercise designed to enhance the subjective sense that they were acting in a dangerous environment by picturing themselves falling. As expected, we found that individuals overestimated the balcony's height more after they imagined themselves falling, particularly if they were already afraid of heights. These findings suggest that height fear may serve as a vulnerability factor that leads to perceptual biases when triggered by a stressor (in this case, images of falling).

  10. Source/ sink interactions underpin crop yield: the case for trehalose 6-phosphate/ SnRK1 in improvement of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew ePaul

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerable interest has been evoked by the analysis of the regulatory pathway in carbohydrate metabolism and cell growth involving trehalose (TRE. TRE is at small concentrations in mesophytes such as Triticum aestivum. Studies of TRE metabolism, and genetic modification of it, have shown a very wide and important role of the pathway in regulation of many processes in development, growth and photosynthesis. It has now been established that trehalose 6-phosphate (T6P, is formed from glucose-6-phosphate and UDP-glucose, derived from sucrose, by the action of trehalose phosphate synthase (TPS and broken down by trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP providing for subtle regulation. The concentration of T6P increases with sucrose concentration. Many of the effects of T6P on metabolism and growth occur via the interaction of T6P with the SnRK1 protein kinase system. A large concentration of sucrose increases T6P and thereby inhibits SnRK1, so stimulating growth of cells and their metabolism. The T6P/SnRK1 mechanism offers an important new view of how the distribution of assimilates to organs, such as developing cereal grains, is achieved. Changing T6P concentrations by genetically modifying TPS and TPP has altered photosynthesis, sugar metabolism, growth and development which affect responses to, and recovery from, environmental factors. This review briefly summarizes the factors determining, and limiting, yield of wheat, particularly mass/grain which is highly conserved. The interactions between the source and sink relations are addressed together with how T6P/SnRK1 might function to determine grain number, size, and yield. The possibility of how these might be increased by modifying trehalose metabolism is considered. Cereal yields globally are not increasing and careful targeting of T6P may offer a way of optimizing grain growth and thus increasing yield in wheat.

  11. Adult height, nutrition, and population health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S.V.; Davey Smith, George

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the potential causes and consequences of adult height, a measure of cumulative net nutrition, in modern populations are summarized. The mechanisms linking adult height and health are examined, with a focus on the role of potential confounders. Evidence across studies indicates that short adult height (reflecting growth retardation) in low- and middle-income countries is driven by environmental conditions, especially net nutrition during early years. Some of the associations of height with health and social outcomes potentially reflect the association between these environmental factors and such outcomes. These conditions are manifested in the substantial differences in adult height that exist between and within countries and over time. This review suggests that adult height is a useful marker of variation in cumulative net nutrition, biological deprivation, and standard of living between and within populations and should be routinely measured. Linkages between adult height and health, within and across generations, suggest that adult height may be a potential tool for monitoring health conditions and that programs focused on offspring outcomes may consider maternal height as a potentially important influence. PMID:26928678

  12. Water-rock-tailings interactions and sources of sulfur and metals in the subtropical mining region of Taxco, Guerrero (southern Mexico): A multi-isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talavera Mendoza, Oscar; Ruiz, Joaquin; Díaz Villaseñor, Elvia; Ramírez Guzmán, Alejandro; Cortés, Alejandra; Salgado Souto, Sergio Adrián; Dótor Almazán, Azucena; Rivera Bustos, Reymundo

    2016-01-01

    Multi-isotope (H, O, S, Sr, Pb) systems coupled with conventional (major and trace element) hydrogeochemical analysis were applied to determine the origin of water, to model water-rock-tailings interactions and for source apportionment of sulfur and associated toxic metals in the mining region of Taxco, Guerrero in southern Mexico. Oxygen and H isotopes indicate that meteoric water in the zone is rainwater undergoing varying degrees of isotopic fractionation by atmospheric evaporation whereas Sr isotopes trace the interaction of pristine water from volcanics of the regional recharge zone and subsequently flowing through sandstone and shale to spring points. Leachates form from two distinctive sources (spring water and surface water) having differential interactions with bedrocks prior to entering the tailings. Compared to pristine water, leachates are enriched in sulfate, metals (e.g. Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and metalloids (e.g. As). The sulfur isotopic composition of ore-sulfides, leachates, secondary precipitates, regional surface water and hypogenic sulfates is described in terms of a two-component mixing model with shale of Mexcala and limestone of Morelos formations representing the light and heavy end-members, respectively, whereas Sr isotopic composition is bracketed combining three lithogenic (Mexcala/Morelos, Tilzapotla and Taxco Schist) sources. Finally, leachates have a mixture of lead from ore-sulfides and Taxco Schist Formation (Family I) or from ore-sulfides alone (Family II). The application of multiple environmental isotopic techniques is an outstanding tool for elucidating complex interactions of water with bedrocks and tailings and for determining the source of sulfur and toxic metal from mining and other metal polluted environments. - Highlights: • We applied multi-isotope techniques to model water-bedrocks-tailings interaction. • Spring water records fractionation by evaporation and interaction with local rocks. • The sulfur cycle is modeled in

  13. An open-source framework for analyzing N-electron dynamics. II. Hybrid density functional theory/configuration interaction methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Gunter; Pohl, Vincent; Tremblay, Jean Christophe

    2017-10-30

    In this contribution, we extend our framework for analyzing and visualizing correlated many-electron dynamics to non-variational, highly scalable electronic structure method. Specifically, an explicitly time-dependent electronic wave packet is written as a linear combination of N-electron wave functions at the configuration interaction singles (CIS) level, which are obtained from a reference time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation. The procedure is implemented in the open-source Python program detCI@ORBKIT, which extends the capabilities of our recently published post-processing toolbox (Hermann et al., J. Comput. Chem. 2016, 37, 1511). From the output of standard quantum chemistry packages using atom-centered Gaussian-type basis functions, the framework exploits the multideterminental structure of the hybrid TDDFT/CIS wave packet to compute fundamental one-electron quantities such as difference electronic densities, transient electronic flux densities, and transition dipole moments. The hybrid scheme is benchmarked against wave function data for the laser-driven state selective excitation in LiH. It is shown that all features of the electron dynamics are in good quantitative agreement with the higher-level method provided a judicious choice of functional is made. Broadband excitation of a medium-sized organic chromophore further demonstrates the scalability of the method. In addition, the time-dependent flux densities unravel the mechanistic details of the simulated charge migration process at a glance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evolutionary perspectives on human height variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Barrett, Louise

    Human height is a highly variable trait, both within and between populations, has a high heritability, and influences the manner in which people behave and are treated in society. Although we know much about human height, this information has rarely been brought together in a comprehensive,

  15. Final height and intrauterine growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Maïthé

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 10% of small for gestational age (SGA) children maintain a small body size throughout childhood and often into adult life with a decreased pubertal spurt. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases short-term growth in a dose-dependent manner and adult height had now been well documented. Shorter children might benefit from a higher dose at start (50μg/kg/day). The response to GH treatment was similar for both preterm and term short SGA groups and the effect of GH treatment on adult height showed a wide variation in growth response. As a whole, mean adult height is higher than -2 SDS in 60% of patients and 70% reached an adult height in their target height with better results with higher doses and combined GnRH analog therapy in those who were short at onset of puberty. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Height, fun and safety in the design of children's playground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakes, Sarah; Beukes, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this paper adopted a holistic design approach to investigate issues associated with height related playground injuries from a users' perspective. The main objective was to gain an understanding of the relationship between height and fun so as to establish practical guidelines for addressing the causes of height related injuries whilst maintaining the attributes of playground equipment that children find fun and challenging. Results show that, on the one hand, the risk of injury increases when height is coupled with the use of upper body strength and, on the other hand, that coordination is a greater source of fun and challenge than height for children. Accordingly, it is suggested that the level of risk of injury attached to children's playground equipment can be reduced when the use of lower body strength and coordination are combined with lower free fall heights.

  17. Interaction between different groundwaters in brittany catchments (france): characterizing multiple sources through Sr- and S isotope tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Ph; Pauwels, H.

    2003-04-01

    Water resources in hard-rocks commonly involve different hydrogeological compartments such as overlying sediments, weathered rock, the weathered-fissured zone, and fractured bedrock. Streams, lakes and wetlands that drain such environments can drain groundwater, recharge groundwater, or do both. Groundwater resources in many countries are increasingly threatened by growing demand, wasteful use, and contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater are particularly vulnerable to pollution, while deeper resources are more protected from contamination. Sr- and S-isotope data as well as major ions, from shallow and deep groundwater in three granite and Brioverian "schist" areas of the Armorican Massif (NW France) with intensive agriculture covering large parts are presented. The stable-isotope signatures of the waters plot close to the general meteoric-water line, reflecting a meteoric origin and the lack of significant evaporation or water-rock interaction. The water chemistry from the different catchments shows large variation in the major-element contents. Plotting Na, Mg, NO_3, K, SO_4 and Sr vs. Cl contents concentrations reflect agricultural input from hog and livestock farming and fertilizer applications, with local sewage-effluent influence, although some water samples are clearly unpolluted. The δ34S(SO_4) is controlled by several potential sources (atmospheric sulphate, pyrite-derived sulphates, fertilizer sulphates). Some δ18O and δ34S values are expected to increase through sulphate reduction, with higher effect on δ34S for the dissimilatory processes and on δ18O for assimilatory processes. The range in Sr contents in groundwater from different catchments agrees with previous work on groundwater sampled from granites in France. The Sr content is well correlated with Mg and both are related to agricultural practises. As in granite-gneiss watersheds in France, 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.71265 to 0.72009. The relationship between 87Sr/86Sr and Mg

  18. Off-Shell Interactions of Closed-String Tachyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabholkar, A

    2004-04-07

    Off-shell interactions for localized closed-string tachyons in C/Z{sub N} superstring backgrounds are analyzed and a conjecture for the effective height of the tachyon potential is elaborated. At large N, some of the relevant tachyons are nearly massless and their interactions can be deduced from the S-matrix. The cubic interactions between these tachyons and the massless fields are computed in a closed form using orbifold CFT techniques. The cubic interaction between nearly-massless tachyons with different charges is shown to vanish and thus condensation of one tachyon does not source the others. It is shown that to leading order in N, the quartic contact interaction vanishes and the massless exchanges completely account for the four point scattering amplitude. This indicates that it is necessary to go beyond quartic interactions or to include other fields to test the conjecture for the height of the tachyon potential.

  19. LHC Report: plumbing new heights

    CERN Multimedia

    John Jowett for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Following the end of the arduous 2015 proton run on 4 November, the many teams working on the LHC and its injector complex are naturally entitled to a calmer period before the well-earned end-of-year break. But that is not the way things work.       The CCC team after stable heavy-ion beams are declared in the LHC. Instead, the subdued frenzy of setting up the accelerators for a physics run has started again, this time for heavy-ion beams, with a few additional twists of the time-pressure knob. In this year’s one-month run, the first week was devoted to colliding protons at 2.51 TeV per beam to provide reference data for the subsequent collisions of lead nuclei (the atomic number of lead is Z=82, compared to Z=1 for protons) at the unprecedented energy of 5.02 TeV in the centre of mass per nucleon pair. The chain of specialised heavy-ion injectors, comprising the ECR ion source, Linac3 and the LEIR ring, with its elaborate bunch-forming and c...

  20. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL -1 . (author)

  1. Carbon dots: Synthesis from renewable sources via hydrothermal carbonization, characterization and evaluation of their interaction with biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Liz Specian de; Alves, Oswaldo Luiz, E-mail: liz.specian@hotmail.com.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Carbon dots (CDs) constitute a new class of carbon-based nanomaterials with interesting photoluminescent properties that enable their potential use in bioimaging, sensing and drug delivery applications. They consist of quasi spherical nanoparticles with size below 10 nm. As a consequence of their low toxicity and biocompatibility, CDs have been considered as a promising alternative to traditional semiconductor-based quantum dots. In addition, they can be synthesized from accessible renewable sources in an environmentally friendly perspective. In this work, we report the use of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine plasma (BP) as precursors to synthesis of CDs applying hydrothermal carbonization method. The study also includes the physical chemical characterization and the evaluation of interaction between these nanomaterials and biosystems, using hemolytic assay. The morphology and size of the carbon nanoparticles were analyzed by Transmission Electronic Microscopy. CDs obtained from BSA (BSA-CDs) and BP (BP-CDs) had spherical shape with an average size of 5.6 and 3.7 nm, respectively. The fluorescence quantum yield was calculated using quinine sulfate as reference. BSA-CDs and BP-CDs exhibited quantum yields of 4.9% and 4.0%, when they were excited at wavelength of 315 and 300 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the red-shift phenomenon was observed in the emission spectra of both synthesized CDs, indicating the formation of particles with different sizes or the presence of surface energy traps distribution. The composition of CDs was determined by Elemental Analysis and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Both nanomaterials contained C, N, O and S elements. The hemolytic assay demonstrated the synthesized CDs did not cause damage to red blood cell membrane at concentrations between 5 and 250 μg mL{sup -1}. (author)

  2. Study of highly charged ion production by electron cyclotron resonance ion source. Interactions of Argon 17+ ions with metallic surface at grazing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, G.

    1992-04-01

    In this thesis divided in 2 parts, the author first presents the operating of MiniMafios 16/18 GHz ECR ion sources and methods of extracted multicharged ion identification and then, studies the highly charged ion interactions with a metallic surface and the formation of 'hollow atoms'. 556 figs., 17 tabs

  3. Interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological variables in broilers grown to 42 day of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interactive effects of ambient temperature and light sources at high relative humidity on growth performance and blood physiological reactions in broilers grown to 42 day of age were investigated. The experiment consisted of 2 levels (Moderate=21.1, High=26.7 °C) of temperatures and 2 light sour...

  4. Height perception influenced by texture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, Junko

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out to examine whether a texture gradient influences perception of relative object height. Previous research implicated texture cues in judgments of object width, but similar influences have not been demonstrated for relative height. In this study, I evaluate a hypothesis that the projective ratio of the number of texture elements covered by the objects combined with the ratio of the retinal object heights determines percepts of relative object height. Density of texture background was varied: four density conditions ranged from no-texture to very dense texture. In experiments 1 and 2, participants judged the height of comparison bar compared to the standard bar positioned on no-texture or textured backgrounds. Results showed relative height judgments differed with texture manipulations, consistent with predictions from a hypothesised combination of the number of texture elements with retinal height (experiment 1), or partially consistent with this hypothesis (experiment 2). In experiment 2, variations in the position of a comparison object showed that comparisons located far from the horizon were judged more poorly than in other positions. In experiment 3 I examined distance perception; relative distance judgments were found to be also affected by textured backgrounds. Results are discussed in terms of Gibson's relational theory and distance calibration theory.

  5. Guiana Highlands, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] These two images show exactly the same area in South America, the Guiana Highlands straddling the borders of Venezuela, Guyana and Brazil. The image on the left was created using the best global topographic data set previously available, the U.S. Geological Survey's GTOPO30. In contrast, the image on the right was generated with a new data set recently released by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) called SRTM30, which represents a significant improvement in our knowledge of the topography of much of the world.GTOPO30, with a resolution of about 928 meters (1496 feet), was developed over a three-year period and published in 1996, and since then has been the primary source of digital elevation data for scientists and analysts involved in global studies. However, since it was compiled from a number of different map sources with varying attributes, the data for some parts of the globe were inconsistent or of low quality.The SRTM data, on the other hand, were collected within a ten-day period using the same instrument in a uniform fashion, and were processed into elevation data using consistent processing techniques. Thus SRTM30 provides a new resource of uniform quality for all parts of the Earth, and since the data, which have an intrinsic resolution of about 30 meters, were averaged and resampled to match the GTOPO30 sample spacing and format, and can be used by the same computer software without modification.The Guiana Highlands are part of the Guyana Shield, which lies in northeast South America and represent one of the oldest land surfaces in the world. Chemical weathering over many millions of years has created a landscape of flat-topped table mountains with dramatic, steep cliffs with a large number of spectacular waterfalls. For example Angel Falls, at 979 meters the highest waterfall in the world, plunges from Auyan Tebuy, part of a mesa of the type that may have been the inspiration for Arthur Conan

  6. Global effects of income and income inequality on adult height and sexual dimorphism in height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogin, Barry; Scheffler, Christiane; Hermanussen, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Average adult height of a population is considered a biomarker of the quality of the health environment and economic conditions. The causal relationships between height and income inequality are not well understood. We analyze data from 169 countries for national average heights of men and women and national-level economic factors to test two hypotheses: (1) income inequality has a greater association with average adult height than does absolute income; and (2) neither income nor income inequality has an effect on sexual dimorphism in height. Average height data come from the NCD-RisC health risk factor collaboration. Economic indicators are derived from the World Bank data archive and include gross domestic product (GDP), Gross National Income per capita adjusted for personal purchasing power (GNI_PPP), and income equality assessed by the Gini coefficient calculated by the Wagstaff method. Hypothesis 1 is supported. Greater income equality is most predictive of average height for both sexes. GNI_PPP explains a significant, but smaller, amount of the variation. National GDP has no association with height. Hypothesis 2 is rejected. With greater average adult height there is greater sexual dimorphism. Findings support a growing literature on the pernicious effects of inequality on growth in height and, by extension, on health. Gradients in height reflect gradients in social disadvantage. Inequality should be considered a pollutant that disempowers people from the resources needed for their own healthy growth and development and for the health and good growth of their children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hydrodynamic analysis of the interaction of two operating groundwater sources, case study: Groundwater supply of Bečej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polomčić Dušan M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing groundwater source 'Vodokanal' for the public water supply of Bečej city in Serbia tapping groundwater from three water-bearing horizons over 15 wells with summary capacity of 100 l/s. Near the public water source of Bečej exists groundwater source 'Soja Protein' for industry with current capacity of 12 l/s which tapped same horizons. In the coming period is planned to increase summary capacity of this groundwater source up to 57 l/s. Also, the increase of summary city's source capacity is planned for 50 l/s in the next few years. That is means an increase of groundwater abstraction for an additional 84 % from the same water-bearing horizons. Application of hydrodynamic modeling, based on numerical method of finite difference will show the impact of increasing the total capacity of the source 'Soja Protein' on the groundwater level in groundwater source 'Vodokanal' and effects of additional decrease in groundwater levels, in all three water-bearing horizons, on the wells of the 'Vodokanala' groundwater source due to operation of industrial source. It was done 7 variant solutions of the extensions of groundwater sources and are their effects for a period of 10 years with the aim of the sustainable management of groundwater.

  8. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-02-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling.

  9. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  10. Estimating Mixing Heights Using Microwave Temperature Profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson-Gammon, John; Powell, Christina; Mahoney, Michael; Angevine, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    A paper describes the Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) for making measurements of the planetary boundary layer thermal structure data necessary for air quality forecasting as the Mixing Layer (ML) height determines the volume in which daytime pollution is primarily concentrated. This is the first time that an airborne temperature profiler has been used to measure the mixing layer height. Normally, this is done using a radar wind profiler, which is both noisy and large. The MTP was deployed during the Texas 2000 Air Quality Study (TexAQS-2000). An objective technique was developed and tested for estimating the ML height from the MTP vertical temperature profiles. In order to calibrate the technique and evaluate the usefulness of this approach, estimates from a variety of measurements during the TexAQS-2000 were compared. Estimates of ML height were used from radiosondes, radar wind profilers, an aerosol backscatter lidar, and in-situ aircraft measurements in addition to those from the MTP.

  11. Soft computing methods for geoidal height transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyilmaz, O.; Özlüdemir, M. T.; Ayan, T.; Çelik, R. N.

    2009-07-01

    Soft computing techniques, such as fuzzy logic and artificial neural network (ANN) approaches, have enabled researchers to create precise models for use in many scientific and engineering applications. Applications that can be employed in geodetic studies include the estimation of earth rotation parameters and the determination of mean sea level changes. Another important field of geodesy in which these computing techniques can be applied is geoidal height transformation. We report here our use of a conventional polynomial model, the Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy (or in some publications, Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy) Inference System (ANFIS), an ANN and a modified ANN approach to approximate geoid heights. These approximation models have been tested on a number of test points. The results obtained through the transformation processes from ellipsoidal heights into local levelling heights have also been compared.

  12. U.S. Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the GEOID96 model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  13. PR/VI Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 26,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data...

  14. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  15. Challenges in Defining Tsunami Wave Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroker, K. J.; Dunbar, P. K.; Mungov, G.; Sweeney, A.; Arcos, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) and co-located World Data Service for Geophysics maintain the global tsunami archive consisting of the historical tsunami database, imagery, and raw and processed water level data. The historical tsunami database incorporates, where available, maximum wave heights for each coastal tide gauge and deep-ocean buoy that recorded a tsunami signal. These data are important because they are used for tsunami hazard assessment, model calibration, validation, and forecast and warning. There have been ongoing discussions in the tsunami community about the correct way to measure and report these wave heights. It is important to understand how these measurements might vary depending on how the data were processed and the definition of maximum wave height. On September 16, 2015, an 8.3 Mw earthquake located 48 km west of Illapel, Chile generated a tsunami that was observed all over the Pacific region. We processed the time-series water level data for 57 tide gauges that recorded this tsunami and compared the maximum wave heights determined from different definitions. We also compared the maximum wave heights from the NCEI-processed data with the heights reported by the NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers. We found that in the near field different methods of determining the maximum tsunami wave heights could result in large differences due to possible instrumental clipping. We also found that the maximum peak is usually larger than the maximum amplitude (½ peak-to-trough), but the differences for the majority of the stations were Warning Centers. Since there is currently only one field in the NCEI historical tsunami database to store the maximum tsunami wave height, NCEI will consider adding an additional field for the maximum peak measurement.

  16. Optimal Height Calculation and Modelling of Noise Barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. In the city, one of the best methods to reduce the spread of noise in residential areas is a noise barrier. The article presents noise reduction barrier adaptation with empirical formulas calculating and modelling noise distribution. The simulation of noise dispersion has been performed applying the CadnaA program that allows modelling the noise levels of various developments under changing conditions. Calculation and simulation is obtained by assessing the level of noise reduction using the same variables. The investigation results are presented as noise distribution isolines. The selection of a different height of noise barriers are the results calculated at the heights of 1, 4 and 15 meters. The level of noise reduction at the maximum overlap of data, calculation and simulation has reached about 10%.Article in Lithuanian

  17. Reduced Height (Rht Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Casebow

    Full Text Available The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall, Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12. Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (P<0.05 reduced grain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there

  18. Reduced Height (Rht) Alleles Affect Wheat Grain Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casebow, Richard; Hadley, Caroline; Uppal, Rajneet; Addisu, Molla; Loddo, Stefano; Kowalski, Ania; Griffiths, Simon; Gooding, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dwarfing alleles (reduced height, Rht) in near isogenic lines on wheat grain quality are characterised in field experiments and related to effects on crop height, grain yield and GA-sensitivity. Alleles included those that conferred GA-insensitivity (Rht-B1b, Rht-B1c, Rht-D1b, Rht-D1c) as well as those that retained GA-sensitivity (rht(tall), Rht8, Rht8 + Ppd-D1a, Rht12). Full characterisation was facilitated by including factors with which the effects of Rht alleles are known to interact for grain yield (i.e. system, [conventional or organic]; tillage intensity [plough-based, minimum or zero]; nitrogen fertilizer level [0-450 kg N/ha]; and genetic backgrounds varying in height [cvs Maris Huntsman, Maris Widgeon, and Mercia]. Allele effects on mean grain weight and grain specific weight were positively associated with final crop height: dwarfing reduced these quality criteria irrespective of crop management or GA-sensitivity. In all but two experiments the effects of dwarfing alleles on grain nitrogen and sulphur concentrations were closely and negatively related to effects on grain yield, e.g. a quadratic relationship between grain yield and crop height manipulated by the GA-insensitive alleles was mirrored by quadratic relationships for nitrogen and sulphur concentrations: the highest yields and most dilute concentrations occurred around 80cm. In one of the two exceptional experiments the GA-insensitive Rht-B1b and Rht-B1c significantly (Pgrain nitrogen concentration in the absence of an effect on yield, and in the remaining experiment the GA-sensitive Rht8 significantly reduced both grain yield and grain nitrogen concentration simultaneously. When Rht alleles diluted grain nitrogen concentration, N:S ratios and SDS-sedimentation volumes were often improved. Hagberg falling number (HFN) was negatively related to crop height but benefits from dwarfing were only seen for GA-insensitive alleles. For HFN, therefore, there was the strongest evidence for

  19. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  20. Love and fear of heights: the pathophysiology and psychology of height imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salassa, John R; Zapala, David A

    2009-01-01

    Individual psychological responses to heights vary on a continuum from acrophobia to height intolerance, height tolerance, and height enjoyment. This paper reviews the English literature and summarizes the physiologic and psychological factors that generate different responses to heights while standing still in a static or motionless environment. Perceptual cues to height arise from vision. Normal postural sway of 2 cm for peripheral objects within 3 m increases as eye-object distance increases. Postural sway >10 cm can result in a fall. A minimum of 20 minutes of peripheral retinal arc is required to detect motion. Trigonometry dictates that a 20-minute peripheral retinal arch can no longer be achieved in a standing position at an eye-object distance of >20 m. At this distance, visual cues conflict with somatosensory and vestibular inputs, resulting in variable degrees of imbalance. Co-occurring deficits in the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems can significantly increase height imbalance. An individual's psychological makeup, influenced by learned and genetic factors, can influence reactions to height imbalance. Enhancing peripheral vision and vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic functions may improve height imbalance. Psychotherapy may improve the troubling subjective sensations to heights.

  1. Numerical study of the structure of thermal plume in a vertical channel: Effect of the height of canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouini Belgacem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to study numerically, by means of a software Named Calculation FDS, a thermal plume evolve from a source at the entrance to of a vertical channel. In the literature, there are researchers who interested in the interaction of plume with his the confinement medium. These studies are based on the determination of the global structure of plume confined. They found that this plume consists of three distinct zones. A first zone near source (instability zone followed by a second zone, such as the development of plume, and a third zone which is the zone of turbulence, Comparing the overall structure of the plume confined to that of the free plume, we can identify the presence of a third zone (zone of instability. The aim is firstly to determine the height of the instability zone located above of source, and secondly, to make a spectral study frequencies exhaust. Thus, effects of the geometrical parameters on frequencies of these escapements and the height an instability zone. The final aim is to establish correlations between the dimensionless numbers of Strouhal and Grashof.

  2. Social inequalities in height: persisting differences today depend upon height of the parents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Galobardes

    Full Text Available Substantial increases in height have occurred concurrently with economic development in most populations during the last century. In high-income countries, environmental exposures that can limit genetic growth potential appear to have lessened, and variation in height by socioeconomic position may have diminished. The objective of this study is to investigate inequalities in height in a cohort of children born in the early 1990s in England, and to evaluate which factors might explain any identified inequalities.12,830 children from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a population based cohort from birth to about 11.5 years of age, were used in this analysis. Gender- and age-specific z-scores of height at different ages were used as outcome variables. Multilevel models were used to take into account the repeated measures of height and to analyze gender- and age-specific relative changes in height from birth to 11.5 years. Maternal education was the main exposure variable used to examine socioeconomic inequalities. The roles of parental and family characteristics in explaining any observed differences between maternal education and child height were investigated. Children whose mothers had the highest education compared to those with none or a basic level of education, were 0.39 cm longer at birth (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.48. These differences persisted and at 11.5 years the height difference was 1.4 cm (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.74. Several other factors were related to offspring height, but few changed the relationship with maternal education. The one exception was mid-parental height, which fully accounted for the maternal educational differences in offspring height.In a cohort of children born in the 1990s, mothers with higher education gave birth to taller boys and girls. Although height differences were small they persisted throughout childhood. Maternal and paternal height fully explained these differences.

  3. Exploring information-seeking processes by business: analyzing source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem Jan; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Arendsen, R.

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of electronic channels it has become easier for businesses to consult various types of information sources in information-seeking processes. Governments are urged to rethink their role as reliable information source and the roles of their (electronic) service channels to provide

  4. Towards a model of source and channel choices in business-to-government service interactions : A structural equation modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, Yvon; Pieterson, Willem; Arendsen, Rex; van Dijk, Jan

    With a growing number of available communication channels and the increasing role of other information sources, organizations are urged to rethink their service strategies. Most theories are limited to a one-dimensional focus on source or channel choice and do not fit into today's networked

  5. Birth order progressively affects childhood height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Tim; Derraik, José G B; Miles, Harriet L; Mouat, Fran; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2013-09-01

    There is evidence suggesting that first-born children and adults are anthropometrically different to later-borns. Thus, we aimed to assess whether birth order was associated with changes in growth and metabolism in childhood. We studied 312 healthy prepubertal children: 157 first-borns and 155 later-borns. Children were aged 3-10 years, born 37-41 weeks gestation, and of birth weight appropriate-for-gestational-age. Clinical assessments included measurement of children's height, weight, fasting lipid and hormonal profiles and DEXA-derived body composition. First-borns were taller than later-borns (P < 0·0001), even when adjusted for parents' heights (0·31 vs 0·03 SDS; P = 0·001). There was an incremental height decrease with increasing birth order, so that first-borns were taller than second-borns (P < 0·001), who were in turn taller than third-borns (P = 0·007). Further, among sibling pairs both height SDS (P = 0·009) and adjusted height SDS (P < 0·0001) were lower in second- vs first-born children. Consistent with differences in stature, first- (P = 0·043) and second-borns (P = 0·003) had higher IGF-I concentrations than third-borns. Both first- (P < 0·001) and second-borns (P = 0·004) also had reduced abdominal adiposity (lower android fat to gynoid fat ratio) when compared with third-borns. Other parameters of adiposity and blood lipids were unaffected by birth order. First-borns were taller than later-born children, with an incremental height reduction from first to third birth order. These differences were present after correction for genetic height, and associated to some extent with alterations in plasma IGF-I. Our findings strengthen the evidence that birth order is associated with phenotypic changes in childhood. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Does Height to Width Ratio Correlate with Mean Volume in Gastropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, R.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Marine organisms' shell shape and size show important biological information. For example, shape and size can dictate how the organism ranges for food and escapes predation. Due to lack of data and analysis, the evolution of shell size in marine gastropods (snails) remains poorly known. In this study, I attempt to find the relationship between height to width ratio and mean volume. I collected height and width measurements from primary literature sources and calculated volume from these measurements. My results indicate that there was no correlation between height to width ratio and mean volume between 500 to 200 Ma, but there was a correlation between 200 Ma to present where there is a steady increase in both height to width ratio and mean volume. This means that shell shape was not an important factor at the beginning of gastropod evolution but after 200 Ma body size evolution was increasingly driven by the height to width ratio.

  7. Ultra-short X-ray sources generated through laser-matter interaction and their applications; Sources de rayonnement X ultrabref generees par interaction laser-matiere et leurs applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, A

    2004-04-15

    This work is dedicated to the sources of ultra-short X-rays. The K{sub {alpha}} source, the non-linear Thomson source, the betatron source and the X-{gamma} source are presented. We show that a pump-probe experiment where the pump is a laser excitation and the probe is the X-K{sub {alpha}} ultra-short radiation, can be used to study the dynamics of material structure with a time resolution of 100 femtosecond. We describe 2 applications that have been achieved in the field of solid physics by using the diffraction technique with a time resolution in the range of the femtosecond. The first application has permitted the observation and characterization of the ultra-quick solid-phase transition that occurs on the surface of a semiconductor crystal. The second experiment deals with the role of optical phonons in the antecedent processes that lead to such ultra-quick solid-phase transitions. (A.C.)

  8. Fast Computation of Pulse Height Spectra Using SGRD Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humbert Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SGRD (Spectroscopy, Gamma rays, Rapid, Deterministic code is used for fast calculation of the gamma ray spectrum produced by a spherical shielded source and measured by a detector. The photon source lines originate from the radioactive decay of the unstable isotopes. The emission rate and spectrum of these primary sources are calculated using the DARWIN code. The leakage spectrum is separated in two parts, the uncollided component is transported by ray-tracing and the scattered component is calculated using a multigroup discrete ordinates method. The pulsed height spectrum is then simulated by folding the leakage spectrum with the detector response functions which are pre-calculated using MCNP5 code for each considered detector type. An application to the simulation of the gamma spectrum produced by a natural uranium ball coated with plexiglass and measured using a NaI detector is presented.

  9. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Marissa G.; Pepper, Jessica K.; Morgan, Jennifer C.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2016-01-01

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers? social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talkin...

  10. A Method of Maximum Power Control in Single-phase Utility Interactive Photovoltaic Generation System by using PWM Current Source Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neba, Yasuhiko

    This paper deals with a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of the photovoltaic generation with the single-phase utility interactive inverter. The photovoltaic arrays are connected by employing the PWM current source inverter to the utility. The use of the pulsating dc current and voltage allows the maximum power point to be searched. The inverter can regulate the array voltage and keep the arrays to the maximum power. This paper gives the control method and the experimental results.

  11. The height of watermelons with wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feierl, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We derive asymptotics for the moments as well as the weak limit of the height distribution of watermelons with p branches with wall. This generalizes a famous result of de Bruijn et al (1972 Graph Theory and Computing (New York: Academic) pp 15–22) on the average height of planted plane trees, and results by Fulmek (2007 Electron. J. Combin. 14 R64) and Katori et al (2008 J. Stat. Phys. 131 1067–83) on the expected value and higher moments, respectively, of the height distribution of watermelons with two branches. The asymptotics for the moments depend on the analytic behaviour of certain multidimensional Dirichlet series. In order to obtain this information, we prove a reciprocity relation satisfied by the derivatives of one of Jacobi’s theta functions, which generalizes the well-known reciprocity law for Jacobi’s theta functions. (paper)

  12. Experiences of ZAMG on mixing height determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piringer, M. [Zentralanstalt fuer Meteorologie und Geodynamik, ZAMG, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-10-01

    Temperature inversions in the boundary layer occur quite often, esp. in mountainous terrain by which Austria is covered to a large extent, and can lead to enhanced pollution at the surface because the air volume available for dilution is then vertically limited. The Department of Environmental Meteorology of ZAMG therefore set up several field programs in the past to study such conditions at a variety of sites in Austria, using tethersondes and Sodars. Early investigations aimed at comparing Sodar echo profiles to the tethersonde temperature profiles to derive mixing heights from the Sodar echo structure. More recently, evolving from KONGEX, the `convective boundary layer experiment`, mixing heights calculated for Vienna by the OML model were compared to those derived from radiosonde and tethersonde potential temperature profiles. Results of these investigations will be presented, focussing on the problems when using the different methods. New efforts to derive mixing heights from data were also undertaken and are discussed separately. (au)

  13. Height, Relationship Satisfaction, Jealousy, and Mate Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Brewer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Male height is associated with high mate value. In particular, tall men are perceived as more attractive, dominant and of a higher status than shorter rivals, resulting in a greater lifetime reproductive success. Female infidelity and relationship dissolution may therefore present a greater risk to short men. It was predicted that tall men would report greater relationship satisfaction and lower jealousy and mate retention behavior than short men. Ninety eight heterosexual men in a current romantic relationship completed a questionnaire. Both linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and relationship satisfaction, cognitive and behavioral jealousy. Tall men reported greater relationship satisfaction and lower levels of cognitive or behavioral jealousy than short men. In addition, linear and quadratic relationships were found between male height and a number of mate retention behaviors. Tall and short men engaged in different mate retention behaviors. These findings are consistent with previous research conducted in this area detailing the greater attractiveness of tall men.

  14. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McQuillan

    Full Text Available Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ(2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2 × 10(-20. There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT, paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.

  15. Aerosol layer height from synergistic use of VIIRS and OMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Hsu, N. Y. C.; Sayer, A. M.; Kim, W.; Seftor, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study presents an Aerosol Single-scattering albedo and Height Estimation (ASHE) algorithm, which retrieves the height of UV-absorbing aerosols by synergistically using the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) and the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS). ASHE provides height information over a much broader area than ground-based or spaceborne lidar measurements by benefitting from the wide swaths of the two instruments used. As determination of single-scattering albedo (SSA) of the aerosol layer is the most critical part for the performance and coverage of ASHE, here we demonstrate three different strategies to constrain the SSA. First, ASHE is able to retrieve the SSA of UV-absorbing aerosols when Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) provides vertical profiles of the aerosol layer of interest. Second, Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) inversions can directly constrain the SSA of the aerosol layer when collocated with VIIRS or OMPS. Last, a SSA climatology from ASHE, AERONET, or other data sources can be used for large-scale, aged aerosol events, for which climatological SSA is well-known, at the cost of a slight decrease in retrieval accuracy. The same algorithm can be applied to measurements of similar type, such as those made by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), for a long-term, consistent data record.

  16. The parametrization of Coulomb barrier heights and positions using the double folding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, W.W.; Zhang, G.L.; Le, X.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb barrier heights and positions are systematically shown with mass numbers and charge radii of the interacting nuclei. The nuclear potential is calculated by using the double folding model with the density-dependence nucleon-nucleon interaction (CDM3Y6). The pocket formulas are obtained for the Coulomb barrier heights and positions by analyzing several hundreds of heavy-ion systems with mass numbers from light nuclei to heavy nuclei. The parameterized formulas can reproduce the calculated barrier heights and positions by using the double folding model within the accuracy of ±1%. Moreover, the results are agreeable with the experimental data. The relation between the barrier height and the barrier position is also studied.

  17. The effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solar energy is a renewable (non-conventional) source of energy supply that has been used as a reliable energy source in view of its economic importance and its wide range of applications. In this study the effect of pole's height on the output performance of solar power system has been investigated. A solar panel of 45 ...

  18. Amplification of tsunami heights by delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, K.; Satake, K.; Furumura, T.

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the effect of delayed rupture of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough on tsunami heights on the Japanese coast. As the tsunami source, we used a model of the 1707 Hoei earthquake, which consists of four segments: Tokai, Tonankai, and two Nankai segments. We first searched for the worst case, in terms of coastal tsunami heights, of rupture delay time on each segment, on the basis of superposition principle for the linear long wave theory. When the rupture starts on the Tonankai segment, followed by rupture on the Tokai segment 21 min later, as well as the eastern and western Nankai segments 15 and 28 min later, respectively, the average coastal tsunami height becomes the largest. To quantify the tsunami amplification, we compared the coastal tsunami heights from the delayed rupture with those from the simultaneous rupture model. Along the coasts of the sea of Hyu'uga and in the Bungo Channel, the tsunami heights become significantly amplified (>1.4 times larger) relative to the simultaneous rupture. Along the coasts of Tosa Bay and in the Kii Channel, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.2 times. Along the coasts of the sea of Kumano and Ise Bay, and the western Enshu coast, the tsunami heights become slightly smaller for the delayed rupture. Along the eastern Enshu coast, the coast of Suruga Bay, and the west coast of Sagami Bay, the tsunami heights become amplified about 1.1 times.

  19. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qing; Chan-Park, Chanpark; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. CALIOP-based Biomass Burning Smoke Plume Injection Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, A. J.; Choi, H. D.; Fairlie, T. D.; Pouliot, G.; Baker, K. R.; Winker, D. M.; Trepte, C. R.; Szykman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon and aerosols are cycled between terrestrial and atmosphere environments during fire events, and these emissions have strong feedbacks to near-field weather, air quality, and longer-term climate systems. Fire severity and burned area are under the control of weather and climate, and fire emissions have the potential to alter numerous land and atmospheric processes that, in turn, feedback to and interact with climate systems (e.g., changes in patterns of precipitation, black/brown carbon deposition on ice/snow, alteration in landscape and atmospheric/cloud albedo). If plume injection height is incorrectly estimated, then the transport and deposition of those emissions will also be incorrect. The heights to which smoke is injected governs short- or long-range transport, which influences surface pollution, cloud interaction (altered albedo), and modifies patterns of precipitation (cloud condensation nuclei). We are working with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) science team and other stakeholder agencies, primarily the Environmental Protection Agency and regional partners, to generate a biomass burning (BB) plume injection height database using multiple platforms, sensors and models (CALIOP, MODIS, NOAA HMS, Langley Trajectory Model). These data have the capacity to provide enhanced smoke plume injection height parameterization in regional, national and international scientific and air quality models. Statistics that link fire behavior and weather to plume rise are crucial for verifying and enhancing plume rise parameterization in local-, regional- and global-scale models used for air quality, chemical transport and climate. Specifically, we will present: (1) a methodology that links BB injection height and CALIOP air parcels to specific fires; (2) the daily evolution of smoke plumes for specific fires; (3) plumes transport and deposited on the Greenland Ice Sheet; and (4) compare CALIOP-derived smoke plume injection

  1. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  2. Falls from height: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Kasim; Sarihan, Mehmet Ediz; Colak, Cemil; Güven, Taner; Gür, Ali; Gürbüz, Sükrü

    2018-01-01

    Emergency services manage trauma patients frequently and falls from height comprise the main cause of emergency service admissions. In this study, we aimed to analyse the demographic characteristics of falls from height and their relationship to the mortality. A total of 460 patients, who admitted to the Emergency Department of Inonu University between November 2011 and November 2014 with a history of fall from height, were examined retrospectively. Demographic parameters, fall characteristics and their effect to mortality were evaluated statistically. The study comprised of 292 (63.5%) men and 168 (36.5%) women patients. The mean age of all patients was 27±24.99 years. Twenty-six (5.6%) patients died and the majority of them were in ≥62 years old group. The highest percentage of falls was at 0-5 years age group (28.3%). People fell mainly from 1.1-4 metres(m) level (46.1%). The causes of falls were ordered as unintentional (92.2%), workplace (8.1%) and suicidal (1.7%). Skin and soft tissue injuries (37.4%) were the main traumatic lesions. Age, fall height, fall place, lineer skull fracture, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, cervical fracture, thoracic vertebra fracture and trauma scores had statistically significant effect on mortality. The casualties died because of subarachnoid hemorrhage mostly.

  3. Aircraft height estimation using 2-D radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hakl, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to infer height information from an aircraft tracked with a single 2-D search radar is presented. The method assumes level flight in the target aircraft and a good estimate of the speed of the aircraft. The method yields good results...

  4. Evidence of inbreeding depression on human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. McQuillan (Ruth); N. Eklund (Niina); N. Pirastu (Nicola); M. Kuningas (Maris); B.P. McEvoy (Brian); T. Esko (Tõnu); T. Corre (Tanguy); G. Davies (Gail); M. Kaakinen (Marika); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); K. Kristiansson (Kati); A.S. Havulinna (Aki); M. Gögele (Martin); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Tenesa (Albert); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); C. Hayward (Caroline); A. Johansson (Åsa); M. Boban (Mladen); S. Ulivi (Shelia); A. Robino (Antonietta); V. Boraska (Vesna); W. Igl (Wilmar); S.H. Wild (Sarah); L. Zgaga (Lina); N. Amin (Najaf); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); O. Polasek (Ozren); S. Girotto; L.M. Lopez (Lorna); C. Sala (Cinzia); J. Lahti (Jari); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); I. Prokopenko (Inga); M. Kals (Mart); J. Viikari (Jorma); J. Yang (Joanna); A. Pouta (Anneli); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); A. Hofman (Albert); N.B. Freimer (Nelson); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. Kähönen (Mika); L. Milani (Lili); M. Heliovaara (Markku); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); K. Räikkönen (Katri); C. Masciullo (Corrado); J.M. Starr (John); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); L. Esposito (Laura); I. Kolcic (Ivana); S.M. Farrington (Susan); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Zemunik (Tatijana); H. Campbell (Harry); M. Kirin (Mirna); M. Pehlic (Marina); F. Faletra (Flavio); D.J. Porteous (David J.); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Widen (Elisabeth); V. Salomaa (Veikko); S. Koskinen (Seppo); K. Fischer (Krista); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.C. Heath (Andrew); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); A.L. Hartikainen; P.A.F. Madden (Pamela); P. d' Adamo (Pio); N. Hastie (Nick); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); I. Rudan (Igor); P. Gasparini (Paolo); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); I.J. Deary (Ian); D. Toniolo (Daniela); K. Hagen (Knut); A. Jula (Antti); O. Raitakari (Olli); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Perola (Markus); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractStature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%-90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has

  5. Stability of various entanglements in the interaction between two two-level atoms with a quantized field under the influences of several decay sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Sh.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Yazdanpanah, N.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper the interaction between two two-level atoms with a single-mode quantized field is studied. To achieve exact information about the physical properties of the system, one should take into account various sources of dissipation such as photon leakage of cavity, spontaneous emission rate of atoms, internal thermal radiation of cavity and dipole-dipole interaction between the two atoms. In order to achieve the desired goals, we obtain the time evolution of the associated density operator by solving the time-dependent Lindblad equation corresponding to the system. Then, we evaluate the temporal behavior of total population inversion and quantum entanglement between the evolved subsystems, numerically. We clearly show that how the damping parameters affect on the dynamics of considered properties. By analyzing the numerical results, we observe that increasing each of the damping sources leads to faster decay of total population inversion. Also, it is observed that, after starting the interaction, the entanglement between one atom with other parts of the system as well as the entanglement between "atom-atom" subsystem and the "field", tend to some constant values very soon. Moreover, the stable values of entanglement are reduced via increasing the damping factor Γ A (ΓA^{(1)} = ΓA^{(2)} = ΓA ) where ΓA is the spontaneous emission rate of each atom. In addition, we find that by increasing the thermal photons, the entropies (entanglements) tend sooner to some increased stable values. Accordingly, we study the atom-atom entanglement by evaluating the concurrence under the influence of dissipation sources, too. At last, the effects of dissipation sources on the genuine tripartite entanglement between the three subsystems include of two two-level atoms and a quantized field are numerically studied. Due to the important role of stationary entanglement in quantum information processing, our results may provide useful hints for practical protocols which require

  6. Interactive access to LP DAAC satellite data archives through a combination of open-source and custom middleware web services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian N.; Werpy, Jason; Friesz, Aaron M.; Impecoven, Kevin; Quenzer, Robert; Maiersperger, Tom; Meyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Current methods of searching for and retrieving data from satellite land remote sensing archives do not allow for interactive information extraction. Instead, Earth science data users are required to download files over low-bandwidth networks to local workstations and process data before science questions can be addressed. New methods of extracting information from data archives need to become more interactive to meet user demands for deriving increasingly complex information from rapidly expanding archives. Moving the tools required for processing data to computer systems of data providers, and away from systems of the data consumer, can improve turnaround times for data processing workflows. The implementation of middleware services was used to provide interactive access to archive data. The goal of this middleware services development is to enable Earth science data users to access remote sensing archives for immediate answers to science questions instead of links to large volumes of data to download and process. Exposing data and metadata to web-based services enables machine-driven queries and data interaction. Also, product quality information can be integrated to enable additional filtering and sub-setting. Only the reduced content required to complete an analysis is then transferred to the user.

  7. Students' and teachers' focus of attention in classroom interaction — subtle sources for the reproduction of social disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Anna-Marietha; Prediger, Susanne; Quasthoff, Uta; Heller, Vivien

    2018-01-01

    Mathematics classroom interaction has often been described as an important context for involving all students. However, this article shows that teacher-student-interaction is still not really in the focus of teachers' attention. Based on classroom video studies, some authors hypothesize that the implicitness of establishing norms and practices is, among others, an obstacle for students with low socio-economic status. The article intends to put this hypothesis into perspective by investigating teachers' and students' focus of attention on classroom interaction in video-stimulated group discussions (six discussions with 5-6 students, four discussions with 5-9 teachers). The data analysis used inductive procedures of category development, frequency analysis, and deeper qualitative analysis of the transcripts. For students' focus of attention, differential patterns could be extrapolated: Whereas students of high socio-economic status seem to be more attentive to teacher's contextual expectations, the students of low socio-economic status seem to be more focused on general norms without taking into account contextual expectations. For the teachers, the analysis shows that interactive mechanisms of teacher-student exchanges in classrooms are usually not in the teachers' focus of attention. Additionally, the teachers address, but rarely problematize the implicitness by which norms and practices are established. Together with the differential findings on students' attention, these findings are discussed with respect to equity concerns and consequences for professional development of teachers.

  8. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  9. A GEOMETRICAL HEIGHT SCALE FOR SUNSPOT PENUMBRAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Ruiz Cobo, B.; MartInez Pillet, V.

    2010-01-01

    Inversions of spectropolarimetric observations of penumbral filaments deliver the stratification of different physical quantities in an optical depth scale. However, without establishing a geometrical height scale, their three-dimensional geometrical structure cannot be derived. This is crucial in understanding the correct spatial variation of physical properties in the penumbral atmosphere and to provide insights into the mechanism capable of explaining the observed penumbral brightness. The aim of this work is to determine a global geometrical height scale in the penumbra by minimizing the divergence of the magnetic field vector and the deviations from static equilibrium as imposed by a force balance equation that includes pressure gradients, gravity, and the Lorentz force. Optical depth models are derived from the inversion of spectropolarimetric data of an active region observed with the Solar Optical Telescope on board the Hinode satellite. We use a genetic algorithm to determine the boundary condition for the inference of geometrical heights. The retrieved geometrical height scale permits the evaluation of the Wilson depression at each pixel and the correlation of physical quantities at each height. Our results fit into the uncombed penumbral scenario, i.e., a penumbra composed of flux tubes with channeled mass flow and with a weaker and more horizontal magnetic field as compared with the background field. The ascending material is hotter and denser than their surroundings. We do not find evidence of overturning convection or field-free regions in the inner penumbral area analyzed. The penumbral brightness can be explained by the energy transfer of the ascending mass carried by the Evershed flow, if the physical quantities below z = -75 km are extrapolated from the results of the inversion.

  10. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.

    2018-01-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...

  11. Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziajahromi, Shima; Neale, Peta A; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2016-11-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source of microplastics. However, even the small amounts of microplastics detected in wastewater effluent may be a remarkable source given the large volumes of wastewater treatment effluent discharged to the aquatic environment annually. Further, there is strong evidence that microplastics can interact with wastewater-associated contaminants, which has the potential to transport chemicals to aquatic organisms after exposure to contaminated microplastics. In this review we apply lessons learned from the literature on microplastics in the aquatic environment and knowledge on current wastewater treatment technologies, with the aim of identifying the research gaps in terms of (i) the fate of microplastics in WWTPs, (ii) the potential interaction of wastewater-based microplastics with trace organic contaminants and metals, and (iii) the risk for aquatic organisms.

  12. Social Interactions as a Source of Information about E-Cigarettes: A Study of U.S. Adult Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marissa G; Pepper, Jessica K; Morgan, Jennifer C; Brewer, Noel T

    2016-08-05

    The novelty of e-cigarettes and ambiguity about their effects may foster informal sharing of information, such as through social interactions. We aimed to describe smokers' social interactions about e-cigarettes and their recommendations that others use e-cigarettes. Data were collected from 2149 adult smokers in North Carolina and California who participated in a study of the impact of pictorial cigarette pack warnings. In the previous month, almost half of participants (45%) reported talking to at least one person about e-cigarettes and nearly a third of participants (27%) recommended e-cigarettes to someone else. Smokers recommended e-cigarettes to cut back on smoking (57%), to quit smoking (48%), for health reasons (36%), and for fun (27%). In adjusted analyses, more frequent e-cigarette use, positive views about typical e-cigarette users, and attempting to quit smoking in the past month were associated with recommending e-cigarettes for health reasons (all p < 0.05). Social interactions appear to be a popular method of information-sharing about e-cigarettes among smokers. Health communication campaigns may help to fill in the gaps of smokers' understanding of e-cigarettes and their long-term effects.

  13. Golan Heights Groundwater Systems: Separation By REE+Y And Stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, C.; Geyer, S.; Knoeller, K.; Roediger, T.; Weise, S.; Dulski, P.; Moeller, P.; Guttman, J.

    2008-12-01

    In a semi-arid to arid country like Israel, all freshwater resources are under (over-) utilization. Particularly, the Golan Heights rank as one of the most important extraction areas of groundwater of good quality and quantity. Additionally the mountain range feed to a high degree the most important freshwater reservoir of Israel, the Sea of Galilee. Hence, knowing the sources and characters of the Golan Heights groundwater systems is an instantaneous demand regarding sustainable management and protection. Within the "German-Israeli-Jordanian-Palestinian Joint Research Program for the Sustainable Utilisation of Aquifer Systems", hundreds of water samples were taken from all over the Jordan-Dead Sea rift-system to understand groundwater flow-systems and salinisation. For that purpose, each sample was analysed for major and minor ions, rare earth elements including yttrium (REY) and stable isotopes of water (d18O, d2H). The REY distribution in groundwater is established during infiltration by the first water-rock interaction and consequently reflects the leachable components of sediments and rocks of the recharge area. In well- developed flow-systems, REY are adsorbed onto pore surfaces are in equilibrium with the percolating groundwater, even if the lithology changes (e.g. inter-aquifer flow). Thus, groundwater sampled from wells and springs still show the REY distribution pattern established in the recharge area. Since high temperatures do not occur in Golan Heights, d2H and d18O are less controlled by water-rock interaction than by climatic and geomorphological factors at the time of replenishment. Applying the REY signature as a grouping criterion of groundwaters, d18O vs. d2H plots yield a new dimension in interpreting isotope data. The combined use of hydrochemical and isotopic methods enabled us to contain the areas of replenishment and the flow-paths of all investigated groundwater in the Golan Heights. Despite location, salinity or temperature of spring or

  14. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  15. Towards worldwide height unification using ocean information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Woodworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how we are contributing to worldwide height system unification (WHSU by using ocean models together with sea level (tide gauge and altimeter information, geodetic (GPS and levelling data, and new geoid models based on information from the GRACE and GOCE gravity missions, to understand how mean sea level (MSL varies from place to place along the coast. For the last two centuries, MSL has been used to define datums for national levelling systems. However, there are many problems with this. One consequence of WHSU will be the substitution of conventional datums as a reference for heights with the use of geoid, as the only true "level" or datum. This work is within a number of GOCE-related activities funded by the European Space Agency. The study is focused on the coastlines of North America and Europe where the various datasets are most copious.

  16. Bringing satellite winds to hub-height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bredesen, Rolv Erlend

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface can provide detailed information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is very valuable for the mapping of wind resources offshore where other measurements are costly and sparse. Satellite sensors operating at microwave frequencies...... measure the amount of radar backscatter from the sea surface, which is a function of the instant wind speed, wind direction, and satellite viewing geometry. A major limitation related to wind retrievals from satellite observations is that existing empirical model functions relate the radar backscatter...... to wind speed at the height 10 m only. The extrapolation of satellite wind fields to higher heights, which are more relevant for wind energy, remains a challenge which cannot be addressed by means of satellite data alone. As part of the EU-NORSEWInD project (2008-12), a hybrid method has been developed...

  17. Celeris: A GPU-accelerated open source software with a Boussinesq-type wave solver for real-time interactive simulation and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkol, Sasan; Lynett, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we introduce an interactive coastal wave simulation and visualization software, called Celeris. Celeris is an open source software which needs minimum preparation to run on a Windows machine. The software solves the extended Boussinesq equations using a hybrid finite volume-finite difference method and supports moving shoreline boundaries. The simulation and visualization are performed on the GPU using Direct3D libraries, which enables the software to run faster than real-time. Celeris provides a first-of-its-kind interactive modeling platform for coastal wave applications and it supports simultaneous visualization with both photorealistic and colormapped rendering capabilities. We validate our software through comparison with three standard benchmarks for non-breaking and breaking waves.

  18. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA High-power EUV (13.5 nm) light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Vladimir M.; Borisova, Galina N.; Vinokhodov, Aleksandr Yu; Zakharov, S. V.; Ivanov, Aleksandr S.; Kiryukhin, Yurii B.; Mishchenko, Valentin A.; Prokof'ev, Aleksandr V.; Khristoforov, Oleg B.

    2010-10-01

    Characteristics of a discharge-produced plasma (DPP) light source in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm, developed for Extreme Ultra Violet (EUV) lithography, are presented. EUV light is generated by DPP in tin vapour formed between rotating disk electrodes. The discharge is ignited by a focused laser beam. The EUV power 1000 W/(2π sr) in the spectral band 13.5±0.135 nm was achieved with input power about of ~63 kW to the plasma at a pulse repetition rate ~7 kHz . The results of numerical simulation are compared with the experimental data.

  19. Height predicts jealousy differently for men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Park, Justin H.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Klavina, Liga; Massar, Karlijn

    Because male height is associated with attractiveness, dominance, and reproductive success, taller men may be less jealous. And because female height has a curvilinear relationship with health and reproductive success (with average-height females having the advantages), female height may have a

  20. Lucas Heights buffer zone: plan of management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This plan is being used by the Commission as a guide for its management of the Lucas Heights buffer zone, which is essentially a circular area having a 1-6 km radius around the HIFAR reactor. Aspects covered by this plan include past uses, current use, objectives for buffer zone land management, emergency evacuation, resource conservation, archaeology, fire, access, rehabilitation of disturbed areas, resource management and plan implementation

  1. Weight and height prediction of immobilized patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rabito,Estela Iraci; Vannucchi,Gabriela Bergamini; Suen,Vivian Marques Miguel; Castilho Neto,Laércio Lopes; Marchini,Júlio Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To confirm the adequacy of the formula suggested in the literature and/or to develop appropriate equations for the Brazilian population of immobilized patients based on simple anthropometric measurements. METHODS: Hospitalized patients were submitted to anthropometry and methods to estimate weight and height of bedridden patients were developed by multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty eight persons were evaluated at two hospital centers and five weight-predicting...

  2. Gravity and Height Variations at Medicina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio; Wziontek, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    Since 1996, at the Medicina station, height and gravity variations are monitored continuously by means of GPS, VLBI and superconducting gravimeter (SG) data. Additionally, absolute gravity observations are performed twice a year and environmental parameters, among others water table levels, are regularly acquired. Levelling between the different monuments at the site area is also carried out repeatedly to constrain local ties in the vertical position. Two GPS systems are located very close to each other, and both are in close proximity to the VLBI antenna. Twenty years of data are now available, which allow investigating both long- and short-period height and gravity signals together with their relevant correlations. Natural land subsidence, which is well known to occur in the area, is a major component of the observed long-term behavior; however, non-linear long-period signatures are also present in the time series. On a shorter time scale, fingerprints of the water table seasonal oscillations can be recognized in the data. The Medicina site is characterized by clayey soil subjected to consolidation effects when the water table lowers during summer periods. The pillar on which the SG is installed is especially affected because of its shallow foundation, causing height decreases in the order of 2.5-3 cm for water table lowering of 2 m. This study presents a comparative analysis of the different data sets with the aim of separating mass and deformation contributions in the SG gravity record.

  3. A global boundary-layer height climatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

  4. Quantum electrodynamics with nonrelativistic sources. V. Electromagnetic field correlations and intermolecular interactions between molecules in either ground or excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, E.A.; Thirunamachandran, T.

    1993-01-01

    Spatial correlations between electromagnetic fields arising from neutral sources with electric-dipole transition moments are calculated using nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics in the multipolar formalism. Expressions for electric-electric, magnetic-magnetic, and electric-magnetic correlation functions at two points r and r' are given for a source molecule in either a ground or an excited state. In contrast to the electric-electric and magnetic-magnetic cases there are no electric-magnetic correlations for a ground-state molecule. For an excited molecule the downward transitions contribute additional terms which have modulating factors depending on (r-r')/λ. From these correlation functions electric and magnetic energy densities are found by setting r=r'. These energy densities are then used in a response formalism to calculate intermolecular energy shifts. In the case of two ground-state molecules this leads to the Casimir-Polder potential. However, for a pair of molecules, one or both excited, there are additional terms arising from downward transitions. An important feature of these energies is that they exhibit an R -2 dependence for large intermolecular separations R. This dependence is interpreted in terms of the Poynting vector, which itself can be obtained by setting r=r' in the electric-magnetic correlation function

  5. Plasma particle sources due to interactions with neutrals in a turbulent scrape-off layer of a toroidally confined plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrysøe, A. S.; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul

    2018-03-01

    The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms are included in a four-field drift-fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the last-closed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation to be self-consistently maintained due to ionization of neutrals in the confined region.

  6. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  7. A Study on the Interaction of Rhodamine B with Methylthioadenosine Phosphorylase Protein Sourced from an Antarctic Soil Metagenomic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujacz, Anna; Wierzbicka-Woś, Anna; Kur, Józef

    2013-01-01

    The presented study examines the phenomenon of the fluorescence under UV light excitation (312 nm) of E. coli cells expressing a novel metagenomic-derived putative methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene, called rsfp, grown on LB agar supplemented with a fluorescent dye rhodamine B. For this purpose, an rsfp gene was cloned and expressed in an LMG194 E. coli strain using an arabinose promoter. The resulting RSFP protein was purified and its UV-VIS absorbance spectrum and emission spectrum were assayed. Simultaneously, the same spectroscopic studies were carried out for rhodamine B in the absence or presence of RSFP protein or native E. coli proteins, respectively. The results of the spectroscopic studies suggested that the fluorescence of E. coli cells expressing rsfp gene under UV illumination is due to the interaction of rhodamine B molecules with the RSFP protein. Finally, this interaction was proved by a crystallographic study and then by site-directed mutagenesis of rsfp gene sequence. The crystal structures of RSFP apo form (1.98 Å) and complex RSFP/RB (1.90 Å) show a trimer of RSFP molecules located on the crystallographic six fold screw axis. The RSFP complex with rhodamine B revealed the binding site for RB, in the pocket located on the interface between symmetry related monomers. PMID:23383268

  8. Open-Source Python Tools for Deploying Interactive GIS Dashboards for a Billion Datapoints on a Laptop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, P. D.; Bednar, J. A.; Rudiger, P.; Stevens, J. L. R.; Ball, C. E.; Christensen, S. D.; Pothina, D.

    2017-12-01

    The rich variety of software libraries available in the Python scientific ecosystem provides a flexible and powerful alternative to traditional integrated GIS (geographic information system) programs. Each such library focuses on doing a certain set of general-purpose tasks well, and Python makes it relatively simple to glue the libraries together to solve a wide range of complex, open-ended problems in Earth science. However, choosing an appropriate set of libraries can be challenging, and it is difficult to predict how much "glue code" will be needed for any particular combination of libraries and tasks. Here we present a set of libraries that have been designed to work well together to build interactive analyses and visualizations of large geographic datasets, in standard web browsers. The resulting workflows run on ordinary laptops even for billions of data points, and easily scale up to larger compute clusters when available. The declarative top-level interface used in these libraries means that even complex, fully interactive applications can be built and deployed as web services using only a few dozen lines of code, making it simple to create and share custom interactive applications even for datasets too large for most traditional GIS systems. The libraries we will cover include GeoViews (HoloViews extended for geographic applications) for declaring visualizable/plottable objects, Bokeh for building visual web applications from GeoViews objects, Datashader for rendering arbitrarily large datasets faithfully as fixed-size images, Param for specifying user-modifiable parameters that model your domain, Xarray for computing with n-dimensional array data, Dask for flexibly dispatching computational tasks across processors, and Numba for compiling array-based Python code down to fast machine code. We will show how to use the resulting workflow with static datasets and with simulators such as GSSHA or AdH, allowing you to deploy flexible, high-performance web

  9. Assimilating satellite-based canopy height within an ecosystem model to estimate aboveground forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joetzjer, E.; Pillet, M.; Ciais, P.; Barbier, N.; Chave, J.; Schlund, M.; Maignan, F.; Barichivich, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Hérault, B.; von Poncet, F.; Poulter, B.

    2017-07-01

    Despite advances in Earth observation and modeling, estimating tropical biomass remains a challenge. Recent work suggests that integrating satellite measurements of canopy height within ecosystem models is a promising approach to infer biomass. We tested the feasibility of this approach to retrieve aboveground biomass (AGB) at three tropical forest sites by assimilating remotely sensed canopy height derived from a texture analysis algorithm applied to the high-resolution Pleiades imager in the Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems Canopy (ORCHIDEE-CAN) ecosystem model. While mean AGB could be estimated within 10% of AGB derived from census data in average across sites, canopy height derived from Pleiades product was spatially too smooth, thus unable to accurately resolve large height (and biomass) variations within the site considered. The error budget was evaluated in details, and systematic errors related to the ORCHIDEE-CAN structure contribute as a secondary source of error and could be overcome by using improved allometric equations.

  10. Message valence, familiarity, sex, and personality effects on the perceptual distortion of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, W E; Angoli, M

    1980-03-01

    The perceptual distortion of height was examined in a group of American male and female college student volunteers (n = 139). A message which announced either good or bad news was delivered by a familiar or unfamiliar person who was either male or female. After hearing the message, the students were asked to estimate the height of the communicator. Additionally, the variables of self-esteem and independence of judgment were measured. Results indicated that familiarity with the message source (p less than .0025) as well as sex of the communicator (p less than .024) were predictors of the perceptual distortion of height, but message valence was not. Neither self-esteem nor independence of judgment was functionally related to the proclivity to distort the heights of the communicators.

  11. Characterizing multiple sources and interaction in the critical zone through Sr-isotope tracing of surface and groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Pauwels, Hélène

    2017-04-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the lithosphere-atmosphere boundary where complex physical, chemical and biological processes occurs and control the transfer and storage of water and chemical elements. This is the place where life-sustaining resources are, where nutrients are being released from the rocks. Because it is the place where we are living, this is a fragile zone, a critical zone as a perturbed natural ecosystem. Water resources in hard-rocks commonly involve different hydrogeological compartments such as overlying sediments, weathered rock, the weathered-fissured zone, and fractured bedrock. Streams, lakes and wetlands that drain such environments can drain groundwater, recharge groundwater, or do both. Groundwater resources in many countries are increasingly threatened by growing demand, wasteful use, and contamination. Surface water and shallow groundwater are particularly vulnerable to pollution, while deeper resources are more protected from contamination. Here, we first report on Sr isotope data as well as major ions, from shallow and deep groundwater in several granite and schist areas over France with intensive agriculture covering large parts of these catchments. In three granite and Brioverian 'schist' areas of the Armorican Massif, the range in Sr contents in groundwater from different catchments agrees with previous work on groundwater sampled from granites in France. The Sr content is well correlated with Mg and both are partly related to agricultural practices and water rock interaction. The relationship between Sr- isotope and Mg/Sr ratios allow defining the different end-members, mainly rain, agricultural practice and water-rock interaction. The data from the Armorican Massif and other surface and groundwater for catchment draining silicate bedrocks (300-450Ma) like the Hérault, Seine, Moselle, Garonne, Morvan, Margeride, Cantal, Pyrénées and Vosges are scattered between at least three geochemical signatures. These include fertilizer and

  12. Sources, interactions, and ecological impacts of organic contaminants in water, soil, and sediment: an introduction to the special series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignatello, Joseph J; Katz, Brian G; Li, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and urban activities result in the release of a large number of organic compounds that are suspected of impacting human health and ecosystems: herbicides, insecticides, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, natural and synthetic hormones, personal care products, surfactants, plasticizers, fire retardants, and others. Sorbed reservoirs of these compounds in soil represent a potentially chronic source of water contamination. This article is an introduction to a series of technical papers stemming from a symposium at the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting, which was held jointly with The Geological Society of America, The Gulf Coast Association of Geological Scientists, and the Houston Geological Society, under one of the Joint Meeting's overarching themes: Emerging Trace Contaminants in Surface and Ground Water Generated from Waste Water and Solid Waste Application. The symposium emphasized the role of soils as sources, sinks, and reaction catalysts for these contaminants and the occurrence and fate of these contaminants in surface and underground water supplies. Topics covered included novel advances in analytical techniques, transport of infectious agents, occurrence and fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals, characterization of sorption mechanism, biotic and abiotic transformation reactions, the role of soil components, occurrence and fate in wastewater treatment systems, transport of engineered nanoparticles, groundwater contamination resulting from urban runoff, and issues in water reuse. Overviews of the reports, trends, gaps in our knowledge, and topics for further research are presented in this special series of papers. The technical papers in this special series reflect current gains in knowledge and simultaneously underscore how poorly we are able to predict the fate and, hence, the associated risk to ecological and human receptors of these contaminants.

  13. Earthquake Scenario-Based Tsunami Wave Heights in the Eastern Mediterranean and Connected Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necmioglu, Ocal; Özel, Nurcan Meral

    2015-12-01

    We identified a set of tsunami scenario input parameters in a 0.5° × 0.5° uniformly gridded area in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean (both for shallow- and intermediate-depth earthquakes) and Black Seas (only shallow earthquakes) and calculated tsunami scenarios using the SWAN-Joint Research Centre (SWAN-JRC) code ( Mader 2004; Annunziato 2007) with 2-arcmin resolution bathymetry data for the range of 6.5—Mwmax with an Mw increment of 0.1 at each grid in order to realize a comprehensive analysis of tsunami wave heights from earthquakes originating in the region. We defined characteristic earthquake source parameters from a compiled set of sources such as existing moment tensor catalogues and various reference studies, together with the Mwmax assigned in the literature, where possible. Results from 2,415 scenarios show that in the Eastern Mediterranean and its connected seas (Aegean and Black Sea), shallow earthquakes with Mw ≥ 6.5 may result in coastal wave heights of 0.5 m, whereas the same wave height would be expected only from intermediate-depth earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7.0 . The distribution of maximum wave heights calculated indicate that tsunami wave heights up to 1 m could be expected in the northern Aegean, whereas in the Black Sea, Cyprus, Levantine coasts, northern Libya, eastern Sicily, southern Italy, and western Greece, up to 3-m wave height could be possible. Crete, the southern Aegean, and the area between northeast Libya and Alexandria (Egypt) is prone to maximum tsunami wave heights of >3 m. Considering that calculations are performed at a minimum bathymetry depth of 20 m, these wave heights may, according to Green's Law, be amplified by a factor of 2 at the coastline. The study can provide a basis for detailed tsunami hazard studies in the region.

  14. Modeling Photo-multiplier Gain and Regenerating Pulse Height Data for Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, Michael D.; Jones, Ashley R.

    2018-01-01

    Systems that adopt organic scintillation detector arrays often require a calibration process prior to the intended measurement campaign to correct for significant performance variances between detectors within the array. These differences exist because of low tolerances associated with photo-multiplier tube technology and environmental influences. Differences in detector response can be corrected for by adjusting the supplied photo-multiplier tube voltage to control its gain and the effect that this has on the pulse height spectra from a gamma-only calibration source with a defined photo-peak. Automated methods that analyze these spectra and adjust the photo-multiplier tube bias accordingly are emerging for hardware that integrate acquisition electronics and high voltage control. However, development of such algorithms require access to the hardware, multiple detectors and calibration source for prolonged periods, all with associated constraints and risks. In this work, we report on a software function and related models developed to rescale and regenerate pulse height data acquired from a single scintillation detector. Such a function could be used to generate significant and varied pulse height data that can be used to integration-test algorithms that are capable of automatically response matching multiple detectors using pulse height spectra analysis. Furthermore, a function of this sort removes the dependence on multiple detectors, digital analyzers and calibration source. Results show a good match between the real and regenerated pulse height data. The function has also been used successfully to develop auto-calibration algorithms.

  15. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul D; Georgevsky, Dana; Carrasco, Johanna; Valenzuela, Michael; Duffy, Deborah L; Serpell, James A

    2013-01-01

    Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ). Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14), bodyweight alone (n = 5), CI alone (n = 3), bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2), height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3) or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6). For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (psensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001) with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001) with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001) but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020). The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape), bodyweight and height co-vary with behavior. The

  16. Absence of modulatory action on haptic height perception with musical pitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele eGeronazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although acoustic frequency is not a spatial property of physical objects, in common language, pitch, i.e., the psychological correlated of frequency, is often labeled spatially (i.e., high in pitch or low in pitch. Pitch-height is known to modulate (and interact with the response of participants when they are asked to judge spatial properties of non-auditory stimuli (e.g., visual in a variety of behavioral tasks. In the current study we investigated whether the modulatory action of pitch-height extended to the haptic estimation of height of a virtual step.We implemented a HW/SW setup which is able to render virtual 3D objects (stair-steps haptically through a PHANTOM device, and to provide real-time continuous auditory feedback depending on the user interaction with the object. The haptic exploration was associated with a sinusoidal tone whose pitch varied as a function of the interaction point’s height within (i a narrower and (ii a wider pitch range, or (iii a random pitch variation acting as a control audio condition. Explorations were also performed with no sound (haptic only. Participants were instructed to explore the virtual step freely, and to communicate height estimation by opening their thumb and index finger to mimic the step riser height, or verbally by reporting the height in centimeters of the step riser. We analyzed the role of musical expertise by dividing participants into non musicians and musicians. Results showed no effects of musical pitch on high-realistic haptic feedback. Overall there is no difference between the two groups in the proposed multimodal conditions. Additionally, we observed a different haptic response distribution between musicians and non musicians when estimations of the auditory conditions are matched with estimations in the no sound condition.

  17. Collaborative Research: Atmospheric Pressure Plasma-Biomaterial Surface Interactions - Bridging Understanding of APP Sources to Rational Modification of Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, David Barry [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-24

    The overriding objective of this work is to bridge the gap between understanding of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) sources and predictive chemical modifications of biomolecules. A key aspect of this problem is to understand what oxidizing species are created in water adjacent to APP jets that would ultimately affect aqueous biomolecules. We report the production of highly oxidative species in solutions exposed to a self-pulsed corona discharge in air. We examine how the properties of the target solution (pH, conductivity) and the discharge power affect the discharge stability and the production of H2O2. Indigo carmine, a common organic dye, is used as an indicator of oxidative strength and in particular, hydroxyl radical (OH•) production. The observed rate of indigo oxidation in contact with the discharge far exceeds that predicted from reactions based on concentrations of species measured in the bulk solution. The generation of H2O2 and the oxidation of indigo carmine indicate a high concentration of highly oxidizing species such as OH• at the plasma-liquid interface. These results indicate that reactions at the air plasma-liquid interface play a dominant role in species oxidation during direct non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NE-APP) treatment.

  18. ZebrafishMiner: an open source software for interactive evaluation of domain-specific fluorescence in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reischl Markus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput microscopy makes it possible to observe the morphology of zebrafish on large scale to quantify genetic, toxic or drug effects. The image acquisition is done by automated microscopy, images are evaluated automatically by image processing pipelines, tailored specifically to the requirements of the scientific question. The transfer of such algorithms to other projects, however, is complex due to missing guidelines and lack of mathematical or programming knowledge. In this work, we implement an image processing pipeline for automatic fluorescence quantification in user-defined domains of zebrafish embryos and larvae of different age. The pipeline is capable of detecting embryos and larvae in image stacks and quantifying domain activity. To make this protocol available to the community, we developed an open source software package called „ZebrafishMiner“ which guides the user through all steps of the processing pipeline and makes the algorithms available and easy to handle. We implemented all routines in an MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI that gives the user control over all image processing parameters. The software is shipped with a manual of 30 pages and three tutorial datasets, which guide the user through the manual step by step. It can be downloaded at https://sourceforge.net/projects/scixminer/.

  19. A unified framework for modelling sediment fate from source to sink and its interactions with reef systems over geological times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Tristan; Ding, Xuesong; Webster, Jody M; Vila-Concejo, Ana; Brocard, Gilles; Pall, Jodie

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on sediment dynamics is hindered by limited ability of current models to simulate long-term evolution of sediment transfer from source to sink and associated morphological changes. We present a new approach based on a reduced-complexity model which computes over geological time: sediment transport from landmasses to coasts, reworking of marine sediments by longshore currents, and development of coral reef systems. Our framework links together the main sedimentary processes driving mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system dynamics. It offers a methodology for objective and quantitative sediment fate estimations over regional and millennial time-scales. A simulation of the Holocene evolution of the Great Barrier Reef shows: (1) how high sediment loads from catchments erosion prevented coral growth during the early transgression phase and favoured sediment gravity-flows in the deepest parts of the northern region basin floor (prior to 8 ka before present (BP)); (2) how the fine balance between climate, sea-level, and margin physiography enabled coral reefs to thrive under limited shelf sedimentation rates after ~6 ka BP; and, (3) how since 3 ka BP, with the decrease of accommodation space, reduced of vertical growth led to the lateral extension of reefs consistent with available observational data.

  20. Height, age at menarche and risk of hormone receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure; Teucher, Birgit; Steindorf, Karen; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Grioni, Sara; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel; van Gils, Carla H; Peeters, Petra Hm; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Krum-Hansen, Sanda; Gram, Inger Torhild; Lund, Eiliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2013-06-01

    Associations of breast cancer overall with indicators of exposures during puberty are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the associations of height, leg length, sitting height and menarcheal age with hormone receptor-defined malignancies. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of adult height, leg length and sitting height and age at menarche with risk of estrogen and progesterone receptor negative (ER-PR-) (n = 990) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,524) breast tumors. Height as a single risk factor was compared to a model combining leg length and sitting height. The possible interactions of height, leg length and sitting height with menarche were also analyzed. Risk of both ER-PR- and ER+PR+ malignancies was positively associated with standing height, leg length and sitting height and inversely associated with increasing age at menarche. For ER+PR+ disease, sitting height (hazard ratios: 1.14[95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.20]) had a stronger risk association than leg length (1.05[1.00-1.11]). In comparison, for ER-PR- disease, no distinct differences were observed between leg length and sitting height. Women who were tall and had an early menarche (≤13 years) showed an almost twofold increase in risk of ER+PR+ tumors but no such increase in risk was observed for ER-PR- disease. Indicators of exposures during rapid growth periods were associated with risks of both HR-defined breast cancers. Exposures during childhood promoting faster development may establish risk associations for both HR-positive and -negative malignancies. The stronger associations of the components of height with ER+PR+ tumors among older women suggest possible hormonal links that could be specific for postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Phase height measurements on the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K.H.

    1974-01-01

    Phase height measurements have been taken on 2.5 MHz E-region reflection over two paths during the day. The two paths have equivalent vertical frequencies of 2.4 MHz and 1.8 MHz. Vertical pulse measurements on 2.4 MHz have also been recorded. Results and discussion on comparisons between these measurements are presented. Phase and amplitude measurements using 4.5 MHz O and E rays have also been taken at night, F-region reflection. In particular, spectral analysis of these results is discussed. (author)

  2. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  3. Patella height changes post high tibial osteotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ghim Gooi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO is a well-described treatment in early medial compartmental osteoarthritis of the knee. However, two undesirable sequelae may follow –patella baja and changes in the posterior tibial slope (TS. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study in patients who underwent HTO in our center between September 2009 and February 2017. Preoperative and 6-week postoperative long-leg weight bearing films and lateral knee radiographs were assessed. Pre- and postoperative radiological measurements include the Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI, the mechanical axis deviation (MAD, and the posterior TS. Independant t-test and Pearson correlation test were performed. Results: A total of 106 knees were recruited. The mean age was 48.8 ± 10.8 years. 66 (62.3% and 40 (37.7% knees were from males and females, respectively. The mean pre- and postoperative measurements was (−9.70° ± 3.67° to 0.08° ± 2.80° (−varus; +valgus for the MAD, (7.14° ± 1.78° to 8.72° ± 3.11° for posterior TS, and (0.93° ± 0.084° to 0.82° ± 0.13° for CDI (P ≤ 0.001 for all. The association between patella height change and the level of osteotomy (supra-tubercle vs. infra-tubercle was statistically significant (P < 0.001. A supra-tubercle osteotomy cut significantly lowering patella height (P = 0.011. There was otherwise no statistically significant correlations between patella height changes and the correction angle (P = 0.187 or posterior TS change (P = 0.744. Conclusions: A medial opening wedge HTO above the tibial tubercle was significantly associated with lowering patella height or reducing CDI postoperatively. Based on our results, we would recommend the use of an infra-tubercle osteotomy during the corrective surgery to prevent the complication of patella baja.

  4. Assessing Eruption Column Height in Ancient Flood Basalt Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Self, Stephen; Schmidt, Anja; Hunter, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A buoyant plume model is used to explore the ability of flood basalt eruptions to inject climate-relevant gases into the stratosphere. An example from the 1986 Izu-Oshima basaltic fissure eruption validates the model's ability to reproduce the observed maximum plume heights of 12-16 km above sea level, sustained above fire-fountains. The model predicts maximum plume heights of 13-17 km for source widths of between 4-16 m when 32% (by mass) of the erupted magma is fragmented and involved in the buoyant plume (effective volatile content of 6 wt%). Assuming that the Miocene-age Roza eruption (part of the Columbia River Basalt Group) sustained fire-fountains of similar height to Izu-Oshima (1.6 km above the vent), we show that the Roza eruption could have sustained buoyant ash and gas plumes that extended into the stratosphere at approximately 45 deg N. Assuming 5 km long active fissure segments and 9000 Mt of SO2 released during explosive phases over a 10-15 year duration, the approximately 180 km of known Roza fissure length could have supported approximately 36 explosive events/phases, each with a duration of 3-4 days. Each 5 km fissure segment could have emitted 62 Mt of SO2 per day into the stratosphere while actively fountaining, the equivalent of about three 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruptions per day. Each fissure segment could have had one to several vents, which subsequently produced lava without significant fountaining for a longer period within the decades-long eruption. Sensitivity of plume rise height to ancient atmospheric conditions is explored. Although eruptions in the Deccan Traps (approximately 66 Ma) may have generated buoyant plumes that rose to altitudes in excess of 18 km, they may not have reached the stratosphere because the tropopause was substantially higher in the late Cretaceous. Our results indicate that some flood basalt eruptions, such as Roza, were capable of repeatedly injecting large masses of SO2 into the stratosphere. Thus sustained

  5. Development of a pulse height analizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a Pulse Height Analizer is described. This equipment is essential to analize data coming from detectors producing information codified in pulse amplitudes. The system developed consist of a Signal Input Module connected to a Controller Module based on a 8085A microprocessor capable to memorize pulses up to 1 uS in 256 channels with a resolution better than 20 mV. A Communication Module with a serial interface is used for data transfer to a host computer using RS232c protocol. The Monitoring and Operation Module consist of a hexadecimal Keybord, a 6 digit 7-segment display and a XY analog output enabling real time visualization of data on a XY monitor. The hardware and the software designed for this low cost system were optimized to obtain a typical dead time of approximately 100 uS. As application, this device was used to adquire curves at the Small Angle X-ray Scattering Laboratory in this Department. The apparatus performance was tested by comparing its data with a Northern Pulse Height Analizer model NS633 output, with favorable results. (Author) [pt

  6. Spatial inhomogeneous barrier heights at graphene/semiconductor Schottky junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Dushyant

    Graphene, a semimetal with linear energy dispersion, forms Schottky junction when interfaced with a semiconductor. This dissertation presents temperature dependent current-voltage and scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S) measurements performed on graphene Schottky junctions formed with both three and two dimensional semiconductors. To fabricate Schottky junctions, we transfer chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto Si- and C-face SiC, Si, GaAs and MoS2 semiconducting substrates using polymer assisted chemical method. We observe three main type of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneities, graphene ripples, ridges and semiconductor steps in STM imaging that can exist at graphene/semiconductor junctions. Tunneling spectroscopy measurements reveal fluctuations in graphene Dirac point position, which is directly related to the Schottky barrier height. We find a direct correlation of Dirac point variation with the topographic undulations of graphene ripples at the graphene/SiC junction. However, no such correlation is established at graphene/Si and Graphene/GaAs junctions and Dirac point variations are attributed to surface states and trapped charges at the interface. In addition to graphene ripples and ridges, we also observe atomic scale moire patterns at graphene/MoS2 junction due to van der Waals interaction at the interface. Periodic topographic modulations due to moire pattern do not lead to local variation in graphene Dirac point, indicating that moire pattern does not contribute to fluctuations in electronic properties of the heterojunction. We perform temperature dependent current-voltage measurements to investigate the impact of topographic inhomogeneities on electrical properties of the Schottky junctions. We observe temperature dependence in junction parameters, such as Schottky barrier height and ideality factor, for all types of Schottky junctions in forward bias measurements. Standard thermionic emission theory which assumes a perfect

  7. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1994-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal field - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders. Some new ideas associated with these sources are also presented. (orig.)

  8. Australian Atomic Energy Commission: A new energy research establishment at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyal, A [Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Government and Public Administration

    1980-02-01

    A review of the role of the Atomic Energy Commission has recommended that the Lucas Heights establishment should engage in research on energy sources in general, rather than nuclear only as at present, and that certain of its present functions (regulatory and manufacturing) should be handled by other organisations.

  9. Derivation of pulse height to exposure rate conversion functions for aerial radiological surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    A method is described for deriving conversion functions that can be used to convert pulse height spectra taken at altitude to the exposure rate at the 1-m level. An integral equation is set up which involves the integration of a calculated pulse height spectrum multiplied by an unknown conversion function and then set equal to the exposure rate at ground level. This equation is then solved for the conversion function by assuming as a solution a three-term polynomial. Conversion functions have been derived for various source distributions, including surface, uniform, and exponentially distributed sources. These conversion functions are independent of source energy, which means that a conversion can be made without any knowledge of the isotopic content of the source. In the case of a uniform distribution, these conversion functions provide conversions that agree to within 10% with ground truth measurements

  10. Rendimiento agronómico de la morera por efecto de diferentes alturas y frecuencias de corte Agronomic yield of mulberry under different cutting heights and frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolai Noda

    2007-09-01

    . It is concluded that for most of the variables there was interaction of the factors studied. To use cutting frequencies of 90 days and pruning height of 50 cm in order to reach high biomass productions is recommended, as well as to study the effect of other agronomic factors, such as: plant density, doses and sources of fertilization and irrigation regimen, on the biomass production and quality of this species.

  11. An international ecological study of adult height in relation to cancer incidence for 24 anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Marshall, Roger J; Walpole, Sarah C; Prieto-Merino, David; Liu, Dong-Xu; Perry, Jo K

    2015-03-01

    Anthropometric indices associated with childhood growth and height attained in adulthood, have been associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies. To evaluate the cancer-height relationship, we carried out a study using international data, comparing various cancer rates with average adult height of women and men in different countries. An ecological analysis of the relationship between country-specific cancer incidence rates and average adult height was conducted for twenty-four anatomical cancer sites. Age-standardized rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008. Average female (112 countries) and male (65 countries) heights were sourced and compiled primarily from national health surveys. Graphical and weighted regression analysis was conducted, taking into account BMI and controlling for the random effect of global regions. A significant positive association between a country's average adult height and the country's overall cancer rate was observed in both men and women. Site-specific cancer incidence for females was positively associated with height for most cancers: lung, kidney, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, brain and nervous system, breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, corpus uteri, ovary, and leukemia. A significant negative association was observed with cancer of the cervix uteri. In males, site-specific cancer incidence was positively associated with height for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, colorectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate, testicular, lip and oral cavity, and melanoma. Incidence of cancer was associated with tallness in the majority of anatomical/cancer sites investigated. The underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, but may include nutrition and early-life exposure to hormones, and may differ by anatomical site.

  12. The Post-periapsis Evolution of Galactic Center Source G1: The Second Case of a Resolved Tidal Interaction with a Supermassive Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzel, G.; Sitarski, B. N.; Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Hees, A.; Do, T.; Naoz, S.; Boehle, A.; Martinez, G.; Chappell, S.; Meyer, L.; Yelda, S.; Becklin, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schödel, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Matthews, K., E-mail: witzel@astro.ucla.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    We present new adaptive optics (AO) imaging and spectroscopic measurements of Galactic center source G1 from W. M. Keck Observatory. Our goal is to understand its nature and relationship to G2, which is the first example of a spatially resolved object interacting with a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Both objects have been monitored with AO for the past decade (2003–2014) and are comparatively close to the black hole ( a {sub min} ∼ 200–300 au) on very eccentric orbits ( e {sub G1} ∼ 0.99; e {sub G2} ∼ 0.96). While G2 has been tracked before and during periapsis passage ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2014.2), G1 has been followed since soon after emerging from periapsis ( T {sub 0} ∼ 2001.3). Our observations of G1 double the previously reported observational time baseline, which improves its orbital parameter determinations. G1's orbital trajectory appears to be in the same plane as that of G2 but with a significantly different argument of periapsis (Δ ω = 21° ± 4°). This suggests that G1 is an independent object and not part of a gas stream containing G2, as has been proposed. Furthermore, we show for the first time that (1) G1 is extended in the epochs closest to periapsis along the direction of orbital motion, and (2) it becomes significantly smaller over time (450 au in 2004 to less than 170 au in 2009). Based on these observations, G1 appears to be the second example of an object tidally interacting with an SMBH. G1's existence 14 yr after periapsis, along with its compactness in epochs further from the time of periapsis, suggest that this source is stellar in nature.

  13. X-ray imaging with amorphous selenium: Pulse height measurements of avalanche gain fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, Brian J. M.; Hunt, D. C.; Reznik, A.; Tanioka, K.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    Avalanche multiplication in amorphous selenium (a-Se) can provide a large, adjustable gain for active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPI), enabling quantum noise limited x-ray imaging during both radiography and fluoroscopy. In the case of direct conversion AMFPI, the multiplication factor for each x ray is a function of its depth of interaction, and the resulting variations in gain can reduce the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system. An experimental method was developed to measure gain fluctuations by analyzing images of individual x rays that were obtained using a video camera with an a-Se target operated in avalanche mode. Pulse height spectra (PHS) of the charge produced per x ray were recorded for monoenergetic 30.9, 49.4, and 73.8 keV x-ray sources. The rapid initial decay and long tail of each PHS can be explained by a model in which positive charge dominates the initiation of avalanche. The Swank information factor quantifies the effect of gain fluctuation on DQE and was calculated from the PHS. The information factor was found to be 0.5 for a 25 μm a-Se layer with a maximum gain of ∼300. Changing the energy of the incident x ray influenced the range of the primary photoelectron and noticeably affected the tail of the experimental PHS, but did not significantly change the avalanche Swank factor

  14. On the Flame Height Definition for Upward Flame Spread

    OpenAIRE

    Consalvi, Jean L; Pizzo, Yannick; Porterie, Bernard; Torero, Jose L

    2007-01-01

    Flame height is defined by the experimentalists as the average position of the luminous flame and, consequently is not directly linked with a quantitative value of a physical parameter. To determine flame heights from both numerical and theoretical results, a more quantifiable criterion is needed to define flame heights and must be in agreement with the experiments to allow comparisons. For wall flames, steady wall flame experiments revealed that flame height may be define...

  15. Dominant height-based height-diameter equations for trees in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A., Jr. Kershaw; Robert C. Morrissey; Douglass F. Jacobs; John R. Seifert; James B. McCarter

    2008-01-01

    Height-diameter equations are developed based on dominant tree data collected in 1986 in 8- to 17-year-old clearcuts and the phase 2 Forest Inventory and Analysis plots on the Hoosier National Forest in south central Indiana. Two equation forms are explored: the basic, three-parameter Chapman-Richards function, and a modification of the three-parameter equation...

  16. Agreement between estimated and measured heights and weights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    index (BMI = kg/m2) and require accurate recording of a patient's height and weight.1. In reality, however, patients often cannot stand up straight for accurate height measurement, or are unable to step on a scale. In such cases, height and weight values are often obtained from the patient or their relatives, who either do not ...

  17. Anterior Face Height Values in a Nigerian Population | Folaranmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...

  18. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  19. Estimation of Total Tree Height from Renewable Resources Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Many ecological, biological, and genetic studies use the measurement of total tree height. Until recently, the Southern Forest Experiment Station's inventory procedures through Renewable Resources Evaluation (RRE) have not included total height measurements. This note provides equations to estimate total height based on other RRE measurements.

  20. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  1. Practical application of the geometric geoid for heighting over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is because a geoid model is required to convert ellipsoidal heights to orthometric heights that are used in practice. A local geometric geoid ... The geoid height is expressed as a function of the local plane coordinates through a biquadratic surface polynomial, using 14 GPS/levelling points. Five points have been used ...

  2. 14 CFR 27.87 - Height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable power failure condition in paragraph (b) of this section, a limiting height-speed envelope must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-speed envelope. 27.87 Section 27.87... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 27.87 Height-speed envelope. (a) If there is any...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1517 - Limiting height-speed envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limiting height-speed envelope. 29.1517... Operating Limitations § 29.1517 Limiting height-speed envelope. For Category A rotorcraft, if a range of... following power failure, the range of heights and its variation with forward speed must be established...

  4. 14 CFR 29.87 - Height-velocity envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Category A engine isolation requirements, the height-velocity envelope for complete power failure must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Height-velocity envelope. 29.87 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Performance § 29.87 Height-velocity envelope. (a...

  5. r.avaflow v1, an advanced open-source computational framework for the propagation and interaction of two-phase mass flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Krenn, Julia; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2017-02-01

    r.avaflow represents an innovative open-source computational tool for routing rapid mass flows, avalanches, or process chains from a defined release area down an arbitrary topography to a deposition area. In contrast to most existing computational tools, r.avaflow (i) employs a two-phase, interacting solid and fluid mixture model (Pudasaini, 2012); (ii) is suitable for modelling more or less complex process chains and interactions; (iii) explicitly considers both entrainment and stopping with deposition, i.e. the change of the basal topography; (iv) allows for the definition of multiple release masses, and/or hydrographs; and (v) serves with built-in functionalities for validation, parameter optimization, and sensitivity analysis. r.avaflow is freely available as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, employing the programming languages Python and C along with the statistical software R. We exemplify the functionalities of r.avaflow by means of two sets of computational experiments: (1) generic process chains consisting in bulk mass and hydrograph release into a reservoir with entrainment of the dam and impact downstream; (2) the prehistoric Acheron rock avalanche, New Zealand. The simulation results are generally plausible for (1) and, after the optimization of two key parameters, reasonably in line with the corresponding observations for (2). However, we identify some potential to enhance the analytic and numerical concepts. Further, thorough parameter studies will be necessary in order to make r.avaflow fit for reliable forward simulations of possible future mass flow events.

  6. Positron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chehab, R.

    1989-01-01

    A tentative survey of positron sources is given. Physical processes on which positron generation is based are indicated and analyzed. Explanation of the general features of electromagnetic interactions and nuclear β + decay makes it possible to predict the yield and emittance for a given optical matching system between the positron source and the accelerator. Some kinds of matching systems commonly used - mainly working with solenoidal fields - are studied and the acceptance volume calculated. Such knowledge is helpful in comparing different matching systems. Since for large machines, a significant distance exists between the positron source and the experimental facility, positron emittance has to be preserved during beam transfer over large distances and methods used for that purpose are indicated. Comparison of existing positron sources leads to extrapolation to sources for future linear colliders

  7. The effect of step stool use and provider height on CPR quality during pediatric cardiac arrest: A simulation-based multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Lin, Yiqun; Nadkarni, Vinay; Wan, Brandi; Duff, Jonathan; Brown, Linda; Bhanji, Farhan; Kessler, David; Tofil, Nancy; Hecker, Kent; Hunt, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to explore whether a) step stool use is associated with improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality; b) provider adjusted height is associated with improved CPR quality; and if associations exist, c) determine whether just-in-time (JIT) CPR training and/or CPR visual feedback attenuates the effect of height and/or step stool use on CPR quality. We analysed data from a trial of simulated cardiac arrests with three study arms: No intervention; CPR visual feedback; and JIT CPR training. Step stool use was voluntary. We explored the association between 1) step stool use and CPR quality, and 2) provider adjusted height and CPR quality. Adjusted height was defined as provider height + 23 cm (if step stool was used). Below-average height participants were ≤ gender-specific average height; the remainder were above average height. We assessed for interaction between study arm and both adjusted height and step stool use. One hundred twenty-four subjects participated; 1,230 30-second epochs of CPR were analysed. Step stool use was associated with improved compression depth in below-average (female, p=0.007; male, pstep stool use (pStep stool use is associated with improved compression depth regardless of height. Increased provider height is associated with improved compression depth, with visual feedback attenuating the effects of height and step stool use.

  8. An antithetic variate to facilitate upper-stem height measurements for critical height sampling with importance sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Jeffrey H. Gove

    2013-01-01

    Critical height sampling (CHS) estimates cubic volume per unit area by multiplying the sum of critical heights measured on trees tallied in a horizontal point sample (HPS) by the HPS basal area factor. One of the barriers to practical application of CHS is the fact that trees near the field location of the point-sampling sample point have critical heights that occur...

  9. Effective pollutant emission heights for atmospheric transport modelling based on real-world information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregger, Thomas; Friedrich, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Emission data needed as input for the operation of atmospheric models should not only be spatially and temporally resolved. Another important feature is the effective emission height which significantly influences modelled concentration values. Unfortunately this information, which is especially relevant for large point sources, is usually not available and simple assumptions are often used in atmospheric models. As a contribution to improve knowledge on emission heights this paper provides typical default values for the driving parameters stack height and flue gas temperature, velocity and flow rate for different industrial sources. The results were derived from an analysis of the probably most comprehensive database of real-world stack information existing in Europe based on German industrial data. A bottom-up calculation of effective emission heights applying equations used for Gaussian dispersion models shows significant differences depending on source and air pollutant and compared to approaches currently used for atmospheric transport modelling. - The comprehensive analysis of real-world stack data provides detailed default parameter values for improving vertical emission distribution in atmospheric modelling

  10. The determination of the mixing height. Current progress and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.; Beyrich, F.; Batchvarova, E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    This report contains extended abstracts of presentations given at a EURASAP Workshop on The Determination of the Mixing Height - Current Progress and Problems. The Workshop, initiated from discussions with Peter Builtjes, was held at Risoe National Laboratory 1-3 October 1997 within the framework of EURASAP (European Association for the Sciences of Air Pollution). The specific topics and chairpersons of the Workshop were: Theoretical Considerations (Sven-Erik Gryning), Mixing Height Estimation from Turbulence Measurements and In-Situ Soundings (Douw Steyn), Mixing Height Determination from NWP-Models (Han van Dop), Climatology and Global Aspects (Werner Klug), Mixing Height Determination from Remote Systems (Werner Klug), Verification of Mixing Height Parameterizations and Models (Frank Beyrich), Mixing Height over Complex Terrain (Ekaterina Batchvarova), Internal Boundary Layers: Mixing Height in Coastal Areas and Over Cities (Allen White). The discussion at the end of the Workshop was chaired by Robert Bornstein. (au)

  11. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  12. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect

  13. World Globes, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images of the world were generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM Project has recently released a new global data set called SRTM30, where the original one arcsecond of latitude and longitude resolution (about 30 meters, or 98 feet, at the equator) was reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters, or 1496 feet.) These images were created from that data set and show the Earth as it would be viewed from a point in space centered over the Americas, Africa and the western Pacific.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Original Data Resolution: SRTM 1 arcsecond (about 30 meters or 98 feet

  14. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  15. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean. The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed

  16. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice. Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency

  17. TH-C-12A-12: Veritas: An Open Source Tool to Facilitate User Interaction with TrueBeam Developer Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, P [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Lewis, J [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Etmektzoglou, T; Svatos, M [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To address the challenges of creating delivery trajectories and imaging sequences with TrueBeam Developer Mode, a new open-source graphical XML builder, Veritas, has been developed, tested and made freely available. Veritas eliminates most of the need to understand the underlying schema and write XML scripts, by providing a graphical menu for each control point specifying the state of 30 mechanical/dose axes. All capabilities of Developer Mode are accessible in Veritas. Methods: Veritas was designed using QT Designer, a ‘what-you-is-what-you-get’ (WYSIWIG) tool for building graphical user interfaces (GUI). Different components of the GUI are integrated using QT's signals and slots mechanism. Functionalities are added using PySide, an open source, cross platform Python binding for the QT framework. The XML code generated is immediately visible, making it an interactive learning tool. A user starts from an anonymized DICOM file or XML example and introduces delivery modifications, or begins their experiment from scratch, then uses the GUI to modify control points as desired. The software automatically generates XML plans following the appropriate schema. Results: Veritas was tested by generating and delivering two XML plans at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The first example was created to irradiate the letter ‘B’ with a narrow MV beam using dynamic couch movements. The second was created to acquire 4D CBCT projections for four minutes. The delivery of the letter ‘B’ was observed using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Both deliveries were generated quickly in Veritas by non-expert Developer Mode users. Conclusion: We introduced a new open source tool Veritas for generating XML plans (delivery trajectories and imaging sequences). Veritas makes Developer Mode more accessible by reducing the learning curve for quick translation of research ideas into XML plans. Veritas is an open source initiative, creating the possibility for future

  18. TH-C-12A-12: Veritas: An Open Source Tool to Facilitate User Interaction with TrueBeam Developer Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P; Lewis, J; Etmektzoglou, T; Svatos, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To address the challenges of creating delivery trajectories and imaging sequences with TrueBeam Developer Mode, a new open-source graphical XML builder, Veritas, has been developed, tested and made freely available. Veritas eliminates most of the need to understand the underlying schema and write XML scripts, by providing a graphical menu for each control point specifying the state of 30 mechanical/dose axes. All capabilities of Developer Mode are accessible in Veritas. Methods: Veritas was designed using QT Designer, a ‘what-you-is-what-you-get’ (WYSIWIG) tool for building graphical user interfaces (GUI). Different components of the GUI are integrated using QT's signals and slots mechanism. Functionalities are added using PySide, an open source, cross platform Python binding for the QT framework. The XML code generated is immediately visible, making it an interactive learning tool. A user starts from an anonymized DICOM file or XML example and introduces delivery modifications, or begins their experiment from scratch, then uses the GUI to modify control points as desired. The software automatically generates XML plans following the appropriate schema. Results: Veritas was tested by generating and delivering two XML plans at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The first example was created to irradiate the letter ‘B’ with a narrow MV beam using dynamic couch movements. The second was created to acquire 4D CBCT projections for four minutes. The delivery of the letter ‘B’ was observed using a 2D array of ionization chambers. Both deliveries were generated quickly in Veritas by non-expert Developer Mode users. Conclusion: We introduced a new open source tool Veritas for generating XML plans (delivery trajectories and imaging sequences). Veritas makes Developer Mode more accessible by reducing the learning curve for quick translation of research ideas into XML plans. Veritas is an open source initiative, creating the possibility for future

  19. Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    -supplemented calves compared with non-forage-supplemented calves. These results showed no interactions between grain sources and forage provision on calf performance; however, the inclusion of CS and barley in starter diets could enhance the growth performance of Holstein calves during the transition from liquid to solid feed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Plant height and grain yield of soybean depending on the year, irrigation and variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Galić Šubašić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year field trials determined the influence of the year, irrigation treatment and varieties on plant height and grain yield of soybeans in the eastern Croatia conditions. All three investigated factors, as well as their interactions, with the exception of irrigation interactions and varieties that were significant at P=0.05, show a statistically significant influence (P=0.01 on the height of soybean plants. Soybean grain yields, as well as all their interactions, affect the significance level P=0.01. The obtained values of soybean grain yields during the study (mostly greater than 3000 kg ha-1 indicate the importance of selecting appropriate varieties and irrigation treatment in adapting soybean production to adverse weather effects of the year.

  1. Hilar height ratio in normal Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Kyung Ho; Lee, Nam Joon; Seol, Hae Young; Chung, Kyoo Byung

    1979-01-01

    Hilar displacement is one of the significant sign of pulmonary volume change. The hilar height ratio (HHR) is a value that express the normal position of hilum in its hemithorax, and it is calculated by dividing the distance from the hilum to the lung apex by the distance from the hilum to the diaphragm. Displacement of one hilum is usually easy to detect but both are displaced in the same direction especially, recognition is more difficult. Knowledge of normal HHR allows evaluation of hilar positional change even when the relative hilar position are not altered. Normal chest PA views of 275 cases taken at Korea University Hospital during the period of April 1978 to Jun 1979 were analyzed. The right hilum is positioned in lower half of the right hemithorax, while the left hilum is situated in the upper half of left hemithorax. The difference of hilar ratio according to age group is slight, but there is significant difference between right-HHR and left-HHR. The value of right-HHR is 1.28 ± 0.14, the value of left-HHR is 0.88 ± 0.09.

  2. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  3. Subexponential estimates in Shirshov's theorem on height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, Aleksei Ya; Kharitonov, Mikhail I

    2012-01-01

    Suppose that F 2,m is a free 2-generated associative ring with the identity x m =0. In 1993 Zelmanov put the following question: is it true that the nilpotency degree of F 2,m has exponential growth? We give the definitive answer to Zelmanov's question by showing that the nilpotency class of an l-generated associative algebra with the identity x d =0 is smaller than Ψ(d,d,l), where Ψ(n,d,l)=2 18 l(nd) 3log 3 (nd)+13 d 2 . This result is a consequence of the following fact based on combinatorics of words. Let l, n and d≥n be positive integers. Then all words over an alphabet of cardinality l whose length is not less than Ψ(n,d,l) are either n-divisible or contain x d ; a word W is n-divisible if it can be represented in the form W=W 0 W 1 …W n so that W 1 ,...,W n are placed in lexicographically decreasing order. Our proof uses Dilworth's theorem (according to V.N. Latyshev's idea). We show that the set of not n-divisible words over an alphabet of cardinality l has height h 87 l·n 12log 3 n+48 . Bibliography: 40 titles.

  4. Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J M; Whitehouse, R H

    1976-01-01

    New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls. PMID:952550

  5. Benefits of Two Turbine Rotor Diameters and Hub Heights in the Same Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stanley, Andrew P. J. [Brigham Young University; Ning, Andrew [Brigham Young University

    2018-01-12

    Significant turbine-wake interactions greatly reduce power output in a wind farm. If different turbine hub heights and rotor diameters are included in the same wind farm, the wake interference in the farm will be reduced, resulting in a lower cost of energy (COE) than a farm with identical turbines. In this paper, we present a method to model wind farm COE in farms with hub heights and rotor diameters that vary across the wind farm. We also demonstrate how to optimize these wind farms to minimize COE. The results show that COE can be greatly reduced in wind farms with non-homogeneous turbines, especially when the turbines are spaced close together. For a unidirectional wind rose, including different turbine design in the wind farm has a similar decrease in COE to spreading the wind turbines farther apart. When the rotor diameter and hub height of the wind turbines in a farm are optimized uniformly, a COE decrease of 4% to 13% (depending on the grid spacing and wind shear exponent) is achieved compared to the baseline. When the rotor diameter and turbine heights are optimized non-uniformly, with two different diameters and heights throughout the farm, there is a COE decrease of 22% to 41% compared to the baseline. For a more spread wind rose with a dominant probability from the west, there is a COE decrease between 3% and 10% for uniformly optimized rotor diameter and height compared to the baseline. With two optimized rotor diameters and heights through the farm, a COE decrease of 3% to 19% is achieved. For a similar wind rose shifted such that the dominant wind direction is from the northwest, a COE decrease between 3% and 10% results from uniformly optimized wind turbines compared to the baseline. A COE decrease of 3% to 17% compared to the baseline occurs with two different turbines are optimized throughout the wind farm.

  6. QTLs for heading date and plant height under multiple environments in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmin; Hu, Wei; Tan, Cong; Xing, Yongzhong

    2017-02-01

    Both heading date and plant height are important traits related to grain yield in rice. In this study, a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for both traits under 3 long-day (LD) environments and 1 short-day (SD) environment. A total of eight QTLs for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were detected by composite interval mapping under LD conditions. Additional one QTL for heading date and three QTLs for plant height were identified by Two-QTL model under LD conditions. Among them, major QTLs qHd7.1, qHd7.2 and qHd8 for heading date, and qPh1 and qPh7.1 for plant height were commonly detected. qHd7.1 and qHd7.2 were mapped to small regions of less than 1 cM. Genome position comparison of previously cloned genes with QTLs detected in this study revealed that qHd5 and qPh3.1 were two novel QTLs. The alleles of these QTLs increasing trait values were dispersed in both parents, which well explained the transgressive segregation observed in this population. In addition, the interaction between qHd7.1 and qHd8 was detected under all LD conditions. Multiple-QTL model analysis revealed that all QTLs and their interactions explained over 80% of heading date variation and 50% of plant height variation. Two heading date QTLs were detected under SD condition. Of them, qHd10 were commonly identified under LD condition. The difference in QTL detection between LD and SD conditions indicated most heading date QTLs are sensitive to photoperiod. These findings will benefit breeding design for heading date and plant height in rice.

  7. sin2 θ W estimate and bounds on nonstandard interactions at source and detector in the solar neutrino low-energy regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir N.; McKay, Douglas W.

    2017-07-01

    We explore the implications of the Borexino experiment's real time measurements of the lowest energy part of the neutrino spectrum from the primary pp fusion process up to 0.420 MeV through the 7Be decay at 0.862 MeV to the pep reaction at 1.44 MeV. We exploit the fact that at such low energies, the large mixing angle solution to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein matter effects in the sun are small for 7Be and pep and negligible for pp. Consequently, the neutrinos produced in the sun change their flavor almost entirely through vacuum oscillations during propagation from the sun's surface and through possible nonstandard interactions acting at the solar source and Borexino detector. We combine the different NSI effects at source and detector in a single framework and use the current Borexino data to bound NSI non-universal and flavor-changing parameters at energies below the reach of reactor neutrino experiments. We also study the implication of the current data for the weak-mixing angle at this "low-energy frontier" data from the Borexino experiment, where it is expected to be slightly larger than its value at the Z mass. We find sin2 θ W = 0.224 ± 0.016, the lowest energy-scale estimate to date. Looking to the future, we use projected sensitivities to solar neutrinos in next generation dedicated solar experiments and direct dark matter detection experiments and find a potential factor five improvement in determination of the weak-mixing angle and up to an order of magnitude improvement in probing the NSI parameters space.

  8. Radon as a tracer to characterize the interactions between groundwater and surface water around the ground source heat pump system in riverside area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    The interaction characteristics between groundwater and surface water was examined by using Radon-222 at Han River Environmental Research Center (HRERC) in Korea where a geothermal resource using indirect open loop ground source heat pump (GSHP) has been developed. For designing a high efficiency performance of the open loop system in shallow aquifer, the riverside area was selected for great advantage of full capacity of well. From this reason groundwater properties of the study site can be easily influenced by influx of surrounding Han River. Therefore, 12 groundwater wells were used for monitoring radon concentration and groundwater level with fluctuation of river stage from May, 2014 to Apr., 2015. The short term monitoring data showed that the radon concentration was changed in accordance with flow meter data which was reflected well by the river stage fluctuation. The spatial distribution of radon concentration from long term monitoring data was also found to be affected by water level fluctuation by nearby dam activity and seasonal effect such as heavy rainfall and groundwater pumping. The estimated residence time indicates that river flows to the study site change its direction according to the combined effect of river stage and groundwater hydrology. In the linear regression of the values, flow velocities were yielded around 0.04 to 0.25 m/day which were similar to flow meter data. These results reveal that Radon-222 can be used as an appropriate environmental tracer in examining the characteristics of interaction in consideration of fluctuating river flow on operation of GSHP in the riverside area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+) in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  9. Australia, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 45 to 10 degrees South latitude, 112 to 155 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  10. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C. Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  11. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D

  12. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin(®)) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean duration of 4.1 yr. The anabolic steroid hormone was started approximately 1 yr after initiation of treatment with the GnRH analog. The mean pubertal height gain from onset of puberty till adult height was significantly greater in the combination treatment group (33.9 cm) than in the untreated group (26.4 cm) (ppenis and pubic hair is promoted by the anabolic steroid hormone, no psychosocial problems arose because of delayed puberty. No clinically significant adverse events appeared. Combined treatment with GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone significantly increased height gain during puberty and adult height in boys who entered puberty with a short stature, since the period until epiphyseal closure was extended due to deceleration of the bone age maturation by administration of the GnRH analog and the growth rate at this time was maintained by the anabolic steroid hormone.

  13. Type of adsorbent and column height in adsorption process of used cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnelly, Hervelly, Taufik, Yusman; Melany, Ivo Nila

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to find out the best adsorbent and column height that can adsorb color and soluble impurities substances in used cooking oil. This research was meant for knowledge development of refined cooking oil technology. The used of this research was giving out information on the recycling process of used cooking oil. Research design used 2 × 2 factorial pattern in randomized group design with 6 repetitions. The first factor is adsorbent type (J) that consist of activated carbon (J1) and Zeolit (J2). The second factor is column height (K) with variations of 15 cm (k1) and 20 cm (k2). Chemical analysis parameter are free fatty acid, water content and saponification value. Physical parameter measurement was done on color with Hunter Lab system analysis and viscosity using viscometer method. Chemical analysis result of preliminary research on used cooking oil showed water content of 1,9%, free fatty acid 1,58%, saponification value 130,79 mg KOH/g oil, viscosity 0,6 d Pas and color with L value of -27,60, a value 1,04 and b value 1,54. Result on main research showed that adsorbent type only gave effect on water content whereas column height and its interaction was not gave significant effect on water content. Interaction between adsorbent type (J) and column height (K) gave significant effect to free fatty acid, saponification value, viscosity and color for L, a and b value of recycled cooking oil.

  14. Combined Treatment with Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Analog and Anabolic Steroid Hormone Increased Pubertal Height Gain and Adult Height in Boys with Early Puberty for Height

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Toshiaki; Naiki, Yasuhiro; Horikawa, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one boys with a height of 135 cm or less at onset of puberty were treated with a combination of GnRH analog and anabolic steroid hormone, and their pubertal height gain and adult height were compared with those of untreated 29 boys who enter puberty below 135 cm. The mean age at the start of treatment with a GnRH analog, leuprorelin acetate depot (Leuplin?) was 12.3 yr, a mean of 1.3 yr after the onset of puberty, and GnRH analog was administered every 3 to 5 wk thereafter for a mean d...

  15. Simulation of ICESat-2 canopy height retrievals for different ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Slated for launch in late 2017 (or early 2018), the ICESat-2 satellite will provide a global distribution of geodetic measurements from a space-based laser altimeter of both the terrain surface and relative canopy heights which will provide a significant benefit to society through a variety of applications ranging from improved global digital terrain models to producing distribution of above ground vegetation structure. The ATLAS instrument designed for ICESat-2, will utilize a different technology than what is found on most laser mapping systems. The photon counting technology of the ATLAS instrument onboard ICESat-2 will record the arrival time associated with a single photon detection. That detection can occur anywhere within the vertical distribution of the reflected signal, that is, anywhere within the vertical distribution of the canopy. This uncertainty of where the photon will be returned from within the vegetation layer is referred to as the vertical sampling error. Preliminary simulation studies to estimate vertical sampling error have been conducted for several ecosystems including woodland savanna, montane conifers, temperate hardwoods, tropical forest, and boreal forest. The results from these simulations indicate that the canopy heights reported on the ATL08 data product will underestimate the top canopy height in the range of 1 - 4 m. Although simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 will underestimate top canopy height, there is, however, a strong correlation between ICESat-2 heights and relative canopy height metrics (e.g. RH75, RH90). In tropical forest, simulation results indicate the ICESat-2 height correlates strongly with RH90. Similarly, in temperate broadleaf forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights were also strongly correlated with RH90. In boreal forest, the simulated ICESat-2 heights are strongly correlated with RH75 heights. It is hypothesized that the correlations between simulated ICESat-2 heights and canopy height metrics are a

  16. Assessing the effect of drought severity on height-for-age z-score in Kenyan children: a secondary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lillepold, BScH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, droughts are occurring more regularly and are having negative effects on population health, particularly in countries such as Kenya, where agriculture is a primary driver of the economy and a source of subsistence for many communities. Children are particularly susceptible to weather-related shocks. Previous research has shown an association between drought and cross-sectional indicators of malnutrition, such as stunting. In this study, we explored various longitudinal and spatial analysis approaches to evaluating the effect of drought on height-for-age z-scores (HAZ over time and space among young children in Kenya. Methods: Using anthropometric data from three georeferenced Kenyan Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index, we developed multivariate linear regression and spatial lag and error models (with Moran's I calculations to investigate the association between drought severity and HAZ in children aged 0–5 years. Initial covariates included age of the child, sex, maternal age, height and education, wealth index, urban or rural location, and size at birth. We then did multilevel and geographically weighted regression modelling using frequentist or Bayesian methods and with inclusion of household-level covariates, such as livelihood zones. To assess the effect of changes in drought severity on child HAZ over time, KDHS data from 2003, 2008–09, and 2014 were analysed with spatiotemporal modelling. Findings: Preliminary results from the multivariate linear model showed a negative, non-significant association between drought severity and HAZ among Kenyan children in 2014 (β=0·033, p=0·101; however, there was a significant interaction between drought severity and age (β=–0·002, p<0·0007. The spatial lag model gave similar results. Other variables associated with HAZ included wealth index, age, sex, maternal education, and maternal height. Global Moran's I

  17. Genetic variation of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) provenances and families from Oregon and Washington in juvenile height growth and needle color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Richard Sniezko

    2011-01-01

    A three year common garden study was conducted on whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) which included 215 families from the eight provenances or seed zones in Oregon and Washington. Total height and needle color were assessed. Height differed significantly among provenances and families, and was primarily associated with source elevation, longitude, and precipitation. A...

  18. Genetic study on heading time and plant height of wheat irradiated by 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guixue; Zhu Xiaoda

    1995-01-01

    The 137 Cs and 60 Co γ-rays with 0, 20, 30 and 40 krad were used to irradiate two wheat varieties to study the genetic effects of both irradiation sources on heading time and plant height. It revealed that both irradiation sources had similar impact on heading time and plant height and the effects were significant. It was clear that both irradiation sources were able to induce the generation of early ripening and short-stalked mutants. With regard to the heading time and plant height, the means and genetic parameters, e.g., genetic variance, genetic coefficient of variation, heritability, genetic advance and relative genetic advance, varied with varieties, irradiation dosages and generations. Mutants with good characters were obtained by using variety 77-zhong-2882 and an irradiation dose of 30 krad. The genetic effects of irradiation were remarkable in their M 2 and M 3 generations

  19. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of

  20. Dog behavior co-varies with height, bodyweight and skull shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D McGreevy

    Full Text Available Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds' height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301 of various common breeds (n = 49 collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ. Stepwise backward elimination regressions revealed that, across the breeds, 33 behavioral traits all but one of which are undesirable in companion animals correlated with either height alone (n = 14, bodyweight alone (n = 5, CI alone (n = 3, bodyweight-and-skull shape combined (n = 2, height-and-skull shape combined (n = 3 or height-and-bodyweight combined (n = 6. For example, breed average height showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with mounting persons or objects, touch sensitivity, urination when left alone, dog-directed fear, separation-related problems, non-social fear, defecation when left alone, owner-directed aggression, begging for food, urine marking and attachment/attention-seeking, while bodyweight showed strongly significant inverse relationships (p<0.001 with excitability and being reported as hyperactive. Apart from trainability, all regression coefficients with height were negative indicating that, across the breeds, behavior becomes more problematic as height decreases. Allogrooming increased strongly (p<0.001 with CI and inversely with height. CI alone showed a strong significant positive relationship with self-grooming (p<0.001 but a negative relationship with chasing (p = 0.020. The current study demonstrates how aspects of CI (and therefore brain shape

  1. Use of reflected GNSS SNR data to retrieve either soil moisture or vegetation height from a wheat crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to estimate soil moisture and vegetation height from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR data using direct and reflected signals by the land surface surrounding a ground-based antenna. Observations are collected from a rainfed wheat field in southwestern France. Surface soil moisture is retrieved based on SNR phases estimated by the Least Square Estimation method, assuming the relative antenna height is constant. It is found that vegetation growth breaks up the constant relative antenna height assumption. A vegetation-height retrieval algorithm is proposed using the SNR-dominant period (the peak period in the average power spectrum derived from a wavelet analysis of SNR. Soil moisture and vegetation height are retrieved at different time periods (before and after vegetation's significant growth in March. The retrievals are compared with two independent reference data sets: in situ observations of soil moisture and vegetation height, and numerical simulations of soil moisture, vegetation height and above-ground dry biomass from the ISBA (interactions between soil, biosphere and atmosphere land surface model. Results show that changes in soil moisture mainly affect the multipath phase of the SNR data (assuming the relative antenna height is constant with little change in the dominant period of the SNR data, whereas changes in vegetation height are more likely to modulate the SNR-dominant period. Surface volumetric soil moisture can be estimated (R2  =  0.74, RMSE  =  0.009 m3 m−3 when the wheat is smaller than one wavelength (∼ 19 cm. The quality of the estimates markedly decreases when the vegetation height increases. This is because the reflected GNSS signal is less affected by the soil. When vegetation replaces soil as the dominant reflecting surface, a wavelet analysis provides an accurate estimation of the wheat crop height (R2  =  0.98, RMSE  =  6

  2. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides {sup 14}C, {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 129}I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of {sup 10}Be and {sup 36}Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of {sup 129}I, {sup 14}C and {sup 36}Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program Extended abstract. 5 refs.

  3. Control of a pulse height analyzer using an RDX workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montelongo, S.; Hunt, D.N.

    1984-12-01

    The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National laboratory is in the midst of upgrading its radiation counting facilities to automate data acquisition and quality control. This upgrade requires control of a pulse height analyzer (PHA) from an interactive LSI-11/23 workstation running RSX-11M. The PHA is a micro-computer based multichannel analyzer system providing data acquisition, storage, display, manipulation and input/output from up to four independent acquisition interfaces. Control of the analyzer includes reading and writing energy spectra, issuing commands, and servicing device interrupts. The analyzer communicates to the host system over a 9600-baud serial line using the Digital Data Communications link level Protocol (DDCMP). We relieved the RSX workstation CPU from the DDCMP overhead by implementing a DEC compatible in-house designed DMA serial line board (the ISL-11) to communicate with the analyzer. An RSX I/O device driver was written to complete the path between the analyzer and the RSX system by providing the link between the communication board and an application task. The I/O driver is written to handle several ISL-11 cards all operating in parallel thus providing support for control of multiple analyzers from a single workstation. The RSX device driver, its design and use by application code controlling the analyzer, and its operating environment will be discussed

  4. Future directions of the AMS program at Lucas Heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.

    1998-01-01

    The research program based on the ANTARES AMS spectrometer involves applications of the long-lived radionuclides 14 C, 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl and 129 I in earth sciences and archaeology. Examples of environmental applications of AMS at Lucas Heights include: use of the 14 C bomb pulse to determine the age and age-spread of air trapped in Antarctic ice bubbles, key parameters to study the variability of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases in the past; analyses of 14 C bomb-pulse curves in tree rings from tropical regions and the southern hemisphere to improve our understanding of the carbon cycle and air-sea interactions, important processes for the global climate; analyses of 10 Be and 36 Cl produced in-situ in polished glacial bedrock and moraine boulders from Tasmania, New Zealand and Antarctica, as part of a major national project to unravel the timing of glacial cycles in the southern hemisphere. A recent archaeological application has been the radiocarbon dating of charcoal fragments from the rock shelter at Jinmium in the Northern Territory demonstrating that this site was occupied by Aboriginal people only during the late Holocene. In environmental monitoring, the analysis of 129 I, 14 C and 36 Cl in water specimens from Mururoa and Fangatauga contributed to an IAEA study regarding residual radioactivity in the Pacific after the French nuclear program

  5. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  6. Effect of firing conditions & release height on terminal performance of submunitions and conditions for optimum height of release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.K. Gite

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Submunitions should exhibit optimum terminal performance at target end when released from certain pre-determined height. Selection of an optimum height of release of the submunitions depends on the terminal parameters like forward throw, remaining velocity, impact angle and flight time. In this paper, the effects of initial firing conditions and height of release on terminal performance of submunitions discussed in detail. For different height of release, the relation between range and forward throw is also established & validated for a number of firing altitude and rocket configurations.

  7. An attempt to link the Brazilian Height System to a World Height System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Ferreira

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the geopotential approach to investigate the present Brazilian Height System (BHS. Geopotential numbers are derived from Global Positioning System (GPS satellite surveying and disturbing potential on selected benchmarks. A model for the disturbing potential can be obtained by an existing set of spherical harmonic coefficients such as the Earth Gravity Model 2008 (EGM08. The approach provides absolute evaluation of local normal geopotential numbers (aka spheropotential numbers related to a so-called World Height System (WHS. To test the validity of the proposed methodology, a numerical experiment was carried out related to a test region in Southern Brazil. The accuracy of the derived geopotential numbers was tested versus local normal geopotential numbers based on 262 GPS/leveling points. The root mean square error (RMSE value for metric offset of BHS derived from geopotential numbers and the disturbing potential modeling in the test area was estimated to be near 0.224 meters in the absolute view. Therefore, since these spheropotential numbers are referred to a local datum, these results of comparisons may be an indicator of the mean bias of local network due to the effect of local Sea Surface Topography (SSTop and possible offset between the unknown reference for the BHS and the quasigeoid model in the region.

  8. On the height scale of magnetic fields above sunspots derived from RATAN-600 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedov, Sh.B.; Gelfreikh, G.B.; Fuerstenberg, F.; Hildebrandt, J.; Krueger, A.

    1983-01-01

    Model calculations of the S-component are compared with observations of the RATAN-600 telescope at five discrete microwave frequencies referring to active region McMath No. 15974 on May 1, 1979. The spectral variations of source diameter, flux density, and degree of polarization are used to derive the height scale of the magnetic field in accordance with a magnetic dipole distribution under the assumption of advanced temperature and electron density distributions according to most recent EUV observations. (orig.)

  9. A Photogrammetric Workflow for the Creation of a Forest Canopy Height Model from Small Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lejeune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of operational small unmanned aerial systems (UASs opens the door for their extensive use in forest mapping, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of UAS imagery better suit local-scale investigation than traditional remote sensing tools. This article focuses on the use of combined photogrammetry and “Structure from Motion” approaches in order to model the forest canopy surface from low-altitude aerial images. An original workflow, using the open source and free photogrammetric toolbox, MICMAC (acronym for Multi Image Matches for Auto Correlation Methods, was set up to create a digital canopy surface model of deciduous stands. In combination with a co-registered light detection and ranging (LiDAR digital terrain model, the elevation of vegetation was determined, and the resulting hybrid photo/LiDAR canopy height model was compared to data from a LiDAR canopy height model and from forest inventory data. Linear regressions predicting dominant height and individual height from plot metrics and crown metrics showed that the photogrammetric canopy height model was of good quality for deciduous stands. Although photogrammetric reconstruction significantly smooths the canopy surface, the use of this workflow has the potential to take full advantage of the flexible revisit period of drones in order to refresh the LiDAR canopy height model and to collect dense multitemporal canopy height series.

  10. NeuroMap: A spline-based interactive open-source software for spatiotemporal mapping of 2D and 3D MEA data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oussama eAbdoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale covering (several mm² of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50µm of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid deformation based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License (GPL and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  11. NeuroMap: A Spline-Based Interactive Open-Source Software for Spatiotemporal Mapping of 2D and 3D MEA Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Oussama; Joucla, Sébastien; Mazzocco, Claire; Yvert, Blaise

    2011-01-01

    A major characteristic of neural networks is the complexity of their organization at various spatial scales, from microscopic local circuits to macroscopic brain-scale areas. Understanding how neural information is processed thus entails the ability to study them at multiple scales simultaneously. This is made possible using microelectrodes array (MEA) technology. Indeed, high-density MEAs provide large-scale coverage (several square millimeters) of whole neural structures combined with microscopic resolution (about 50 μm) of unit activity. Yet, current options for spatiotemporal representation of MEA-collected data remain limited. Here we present NeuroMap, a new interactive Matlab-based software for spatiotemporal mapping of MEA data. NeuroMap uses thin plate spline interpolation, which provides several assets with respect to conventional mapping methods used currently. First, any MEA design can be considered, including 2D or 3D, regular or irregular, arrangements of electrodes. Second, spline interpolation allows the estimation of activity across the tissue with local extrema not necessarily at recording sites. Finally, this interpolation approach provides a straightforward analytical estimation of the spatial Laplacian for better current sources localization. In this software, coregistration of 2D MEA data on the anatomy of the neural tissue is made possible by fine matching of anatomical data with electrode positions using rigid-deformation-based correction of anatomical pictures. Overall, NeuroMap provides substantial material for detailed spatiotemporal analysis of MEA data. The package is distributed under GNU General Public License and available at http://sites.google.com/site/neuromapsoftware.

  12. Measuring perceived ceiling height in a visual comparison task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Castell, Christoph; Hecht, Heiko; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    When judging interior space, a dark ceiling is judged to be lower than a light ceiling. The method of metric judgments (e.g., on a centimetre scale) that has typically been used in such tasks may reflect a genuine perceptual effect or it may reflect a cognitively mediated impression. We employed a height-matching method in which perceived ceiling height had to be matched with an adjustable pillar, thus obtaining psychometric functions that allowed for an estimation of the point of subjective equality (PSE) and the difference limen (DL). The height-matching method developed in this paper allows for a direct visual match and does not require metric judgment. It has the added advantage of providing superior precision. Experiment 1 used ceiling heights between 2.90 m and 3.00 m. The PSE proved sensitive to slight changes in perceived ceiling height. The DL was about 3% of the physical ceiling height. Experiment 2 found similar results for lower (2.30 m to 2.50 m) and higher (3.30 m to 3.50 m) ceilings. In Experiment 3, we additionally varied ceiling lightness (light grey vs. dark grey). The height matches showed that the light ceiling appeared significantly higher than the darker ceiling. We therefore attribute the influence of ceiling lightness on perceived ceiling height to a direct perceptual rather than a cognitive effect.

  13. Oxygen–induced barrier height changes in aluminium – amorphous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that the application of voltage causes charge exchange between the surface states and the semiconductor leading to a change in the height of the potential barrier for electrons passing from aluminium into the a-Se films. The empirically determined values of barrier height of Al/a-Se diodes with thin and ...

  14. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  15. 17 Years of Cloud Heights from Terra, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.

    2017-12-01

    The effective cloud height, H, is the integral of observed cloud-top heights, weighted by their frequency of occurrence. Here we look at changes in the effective cloud height, H', as measured by the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) on the first Earth Observing System platform, Terra. Terra was launched in December 1999, and now has over 17 years of consistently measured climate records. Globally, HG' has an important influence on Earth's climate, whereas regionally, HR' is a useful measure of low frequency changes in circulation patterns. MISR has a sampling error in the annual mean HG' of ≈11 m, allowing fairly small interannual variations to be detected. This paper extends the previous 15-year summary that showed significant differences in the long term mean hemispheric cloud height changes. Also of interest are the correlations in tropical cloud height changes and related teleconnections. The largest ephemeral values in the annual HR' [over 1.5 km] are noted over the Central Pacific and the Maritime Continent. These changes are strongly anticorrelated with each other, being directly related to changes in ENSO. They are also correlated with the largest ephemeral changes in HG'. Around the equator, we find at least four distinct centres of similar fluctuations in cloud height. This paper examines the relative time dependence of these regional height changes, separately for La Niña and El Niño events, and stresses the value of extending the time series of uniformly measured cloud heights from space beyond EOS-Terra.

  16. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood

    2007-01-01

    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  17. Stereoscopic Roadside Curb Height Measurement using V-Disparity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matu, Florin-Octavian; Vlaykov, Iskren; Thøgersen, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Managing road assets, such as roadside curbs, is one of the interests of municipalities. As an interesting application of computer vision, this paper proposes a system for automated measurement of the height of the roadside curbs. The developed system uses the spatial information available...... results show that the system can measure the height of the roadside curb with good accuracy and precision....

  18. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...

  19. human pelvis height is associated with other pelvis measurements

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    guyton2

    no study seeking to relate pelvis height to the other pelvis measurements of obstetric importance in Ugandans. In this paper we set out to answer the research question what are the associations between the various pelvis anthropometric measurements of obstetric importance with pelvis height in a sample of bones from the ...

  20. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... and stand density) into the base height-diameter models increased the accuracy of prediction for P. tremula. .... parameter estimates compared with those obtained with ... using coefficient of determination for non-linear regression (. 2. R ), ..... stochastic height-diameter model for maritime pine ecoregions in.

  1. Height among Women is Curvilinearly Related to Life History Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that women of medium height would show a more secure, long-term mating pattern characterized by less jealousy, less intrasexual competition and a “slower” life history strategy. In three samples of female undergraduate students clear support was found for these hypotheses. In Study 1, among 120 participants, height was curvilinearly related to well-established measures of possessive and reactive jealousy, with women of medium height being less jealous than tall as well as short women. In Study 2, among 40 participants, height was curvilinearly related to intrasexual competition, with women of medium height being less competitive towards other women than tall as well as short women. In Study 3, among 299 participants, height was curvilinearly related to the Mini-K, a well-validated measure of “slower” life history strategy, with women of medium height having a slower life history strategy than tall as well as short women. The results suggest that women of medium height tend to follow a different mating strategy than either tall or short women. Various explanations and implications of these results are discussed.

  2. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, J. (James); Di Cesare, M. (Mariachiara); Stevens, G.A. (Gretchen A.); Zhou, B. (Bin); Bixby, H. (Honor); Cowan, M. (Melanie); Fortunato, L. (Léa); Bennett, J.E. (James E.); G. Danaei (Goodarz); Hajifathalian, K. (Kaveh); Lu, Y. (Yuan); Riley, L.M. (Leanne M.); Laxmaiah, A. (Avula); Kontis, V. (Vasilis); Paciorek, C.J. (Christopher J.); M. Ezzati (Majid); Abdeen, Z.A. (Ziad A.); Hamid, Z.A. (Zargar Abdul); Abu-Rmeileh, N.M. (Niveen M.); Acosta-Cazares, B. (Benjamin); Adams, R. (Robert); Aekplakorn, W. (Wichai); C.A. Aguilar-Salinas (Carlos A.); C.O. Agyemang (Charles); Ahmadvand, A. (Alireza); W. Ahrens (W.); Al-Hazzaa, H.M. (Hazzaa M.); Al-Othman, A.R. (Amani Rashed); Raddadi, R.A. (Rajaa Al); Ali, M.M. (Mohamed M.); Alkerwi, A. (Ala’a); M. Alvarez-Pedrerol (Mar); Aly, E. (Eman); P. Amouyel (Philippe); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); Andersen, L.B. (Lars Bo); Anderssen, S.A. (Sigmund A.); Anjana, R.M. (Ranjit Mohan); Aounallah-Skhiri, H. (Hajer); Ariansen, I. (Inger); Aris, T. (Tahir); Arlappa, N. (Nimmathota); Arveiler, D. (Dominique); Assah, F.K. (Felix K.); Avdicová, M. (Mária); J. Azizi (Joshan); Babu, B.V. (Bontha V.); Bahijri, S. (Suhad); Balakrishna, N. (Nagalla); Bandosz, P. (Piotr); Banegas, J.R. (José R.); Barbagallo, C.M. (Carlo M.); Barceló, A. (Alberto); Barkat, A. (Amina); Barros, M.V. (Mauro V.); Bata, I. (Iqbal); Batieha, A.M. (Anwar M.); Batista, R.L. (Rosangela L.); Baur, L.A. (Louise A.); Beaglehole, R. (Robert); Romdhane, H.B. (Habiba Ben); Benet, M. (Mikhail); Bernabe-Ortiz, A. (Antonio); Bernotiene, G. (Gailute); Bettiol, H. (Heloisa); Bhagyalaxmi, A. (Aroor); Bharadwaj, S. (Sumit); Bhargava, S.K. (Santosh K.); Bhatti, Z. (Zaid); Z.A. Bhutta (Zulfiqar A); Bi, H. (Hongsheng); Bi, Y. (Yufang); Bjerregaard, P. (Peter); Bjertness, E. (Espen); Bjertness, M.B. (Marius B.); Björkelund, C. (Cecilia); Blokstra, A. (Anneke); Bo, S. (Simona); M. Bobak (Martin); Boddy, L.M. (Lynne M.); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); H. Boeing (Heiner); Boissonnet, C.P. (Carlos P.); Bongard, V. (Vanina); P. Bovet (Pascal); Braeckman, L. (Lutgart); Bragt, M.C.E. (Marjolijn C. E.); Brajkovich, I. (Imperia); Branca, F. (Francesco); Breckenkamp, J. (Juergen); H. Brenner (Hermann); L.M. Brewster (Lizzy); Brian, G.R. (Garry R.); Bruno, G. (Graziella); Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B. (H. Bas); Bugge, A. (Anna); Burns, C. (Con); De León, A.C. (Antonio Cabrera); Cacciottolo, J. (Joseph); Cama, T. (Tilema); Cameron, C. (Christine); Camolas, J. (José); G. Can (Günay); Cândido, A.P.C. (Ana Paula C.); Capuano, V. (Vincenzo); Cardoso, V.C. (Viviane C.); Carlsson, A.C. (Axel C.); Carvalho, M.J. (Maria J.); Casanueva, F.F. (Felipe F.); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); Caserta, C.A. (Carmelo A.); Chamukuttan, S. (Snehalatha); A.W.M. Chan (Angelique); Chan, Q. (Queenie); Chaturvedi, H.K. (Himanshu K.); Chaturvedi, N. (Nishi); Chen, C.-J. (Chien-Jen); Chen, F. (Fangfang); Chen, H. (Huashuai); Chen, S. (Shuohua); Chen, Z. (Zhengming); Cheng, C.-Y. (Ching-Yu); A. Chetrit (Angela); Chiolero, A. (Arnaud); Chiou, S.-T. (Shu-Ti); Chirita-Emandi, A. (Adela); Cho, B. (Belong); Cho, Y. (Yumi); Christensen, K. (Kaare); Chudek, J. (Jerzy); R. Cifkova (Renata); F. Claessens; E. Clays (Els); Concin, H. (Hans); C. Cooper (Charles); Cooper, R. (Rachel); Coppinger, T.C. (Tara C.); Costanzo, S. (Simona); D. Cottel (Dominique); Cowell, C. (Chris); Craig, C.L. (Cora L.); Crujeiras, A.B. (Ana B.); D’Arrigo, G. (Graziella); d’Orsi, E. (Eleonora); J. Dallongeville; Damasceno, A. (Albertino); Damsgaard, C.T. (Camilla T.); Dankner, R. (Rachel); Dauchet, L. (Luc); G. De Backer (Guy); D. De Bacquer (Dirk); de Gaetano, G. (Giovanni); De Henauw, S. (Stefaan); D. De Smedt (Delphine); Deepa, M. (Mohan); Deev, A.D. (Alexander D.); A. Dehghan (Abbas); Delisle, H. (Hélène); Delpeuch, F. (Francis); Deschamps, V. (Valérie); K. Dhana (Klodian); Di Castelnuovo, A.F. (Augusto F.); Dias-da-Costa, J.S. (Juvenal Soares); Diaz, A. (Alejandro); Djalalinia, S. (Shirin); Do, H.T.P. (Ha T. P.); Dobson, A.J. (Annette J.); C. Donfrancesco (Chiara); Donoso, S.P. (Silvana P.); A. Döring (Angela); Doua, K. (Kouamelan); Drygas, W. (Wojciech); Dzerve, V. (Vilnis); Egbagbe, E.E. (Eruke E.); Eggertsen, R. (Robert); U. Ekelund (Ulf); El Ati, J. (Jalila); P. Elliott (Paul); Engle-Stone, R. (Reina); Erasmus, R.T. (Rajiv T.); Erem, C. (Cihangir); Eriksen, L. (Louise); Escobedo-de la Peña, J. (Jorge); A. Evans (Alun); Faeh, D. (David); Fall, C.H. (Caroline H.); F. Farzadfar (Farshad); Felix-Redondo, F.J. (Francisco J.); Ferguson, T.S. (Trevor S.); Fernández-Bergés, D. (Daniel); Ferrante, D. (Daniel); Ferrari, M. (Marika); Ferreccio, C. (Catterina); J. Ferrieres (Jean); Finn, J.D. (Joseph D.); K. Fischer (Krista); Flores, E.M. (Eric Monterubio); Föger, B. (Bernhard); Foo, L.H. (Leng Huat); Forslund, A.-S. (Ann-Sofie); Forsner, M. (Maria); S.P. Fortmann (Stephen); Fouad, H.M. (Heba M.); Francis, D.K. (Damian K.); Do Carmo Franco, M. (Maria); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Frontera, G. (Guillermo); Fuchs, F.D. (Flavio D.); Fuchs, S.C. (Sandra C.); Fujita, Y. (Yuki); Furusawa, T. (Takuro); Gaciong, Z. (Zbigniew); Gafencu, M. (Mihai); Gareta, D. (Dickman); Garnett, S.P. (Sarah P.); J.-M. Gaspoz (Jean-Michel); Gasull, M. (Magda); Gates, L. (Louise); J.M. Geleijnse (Marianne); Ghasemian, A. (Anoosheh); S. Giampaoli (Simona); F. Gianfagna (Francesco); Giovannelli, J. (Jonathan); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); Goldsmith, R.A. (Rebecca A.); Gonçalves, H. (Helen); M. Gross; González Rivas, J.P. (Juan P.); Gorbea, M.B. (Mariano Bonet); Gottrand, F. (Frederic); Graff-Iversen, S. (Sidsel); Grafnetter, D. (Dušan); Grajda, A. (Aneta); Grammatikopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Gregor, R.D. (Ronald D.); T. Grodzicki (Tomasz); Grøntved, A. (Anders); Gruden, G. (Grabriella); Grujic, V. (Vera); Gu, D. (Dongfeng); Gualdi-Russo, E. (Emanuela); Guan, O.P. (Ong Peng); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Guerrero, R. (Ramiro); I. Guessous (Idris); Guimaraes, A.L. (Andre L.); Gulliford, M.C. (Martin C.); Gunnlaugsdottir, J. (Johanna); Gunter, M. (Marc); Guo, X. (Xiuhua); Guo, Y. (Yin); Gupta, P.C. (Prakash C.); Gureje, O. (Oye); Gurzkowska, B. (Beata); Gutierrez, L. (Laura); Gutzwiller, F. (Felix); J. Halkjær; Hambleton, I.R. (Ian R.); R. Hardy; Kumar, R.H. (Rachakulla Hari); Hata, J. (Jun); Hayes, A.J. (Alison J.); He, J. (Jiang); M.E. Hendriks (Marleen); Cadena, L.H. (Leticia Hernandez); Herrala, S. (Sauli); Heshmat, R. (Ramin); Hihtaniemi, I.T. (Ilpo Tapani); Ho, S.Y. (Sai Yin); Ho, S.C. (Suzanne C.); Hobbs, M. (Michael); Hofman, A. (Albert); Hormiga, C.M. (Claudia M.); Horta, B.L. (Bernardo L.); Houti, L. (Leila); Howitt, C. (Christina); Htay, T.T. (Thein Thein); Htet, A.S. (Aung Soe); Htike, M.M.T. (Maung Maung Than); Hu, Y. (Yonghua); A. Husseini (Abdullatif); Huu, C.N. (Chinh Nguyen); Huybrechts, I. (Inge); Hwalla, N. (Nahla); L. Iacoviello (Licia); Iannone, A.G. (Anna G.); Ibrahim, M.M. (Mohsen M.); Ikeda, N. (Nayu); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); V. Irazola (Vilma); M. Islam (Muhammad); Ivkovic, V. (Vanja); Iwasaki, M. (Masanori); Jackson, R.T. (Rod T.); Jacobs, J.M. (Jeremy M.); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); Jamil, K.M. (Kazi M.); K. Jamrozik; Janszky, I. (Imre); Jasienska, G. (Grazyna); Jelakovic, B. (Bojan); Jiang, C.Q. (Chao Qiang); Joffres, M. (Michel); M. Johansson (Mattias); J.B. Jonas (Jost B.); T. Jorgensen (Torben); Joshi, P. (Pradeep); Juolevi, A. (Anne); Jurak, G. (Gregor); Jureša, V. (Vesna); R. Kaaks (Rudolf); Kafatos, A. (Anthony); Kalter-Leibovici, O. (Ofra); Kapantais, E. (Efthymios); Kasaeian, A. (Amir); Katz, J. (Joanne); Kaur, P. (Prabhdeep); M. Kavousi (Maryam); M. Keil (Mark); Boker, L.K. (Lital Keinan); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); Kelishadi, R. (Roya); H.C.G. Kemper; A.P. Kengne (Andre Pascal); Kersting, M. (Mathilde); T. Key (Tim); Y.S. Khader (Yousef Saleh); D. Khalili (Davood); Khang, Y.-H. (Young-Ho); K.-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); Khouw, I.M.S.L. (Ilse M. S. L.); S. Kiechl (Stefan); Killewo, J. (Japhet); Kim, J. (Jeongseon); Klimont, J. (Jeannette); J. Klumbiene (Jurate); Koirala, B. (Bhawesh); Kolle, E. (Elin); P. Kolsteren (Patrick); Korrovits, P. (Paul); S. Koskinen (Seppo); Kouda, K. (Katsuyasu); Koziel, S. (Slawomir); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); Krokstad, S. (Steinar); Kromhout, D. (Daan); Kruger, H.S. (Herculina S.); R. Kubinova; U.M. Kujala (Urho); Kula, K. (Krzysztof); Kulaga, Z. (Zbigniew); Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, P. (Pawel); Kusuma, Y.S. (Yadlapalli S.); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); Kyobutungi, C. (Catherine); Laamiri, F.Z. (Fatima Zahra); T. Laatikainen (Tiina); C. Lachat (Carl); Laid, Y. (Youcef); Lam, T.H. (Tai Hing); Landrove, O. (Orlando); Lanska, V. (Vera); Lappas, G. (Georg); Larijani, B. (Bagher); L.E. Laugsand (Lars E.); Bao, K.L.N. (Khanh Le Nguyen); Le, T.D. (Tuyen D.); Leclercq, C. (Catherine); J.J.M. Lee (Jeannette); Lee, J. (Jeonghee); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); Lekhraj, R. (Rampal); León-Muñoz, L.M. (Luz M.); Y. Li (Yanping); Lilly, C.L. (Christa L.); W.-Y. Lim (Wei-Yen); Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, H.-H. (Hsien-Ho); X. Lin (Xu); A. Linneberg (Allan); L. Lissner (Lauren); Litwin, M. (Mieczyslaw); Liu, J. (Jing); R. Lorbeer (Roberto); P.A. Lotufo (Paulo A); Lozano, J.E. (José Eugenio); Luksiene, D. (Dalia); A. Lundqvist (Annamari); Lunet, N. (Nuno); Lytsy, P. (Per); Ma, G. (Guansheng); Ma, J. (Jun); Machado-Coelho, G.L.L. (George L. L.); Machi, S. (Suka); Maggi, S. (Stefania); D.J. Magliano; Maire, B. (Bernard); Makdisse, M. (Marcia); R. Malekzadeh (Reza); Malhotra, R. (Rahul); Rao, K.M. (Kodavanti Mallikharjuna); S. Malyutina; Y. Manios; Mann, J.I. (Jim I.); Manzato, E. (Enzo); Margozzini, P. (Paula); Markey, O. (Oonagh); P. Marques-Vidal (Pedro); J. Marrugat (Jaume); Martin-Prevel, Y. (Yves); Martorell, R. (Reynaldo); Masoodi, S.R. (Shariq R.); E.B. Mathiesen (Ellisiv); Matsha, T.E. (Tandi E.); Mazur, A. (Artur); Mbanya, J.C.N. (Jean Claude N.); McFarlane, S.R. (Shelly R.); McGarvey, S.T. (Stephen T.); McKee, M. (Martin); S. McLachlan (Stela); McLean, R.M. (Rachael M.); McNulty, B.A. (Breige A.); Yusof, S.M. (Safiah Md); Mediene-Benchekor, S. (Sounnia); A. Meirhaeghe (Aline); C. Meisinger (Christa); Menezes, A.M.B. (Ana Maria B.); Mensink, G.B.M. (Gert B. M.); Meshram, I.I. (Indrapal I.); A. Metspalu (Andres); J. Mi (Jie); K.F. Michaelsen; Mikkel, K. (Kairit); Miller, J.C. (Jody C.); Miquel, J.F. (Juan Francisco); Jaime Miranda, J.; Mišigoj-Durakovic, M. (Marjeta); Mohamed, M.K. (Mostafa K.); K. Mohammad (Kazem); Mohammadifard, N. (Noushin); V. Mohan (Viswanathan); Yusoff, M.F.M. (Muhammad Fadhli Mohd); Molbo, D. (Drude); Møller, N.C. (Niels C.); Molnár, D. (Dénes); Mondo, C.K. (Charles K.); Monterrubio, E.A. (Eric A.); Monyeki, K.D.K. (Kotsedi Daniel K.); Moreira, L.B. (Leila B.); Morejon, A. (Alain); Moreno, L.A. (Luis A.); Morgan, K. (Karen); Mortensen, E.L. (Erik Lykke); G. Moschonis; Mossakowska, M. (Malgorzata); Mostafa, A. (Aya); Mota, J. (Jorge); Motlagh, M.E. (Mohammad Esmaeel); Motta, J. (Jorge); Mu, T.T. (Thet Thet); M.L. Muiesan (Maria Lorenza); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); Murphy, N. (Neil); Mursu, J. (Jaakko); Murtagh, E.M. (Elaine M.); Musa, K.I. (Kamarul Imran); Musil, V. (Vera); Nagel, G. (Gabriele); Nakamura, H. (Harunobu); Námešná, J. (Jana); Nang, E.E.K. (Ei Ei K.); M. Nangia (Monika); Nankap, M. (Martin); Narake, S. (Sameer); E.M. Navarrete-Muñoz; Neal, W.A. (William A.); Nenko, I. (Ilona); Neovius, M. (Martin); Nervi, F. (Flavio); Neuhauser, H.K. (Hannelore K.); Nguyen, N.D. (Nguyen D.); Nguyen, Q.N. (Quang Ngoc); Nieto-Martínez, R.E. (Ramfis E.); Ning, G. (Guang); T. Ninomiya (Toshiharu); Nishtar, S. (Sania); Noale, M. (Marianna); Norat, T. (Teresa); Noto, D. (Davide); Nsour, M.A. (Mohannad Al); O’Reilly, D. (Dermot); Oh, K. (Kyungwon); Olayan, I.H. (Iman H.); Olinto, M.T.A. (Maria Teresa Anselmo); Oltarzewski, M. (Maciej); Omar, M.A. (Mohd A.); A. Onat (Altan); Ordunez, P. (Pedro); Ortiz, A.P. (Ana P.); Osler, M. (Merete); Osmond, C. (Clive); Ostojic, S.M. (Sergej M.); Otero, J.A. (Johanna A.); K. Overvad (Kim); E. Owusu-Dabo (Ellis); Paccaud, F.M. (Fred Michel); Padez, C. (Cristina); Pahomova, E. (Elena); A. Pajak (Andrzej); D. Palli (Domenico); Palloni, A. (Alberto); Palmieri, L. (Luigi); S. Panda-Jonas (Songhomitra); F. Panza (Francesco); Parnell, W.R. (Winsome R.); Parsaeian, M. (Mahboubeh); Pecin, I. (Ivan); Pednekar, M.S. (Mangesh S.); P.H.M. Peeters; Peixoto, S.V. (Sergio Viana); Peltonen, M. (Markku); A. Pereira (A.); Pérez, C.M. (Cynthia M.); A. Peters; Petkeviciene, J. (Janina); Peykari, N. (Niloofar); Pham, S.T. (Son Thai); Pigeot, I. (Iris); H. Pikhart (Hynek); Pilav, A. (Aida); A. Pilotto (Alberto); Pistelli, F. (Francesco); Pitakaka, F. (Freda); Piwonska, A. (Aleksandra); Plans-Rubió, P. (Pedro); Poh, B.K. (Bee Koon); M. Porta; M.L.P. Portegies (Marileen); Poulimeneas, D. (Dimitrios); Pradeepa, R. (Rajendra); Prashant, M. (Mathur); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); Puiu, M. (Maria); M. Punab (Margus); Qasrawi, R.F. (Radwan F.); Qorbani, M. (Mostafa); Bao, T.Q. (Tran Quoc); Radic, I. (Ivana); Radisauskas, R. (Ricardas); Rahman, M.-M. (Mah-mudur); O. Raitakari (Olli); Raj, M. (Manu); Rao, S.R. (Sudha Ramachandra); Ramachandran, A. (Ambady); Ramke, J. (Jacqueline); Ramos, R. (Rafel); Rampal, S. (Sanjay); Rasmussen, F. (Finn); J. Redón (Josep); Reganit, P.F.M. (Paul Ferdinand M.); Ribeiro, R. (Robespierre); Riboli, E. (Elio); Rigo, F. (Fernando); T.F. Rinke de Wit (Tobias); Ritti-Dias, R.M. (Raphael M.); Rivera, J.A. (Juan A.); S.M. Robinson (Siân); Robitaille, C. (Cynthia); F. Rodríguez Artalejo (Fernando); Del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, M. (María); Rodríguez-Villamizar, L.A. (Laura A.); Rojas-Martinez, R. (Rosalba); Rojroong-Wasinkul, N. (Nipa); Romaguera, D. (Dora); K. Ronkainen (Kimmo); A. Rosengren (Annika); Rouse, I. (Ian); Rubinstein, A. (Adolfo); Rühli, F.J. (Frank J.); Rui, O. (Ornelas); Ruiz-Betancourt, B.S. (Blanca Sandra); Russo Horimoto, A.R.V. (Andrea R. V.); Rutkowski, M. (Marcin); C. Sabanayagam (Charumathi); Sachdev, H.S. (Harshpal S.); Saidi, O. (Olfa); Salanave, B. (Benoit); Martinez, E.S. (Eduardo Salazar); V. Salomaa (Veikko); Salonen, J.T. (Jukka T.); M. Salvetti (Massimo); Sánchez-Abanto, J. (Jose); Sandjaja,; S. Sans (Susana); Santos, D.A. (Diana A.); Santos, O. (Osvaldo); Dos Santos, R.N. (Renata Nunes); Santos, R. (Rute); J. Saramies (Jouko); Sardinha, L.B. (Luis B.); Sarrafzadegan, N. (Nizal); Saum, K.-U. (Kai-Uwe); S. Savva; Scazufca, M. (Marcia); Rosario, A.S. (Angelika Schaffrath); Schargrodsky, H. (Herman); Schienkiewitz, A. (Anja); Schmidt, I.M. (Ida Maria); I.J.C. Schneider (Ione J C); C. Schultsz (Constance); Schutte, A.E. (Aletta E.); Sein, A.A. (Aye Aye); Sen, A. (Abhijit); Senbanjo, I.O. (Idowu O.); S.G. Sepanlou (Sadaf G); Shalnova, S.A. (Svetlana A.); Sharma, S.K. (Sanjib K.); J.E. Shaw; K. Shibuya (Kenji); Shin, D.W. (Dong Wook); Y. Shin (Youchan); R. Shiri (Rahman); R. Siantar (Rosalynn); Sibai, A.M. (Abla M.); Silva, A.M. (Antonio M.); Silva, D.A.S. (Diego Augusto Santos); Simon, M. (Mary); J. Simons (Judith); L.A. Simons (Leon); Sjostrom, M. (Michael); J. Slowikowska-Hilczer (Jolanta); Slusarczyk, P. (Przemyslaw); L. Smeeth (Liam); Smith, M.C. (Margaret C.); M.B. Snijder (Marieke); So, H.-K. (Hung-Kwan); Sobngwi, E. (Eugène); S. Söderberg (Stefan); Soekatri, M.Y.E. (Moesijanti Y. E.); Solfrizzi, V. (Vincenzo); E. Sonestedt (Emily); Song, Y. (Yi); T.I.A. Sørensen (Thorkild); Soric, M. (Maroje); Jérome, C.S. (Charles Sossa); Soumare, A. (Aicha); J.A. Staessen (Jan); Starc, G. (Gregor); Stathopoulou, M.G. (Maria G.); Staub, K. (Kaspar); Stavreski, B. (Bill); Steene-Johannessen, J. (Jostein); Stehle, P. (Peter); Stein, A.D. (Aryeh D.); Stergiou, G.S. (George S.); Stessman, J. (Jochanan); Stieber, J. (Jutta); D. Stöckl (Doris); Stocks, T. (Tanja); Stokwiszewski, J. (Jakub); Stratton, G. (Gareth); K. Stronks (Karien); Strufaldi, M.W. (Maria Wany); Sun, C.-A. (Chien-An); Sundström, J. (Johan); Sung, Y.-T. (Yn-Tz); J. Sunyer (Jordi); Suriyawongpaisal, P. (Paibul); Swinburn, B.A. (Boyd A.); Sy, R.G. (Rody G.); Szponar, L. (Lucjan); E. Shyong Tai; M.L. Tammesoo; A. Tamosiunas (Abdonas); Tang, L. (Line); Tang, X. (Xun); F. Tanser (Frank); Tao, Y. (Yong); Tarawneh, M.R. (Mohammed Rasoul); Tarp, J. (Jakob); Tarqui-Mamani, C.B. (Carolina B.); Taylor, A. (Anne); Tchibindat, F. (Félicité); Theobald, H. (Holger); L. Thijs (Lutgarde); L. Thuesen (Leif); A. Tjønneland (Anne); Tolonen, H.K. (Hanna K.); Tolstrup, J.S. (Janne S.); Topbas, M. (Murat); Topór-Madry, R. (Roman); M. Torrent (Maties); Toselli, S. (Stefania); Traissac, P. (Pierre); A. Trichopoulou (Antonia); Trichopoulos, D. (Dimitrios); Trinh, O.T.H. (Oanh T. H.); Trivedi, A. (Atul); Tshepo, L. (Lechaba); Tulloch-Reid, M.K. (Marshall K.); Tuomainen, T.-P. (Tomi-Pekka); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); Turley, M.L. (Maria L.); Tynelius, P. (Per); Tzotzas, T. (Themistoklis); C. Tzourio (Christophe); Ueda, P. (Peter); Ukoli, F.A.M. (Flora A. M.); Ulmer, H. (Hanno); Unal, B. (Belgin); Uusitalo, H.M.T. (Hannu M. T.); Valdivia, G. (Gonzalo); Vale, S. (Susana); D. Valvi (Damaskini); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); Van Herck, K. (Koen); Van Minh, H. (Hoang); L. van Rossem (Lenie); I. van Valkengoed (Irene); D. Vanderschueren (Dirk); D. Vanuzzo (Diego); L. Vatten (Lars); Vega, T. (Tomas); Velasquez-Melendez, G. (Gustavo); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); Monique Verschuren, W.M.; Verstraeten, R. (Roosmarijn); Victora, C.G. (Cesar G.); G. Viegi; L. Viet (Lucie); E. Viikari-Juntura (Eira); P. Vineis (Paolo); J. Vioque (Jesus); Virtanen, J.K. (Jyrki K.); S. Visvikis-Siest (Sophie); B. Viswanathan (Bharathi); P. Vollenweider (Peter); Voutilainen, S. (Sari); Vrdoljak, A. (Ana); M. Vrijheid (Martine); Wade, A.N. (Alisha N.); Wagner, A. (Aline); Walton, J. (Janette); Mohamud, W.N.W. (Wan Nazaimoon Wan); Wang, M.-D. (Ming-Dong); Wang, Q. (Qian); Y. Wang (Ying); Goya Wannamethee, S.; N.J. Wareham (Nick); Weerasekera, D. (Deepa); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Widhalm, K. (Kurt); Widyahening, I.S. (Indah S.); Wiecek, A. (Andrzej); A.H. Wijga (Alet); Wilks, R.J. (Rainford J.); J. Willeit (Johann); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); B. Wojtyniak (Bogdan); Wong, J.E. (Jyh Eiin); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Woo, J. (Jean); M. Woodward (Mark); F.C.W. Wu (Frederick C.); Wu, J. (Jianfeng); Wu, S.L. (Shou Ling); Xu, H. (Haiquan); Xu, L. (Liang); Yamborisut, U. (Uruwan); Yan, W. (Weili); Yang, X. (Xiaoguang); Yardim, N. (Nazan); X. Ye (Xingwang); P.K. Yiallouros (P.); Yoshihara, A. (Akihiro); You, Q.S. (Qi Sheng); Younger-Coleman, N.O. (Novie O.); Yusoff, A.F. (Ahmad F.); Zainuddin, A.A. (Ahmad A.); Zambon, S. (Sabina); T. Zdrojewski (T.); Zeng, Y. (Yi); Zhao, D. (Dong); Zhao, W. (Wenhua); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); M. Zhou (Ming); Zhu, D. (Dan); E. Zimmermann; Cisneros, J.Z. (Julio Zuñiga)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBeing taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The

  3. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-02-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (pollution episodes and the height of the mixed layer. The growth rate of the convective mixed-layer height has a seasonal behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  4. A century of trends in adult human height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Zhou, Bin; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie; Fortunato, Léa; Bennett, James E.; Danaei, Goodarz; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Kontis, Vasilis; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Riboli, Elio; Ezzati, Majid; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Hamid, Zargar Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Al-Othman, Amani Rashed; Raddadi, Rajaa Al; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Wit, Tobias F. Rinke de; Schultsz, Constance; Snijder, Marieke B.; Stronks, Karien; Valkengoed, Irene Gm van

    2016-01-01

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in

  5. Height estimations based on eye measurements throughout a gait cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    (EH) measurement, on the other hand, is less prone to concealment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate: (1) how the eye height varies during the gait cycle, and (2) how the eye height changes with head position. The eyes were plotted manually in APAS for 16 test subjects during...

  6. Mixing height measurements from UHF wind profiling radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angevine, W.M.; Grimsdell, A.W. [CIRES, Univ. of Colorado, and NOAA Aeronomy Lab., Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Mixing height in convective boundary layers can be detected by wind profiling radars (profilers) operating at or near 915 MHZ. We have made such measurements in a variety of settings including Alabama in 1992; Nova Scotia, Canada, during the North Atlantic Regional Experiment (NARE) 1993; Tennessee during the Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) 1994; near a 450 m tower in Wisconsin in 1995; and extensively in Illinois during the Flatland95, `96, and `97 experiments, as well as continuous operations at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory. Profiler mixing height measurements, like all measurements, are subject to some limitations. The most important of these are due to rainfall, minimum height, and height resolution. Profilers are very sensitive to rain, which dominates the reflectivity and prevents the mixing height from being detected. Because the best height resolution is currently 60 m and the minimum height is 120-150 m AGL, the profiler is not suited for detecting mixing height in stable or nocturnal boundary layers. Problems may also arise in very dry or cold environments. (au) 12 refs.

  7. Accurate tool height control by bearing gap adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielen, van der A.M.; Schellekens, P.H.J.; Jaartsveld, F.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    Face turning of optical surfaces on precision lathes needs high precision tool height adjustment, which may be a difficult and time-consuming task. In this paper we present a new tool adjustment mechanism based on varying the bearing gap height of the hydrostatic bearings present in precision lathe

  8. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Sjöberg, Lars E.; Bagherbandi, Mohammad; Hirt, Christian; Pitoňák, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be defined with respect to the equipotential surface. Taking the analogy with terrestrial height systems, the realization of height systems for telluric planets and moons could be done by means of defining the orthometric and geoidal heights. In this case, however, the definition of the orthometric heights in principle differs. Whereas the terrestrial geoid is described as an equipotential surface that best approximates the mean sea level, such a definition for planets/moons is irrelevant in the absence of (liquid) global oceans. A more natural choice for planets and moons is to adopt the geoidal equipotential surface that closely approximates the geometric reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid). In this study, we address these aspects by proposing a more accurate approach for defining the orthometric heights for telluric planets and moons from available topographic and gravity models, while adopting the average crustal density in the absence of reliable crustal density models. In particular, we discuss a proper treatment of topographic masses in the context of gravimetric geoid determination. In numerical studies, we investigate differences between the geodetic and orthometric heights, represented by the geoidal heights, on Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Moon. Our results reveal that these differences are significant. The geoidal heights on Mercury vary from - 132 to 166 m. On Venus, the geoidal heights are between - 51 and 137 m with maxima on this planet at Atla Regio and Beta

  9. Monte Carlo calculation of the total probability for gamma-Ray interaction in toluene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1983-01-01

    Interaction and absorption probabilities for gamma-rays with energies between 1 and 1000 KeV have been computed and tabulated. Toluene based scintillator solution has been assumed in the computation. Both, point sources and homogeneously dispersed radioactive material have been assumed. These tables may be applied to cylinders with radii between 1.25 cm and 0.25 cm and heights between 4.07 cm and 0.20 cm. (Author) 26 refs

  10. Imaging height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Kyle; Miskin, Marc; Barnard, Arthur; Rose, Peter; Cohen, Itai; McEuen, Paul

    We present a technique based on multi-wavelength interference microscopy to measure the heights of observed ripples in free-standing graphene membranes. Graphene membranes released from a transparent substrate produce interference fringes when viewed in the reflection mode of an inverted microscope(Blees et. al. Nature 524 (7564): 204-207 (2015)). The fringes correspond to corrugation of the membrane as it floats near an interface. A single set of fringes is insufficient to uniquely determine the height profile, as a given fringe spacing can correspond to an increase or decrease in height by λ / 2 . Imaging at multiple wavelengths resolves the ambiguities in phase, and enables unique determination of the height profile of the membrane (Schilling et. al.Phys. Rev. E, 69:021901, 2004). We utilize this technique to map out the height fluctuations in free-standing graphene membranes to answer questions about fundamental mechanical properties of two-dimensional materials.

  11. Footprint parameters as a measure of arch height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M R; Nachbauer, W; Sovak, D; Nigg, B M

    1992-01-01

    The human foot has frequently been categorized into arch height groups based upon analysis of footprint parameters. This study investigates the relationship between directly measured arch height and many of the footprint parameters that have been assumed to represent arch height. A total of 115 male subjects were measured and footprint parameters were calculated from digitized outlines. Correlation and regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between footprint measures and arch height. It may be concluded from the results that footprint parameters proposed in the literature (arch angle, footprint index, and arch index) and two further parameters suggested in this study (arch length index and truncated arch index) are invalid as a basis for prediction or categorization of arch height. The categorization of the human foot according to the footprint measures evaluated in this paper represent no more than indices and angles of the plantar surface of the foot itself.

  12. Seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric f/sub 2/ layer at the pakistan atmospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, A.A.; Afridi, F.A.K.; Mian, K.; Zai, M.A.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer for Pakistan's atmospheric region (PAR). In this communication virtual height variations have been analyzed by the descriptive statistical techniques. These methodologies comprise an autoregressive strategy, linear regression and polynomial regression. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under the seasonal variation of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer in virtual height that affect the radio wave propagation through the ionosphere. These techniques are implemented to theorize the physical process of varying the virtual heights that leads this study towards formulating the variations due to interaction of radio wave propagation with this ionospheric layer. (author)

  13. Sensitivity of the urban airshed model to mixing height profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.T.; Sistla, G.; Ku, J.Y.; Zhou, N.; Hao, W. [New York State Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recommended the use of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), a grid-based photochemical model, for regulatory applications. One of the important parameters in applications of the UAM is the height of the mixed layer or the diffusion break. In this study, we examine the sensitivity of the UAM-predicted ozone concentrations to (a) a spatially invariant diurnal mixing height profile, and (b) a spatially varying diurnal mixing height profile for a high ozone episode of July 1988 for the New York Airshed. The 1985/88 emissions inventory used in the EPA`s Regional Oxidant Modeling simulations has been regridded for this study. Preliminary results suggest that the spatially varying case yields a higher peak ozone concentrations compared to the spatially invariant mixing height simulation, with differences in the peak ozone ranging from a few ppb to about 40 ppb for the days simulated. These differences are attributed to the differences in the shape of the mixing height profiles and its rate of growth during the morning hours when peak emissions are injected into the atmosphere. Examination of the impact of emissions reductions associated with these two mixing height profiles indicates that NO{sub x}-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted ozone peak under spatially invariant mixing heights than under the spatially varying mixing height profile. On the other hand, VOC-focussed controls provide a greater change in the predicted peak ozone levels under spatially varying mixing heights than under the spatially invariant mixing height profile.

  14. Evolution of Human Body Height and Its Implications in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İzzet DUYAR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Body height is an crucial variable in the design and production of all physical spaces, primarily in the manifacturing of clothes and means of transportation. Having such an ergonomic significance, the height of the human being has constantly changed during the course of history. There exist strong data suggesting that this change is still continue. To find out stages of evolution of human height throughout the ages up to the present will help us to illuminate the human-environment relations, and to predict the possible changes that the human height might be subjected to in the future. In view of these reasons, the changes that has occured in human height from the period at which hominids appeared until humans’ transition into settled life have been closely examined. The study was carried out on the basis of the data obtained from the earlier studies in literature. These data, when considered as a whole, reveal that the human height did not continuously increase in a linear fashion in its evolutionary path but recorded some increases and decreases at different stages. The difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism has not shown a steady decrease either; instead, it has exhibited an oscillating pattern. The modern humans as a species is not unique in terms of their height; as a matter of fact, two million years ago hominids had existed at approximately the same height as the Homo sapiens. Although the average height had shown some decrease in Homo erectus, its distribution pattern was not much different than the one observed in the modern human societies. In the findings dated to the early stages of the Upper Paleolithic Age, height showed a tendency to increase again

  15. SRTM Data Release for Africa, Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Africa is dominated by the Great Rift Valley, extending from Lake Nyasa to the Red Sea, and splitting into two arms to enclose an interior plateau and the nearly circular Lake Victoria, visible in the right center of the image. To the west lies the Congo Basin, a vast, shallow depression which rises to form an almost circular rim of highlands. Most of the southern part of the continent rests on a concave plateau comprising the Kalahari basin and a mountainous fringe, skirted by a coastal plain which widens out in Mozambique in the southeast. Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications. In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with brown and yellow at the lower elevations, rising through green, to white at the highest elevations. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National

  16. Genetic determinants of height growth assessed longitudinally from infancy to adulthood in the northern Finland birth cohort 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Sovio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1 and puberty (PHV2 and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person from 0-20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05. We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030 and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045. We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth.

  17. Genetic Determinants of Height Growth Assessed Longitudinally from Infancy to Adulthood in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovio, Ulla; Bennett, Amanda J.; Millwood, Iona Y.; Molitor, John; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Kaakinen, Marika; Laitinen, Jaana; Haukka, Jari; Pillas, Demetris; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Molitor, Jassy; Hoggart, Clive; Coin, Lachlan J. M.; Whittaker, John; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Freimer, Nelson B.; Widen, Elisabeth; Peltonen, Leena; Elliott, Paul; McCarthy, Mark I.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified dozens of common variants associated with adult height. However, it is unknown how these variants influence height growth during childhood. We derived peak height velocity in infancy (PHV1) and puberty (PHV2) and timing of pubertal height growth spurt from parametric growth curves fitted to longitudinal height growth data to test their association with known height variants. The study consisted of N = 3,538 singletons from the prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with genotype data and frequent height measurements (on average 20 measurements per person) from 0–20 years. Twenty-six of the 48 variants tested associated with adult height (p<0.05, adjusted for sex and principal components) in this sample, all in the same direction as in previous GWA scans. Seven SNPs in or near the genes HHIP, DLEU7, UQCC, SF3B4/SV2A, LCORL, and HIST1H1D associated with PHV1 and five SNPs in or near SOCS2, SF3B4/SV2A, C17orf67, CABLES1, and DOT1L with PHV2 (p<0.05). We formally tested variants for interaction with age (infancy versus puberty) and found biologically meaningful evidence for an age-dependent effect for the SNP in SOCS2 (p = 0.0030) and for the SNP in HHIP (p = 0.045). We did not have similar prior evidence for the association between height variants and timing of pubertal height growth spurt as we had for PHVs, and none of the associations were statistically significant after correction for multiple testing. The fact that in this sample, less than half of the variants associated with adult height had a measurable effect on PHV1 or PHV2 is likely to reflect limited power to detect these associations in this dataset. Our study is the first genetic association analysis on longitudinal height growth in a prospective cohort from birth to adulthood and gives grounding for future research on the genetic regulation of human height during different periods of growth. PMID:19266077

  18. [Influence of disc height on outcome of posterolateral fusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, O; Lenoir, T; Dauzac, C; Rillardon, L; Guigui, P

    2008-09-01

    Experimentally, posterolateral fusion only provides incomplete control of flexion-extension, rotation and lateral inclination forces. The stability deficit increases with increasing height of the anterior intervertebral space, which for some warrants the adjunction of an intersomatic arthrodesis in addition to the posterolateral graft. Few studies have been devoted to the impact of disc height on the outcome of posterolateral fusion. The purpose of this work was to investigate the spinal segment immobilized by the posterolateral fusion: height of the anterior intervertebral space, the clinical and radiographic impact of changes in disc height, and the short- and long-term impact of disc height measured preoperatively on clinical and radiographic outcome. In order to obtain a homogeneous group of patients, the series was limited to patients undergoing posterolateral arthrodesis for degenerative spondylolisthesis, in combination with radicular release. This was a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 66 patients with mean 52 months follow-up (range 3-63 months). A dedicated self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on pre- and postoperative function, the SF-36 quality of life score, and patient satisfaction. Pre- and postoperative (early, one year, last follow-up) radiographic data were recorded: olisthesic level, disc height, intervertebral angle, intervertebral mobility (angular, anteroposterior), and global measures of sagittal balance (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, T9 sagittal tilt, pelvic version, pelvic incidence, sacral slope). SpineView was used for all measures. Univariate analysis searched for correlations between variation in disc height and early postoperative function and quality of fusion at last follow-up. Multivariate analysis was applied to the following preoperative parameters: intervertebral angle, disc height, intervertebral mobility, sagittal balance parameters, use of osteosynthesis or not. At the olisthesic

  19. Plume Dispersion over Idealized Urban-liked Roughness with Height Variation: an LES Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colman Ching Chi; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Human activities (e.g. vehicular emission) are the primary pollutant sources affecting the health and living quality of stakeholders in modern compact cities. Gaussian plume dispersion model is commonly used for pollutant distribution estimate that works well over rural areas with flat terrain. However, its major parameters, dispersion coefficients, exclude the effect of surface roughness that unavoidably prone to error handling the pollutant transport in the urban boundary layer (UBL) over building roughness. Our recent large-eddy simulation (LES) has shown that urban surfaces affect significantly the pollutant dispersion over idealized, identical two-dimensional (2D) street canyons of uniform height. As an extension to our on-going effort, this study is conceived to investigate how rough urban surfaces, which are constructed by 2D street canyons of non-uniform height, modify the UBL pollutant dispersion . A series of LESs with idealized roughness elements of non-uniform heights were performed in neutral stratification. Building models with two different heights were placed alternatively in the computational domain to construct 2D street canyons in cross flows. The plume dispersion from a ground-level passive pollutant source over more realistic urban areas was then examined. Along with the existing building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratio (AR), a new parameter, building-height variability (BHV), is used to measure the building height unevenness. Four ARs (1, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125) and three BHVs (20%, 40% and 60%) were considered in this study. Preliminary results show that BHV greatly increases the aerodynamic roughness of the hypothetical urban surfaces for narrow street canyons. Analogous to our previous findings, the air exchange rate (ACH) of street canyons increases with increasing friction factor, implying that street-level ventilation could be improved by increasing building roughness via BHV. In addition, the parameters used in dispersion coefficient

  20. Standardizing Scale Height Computation of Maven Ngims Neutral Data and Variations Between Exobase and Homeopause Scale Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, M. K.; Slipski, M.; Curry, S.; Williamson, H. N.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The MAVEN NGIMS team produces a level 3 product which includes the computation of Ar scale height an atmospheric temperatures at 200 km. In the latest version (v05_r01) this has been revised to include scale height fits for CO2, N2 O and CO. Members of the MAVEN team have used various methods to compute scale heights leading to significant variations in scale height values depending on fits and techniques within a few orbits even, occasionally, the same pass. Additionally fitting scale heights in a very stable atmosphere like the day side vs night side can have different results based on boundary conditions. Currently, most methods only compute Ar scale heights as it is most stable and reacts least with the instrument. The NGIMS team has chosen to expand these fitting techniques to include fitted scale heights for CO2, N2, CO, and O. Having compared multiple techniques, the method found to be most reliable for most conditions was determined to be a simple fit method. We have focused this to a fitting method that determines the exobase altidude of the CO2 atmosphere as a maximum altitude for the highest point for fitting, and uses the periapsis as the lowest point and then fits the altitude versus log(density). The slope of altitude vs log(density) is -1/H where H is the scale height of the atmosphere for each species. Since this is between the homeopause and the exobase, each species will have a different scale height by this point. This is being released as a new standardization for the level 3 product, with the understanding that scientists and team members will continue to compute more precise scale heights and temperatures as needed based on science and model demands. This is being released in the PDS NGIMS level 3 v05 files for August 2017. Additionally, we are examining these scale heights for variations seasonally, diurnally, and above and below the exobase. The atmosphere is significantly more stable on the dayside than on the nightside. We have also found

  1. An analysis of the relationship between bodily injury severity and fall height in victims of fatal falls from height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Teresiński

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : One of the basic issues discussed in forensic literature regarding falls from a height is determination of fall heights and differentiation between suicidal and accidental falls. The aim of the study was to verify the usefulness of the available methods for the purposes of forensic expertises. Material and methods : The study encompassed fatalities of falls from a height whose autopsies were performed in the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin. Results : Similarly to other authors, the severity of injuries was assessed using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS and injury severity score (ISS. The study findings demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the fall height and the severity of injuries according to ISS and a statistically significant difference in fall heights between the groups of accidents and suicides.

  2. A vegetation height classification approach based on texture analysis of a single VHR image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrou, Z I; Manakos, I; Stathaki, T; Tarantino, C; Adamo, M; Blonda, P

    2014-01-01

    Vegetation height is a crucial feature in various applications related to ecological mapping, enhancing the discrimination among different land cover or habitat categories and facilitating a series of environmental tasks, ranging from biodiversity monitoring and assessment to landscape characterization, disaster management and conservation planning. Primary sources of information on vegetation height include in situ measurements and data from active satellite or airborne sensors, which, however, may often be non-affordable or unavailable for certain regions. Alternative approaches on extracting height information from very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery based on texture analysis, have recently been presented, with promising results. Following the notion that multispectral image bands may often be highly correlated, data transformation and dimensionality reduction techniques are expected to reduce redundant information, and thus, the computational cost of the approaches, without significantly compromising their accuracy. In this paper, dimensionality reduction is performed on a VHR image and textural characteristics are calculated on its reconstructed approximations, to show that their discriminatory capabilities are maintained up to a large degree. Texture analysis is also performed on the projected data to investigate whether the different height categories can be distinguished in a similar way

  3. Explanation of the barrier heights of graphene Schottky contacts by the MIGS-and-electronegativity concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönch, Winfried

    2016-09-01

    Graphene-semiconductor contacts exhibit rectifying properties and, in this respect, they behave in exactly the same way as a "conventional" metal-semiconductor or Schottky contacts. It will be demonstrated that, as often assumed, the Schottky-Mott rule does not describe the reported barrier heights of graphene-semiconductor contacts. With "conventional" Schottky contacts, the same conclusion was reached already in 1940. The physical reason is that the Schottky-Mott rule considers no interaction between the metal and the semiconductor. The barrier heights of "conventional" Schottky contacts were explained by the continuum of metal-induced gap states (MIGSs), where the differences of the metal and semiconductor electronegativities describe the size and the sign of the intrinsic electric-dipoles at the interfaces. It is demonstrated that the MIGS-and-electronegativity concept unambiguously also explains the experimentally observed barrier heights of graphene Schottky contacts. This conclusion includes also the barrier heights reported for MoS2 Schottky contacts with "conventional" metals as well as with graphene.

  4. Height, Weight, and Aerobic Fitness Level in Relation to the Risk of Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Tall stature and obesity have been associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), but there have been conflicting reports of the effects of aerobic fitness. We conducted a national cohort study to examine interactions between height or weight and level of aerobic fitness among 1,547,478 Swedish military conscripts during 1969-1997 (97%-98% of all 18-year-old men) in relation to AF identified from nationwide inpatient and outpatient diagnoses through 2012 (maximal age, 62 years). Increased height, weight, and aerobic fitness level (but not muscular strength) at age 18 years were all associated with a higher AF risk in adulthood. Positive additive and multiplicative interactions were found between height or weight and aerobic fitness level (for the highest tertiles of height and aerobic fitness level vs. the lowest, relative excess risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40, 0.62; ratio of hazard ratios = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.34, 1.65). High aerobic fitness levels were associated with higher risk among men who were at least 186 cm (6 feet, 1 inch) tall but were protective among shorter men. Men with the combination of tall stature and high aerobic fitness level had the highest risk (for the highest tertiles vs. the lowest, adjusted hazard ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.61, 1.80). These findings suggest important interactions between body size and aerobic fitness level in relation to AF and may help identify high-risk subgroups.

  5. Brain structure mediates the association between height and cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2018-05-11

    Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness. Height was positively associated with general cognitive ability and total cortical volume and cortical surface area, but not with mean cortical thickness. Mediation models indicated that the well-replicated height-general cognitive ability association is accounted for by individual differences in total cortical volume and cortical surface area (highly heritable metrics related to global brain size), and that the genetic association between cortical surface area and general cognitive ability underlies the phenotypic height-general cognitive ability relationship.

  6. The association between adult attained height and sitting height with mortality in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawada, Norie; Wark, Petra A.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Ward, Heather A.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dartois, Laureen; His, Mathilde; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renée; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Redondo, María Luisa; Travier, Noemie; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Dorronsoro, Miren; Cirera, Lluis; Ardanaz, Eva; Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Valanou, Elissavet; Masala, Giovanna; Pala, Valeria; Peeters, Petra H M; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Melander, Olle; Manjer, Jonas; Silva, Marisa Da; Skeie, Guri; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Gunter, Marc J.; Riboli, Elio; Cross, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Adult height and sitting height may reflect genetic and environmental factors, including early life nutrition, physical and social environments. Previous studies have reported divergent associations for height and chronic disease mortality, with positive associations observed for cancer mortality

  7. Global Distribution of Planetary Boundary Layer Height Derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The global distribution of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, which was estimated from the attenuated back-scatter observations of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), is presented. In general, the PBL is capped by a temperature inversion that tends to trap moisture and aerosols. The gradient of back-scatter observed by lidar is almost always associated with this temperature inversion and the simultaneous decrease of moisture content. Thus, the PBL top is defined as the location of the maximum aerosol scattering gradient, which is analogous to the more conventional thermodynamic definition. The maximum standard deviation method, developed by Jordan et al. (2010), is modified and used to derive the global PBL heights. The derived PBL heights are not only consistent with the results of McGrath-Spangler and Denning (2012) but also agree well with the ground-based lidar measurements. It is found that the correlation between CALIPSO and the ground-based lidar was 0.73. The seasonal mean patterns from 4-year mid-day PBL heights over global are demonstrated. Also it is found that the largest PBL heights occur over the Tibetan Plateau and the coastal areas. The smallest PBL heights appear in the Tarim Basin and the northeast of China during the local winter. The comparison of PBL heights from CALIPSO and ECMWF under different land-cover conditions showed that, over ocean and forest surface, the PBL height estimated from the CALIPSO back-scatter climatology is larger than the ones estimated from ECMWF data. However, the PBL heights from ECMWF, over grass land and bare land surface in spring and summer are larger than the ones from CALIPSO.

  8. Evaluating spatial interaction of soil property with non-point source pollution at watershed scale: The phosphorus indicator in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Shan, Yushu; Guo, Bobo

    2012-08-15

    To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20-40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spatial dynamics of NPS phosphorus

  9. Evaluating spatial interaction of soil property with non‐point source pollution at watershed scale: The phosphorus indicator in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Huang, Haobo; Hao, Fanghua; Shan, Yushu; Guo, Bobo

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the spatial dynamics of non-point source (NPS) phosphorus loading with soil property at watershed scale, integrated modeling and soil chemistry is crucial to ensure that the indicator is functioning properly and expressing the spatial interaction at two depths. Developments in distributed modeling have greatly enriched the availability of geospatial data analysis and assess the NPS pollution loading response to soil property over larger area. The 1.5 km-grid soil sampling at two depths was analyzed with eight parameters, which provided detailed spatial and vertical soil data under four main types of landuses. The impacts of landuse conversion and agricultural practice on soil property were firstly identified. Except for the slightly bigger total of potassium (TK) and cadmium (Cr), the other six parameters had larger content in 20–40 cm surface than the top 20 cm surface. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was employed to simulate the loading of NPS phosphorus. Overlaying with the landuse distribution, it was found that the NPS phosphorus mainly comes from the subbasins dominated with upland and paddy rice. The linear correlations of eight soil parameters at two depths with NPS phosphorus loading in the subbasins of upland and paddy rice were compared, respectively. The correlations of available phosphorus (AP), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN) and TK varied in two depths, and also can assess the loading. The soil with lower soil organic carbon (SOC) presented a significant higher risk for NPS phosphorus loading, especially in agricultural area. The Principal Component Analysis showed that the TP and zinc (Zn) in top soil and copper (Cu) and Cr in subsurface can work as indicators. The analysis suggested that the application of soil property indicators is useful for assessing NPS phosphorus loss, which is promising for water safety in agricultural area. -- Highlights: ► Spatial dynamics of NPS phosphorus pollution with soil

  10. Astronomy Village Reaches for New Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, S. K.; Pompea, S. M.

    2007-12-01

    We are developing a set of complex, multimedia-based instructional modules emphasizing technical and scientific issues related to Giant Segmented Mirror Telescope project. The modules" pedagogy will be open-ended and problem-based to promote development of problem-solving skills. Problem- based-learning modules that emphasize work on open-ended complex real world problems are particularly valuable in illustrating and promoting a perspective on the process of science and engineering. Research in this area shows that these kinds of learning experiences are superior to more conventional student training in terms of gains in student learning. The format for the modules will be based on the award-winning multi-media educational Astronomy Village products that present students with a simulated environment: a mountaintop community surrounded by a cluster of telescopes, satellite receivers, and telecommunication towers. A number of "buildings" are found in the Village, such as a library, a laboratory, and an auditorium. Each building contains an array of information sources and computer simulations. Students navigate through their research with a mentor via imbedded video. The first module will be "Observatory Site Selection." Students will use astronomical data, basic weather information, and sky brightness data to select the best site for an observatory. Students will investigate the six GSMT sites considered by the professional site selection teams. Students will explore weather and basic site issues (e.g., roads and topography) using remote sensing images, computational fluid dynamics results, turbulence profiles, and scintillation of the different sites. Comparison of student problem solving with expert problem solving will also be done as part of the module. As part of a site selection team they will have to construct a case and present it on why they chose a particular site. The second module will address aspects of system engineering and optimization for a GSMT

  11. Final Report for Project: Impacts of stratification and non-equilibrium winds and waves on hub-height winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, Edward G. [Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-14

    This project used a combination of turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulations, single-column modeling (where turbulence is parameterized), and currently available observations to improve, assess, and develop a parameterization of the impact of non-equilibrium wave states and stratification on the buoy-observed winds to establish reliable wind data at the turbine hub-height level. Analysis of turbulence-resolving simulations and observations illuminates the non-linear coupling between the atmosphere and the undulating sea surface. This analysis guides modification of existing boundary layer parameterizations to include wave influences for upward extrapolation of surface-based observations through the turbine layer. Our surface roughness modifications account for the interaction between stratification and the effects of swell’s amplitude and wavelength as well as swell’s relative motion with respect to the mean wind direction. The single-column version of the open source Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model (Skamarock et al., 2008) serves as our platform to test our proposed planetary boundary layer parameterization modifications that account for wave effects on marine atmospheric boundary layer flows. WRF has been widely adopted for wind resource analysis and forecasting. The single column version is particularly suitable to development, analysis, and testing of new boundary layer parameterizations. We utilize WRF’s single-column version to verify and validate our proposed modifications to the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) boundary layer parameterization (Nakanishi and Niino, 2004). We explore the implications of our modifications for two-way coupling between WRF and wave models (e.g.,Wavewatch III). The newly implemented parameterization accounting for marine atmospheric boundary layer-wave coupling is then tested in three-dimensional WRF simulations at grid sizes near 1 km. These simulations identify the behavior of simulated winds at the

  12. The interaction between internal R&D and different types of external knowledge sourcing: an empirical study of Chinese innovative firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Vanhaverbeke, W.; Du, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent internal R&D efforts and different types of external knowledge sources jointly affect innovation performance of firms in emerging economies. Based on a survey about external knowledge sourcing activities of Chinese innovative firms, we categorize external

  13. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect

  14. Evaluation of the Correlation of Ramus Height, Gonial Angle, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    molar infraocclusion, ramus height, and vertical face type.[1]. Deep bite has been found to ... different facial forms. Subjects and Methods: A total of 51 subjects in all facial form ... to improve the effectiveness of any prosthesis and maintain the.

  15. MLS/Aura L2 Geopotential Height V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2GPH is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for geopotential height derived from radiances measured by the 118 and 240 GHz radiometers. The...

  16. MLS/Aura L2 Geopotential Height V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2GPH is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for geopotential height derived from radiances measured by the 118 and 240 GHz radiometers. The...

  17. Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.

    Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...

  18. OW AVISO Sea-Surface Height & Niiler Climatology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface height measurements collected by means of the TOPEX/Poseidon/ERS, JASON-1/Envisat, and Jason-2/Envisat satellite...

  19. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  20. A century of trends in adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Molbo, Drude

    2016-01-01

    in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.5-22.7) and 16.5 cm (13.3-19.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over...... the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8-144.8). The height differential between the tallest...... and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries....

  1. A Mathematical Model for the Height of a Satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemke, Sharon S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Emphasizes a real-world-problem situation using sine law and cosine law. Angles of elevation from two tracking stations located in the plane of the equator determine height of a satellite. Calculators or computers can be used. (LDR)

  2. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data...... on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris...... trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children...

  3. U.S. Geoid Heights, Scientific Model (G96SSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the conterminous United States is the G96SSS model. The computation used about 1.8 million terrestrial and marine gravity data held in...

  4. Definition of Physical Height Systems for Telluric Planets and Moons

    OpenAIRE

    Tenzer, R.; Foroughi, I.; Sjöberg, L.E.; Bagherbandi, M.; Hirt, C.; Pitoňák, M.

    2018-01-01

    In planetary sciences, the geodetic (geometric) heights defined with respect to the reference surface (the sphere or the ellipsoid) or with respect to the center of the planet/moon are typically used for mapping topographic surface, compilation of global topographic models, detailed mapping of potential landing sites, and other space science and engineering purposes. Nevertheless, certain applications, such as studies of gravity-driven mass movements, require the physical heights to be define...

  5. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Fogal, Aline; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Eloiza Priore, Silvia; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M.; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Stature is an important variable in several indices of nutritional status that are applicable to elderly persons. However, stature is difficult or impossible to measure in elderly because they are often unable to maintain the standing position. A alternative is the use of estimated height from measurements of knee height measure. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the formula proposed by Chumlea et al. (1985) based on the knee of a Caucasian population to estimat...

  6. Effect of cutting height and frequency on Leucaena leucocephala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast-growing tree that can provide both high quality forage and firewood. The objective of this trial was to determine the optimum height and frequency of cutting for both wood and forage production. Cutting heights at 0.3m, 0.6m and 1.0 m were superimposed on 3-month and 6-month cutting ...

  7. Canonical Schottky barrier heights of transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers in contact with a metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szcześniak, Dominik; Hoehn, Ross D.; Kais, Sabre

    2018-05-01

    The transition metal dichalcogenide (M X2 , where M =Mo , W and X =S , Se, Te) monolayers are of high interest for semiconducting applications at the nanoscale level; this interest is due to both their direct band gaps and high charge mobilities. In this regard, an in-depth understating of the related Schottky barrier heights, associated with the incorporation of M X2 sheets into novel low-dimensional metal-semiconductor junctions, is of crucial importance. Herein, we generate and provide analysis of the Schottky barrier heights behavior to account for the metal-induced gap states concept as its explanation. In particular, the present investigations concentrate on the estimation of the charge neutrality levels directly by employing the primary theoretical model, i.e., the cell-averaged Green's function formalism combined with the complex band structure technique. The results presented herein place charge neutrality levels in the vicinity of the midgap; this is in agreement with previous reports and analogous to the behavior of three-dimensional semiconductors. The calculated canonical Schottky barrier heights are also found to be in agreement with other computational and experimental values in cases where the difference between electronegativities of the semiconductor and metal contact is small. Moreover, the influence of the spin-orbit effects is herein considered and supports that Schottky barrier heights have metal-induced gap state-derived character, regardless whether spin-orbit coupling interactions are considered. The results presented within this report constitute a direct and vital verification of the importance of metal-induced gap states in explaining the behavior of observed Schottky barrier heights at M X2 -metal junctions.

  8. Mixing layer height as an indicator for urban air quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geiß

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixing layer height (MLH is a measure for the vertical turbulent exchange within the boundary layer, which is one of the controlling factors for the dilution of pollutants emitted near the ground. Based on continuous MLH measurements with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer and measurements from an air quality network, the relationship between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations has been investigated. In this context the uncertainty of the MLH retrievals and the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements are crucial. We have investigated this topic by using data from the BAERLIN2014 campaign in Berlin, Germany, conducted from June to August 2014. To derive the MLH, three versions of the proprietary software BL-VIEW and a novel approach COBOLT were compared. It was found that the overall agreement is reasonable if mean diurnal cycles are considered. The main advantage of COBOLT is the continuous detection of the MLH with a temporal resolution of 10 min and a lower number of cases when the residual layer is misinterpreted as mixing layer. We have calculated correlations between MLH as derived from the different retrievals and concentrations of pollutants (PM10, O3 and NOx for different locations in the metropolitan area of Berlin. It was found that the correlations with PM10 are quite different for different sites without showing a clear pattern, whereas the correlation with NOx seems to depend on the vicinity of emission sources in main roads. In the case of ozone as a secondary pollutant, a clear correlation was found. We conclude that the effects of the heterogeneity of the emission sources, chemical processing and mixing during transport exceed the differences due to different MLH retrievals. Moreover, it seems to be unrealistic to find correlations between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations representative for a city like Berlin (flat terrain, in particular when traffic emissions are dominant. Nevertheless it is

  9. Development of Sediment Deposition Height Capacity Equation in Sewer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yangho; Jo, Deokjun; Lee, Jungho

    2017-04-01

    Sediment characteristics and transport processes in sewers are markedly different from river. There is a wide range of particle densities and smaller particle size variation in sewers. Sediment supply and the available erodible material are more limited in sewers, and the diverse hydraulic characteristics in sewer systems are more unsteady. Prevention of sewer sediment accumulation, which can cause major sewer operational problems, is imperative and has been an immense concern for engineers. The effects of sediment formation in sewer systems, an appropriate sediment transport modelling with the ability to determine the location and depth of sediment deposit is needed. It is necessary to design efficiently considering the transfer and settling phenomena of the sediment coming into the sewer systems. During transport in the sewer, the minimum shear flow velocity and possible shear stress at which the sediment is transported smoothly. However, the interaction of sediment and fluid within the sewer systems has been very complex and the rigorous theoretical handling of this problem has not been developed. It is derived from the empirical values obtained from the river bed. The basic theory that particles float is based on the balance between sedimentation of particles by gravity and turbulent diffusion of fluids. There are many variables related. Representative parameters include complex phenomena due to collisions between particles, particles and fluids, and interactions between particles and tube walls. In general, the main parameters that form the boundary between the main transport and sediment are particle size, density, volume fraction, pipe diameter and gravity. As the particle size and volume concentration increase, the minimum feed rate increases and the same tendency is observed for the change of the capillary diameter. Based on this tendency, this study has developed a sediment deposition height capacity formula to take into consideration the sewer discharge

  10. Ladies first: Female and male adult height in Switzerland, 1770-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Nikola; Floris, Joël; Pfister, Christian; Rühli, Frank J; Staub, Kaspar

    2018-05-01

    When investigating the well-being of a society, the living conditions of females are of special importance, not only due to the immediate impact for those directly involved, but also because of the potential intergenerational effects. Studying the dimorphism in the mean height helps to depict variation in the basic biological sex difference due to gender-related factors that potentially determine net nutrition. To expand knowledge of diachronic development in Swiss well-being conditions we investigate changes in the height of adult females born 1770-1930, and compare the series with data on contemporary males from the same sources: We employ a sample of N = 21'028 women and N = 21'329 men from passport-, convict-, maternity hospital-, and voluntary World War II army auxiliary records. The secular height trend is found both in males, from the 1870s/1880s, and in females starting with the 1840s/1850s birth cohorts. During the decades under study, mean height increased from 157 cm to 164 cm in female and 167 cm to 172 cm in male passport applicants, 154 cm to 159 cm in female and 167 cm to 169 cm in male convicts, 159 cm to 163 cm in female auxiliaries, and 155 cm to 159 cm in females giving birth in the maternity hospital of Basel. Because females seem to have started the secular trend in height earlier than their male contemporaries, the height dimorphism decreased during the second half of the 19th century. Differences between socio-economic status (SES) and data sources are found in both females and males: Women with low SES were significantly shorter than those of the other SES groups in all sources (on average 1.40 cm, p-values between 0.00 and 0.03). In men we found individuals of upper SES to be significantly taller (on average 1.96 cm, p-value = 0.00-0.10). Concerning differences between the sources, overall, passport applicants were the tallest for men as well as women; in females the individuals measured at the

  11. Correlation of Fault Size, Moment Magnitude, and Tsunami Height to Proved Paleo-tsunami Data in Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, A. M.; Pribadi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Sulawesi (Indonesia) island is located in the meeting of three large plates i.e. Indo-Australia, Pacific, and Eurasia. This configuration surely make high risk on tsunami by earthquake and by sea floor landslide. NOAA and Russia Tsunami Laboratory show more than 20 tsunami data recorded in Sulawesi since 1820. Based on this data, determine of correlation between all tsunami parameter need to be done to proved all event in the past. Complete data of magnitudes, fault sizes and tsunami heights in this study sourced from NOAA and Russia Tsunami database and completed with Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) catalog. This study aims to find correlation between fault area, moment magnitude, and tsunami height by simple regression in Sulawesi. The step of this research are data collect, processing, and regression analysis. Result shows very good correlation, each moment magnitude, tsunami heights, and fault parameter i.e. long, wide, and slip are correlate linier. In increasing of fault area, the tsunami height and moment magnitude value also increase. In increasing of moment magnitude, tsunami height also increase. This analysis is enough to proved all Sulawesi tsunami parameter catalog in NOAA, Russia Tsunami Laboratory and PTWC are correct. Keyword: tsunami, magnitude, height, fault

  12. The U-shaped association of body mass index with mortality: Influence of the traits height, intelligence, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Terese Sara Høj; Osler, Merete; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Zimmermann, Esther; Christensen, Gunhild Tidemann; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2016-10-01

    The U-shaped association between body mass index (BMI) and mortality may depend on other traits with permanent health effects. Whether the association between BMI and mortality depends on levels of health-related traits known to be inversely associated with mortality throughout adult life such as height, intelligence, and education was investigated. The study was based on a cohort of young men with data on weight, height, intelligence test score, and education from the Danish Conscription Database. In total, 346,500 men born 1939 to 1959 were followed until December 2013. The association between BMI and mortality was analyzed using Cox-regression models including interactions between BMI and height, intelligence, and education, respectively. BMI and mortality showed the U-shaped association from the start of the follow-up period, and it persisted through the subsequent 56 years. As expected, the mortality was inversely associated with height, intelligence, and education, but the U shape of the association between BMI and mortality was unaffected by the levels of these traits except at higher BMI values, where the slopes were steeper for men with higher levels of height, intelligence, and education. High and low BMI was associated with higher mortality throughout life regardless of the levels of height, intelligence, and education. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  13. Variability of the Mixed-Layer Height Over Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Franco, J. L.; Stremme, W.; Bezanilla, A.; Ruiz-Angulo, A.; Grutter, M.

    2018-06-01

    The diurnal and seasonal variability of the mixed-layer height in urban areas has implications for ground-level air pollution and the meteorological conditions. Measurements of the backscatter of light pulses with a commercial lidar system were performed for a continuous period of almost six years between 2011 and 2016 in the southern part of Mexico City. The profiles were temporally and vertically smoothed, clouds were filtered out, and the mixed-layer height was determined with an ad hoc treatment of both the filtered and unfiltered profiles. The results are in agreement when compared with values of mixed-layer height reconstructed from, (i) radiosonde data, and (ii) surface and vertical column densities of a trace gas. The daily maxima of the mean mixed-layer height reach values > 3 km above ground level in the months of March-April, and are clearly lower (behaviour, which is characterized together with the mixed-layer-height anomalies. A clear residual layer is evident from the backscattered signals recorded in days with specific atmospheric conditions, but also from the cloud-filtered mean diurnal profiles. The occasional presence of a residual layer results in an overestimation of the reported mixed-layer height during the night and early morning hours.

  14. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  15. Weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelan, Brian W.; Jin, Elaine W.

    2009-01-01

    Weighting of field heights is important in cases when a single numerical value needs to be calculated that characterizes an attribute's overall impact on perceived image quality. In this paper we report an observer study to derive the weighting of field heights for sharpness and noisiness. One-hundred-forty images were selected to represent a typical consumer photo space distribution. Fifty-three sample points were sampled per image, representing field heights of 0, 14, 32, 42, 51, 58, 71, 76, 86% and 100%. Six observers participated in this study. The field weights derived in this report include both: the effect of area versus field height (which is a purely objective, geometric factor); and the effect of the spatial distribution of image content that draws attention to or masks each of these image structure attributes. The results show that relative to the geometrical area weights, sharpness weights were skewed to lower field heights, because sharpness-critical subject matter was often positioned relatively near the center of an image. Conversely, because noise can be masked by signal, noisiness-critical content (such as blue skies, skin tones, walls, etc.) tended to occur farther from the center of an image, causing the weights to be skewed to higher field heights.

  16. Maternal and Paternal Height and the Risk of Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunsung; Magnus, Per

    2018-04-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. Tall women have been found to have lower incidence of preeclampsia. This points to a possible biological causal effect but may be because of socioeconomic confounding. We used paternal height as an unexposed control to examine confounding. The MoBa (Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study) was used to extract data on parental heights, maternal prepregnancy weight, other background factors, and pregnancy outcomes for 99 968 singleton births. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for preeclampsia according to parental height. The adjusted odds ratio for preeclampsia was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.82) for women >172 cm as compared with women 186 cm was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.93-1.15) compared with men <178 cm. The association between maternal height and preeclampsia is unlikely to be because of confounding by familial, socioeconomic factors or by fetal genes related to height. The observed association between maternal height and preeclampsia merits further investigation. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Magnetic anomaly depth and structural index estimation using different height analytic signals data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuai; Huang, Danian; Su, Chao

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new semi-automatic inversion method for magnetic anomaly data interpretation that uses the combination of analytic signals of the anomaly at different heights to determine the depth and the structural index N of the sources. The new method utilizes analytic signals of the original anomaly at different height to effectively suppress the noise contained in the anomaly. Compared with the other high-order derivative calculation methods based on analytic signals, our method only computes first-order derivatives of the anomaly, which can be used to obtain more stable and accurate results. Tests on synthetic noise-free and noise-corrupted magnetic data indicate that the new method can estimate the depth and N efficiently. The technique is applied to a real measured magnetic anomaly in Southern Illinois caused by a known dike, and the result is in agreement with the drilling information and inversion results within acceptable calculation error.

  18. Natural uranium and strontium isotope tracers of water sources and surface water-groundwater interactions in arid wetlands: Pahranagat Valley, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Wurster, Frederic C.

    2014-01-01

    Near-surface physical and chemical process can strongly affect dissolved-ion concentrations and stable isotope compositions of water in wetland settings, especially under arid climate conditions. In contrast, heavy radiogenic isotopes of strontium (87Sr/86Sr) and uranium (234U/238U) remain largely unaffected and can be used to help identify unique signatures from different sources and quantify end-member mixing that would otherwise be difficult to determine. The utility of combined Sr and U isotopes are demonstrated in this study of wetland habitats on the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, which depend on supply from large-volume springs north of the Refuge, and from small-volume springs and seeps within the Refuge. Water budgets from these sources have not been quantified previously. Evaporation, transpiration, seasonally variable surface flow, and water management practices complicate the use of conventional methods for determining source contributions and mixing relations. In contrast, 87Sr/86Sr and 234U/238U remain unfractionated under these conditions, and compositions at a given site remain constant. Differences in Sr- and U-isotopic signatures between individual sites can be related by simple two- or three-component mixing models. Results indicate that surface flow constituting the Refuge’s irrigation source consists of a 65:25:10 mixture of water from two distinct regionally sourced carbonate aquifer springs, and groundwater from locally sourced volcanic aquifers. Within the Refuge, contributions from the irrigation source and local groundwater are readily determined and depend on proximity to those sources as well as water management practices.

  19. Ethnic differences in trabecular meshwork height by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca I; Barbosa, Diego T; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2015-04-01

    Differences in ocular anatomy may contribute to ethnic differences in glaucoma risk. Because the trabecular meshwork (TM) plays an important role in aqueous outflow, its anatomy in relation to at-risk populations may provide insight into a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure and thus to probability of glaucoma development. To investigate whether differences exist in TM height between ethnic groups. This prospective study took place from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013. Adult patients who self-reported as being of white, Asian, Hispanic, or African American ethnicity were recruited from ophthalmology clinics at the University of California, San Francisco. The TM height was assessed using spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Trabecular meshwork height was measured from the scleral spur to the Schwalbe line. We hypothesized that ethnicities with a higher prevalence of glaucoma would tend to have shorter TM heights. We collected data from 460 eyes of 291 participants after excluding 34 optical coherence tomographic scans owing to poor image quality. The final sample was 32.2% white, 45.1% Asian, 10.5% African American, and 12.1% Hispanic. There were 64.2% women, and the mean age was 68.1 years. The mean (SD) TM height among all eyes included in the study was 836 (131) μm. The mean (SD) TM height was characterized among white (851 [131] μm), Asian (843 [126] μm), Hispanic (822 [147] μm), and African American (771 [118] μm) persons. Ethnicity was not associated with TM height overall (P = .23, linear mixed regression model). However, the TM heights of African American participants (771 μm) were shorter than those of white (851 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -119.8 to -8.1; P = .02) and Asian (843 μm; adjusted difference 95% CI, -117.4 to -10.8; P = .02) participants. Although TM height is not associated with ethnicity overall, African American individuals have shorter TM heights compared with Asian and white

  20. Neural network cloud top pressure and height for MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Nina; Adok, Claudia; Thoss, Anke; Scheirer, Ronald; Hörnquist, Sara

    2018-06-01

    Cloud top height retrieval from imager instruments is important for nowcasting and for satellite climate data records. A neural network approach for cloud top height retrieval from the imager instrument MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is presented. The neural networks are trained using cloud top layer pressure data from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) dataset. Results are compared with two operational reference algorithms for cloud top height: the MODIS Collection 6 Level 2 height product and the cloud top temperature and height algorithm in the 2014 version of the NWC SAF (EUMETSAT (European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites) Satellite Application Facility on Support to Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting) PPS (Polar Platform System). All three techniques are evaluated using both CALIOP and CPR (Cloud Profiling Radar for CloudSat (CLOUD SATellite)) height. Instruments like AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and VIIRS (Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite) contain fewer channels useful for cloud top height retrievals than MODIS, therefore several different neural networks are investigated to test how infrared channel selection influences retrieval performance. Also a network with only channels available for the AVHRR1 instrument is trained and evaluated. To examine the contribution of different variables, networks with fewer variables are trained. It is shown that variables containing imager information for neighboring pixels are very important. The error distributions of the involved cloud top height algorithms are found to be non-Gaussian. Different descriptive statistic measures are presented and it is exemplified that bias and SD (standard deviation) can be misleading for non-Gaussian distributions. The median and mode are found to better describe the tendency of the error distributions and IQR (interquartile range) and MAE (mean absolute error) are found

  1. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Corral de Piedra, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Volcanism and erosion are prominently seen in this view of the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains taken by Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area is southeast of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina. Eroded peaks up to 2,210-meter-high (7,260-foot) are seen on the west (left), but much of the scene consists of lava plateaus that slope gently eastward. These lava flows were most likely derived from volcanic sources in the high mountains. However, younger and more localized volcanic activity is evident in the topographic data as a cone surrounding oval-shaped flow near the center of the scene.The plateaus are extensively eroded by the Rio Limay (bottom of the image) and the Rio Collon Cura and its tributaries (upper half). The larger stream channels have reached a stable level and are now cutting broad valleys. Few terraces between the levels of the high plateaus and lower valleys (bottom center and upper right of the volcanic cone) indicate that stream erosion had once temporarily reached a higher stable level before eroding down to its current level. In general, depositional surfaces like lava flows are progressively younger with increasing elevation, while erosional surfaces are progressively younger with decreasing elevation.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red and magenta to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging

  2. Accuracy of Jump-Mat Systems for Measuring Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueo, Basilio; Lipinska, Patrycja; Jiménez-Olmedo, José M; Zmijewski, Piotr; Hopkins, Will G

    2017-08-01

    Vertical-jump tests are commonly used to evaluate lower-limb power of athletes and nonathletes. Several types of equipment are available for this purpose. To compare the error of measurement of 2 jump-mat systems (Chronojump-Boscosystem and Globus Ergo Tester) with that of a motion-capture system as a criterion and to determine the modifying effect of foot length on jump height. Thirty-one young adult men alternated 4 countermovement jumps with 4 squat jumps. Mean jump height and standard deviations representing technical error of measurement arising from each device and variability arising from the subjects themselves were estimated with a novel mixed model and evaluated via standardization and magnitude-based inference. The jump-mat systems produced nearly identical measures of jump height (differences in means and in technical errors of measurement ≤1 mm). Countermovement and squat-jump height were both 13.6 cm higher with motion capture (90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm), but this very large difference was reduced to small unclear differences when adjusted to a foot length of zero. Variability in countermovement and squat-jump height arising from the subjects was small (1.1 and 1.5 cm, respectively, 90% confidence limits ±0.3 cm); technical error of motion capture was similar in magnitude (1.7 and 1.6 cm, ±0.3 and ±0.4 cm), and that of the jump mats was similar or smaller (1.2 and 0.3 cm, ±0.5 and ±0.9 cm). The jump-mat systems provide trustworthy measurements for monitoring changes in jump height. Foot length can explain the substantially higher jump height observed with motion capture.

  3. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  4. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulchenko, Yurii S; Struchalin, Maksim V; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I; Weedon, Michael N; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Kayser, Manfred; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Borodin, Pavel M

    2009-08-01

    In the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54 loci showing strong statistical evidence for association to human height were described, providing us with potential genomic means of human height prediction. In a population-based study of 5748 people, we find that a 54-loci genomic profile explained 4-6% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and had limited ability to discriminate tall/short people, as characterized by the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). In a family-based study of 550 people, with both parents having height measurements, we find that the Galtonian mid-parental prediction method explained 40% of the sex- and age-adjusted height variance, and showed high discriminative accuracy. We have also explored how much variance a genomic profile should explain to reach certain AUC values. For highly heritable traits such as height, we conclude that in applications in which parental phenotypic information is available (eg, medicine), the Victorian Galton's method will long stay unsurpassed, in terms of both discriminative accuracy and costs. For less heritable traits, and in situations in which parental information is not available (eg, forensics), genomic methods may provide an alternative, given that the variants determining an essential proportion of the trait's variation can be identified.

  5. Interaction entre le fumier enrichi, le calcaire et les différentes sources de phosphore issues de la roche phosphatée de Matongo sur un ferralsol de la région du Bututsi (Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rwigema, JB.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between enriched farmyard manure with fertilizers, lime and different phosphorus sources obtained from the phosphatic rock from Matongo on a ferralitic soil from the region of Bututsi (Burundi. This study on maize growing in pots shows that (i in combination with other inputs (farmyard manure and lime, the most soluble phosphorus sources (triple and simple superphosphate can be replaced by partially acidulated rock phosphate (50 % obtained by mixing simple superphosphate and rock phosphate both originating from the rock phosphate deposits in Matongo (Burundi, (ii the exchangeable Al can be reduced by both the addition of farmyard manure and lime, but the action of the different phosphorus 'source leave the most Bray-1 extractable phosphorus in the soil, the largest quantifies correspond to the highest doses of farmyard manure.

  6. Study and Evaluation of Ultrasound System for Detecting the Height of Corn Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mesri Gundoshmian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth of population, deficiency of resources, environmental hazards, fast spatial science progress and relevant subjects have resulted in significant effects of enhanced accuracy and modern technologies in agricultural technology and management methods. One of the modern technologies’ utilities in production and nondestructive tests is determination of product characteristics (such as product height, using electronic sensors at different stages of plant growth. In recent years, electric sensors improved widely in farm science. Regarding to wide performance of sensors, from simple sensors such as thermo, light and moisture sensors, to complex ones such as GPS and lidar, also the ability of electronic sensors to exact identification and measurement of special farm properties, makes these sensors to an important part of precision agriculture. The subject of this study is to identify and measure the height of the product using ultrasonic technology to automate control of breeding and harvesting operations. Suitable price and noise and dust resistance of ultrasonic sensor, make it an attractive subject in biosystem industries and farm operations. Materials and Methods Plant height measurement Ultrasonic sensor includes an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver with more than 20 kHz frequency. As other waves, ultrasonic waves diffuse constantly from a source by mechanical distracting in a gas, liquid or solid environment. The distance between sensor and object is a function of the wave passing time from generation point to receive point. Plant height calculated by estimating this distance and minus it from sensor height. The sensor used in this research had a diffuse angle of 40 degrees to center axis of source. The sensor ability to height measurement depends on leaves angle, leaves surface, plant aggregation in area and plant height. Leaves angle is the most important factor in recognization ability of ultrasonic sensor. Electronic

  7. Physiological pattern of lumbar disc height; Physiologisches Muster lumbaler Bandscheibenhoehen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggemann, M [Radiologische Klinik des Evangelischen Krankenhauses Bethesda, Duisburg (Germany); Frobin, W; Brinckmann, P [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentelle Biomechanik

    1997-07-01

    Purpose of this study is to present a new method of quantifying objectively the height of all discs in lateral radiographs of the lumbar spine and of analysing the normal craniocaudal sequence pattern of lumbar disc heights. Methods: The new parameter is the ventrally measured disc height corrected for the dependence on the angle of lordosis by normalisation to mean angles observed in the erect posture of healthy persons. To eliminate radiographic magnification, the corrected ventral height is related to the mean depth of the cranially adjoining vertebra. In this manner lumbar disc heights were objectively measured in young, mature and healthy persons (146 males and 65 females). The craniocaudal sequence pattern was analysed by mean values from all persons and by height differences of adjoining discs in each individual lumbar spine. Results: Mean normative values demonstrated an increase in disc height between L1/L2 and L4/L5 and a constant or decreasing disc height between L4/L5 and L5/S1. However, this `physiological sequence of disc height in the statistical mean` was observed in only 36% of normal males and 55% of normal females. Conclusion: The radiological pattern of the `physiological sequence of lumbar disc height` leads to a relevant portion of false positive pathological results especially at L4/L5. An increase of disc height from L4/L5 to L5/S1 may be normal. The recognition of decreased disc height should be based on an abrupt change in the heights of adjoining discs and not on a deviation from a craniocaudal sequence pattern. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, einen neuen Parameter zur objektiven Messung der Hoehen aller auf einer seitlichen Uebersichtsaufnahme der LWS erkennbaren Bandscheiben vorzustellen und die physiologische kraniokaudale Diskushoehensequenz neu zu dokumentieren. Methode: Bei dem neuen Messverfahren wird die Bandscheibenhoehe ventral gemessen, zur Korrektur ihrer Haltungsabhaengigkeit auf Standardwinkel (mittlere Winkel

  8. ANALYSIS AND CORRECTION OF SYSTEMATIC HEIGHT MODEL ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometry of digital height models (DHM determined with optical satellite stereo combinations depends upon the image orientation, influenced by the satellite camera, the system calibration and attitude registration. As standard these days the image orientation is available in form of rational polynomial coefficients (RPC. Usually a bias correction of the RPC based on ground control points is required. In most cases the bias correction requires affine transformation, sometimes only shifts, in image or object space. For some satellites and some cases, as caused by small base length, such an image orientation does not lead to the possible accuracy of height models. As reported e.g. by Yong-hua et al. 2015 and Zhang et al. 2015, especially the Chinese stereo satellite ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3 has a limited calibration accuracy and just an attitude recording of 4 Hz which may not be satisfying. Zhang et al. 2015 tried to improve the attitude based on the color sensor bands of ZY-3, but the color images are not always available as also detailed satellite orientation information. There is a tendency of systematic deformation at a Pléiades tri-stereo combination with small base length. The small base length enlarges small systematic errors to object space. But also in some other satellite stereo combinations systematic height model errors have been detected. The largest influence is the not satisfying leveling of height models, but also low frequency height deformations can be seen. A tilt of the DHM by theory can be eliminated by ground control points (GCP, but often the GCP accuracy and distribution is not optimal, not allowing a correct leveling of the height model. In addition a model deformation at GCP locations may lead to not optimal DHM leveling. Supported by reference height models better accuracy has been reached. As reference height model the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital surface model (DSM or the new AW3D30 DSM, based on ALOS

  9. Foot and Ankle Kinematics During Descent From Varying Step Heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Emily E; O'Connor, Kristian; Keenan, Kevin G; Cobb, Stephen C

    2017-12-01

    In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause of injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A 7-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm), and continued walking. As step height increased, landing strategy transitioned from the rearfoot to the forefoot, and the rearfoot, lateral and medial midfoot, and medial forefoot became more plantar flexed. During weight acceptance, sagittal plane range of motion of the rearfoot, lateral midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot increased as step height increased. The changes in landing strategy and distal foot function suggest a less stable ankle position at initial contact and increased demand on the distal foot at initial contact and through the weight acceptance phase of transition step negotiation as step height increases.

  10. Falls from heights in and around the city of Batman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Behçet; Yildirim, Cuma; Coban, Sacid

    2009-03-01

    We evaluated the demographic data, mortality rates, fall causes, and post-mortem findings of individuals who fell from heights. Five hundred thirty-eight patients who sustained injuries after an accidental fall from heights were entered into the study. Our cases were collected prospectively in Batman over a seven- month period. The mean age was 12.4+/-3.22 years (3 months-98 years); 56.5% of patients were under 6 years old and 83.5% were under 20 years old. The mean fall height was 3.2+/-2.4 m. The mortality rate was 2.2%, and was highest among the patients who fell from flat-roofed houses. The most common injuries were to the head, and 100% of those who died had a head injury. Six patients were followed because of abdominal bleeding and 141 patients due to extremity fractures; 6.7% of patients were operated on and 83.8% of patients were treated in the emergency department. The results of this study were at variance with literature data with respect to the following: falls from heights were most common in the 0-5 years of age group. Craniocerebral trauma is the most common injury in fatal falls. Males had a higher rate of falls from height than females.

  11. A generalized multivariate regression model for modelling ocean wave heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Feng, Y.; Swail, V. R.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a generalized multivariate linear regression model is developed to represent the relationship between 6-hourly ocean significant wave heights (Hs) and the corresponding 6-hourly mean sea level pressure (MSLP) fields. The model is calibrated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis of Hs and MSLP fields for 1981-2000, and is validated using the ERA-Interim reanalysis for 2001-2010 and ERA40 reanalysis of Hs and MSLP for 1958-2001. The performance of the fitted model is evaluated in terms of Pierce skill score, frequency bias index, and correlation skill score. Being not normally distributed, wave heights are subjected to a data adaptive Box-Cox transformation before being used in the model fitting. Also, since 6-hourly data are being modelled, lag-1 autocorrelation must be and is accounted for. The models with and without Box-Cox transformation, and with and without accounting for autocorrelation, are inter-compared in terms of their prediction skills. The fitted MSLP-Hs relationship is then used to reconstruct historical wave height climate from the 6-hourly MSLP fields taken from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR, Compo et al. 2011), and to project possible future wave height climates using CMIP5 model simulations of MSLP fields. The reconstructed and projected wave heights, both seasonal means and maxima, are subject to a trend analysis that allows for non-linear (polynomial) trends.

  12. Comparison of mixing height parameterizations with profiles measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaquier, A.; Stuebi, R.; Tercier, P. [Swiss Meteorological Inst., SMI - MeteoSwiss, Payerne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Different meteorological pre-processors for dispersion studies are available to derive the atmospheric boundary layer mixing height (MH). The analysis of their performances has been reviewed in the framework of the European COST Action 710. In this project, the computed mixing height values have been compared with data derived mostly from aero-logical sounding analysis and Sodar measurements. Since then, a new analysis of a low-tropospheric wind profiler (WP) data has been performed taking advantage of its high data sampling ({delta}t {approx} 30 sec.). The comparison between these recent results and aero-logical sounding, Sodar data, as well as to meteorological pre-processors calculations are reported for three periods of several days corresponding to different meteorological situations. In convective conditions, the pre-processors give reasonable level, the mixing height growing rate is in fair agreement with the measured one. In stable cloudy daytime conditions, the modeled mixing height does not correspond to any measured height. (LN)

  13. Changes in interdental papillae heights following alignment of anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Sanjivan; Goonewardene, Mithran; Tennant, Marc

    2007-05-01

    Orthodontic alignment of overlapped incisors can reduce the apparent heights of the interdental papillae leading to unsightly dark triangles or open gingival embrasures. To determine if certain pretreatment contact point relationships between the maxillary anterior teeth were accompanied by changes in the heights of the interdental papillae after orthodontic alignment. Pre- and post-treatment intra-oral 35 mm slides, lateral cephalometric radiographs and study casts of 143 patients (60 males, 83 females) between 13 and 16 years of age were used. The patients had diastamata closed, imbricated teeth aligned and palatally or labially placed teeth repositioned. A sample of 25 patients (12 males, 13 females) between 13 and 16 years of age who had well-aligned anterior teeth at the start of treatment acted as a control group. All patients were treated for approximately 18 months. The clinical crowns of the maxillary incisors and the heights of the interdental papilla between the incisors were measured on projected images of the slides. The percentage increases or reductions in the heights of the interdental papillae were compared. The heights of the interdental papillae increased following palatal movement of labially placed (p teeth and the intrusion of one tooth relative to another. On the other hand, dark triangles are more likely to develop following labial movement of imbricated or palatally placed incisors and closure of a diastema. Clinicians should be alert to the possibility of dark triangles developing in the latter group, particularly in older patients.

  14. Relations of diet and physical activity to bone mass and height in black and white adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Dong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the development of healthy bodies during the years of growth has life-long health consequences, it is important to understand the early influences of diet and physical activity (PA. One way to generate hypotheses concerning such influences is to conduct cross-sectional studies of how diet and PA are related to different components of body composition. The subjects were 660 black and white adolescents. Total body bone mineral content (BMC was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; free-living diet and PA were assessed with 4-7 separate 24-h recalls. The main dietary variables investigated were: total energy intake, macronutrient distribution (%, dairy servings, vitamin D, and calcium. The main PA variables were hours of moderate PA (3-6 METs and vigorous PA (>6 METs. BMC was higher in blacks than in whites (P<0.01 and it increased more in boys than in girls (age by sex interaction as age increased (P<0.01. After adjustment for age, race and sex, higher levels of BMC were associated with higher levels of energy intake, dairy servings, calcium, vitamin D, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.05. In the multivariable model, significant and independent proportions of the variance in BMC were explained by race, the age by sex interaction, calcium, and vigorous PA (all P 's<0.01. When height was used as the outcome variable, similar diet results were obtained; however, there was a sex by vigorous PA interaction, such that vigorous PA was associated with height only in the girls. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that the bone mass and height of growing youths are positively influenced by higher dietary intake of energy and dairy foods, along with sufficient amounts of vigorous PA. This hypothesis needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials.

  15. Variation of boundary-layer wind spectra with height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo; Petersen, Erik L.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    2018-01-01

    This study revisits the height dependence of the wind speed power spectrum from the synoptic scale to the spectral gap. Measurements from cup anemometers and sonics at heights of 15 m to 244 m are used. The measurements are from one land site, one coastal land‐based site and three offshore sites...... the atmospheric tide. The second finding regards the height dependence of the general spectrum. We describe the dependence through a so‐called effective roughness, which is calculated from wind spectra and represents the energy removal at different frequencies, and thus surface conditions in the footprint areas....... The generalizable spectral properties of winds presented herein may prove useful for validating numerical models....

  16. Retrieving Smoke Aerosol Height from DSCOVR/EPIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Unlike industrial pollutant particles that are often confined within the planetary boundary layer, smoke from forest and agriculture fires can inject massive carbonaceous aerosols into the upper troposphere due to the intense pyro-convection. Sensitivity of weather and climate to absorbing carbonaceous aerosols is regulated by the altitude of those aerosol layers. However, aerosol height information remains limited from passive satellite sensors. Here we present an algorithm to estimate smoke aerosol height from radiances in the oxygen A and B bands measured by the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) from the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). With a suit of case studies and validation efforts, we demonstrate that smoke aerosol height can be well retrieved over both ocean and land surfaces multiple times daily.

  17. FERDO/FERD, Unfolding of Pulse-Height Spectrometer Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, B.W.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Burrus, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: FERDO and FERD are unfolding codes which can be used to correct observed pulse-height distributions for the non-ideal response of a pulse-height spectrometer or to solve poorly conditioned linear equations. 2 - Method of solution: It is assumed that the response of the spectrometer is given by Ax = b, where A is the spectrometer response function matrix, x is the unknown spectrum, and b is the pulse-height distribution. FERDO does not resolve directly for x but instead solves for p = Wx, where W is a 'window function matrix'. Typically, W is the resolution function of an ideal spectrometer which has a single Gaussian response. The effective resolution of the unfolding solution may be varied by the choice of W. Confidence intervals are found for each element of the solution p

  18. Improved pulse-height store for A/D conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, P [Montedel S.p.a., Laben Division, Via Bassini 15, Milano, Italy; Maranesi, P [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Centro Studi Nucleari E. Fermi

    1979-11-15

    A new pulse-height store is described. Suitable contrivances improve integral linearity and reduce the differential errors that generally occur at signal amplitudes near the lower threshold. No degradations appear at high rates of input events. The electrical specifications of the pulse-height store are determined through a series of measurements described in the final part of the paper. In order to test the circuit in the most significant way, it has been connected to a fast successive-approximation conversion module which uses the sliding-scale technique for channel width equalisation, thus implementing a complete analog-to-digital converter (ADC) for nuclear spectrometry. The performances of the pulse-height store have been deduced from the behavior of the whole system.

  19. Climatology and evolution of the mixing height over water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempreviva, A.M. [Istituto di Fisica dell`Atmosfera, CNR, Rome (Italy); Grynig, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    In this paper we present results from an experimental investigation on the height of the mixed layer h, using a meteorological station located on the Danish island of Anholt. The station was operational for two years from September 1990 to October 1992. We present the analysis of two years of radio-sounding showing the average daily evolution of h. Furthermore observations of the mixed layer growth under near-neutral and unstable atmospheric conditions during six consecutive days has been modelled using a simple zero-order mixed-layer height model. Finally we have compared the evolution of the mixing height from the model with the evolution of the correlation coefficient between temperature and humidity to study the influence of the deepness of the convective layer on the mechanism of the correlation between temperature and humidity in the surface layer. (au)

  20. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Collective work with resources : an essential dimension for teacher documentation : re-sourcing teacher work and interaction: new perspectives on resource design, use and teacher collaboration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueudet, G.; Pepin, B.; Trouche, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the collective dimensions of teachers’ work in their ordinary daily practice. We argue that teachers’ ordinary work comprises many collaborative aspects, and that the interactions with colleagues, often through resources, are crucial for teacher professional development. Using

  2. Simultaneous recordings from the primary visual cortex and lateral geniculate nucleus reveal rhythmic interactions and a cortical source for γ-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Andre M; Briggs, Farran; Alitto, Henry J; Mangun, George R; Usrey, W Martin

    2014-05-28

    Oscillatory synchronization of neuronal activity has been proposed as a mechanism to modulate effective connectivity between interacting neuronal populations. In the visual system, oscillations in the gamma-frequency range (30-100 Hz) are thought to subserve corticocortical communication. To test whether a similar mechanism might influence subcortical-cortical communication, we recorded local field potential activity from retinotopically aligned regions in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and primary visual cortex (V1) of alert macaque monkeys viewing stimuli known to produce strong cortical gamma-band oscillations. As predicted, we found robust gamma-band power in V1. In contrast, visual stimulation did not evoke gamma-band activity in the LGN. Interestingly, an analysis of oscillatory phase synchronization of LGN and V1 activity identified synchronization in the alpha (8-14 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) frequency bands. Further analysis of directed connectivity revealed that alpha-band interactions mediated corticogeniculate feedback processing, whereas beta-band interactions mediated geniculocortical feedforward processing. These results demonstrate that although the LGN and V1 display functional interactions in the lower frequency bands, gamma-band activity in the alert monkey is largely an emergent property of cortex. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347639-06$15.00/0.

  3. Program for the analysis of pulse height spectra and the background from a proportional detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Llamas, H.; Yee-Madeira, H.; Contreras-Puente, G.; Zamorano-Ulloa, R.

    1991-01-01

    A PC-Fortran program is presented for fitting of lineshapes and the analysis of pulse height spectra obtainable with proportional detectors. The common fitting and analysis of pulse height spectra by means of mixed Gaussian lineshapes is readily improved by using Voigt lineshapes. In addition, the background can be evaluated during the fitting process without the need of extra measurements. As an application of the program, a pulse height transmission spectrum accumulated with a static 57 Co source and detected with an argon-metane proportional detector, was least squares fitted to an elaborated complex trial lineshape function containing two Voigt lines plus a straight line. The fitting straight line parameters a and b characterize quantitatively the background. The very good PC-fitting obtained shows that the fitting of experimental spectra with the more realistic Voigt lineshapes is no longer a formidable task and that it is possible to evaluate and subtract the background inherent to the experiment during the fitting process. (orig.)

  4. Genetic analysis of plant height in induced mutants of aromatic rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kole, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Inheritance of plant height in five gamma-ray induced mutants of aromatic rice cultivar Gobindabhog was studied through 6 x 6 diallel cross and segregation analyses. Diallel analysis revealed presence of additive and non-additive gene action with the preponderance of the latter. Proportion of dominant and recessive alleles was distributed unequally among the parents. The direction of dominance was towards tallness. The number of groups of genes was found to be three. The segregation analysis indicated the role of a single major recessive gene for height reduction in three mutants and, in another mutant, a single major recessive gene with negative modifiers. The other semi-dwarf mutant had two major recessive genes with almost equal effect in height reduction. The mutant allele(s) of the latter two mutants were non-allelic to sd sub(1) gene, which could be used as an alternative source of Dee Gee Woo Gen to widen the genetic diversity in semi-dwarfism [it

  5. Influence of altitude on the height of blue cone in a premixed flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amell, Andres A. [Gas Science and Technology Group, Engineering Faculty, University of Antioquia, Calle 67 No. 53-108 Bloque 20-435, Medellin (Colombia)

    2007-02-15

    For economic and environmental reasons natural gas begins to take an important participation as an energy source in the residential sector of Latin American cities placed at high altitudes: La Paz (3719m), Santa Fe de Bogota (2600m), Mexico City (2240m), Manizales (2150m), Medellin (1550m), Cali (1000m) and others. One of the most widely used natural gas systems in the residential sector is the partially aerated burner. The height of the blue cone in a premixed flame increases as the altitude above sea level becomes greater. In this work this behavior is determined experimentally, for this purpose tests were carried out in colombian location placed at 40, 550, 1220, 2040 and 2550m above sea level. In every place of tests three replicas were performed, keeping constant the following variables: chemical composition of natural gas, with a methane content of 98%, gas pressure discharge at the injector at 20mbar, injector diameter in 1.35mm, mixer geometry and port diameter in 17mm. The images of the blue cone were captured with a Pixera digital camera for images registration. Images were stored to determine later, through the software Matrox Inspector for images analysis, the height of the blue cone in each experiment for the different altitudes. It was found that the height of the blue cone is increased in 1.49+/-0.12mm by each 304m (1000feet) rise in altitude. (author)

  6. Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector for epithermal neutron spectroscopy--pulse height response characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreani, C.; Bracco, A.; D'Angelo, A.; Gorini, G.; Imberti, S.; Senesi, R.; Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The Resonance Detector Spectrometer was recently revised for neutron spectroscopic studies in the eV energy region. In this technique one makes use of a photon detector to record the gamma emission from analyser foils used as neutron-gamma converters. The pulse-height response of a Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride photon detector to neutron capture emission from 238 U and 197 Au analyser foils was characterised in the neutron energy range 1-200 eV. The experiment was performed on the VESUVIO spectrometer at the ISIS neutron-pulsed source. A biparametric data acquisition, specifically developed for these measurements, allowed the simultaneous measurements of both the neutron time of flight and γ pulse-height spectra. Through the analysis of the γ pulse-height spectra the main components of the signal associated with resonant and non-resonant neutron absorption were identified. It was also shown that, in principle, energy discrimination can be used to improve the signal to background ratio of the neutron time-of-flight measurement

  7. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  8. Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ilgner, Hartmut J

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1057 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Ilgner_2016.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10th North American Conference... on Multiphase Technology 2016, Banff, Canada 8 – 10 June 2016 Novel instrumentation for online monitoring of stationary beds and their height for settling slurries H J Ilgner ABSTRACT: Novel instrumentation has been developed to detect stationary...

  9. Baseline distortion effect on gamma-ray pulse-height spectra in neutron capture experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, A.; Harada, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hori, J.; Igashira, M.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohgama, K.

    2005-01-01

    A baseline distortion effect due to gamma-flash at neutron time-of-flight measurement using a pulse neutron source has been investigated. Pulses from C 6 D 6 detectors accumulated by flash-ADC were processed with both standard analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and flash-ADC operational modes. A correction factor of gamma-ray yields, due to baseline shift, was quantitatively obtained by comparing the pulse height spectra of the two data-taking modes. The magnitude of the correction factor depends on the time after gamma-flash and has complex time dependence with a changing sign

  10. Program Merges SAR Data on Terrain and Vegetation Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Paul; Hensley, Scott; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Simard, Marc

    2007-01-01

    X/P Merge is a computer program that estimates ground-surface elevations and vegetation heights from multiple sets of data acquired by the GeoSAR instrument [a terrain-mapping synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system that operates in the X and bands]. X/P Merge software combines data from X- and P-band digital elevation models, SAR backscatter magnitudes, and interferometric correlation magnitudes into a simplified set of output topographical maps of ground-surface elevation and tree height.

  11. Vowel Height Allophony and Dorsal Place Contrasts in Cochabamba Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of two studies investigating the role of allophony in cueing phonemic contrasts. In Cochabamba Quechua, the uvularvelar place distinction is often cued by additional differences in the height of the surrounding vowels. An acoustic study documents the lowering effect of a preceding tautomorphemic or a following heteromorphemic uvular on the high vowels /i u/. A discrimination study finds that vowel height is a significant cue to the velar-uvular place contrast. These findings support a view of contrasts as collections of distinguishing properties, as opposed to oppositions in a single distinctive feature. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sampling rare fluctuations of height in the Oslo ricepile model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Punyabrata; Dhar, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    We describe a new Monte Carlo algorithm for studying large deviations of the height of the pile from its mean value in the Oslo ricepile model. We have used it to generate events which have probabilities of order 10 -1000 . These simulations check our qualitative argument (Pradhan P and Dhar D 2006 Phys. Rev. E 73 021303) that in the steady state of the Oslo ricepile model the probability of large negative height fluctuations Δh = -αL about the mean varies as exp(-κα 4 L 3 ) as L → ∞ with α held fixed and κ > 0

  13. Impact of roof height non-uniformity on pollutant transport between a street canyon and intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. - Highlights: • The pollutant transport strongly depends on the roof-height arrangement. • The non-uniform canyons also remove the pollutants through their lateral openings. • The higher the upstream wall, the more pollutant is removed through the top. • The lateral coherent structures correlate

  14. Correlation Equation of Fault Size, Moment Magnitude, and Height of Tsunami Case Study: Historical Tsunami Database in Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, Musa, Admiral; Pribadi, Sugeng; Muzli, Muzli

    2018-03-01

    Sulawesi, one of the biggest island in Indonesia, located on the convergence of two macro plate that is Eurasia and Pacific. NOAA and Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory show more than 20 tsunami data recorded in Sulawesi since 1820. Based on this data, determination of correlation between tsunami and earthquake parameter need to be done to proved all event in the past. Complete data of magnitudes, fault sizes and tsunami heights on this study sourced from NOAA and Novosibirsk Tsunami database, completed with Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) catalog. This study aims to find correlation between moment magnitude, fault size and tsunami height by simple regression. The step of this research are data collecting, processing, and regression analysis. Result shows moment magnitude, fault size and tsunami heights strongly correlated. This analysis is enough to proved the accuracy of historical tsunami database in Sulawesi on NOAA, Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory and PTWC.

  15. Sea Surface Height, Absolute, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Absolute Sea Surface Height is the Sea Surface Height Deviation plus the long term mean dynamic height. This is Science Quality data.

  16. Effects of plant phenology and vertical height on accuracy of radio-telemetry locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grovenburg, Troy W.; Jacques, Christopher N.; Klaver, Robert W.; DePerno, Christopher S.; Lehman, Chad P.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Robling, Kevin A.; Rupp, Susan P.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of very high frequency (VHF) radio-telemetry remains wide-spread in studies of wildlife ecology and management. However, few studies have evaluated the influence of vegetative obstruction on accuracy in differing habitats with varying transmitter types and heights. Using adult and fawn collars at varying heights above the ground (0, 33, 66 and 100 cm) to simulate activities (bedded, feeding and standing) and ages (neonate, juvenile and adult) of deer Odocoileus spp., we collected 5,767 bearings and estimated 1,424 locations (28-30 for each of 48 subsamples) in three habitat types (pasture, grassland and forest), during two stages of vegetative growth (spring and late summer). Bearing error was approximately twice as large at a distance of 900 m for fawn (9.9°) than for adult deer collars (4.9°). Of 12 models developed to explain the variation in location error, the analysis of covariance model (HT*D + C*D + HT*TBA + C*TBA) containing interactions of height of collar above ground (HT), collar type (C), vertical height of understory vegetation (D) and tree basal area (TBA) was the best model (wi = 0.92) and explained ∼ 71% of the variation in location error. Location error was greater for both collar types at 0 and 33 cm above the ground compared to 66 and 100 cm above the ground; however, location error was less for adult than fawn collars. Vegetation metrics influenced location error, which increased with greater vertical height of understory vegetation and tree basal area. Further, interaction of vegetation metrics and categorical variables indicated significant effects on location error. Our results indicate that researchers need to consider study objectives, life history of the study animal, signal strength of collar (collar type), distance from transmitter to receiver, topographical changes in elevation, habitat composition and season when designing telemetry protocols. Bearing distances in forested habitat should be decreased (approximately 23

  17. Laser-induced plasmas as an analytical source for quantitative analysis of gaseous and aerosol systems: Fundamentals of plasma-particle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, Prasoon K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a relatively new analytical diagnostic technique which has gained serious attention in recent past due to its simplicity, robustness, and portability and multi-element analysis capabilities. LIBS has been used successfully for analysis of elements in different media including solids, liquids and gases. Since 1963, when the first breakdown study was reported, to 1983, when the first LIBS experiments were reported, the technique has come a long way, but the majority of fundamental understanding of the processes that occur has taken place in last few years, which has propelled LIBS in the direction of being a well established analytical technique. This study, which mostly focuses on LIBS involving aerosols, has been able to unravel some of the mysteries and provide knowledge that will be valuable to LIBS community as a whole. LIBS processes can be broken down to three basic steps, namely, plasma formation, analyte introduction, and plasma-analyte interactions. In this study, these three steps have been investigated in laser-induced plasma, focusing mainly on the plasma-particle interactions. Understanding plasma-particle interactions and the fundamental processes involved is important in advancing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a reliable and accurate analytical technique. Critical understanding of plasma-particle interactions includes study of the plasma evolution, analyte atomization, and the particle dissociation and diffusion. In this dissertation, temporal and spatial studies have been done to understand the fundamentals of the LIBS processes including the breakdown of gases by the laser pulse, plasma inception mechanisms, plasma evolution, analyte introduction and plasma-particle interactions and their influence on LIBS signal. Spectral measurements were performed in a laser-induced plasma and the results reveal localized perturbations in the plasma properties in the vicinity of the analyte species, for

  18. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E.

    2005-11-01

    The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer

  19. Biomechanical Factors Associated With Jump Height: A Comparison of Cross-Sectional and Pre-to-Posttraining Change Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brendan M; Moran, Kieran A

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies investigating the biomechanical factors associated with maximal countermovement jump height have typically used cross-sectional data. An alternative but less common approach is to use pre-to-posttraining change data, where the relationship between an improvement in jump height and a change in a factor is examined more directly. Our study compared the findings of these approaches. Such an evaluation is necessary because cross-sectional studies are currently a primary source of information for coaches when examining what factors to train to enhance performance. The countermovement jump of 44 males was analyzed before and after an 8-week training intervention. Correlations with jump height were calculated using both cross-sectional (pretraining data only) and pre-to-posttraining change data. Eight factors identified in the cross-sectional analysis were not significantly correlated with a change in jump height in the pre-to-post analysis. Additionally, only 6 of 11 factors identified in the pre-to-post analysis were identified in the cross-sectional analysis. These findings imply that (a) not all factors identified in a cross-sectional analysis may be critical to jump height improvement and (b) cross-sectional analyses alone may not provide an insight into all of the potential factors to train to enhance jump height. Coaches must be aware of these limitations when examining cross-sectional studies to identify factors to train to enhance jump ability. Additional findings highlight that although exercises prescribed to improve jump height should aim to enhance concentric power production at all joints, a particular emphasis on enhancing hip joint peak power may be warranted.

  20. Impact of roof height non-uniformity on pollutant transport between a street canyon and intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Jurčáková, Klára; Kellnerová, Radka; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an extension of our previous wind-tunnel study (Nosek et al., 2016) in which we highlighted the need for investigation of the removal mechanisms of traffic pollution from all openings of a 3D street canyon. The extension represents the pollution flux (turbulent and advective) measurements at the lateral openings of three different 3D street canyons for the winds perpendicular and oblique to the along-canyon axis. The pollution was simulated by emitting a passive gas (ethane) from a homogeneous ground-level line source positioned along the centreline of the investigated street canyons. The street canyons were formed by courtyard-type buildings of two different regular urban-array models. The first model has a uniform building roof height, while the second model has a non-uniform roof height along each building's wall. The mean flow and concentration fields at the canyons' lateral openings confirm the findings of other studies that the buildings' roof-height variability at the intersections plays an important role in the dispersion of the traffic pollutants within the canyons. For the perpendicular wind, the non-uniform roof-height canyon appreciably removes or entrains the pollutant through its lateral openings, contrary to the uniform canyon, where the pollutant was removed primarily through the top. The analysis of the turbulent mass transport revealed that the coherent flow structures of the lateral momentum transport correlate with the ventilation processes at the lateral openings of all studied canyons. These flow structures coincide at the same areas and hence simultaneously transport the pollutant in opposite directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remote Sensing of Cloud Top Heights Using the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Cairns, Brian; Yorks, John; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Clouds cover roughly two thirds of the globe and act as an important regulator of Earth's radiation budget. Of these, multilayered clouds occur about half of the time and are predominantly two-layered. Changes in cloud top height (CTH) have been predicted by models to have a globally averaged positive feedback, however observational changes in CTH have shown uncertain results. Additional CTH observations are necessary to better and quantify the effect. Improved CTH observations will also allow for improved sub-grid parameterizations in large-scale models and accurate CTH information is important when studying variations in freezing point and cloud microphysics. NASA's airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) is able to measure cloud top height using a novel multi-angular contrast approach. RSP scans along the aircraft track and obtains measurements at 152 viewing angles at any aircraft location. The approach presented here aggregates measurements from multiple scans to a single location at cloud altitude using a correlation function designed to identify the location-distinct features in each scan. During NASAs SEAC4RS air campaign, the RSP was mounted on the ER-2 aircraft along with the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which made simultaneous measurements of CTH. The RSPs unique method of determining CTH is presented. The capabilities of using single and combinations of channels within the approach are investigated. A detailed comparison of RSP retrieved CTHs with those of CPL reveal the accuracy of the approach. Results indicate a strong ability for the RSP to accurately identify cloud heights. Interestingly, the analysis reveals an ability for the approach to identify multiple cloud layers in a single scene and estimate the CTH of each layer. Capabilities and limitations of identifying single and multiple cloud layers heights are explored. Special focus is given to sources of error in the method including optically thin clouds, physically thick clouds, multi

  2. Planetary boundary layer height over the Indian subcontinent: Variability and controls with respect to monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanadh, Anusha; Prabhakaran, Thara; Patil, Chetana; Karipot, Anandakumar

    2017-10-01

    Planetary boundary layer (PBL) height characteristics over the Indian sub-continent at diurnal to seasonal scales and its controlling factors in relation to monsoon are investigated. The reanalysis (Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, MERRA) PBL heights (PBLH) used for the study are validated against those derived from radiosonde observations and radio occultation air temperature and humidity profiles. The radiosonde observations include routine India Meteorological Department observations at two locations (coastal and an inland) for one full year and campaign based early afternoon radiosonde observations at six inland locations over the study region for selected days from May-September 2011. The temperature and humidity profiles from radio occultations spread over the sub-continent at irregular timings during the year 2011. The correlations and root mean square errors are in the range 0.74-0.83 and 407 m-643 m, respectively. Large pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon variations in PBL maximum height (1000 m-4000 m), time of occurrence of maximum height (11:00 LST-17:00 LST) and growth rate (100 to 400 m h- 1) are noted over the land, depending on geographical location and more significantly on the moisture availability which influences the surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. The PBLH variations associated with active-break intra-seasonal monsoon oscillations are up to 1000 m over central Indian locations. Inter relationship between the PBLH and the controlling factors, i.e. Evaporative Fraction, net radiation, friction velocity, surface Richardson number, and scalar diffusivity fraction, show significant variation between dry and wet PBL regimes, which also varies with geographical location. Evaporative fraction has dominant influence on the PBLH over the region. Enhanced entrainment during monsoon contributes to reduction in PBLH, whereas the opposite effect is noted during dry period. Linear regression, cross wavelet and

  3. eMZed: an open source framework in Python for rapid and interactive development of LC/MS data analysis workflows

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, P; Schmitt, U; Vorholt, J A

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The Python-based, open-source eMZed framework was developed for mass spectrometry (MS) users to create tailored workflows for liquid chromatography (LC)/MS data analysis. The goal was to establish a unique framework with comprehensive basic functionalities that are easy to apply and allow for the extension and modification of the framework in a straightforward manner. eMZed supports the iterative development and prototyping of individual evaluation strategies by providing a computing...

  4. An interactive physics-based unmanned ground vehicle simulator leveraging open source gaming technology: progress in the development and application of the virtual autonomous navigation environment (VANE) desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Mitchell M.; Crawford, Justin; Toschlog, Matthew; Iagnemma, Karl D.; Kewlani, Guarav; Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Horner, David A.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that simulation is pivotal to vehicle development, whether manned or unmanned. There are few dedicated choices, however, for those wishing to perform realistic, end-to-end simulations of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). The Virtual Autonomous Navigation Environment (VANE), under development by US Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), provides such capabilities but utilizes a High Performance Computing (HPC) Computational Testbed (CTB) and is not intended for on-line, real-time performance. A product of the VANE HPC research is a real-time desktop simulation application under development by the authors that provides a portal into the HPC environment as well as interaction with wider-scope semi-automated force simulations (e.g. OneSAF). This VANE desktop application, dubbed the Autonomous Navigation Virtual Environment Laboratory (ANVEL), enables analysis and testing of autonomous vehicle dynamics and terrain/obstacle interaction in real-time with the capability to interact within the HPC constructive geo-environmental CTB for high fidelity sensor evaluations. ANVEL leverages rigorous physics-based vehicle and vehicle-terrain interaction models in conjunction with high-quality, multimedia visualization techniques to form an intuitive, accurate engineering tool. The system provides an adaptable and customizable simulation platform that allows developers a controlled, repeatable testbed for advanced simulations. ANVEL leverages several key technologies not common to traditional engineering simulators, including techniques from the commercial video-game industry. These enable ANVEL to run on inexpensive commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware. In this paper, the authors describe key aspects of ANVEL and its development, as well as several initial applications of the system.

  5. Environmental and radiological safety studies. Interaction of 238PuO2 heat sources with terrestrial and aquatic environments. Progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterbury, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    The containers for 238 PuO 2 heat sources in radioisotope thermoelectric generators are designed with large safety factors to ensure that they will withstand reentry from orbit and impact with the earth and safely contain the nuclear fuel until it is recovered. Existing designs have proved more than adequately safe, but the Space and Terrestrial Division of the Department of Energy Office of Advanced Nuclear Systems and Projects continually seeks more information about the heat sources to improve their safety. The work discussed here includes studies of the effects on the heat source of terrestrial and aquatic environments to obtain data for design of even safer systems. The data obtained in several ongoing experiments are presented; these data tables will be updated quarterly. Discussions of experimental details are minimized and largely repetitive in succeeding reports. Compilations of usable data generated in each experiment are emphasized. These compilations include data from environmental chamber experiments that simulate terrestrial conditions, experiments to measure PuO 2 dissolution rates, soil column experiments to measure sorption of plutonium by soils, and several aquatic experiments

  6. Effects of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors on interactions between denitrification and phosphorus removal in biological nutrient removal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Sobotka, Dominika; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    The effects of two different external carbon sources (acetate and ethanol) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite) were investigated under aerobic and anoxic conditions with non-acclimated process biomass from a full-scale biological nutrient removal-activated sludge system. When acetate was added as an external carbon source, phosphate release was observed even in the presence of electron acceptors. The release rates were 1.7, 7.8, and 3.5 mg P/(g MLVSS·h) (MLVSS: mixed liquor volatile suspended solids), respectively, for dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and nitrite. In the case of ethanol, no phosphate release was observed in the presence of electron acceptors. Results of the experiments with nitrite showed that approximately 25 mg NO 2 -N/L of nitrite inhibited anoxic phosphorus uptake regardless of the concentration of the tested external carbon sources. Furthermore, higher denitrification rates were obtained with acetate (1.4 and 0.8 mg N/(g MLVSS·h)) compared to ethanol (1.1 and 0.7 mg N/ (g MLVSS·h)) for both anoxic electron acceptors (nitrate and nitrite).

  7. Investigation of the source size and strong interaction with the femtoscopic correlations of baryons and antibaryons in heavy-ion collisions registered by ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00508100

    The strong interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It binds together quarks inside protons and neutrons (which are example of baryons - particles composed of three quarks) and assures the stability of the atomic nucleus. Parameters describing the strong potential are also crucial for the neutron stars models used in astrophysics. What is more, a precise study of strongly interacting particles may help to better understand the process of baryon annihilation. The current knowledge of the strong interactions between baryons other than nucle- ons is limited - there exist only a few measurements of the cross sections for pairs of (anti)baryons. The reason is that in many cases it is not possible to perform scattering experiments with beams of particles and antiparticles, as the exotic matter (such as Λ, Ξ or Σ baryons) is very shot-living. This issue can be solved thanks to the recent particle colliders like the Large Hadron Collider and experiments dedicated to study the heavy-ion collisio...

  8. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) were treated with fast neutrons and gamma rays. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during 1973-74 and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied. Varieties used in the present study varied significantly (P >=0.01) for all the characters. Treatment mean squares were highly significant for plant height and tillers per plant; whereas, the varieties x treatments interaction mean squares were significant only for plant height (P >= 0.05). Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls. Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR (gamma rays) and Nf 300 RADS (fast neutrons) treatments, respectively. (author)

  9. Baldcypress Height-Diamter Equations and Their Prediction Confindence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    1992-01-01

    Height-diameter relationships are an important component in yield estimation, stand description, and damage appraisals. A nonlinear exponential function used extensively in the northwest United States was chosen for bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.). Homogeneity and normality of residuals were examined, and the function as well as the...

  10. Parturient symphysio-fundal height and abdominal girth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth weight is known to influence morbidity and mortality. Simple measures to predict birth weight before delivery would therefore be useful in order to plan a delivery. Maternal parturient symphysio-fundal height has been used to detect Low Birth Weight. This study aims at predicting the fetal weight using the maternal ...

  11. Jump Shrug Height and Landing Forces Across Various Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Taber, Christopher B; Wright, Glenn A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that load has on the mechanics of the jump shrug. Fifteen track and field and club/intramural athletes (age 21.7 ± 1.3 y, height 180.9 ± 6.6 cm, body mass 84.7 ± 13.2 kg, 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) hang power clean 109.1 ± 17.2 kg) performed repetitions of the jump shrug at 30%, 45%, 65%, and 80% of their 1RM hang power clean. Jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex were compared between loads using a series of 1-way repeated-measures ANOVAs. Statistical differences in jump height (P .05). The greatest magnitudes of jump height, peak landing force, and potential energy of the system at the apex of the jump shrug occurred at 30% 1RM hang power clean and decreased as the external load increased from 45% to 80% 1RM hang power clean. Relationships between peak landing force and potential energy of the system at jump-shrug apex indicate that the landing forces produced during the jump shrug may be due to the landing strategy used by the athletes, especially at lighter loads. Practitioners may prescribe heavier loads during the jump-shrug exercise without viewing landing force as a potential limitation.

  12. The association between Helicobacter pylori infection and adult height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moayyedi, Paul; Forman, David; Duffett, Sara; Mason, Su; Brown, Julia; Crocombe, Will; Feltbower, Richard; Axon, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: A cross-sectional survey was performed to evaluate the association between H. pylori and adult height. Methods: H. pylori infection was assessed using a 13 C-urea breath test and height measured by a research nurse using a stadiometer in participants between the ages of 40-49 years. Results: Height was measured in 2932/3682 participants that attended and were evaluable. H. pylori infected women were 1.4 cm shorter than uninfected women (95% confidence interval, CI=0.7-2.1 cm) and this statistically significant difference persisted after adjusting for age, ethnicity, childhood and present socio-economic status (H. pylori positives 0.79 cm shorter; 95%CI: 0.05-1.52 cm). H. pylori positive men were 0.7 cm shorter than uninfected men but this did not reach statistical significance (95% CI: -0.1-1.5 cm). Conclusion: Although H. pylori infection is associated with reduced adult height in women, this maybe due to residual confounding

  13. Estimates of forest canopy height and aboveground biomass using ICESat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; David J. Harding; Michael Keller; Warren B. Cohen; Claudia C. Carabajal; Fernando Del Bom; Maria O. Hunter; Raimundo Jr. de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Exchange of carbon between forests and the atmosphere is a vital component of the global carbon cycle. Satellite laser altimetry has a unique capability for estimating forest canopy height, which has a direct and increasingly well understood relationship to aboveground carbon storage. While the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) onboard the Ice, Cloud and land...

  14. stem and standing heights in bantu and white south africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-05-29

    May 29, 1971 ... Sitting and standing heights have been recorded for Bantu and Whites, males and females. It !Vas found that Bantu males and females have relatively longer lower extremities than White South African males and females. Anthropo- metric differences account for only about 15% of the actual observed ...

  15. Tree height integrated into pantropical forest biomass estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldpausch, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, S.L.; Brienen, R.J.W.; Gloor, M.; Montegudo Mendoza, A.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aboveground tropical tree biomass and carbon storage estimates commonly ignore tree height (H). We estimate the effect of incorporating H on tropics-wide forest biomass estimates in 327 plots across four continents using 42 656 H and diameter measurements and harvested trees from 20 sites to answer

  16. The Effects of Microgravity on Seated Height (Spinal Elongation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, K. S.; Rajulu, S.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many physiological factors, such as spinal elongation, fluid shifts, bone atrophy, and muscle loss, occur during an exposure to a microgravity environment. Spinal elongation is just one of the factors that can also affect the safety and performance of a crewmember while in space. Spinal elongation occurs due to the lack of gravity/compression on the spinal column. This allows for the straightening of the natural spinal curve. There is a possible fluid shift in the inter-vertebral disks that may also result in changes in height. This study aims at collecting the overall change in seated height for crewmembers exposed to a microgravity environment. During previous Programs, Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) and Skylab, spinal elongation data was collected from a small number of subjects in a standing posture but were limited in scope. Data from these studies indicated a quick increase in stature during the first few days of weightlessness, after which stature growth reached a plateau resulting in up to a 3% increase of the original measurement [1-5]. However, this data was collected only for crewmembers in standing posture and not in a seated posture. Seated height may have a different effect than standing height due to a change in posture as well as due to a compounded effect of wearing restraints and a potential compression of the gluteal area. Seated height was deemed as a critical measurement in the design of the Constellation Program s (CxP) Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), called Orion which is now the point-of-departure vehicle for the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program; therefore a better understanding of the effects of microgravity on seated height is necessary. Potential changes in seated height that may not have impacted crew accommodation in previous Programs will have significant effects on crew accommodation due to the layout of seats in the Orion.. The current and existing configuration is such that the four crewmembers are stacked two by

  17. Output pulse height distribution of the GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songshou; Xiong Jianping

    1995-01-01

    The GM counters are the radiation detectors most in use. It has special advantages compared with other detectors. This paper introduces the output pulse height distribution of the GM counters, gives the measuring instruments and methods. The measuring results, some discussions, and useful conclusion are given as well

  18. 76 FR 77696 - Establishment of the Naches Heights Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Decision. SUMMARY: This final rule establishes the 13,254-acre ``Naches Heights'' viticultural area in... origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  19. Intrapartum symphysio-fundal height measurement as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) increases the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality and of the long term neurologic and developmental disorders. Early identification of LBW is necessary to decrease complications and enhance the survival of the newborn. Aim: To determine the usefulness of symphysio-fundal height ...

  20. Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Walters, G Bragi; Thorleifsson, Gudmar

    2008-01-01

    .3 and 0.6 cm and, taken together, they explain around 3.7% of the population variation in height. The genes neighboring the identified loci cluster in biological processes related to skeletal development and mitosis. Association to three previously reported loci are replicated in our analyses...

  1. Assortative mating for human height : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Simons, Mirre J. P.; Grasman, Sara; Pollet, Thomas V.

    ObjectivesThe study of assortative mating for height has a rich history in human biology. Although the positive correlation between the stature of spouses has often been noted in western populations, recent papers suggest that mating patterns for stature are not universal. The objective of this

  2. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc

    2014-01-01

    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  3. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    for the significant wave height, the relative speed and the ship heading relative to the wave direction is given. This distribution shows that for higher waves the crews avoid sailing in following sea and as expected the speed is decreased in higher waves. There is, however, still a relatively high probability...

  4. Encountered Wave Height Distributions for Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, C.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    About 20 000 observations of wave heights taken on board vessels sailing in the North Atlantic are presented. The data covers year 2002 and 2003 and stem from a variety of ship types. From the preliminary analysis of the data some conclusions are reached about the effect of weather routing whether...

  5. SYMMETRICAL (AND GENERIC) ALGORITHMS FOR HEIGHT BALANCED TREES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRON, C

    1990-01-01

    Most algorithms for height balanced trees (or AVL-trees, after Adelson-Velskii and Landis [1]) suffer from a lack of exploitation of the symmetry of balance restoring operations when insertions and deletions in such tree structures are being made. Either we find algorithms in duplicate (i.e.,

  6. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  7. Predicting human height by Victorian and genomic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); N.M. Belonogova (Nadezhda); T.I. Axenovich (Tatiana); M.N. Weedon (Michael); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); B.A. Oostra (Ben); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); P.M. Borodin (Pavel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn the Victorian era, Sir Francis Galton showed that 'when dealing with the transmission of stature from parents to children, the average height of the two parents, ... is all we need care to know about them' (1886). One hundred and twenty-two years after Galton's work was published, 54

  8. Height suppression of tomato plug seedlings by an environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to investigate appropriate concentrations of plant growth retardants (PGRs) and duration of seed soaking in order to suppress hypocotyl length and plug seedling height of 2 tomato cultivars ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. cv. Seogeon and Seokwang). Daminozide (B-9), uniconazole ...

  9. Nest height of the red bishop ( Eupiectes orix ) | Woodall | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heights of nests and reeds in a colony of red bishops (Euplectes orix) in Phragmites mauritianus reeds on the Makabusi River, Zimbabwe were measured in two breeding seasons. Nests were placed high in the reeds with fewer above the mean and more below the mean than in a normal distribution. During the course of a ...

  10. The role of height in the sex difference in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Satoshi; Reyniers, Diane J

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies conclude that men on average have higher intelligence than women by 3-5 IQ points. However, the ultimate evolutionary question of why men should have evolved to have higher intelligence than women remains. We suggest that men may have slightly higher intelligence than women through 4 mechanisms: (1) assortative mating of intelligent men and beautiful women, (2) assortative mating of tall men and beautiful women, (3) an extrinsic correlation between height and intelligence produced by Mechanisms 1 and 2, and (4) a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) among tall (and hence intelligent) parents. Consistent with our suggestion, we show that men may have higher IQs than women because they are taller, and once we control for height women have slightly higher IQs than men.The correlation between height and IQ and the female advantage in intelligence persist even after we control for health as a measure of genetic quality, as well as physical attractiveness, age, race, education, and earnings. Height is also strongly associated with intelligence within each sex.

  11. Inheritance of culm height and grain yield in durum wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filev, K.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a study of GA sensitive and GA insensitive durum wheat mutants and cultivars in relation with their culm height and 1000 grain weight are presented. With increasing culm height, the GA response also increased. A positive correlation between plant height and GA response was found. Crosses were made between durum wheats and the F 1 and F 2 progenies were analysed. A different inheritance in F 1 and segregation in F 2 was obtained in crosses of a semi-dwarf, GA insensitive [1] line with GA sensitive (S) lines differing in height, medium (93.2cm) and tall (133.5cm). In a reciprocal cross, semi-dwarf - I with medium - S, the semi-dwarf type was dominant in F 1 , suggesting that their semi-dwarfing genes were not allelic. When the semi-dwarf - I and tall - S were crossed an intermediate inheritance in F 1 was observed. In the F 2 generation from crosses semi-dwarf - I with medium - S with semi-dwarf - I, a phenotypic dihybred segregation 9:3:3:1 was observed. In crosses semi-dwarf - I with tall - S different variation curves were obtained. Semi-dwarfs with high productivity were observed in F 2 , a fact indicating that lodging resistant lines with high yields could be selected. (author)

  12. HEIGHT VARIATION OF THE VECTOR MAGNETIC FIELD IN SOLAR SPICULES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suárez, D. Orozco; Ramos, A. Asensio; Bueno, J. Trujillo, E-mail: dorozco@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-04-20

    Proving the magnetic configuration of solar spicules has hitherto been difficult due to the lack of spatial resolution and image stability during off-limb ground-based observations. We report spectropolarimetric observations of spicules taken in the He i 1083 nm spectral region with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter II at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope of the Observatorio del Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain). The data provide the variation with geometrical height of the Stokes I, Q, U, and V profiles, whose encoded information allows the determination of the magnetic field vector by means of the HAZEL inversion code. The inferred results show that the average magnetic field strength at the base of solar spicules is about 80 gauss, and then it decreases rapidly with height to about 30 gauss at a height of 3000 km above the visible solar surface. Moreover, the magnetic field vector is close to vertical at the base of the chromosphere and has mid-inclinations (about 50°) above 2 Mm height.

  13. Modular invariants for affine SU(3) theories at prime heights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruelle, P.; Thiran, E.; Weyers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A proof is given for the existence of two and only two modular invariant partition functions in affine SU(3) k theories at heights n=k+3 which are prime numbers. Arithmetic properties of the ring of algabraic integers Z(ω) which is related to SU(3) weights are extensively used. (orig.)

  14. Significant wave height retrieval from synthetic radar images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijaya, Andreas Parama; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    2014-01-01

    In many offshore activities radar imagery is used to observe and predict ocean waves. An important issue in analyzing the radar images is to resolve the significant wave height. Different from 3DFFT methods that use an estimate related to the square root of the signal-to-noise ratio of radar images,

  15. A Fast Time-to-Pulse Height Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspelund, O

    1962-12-15

    A fast time-to-pulse height converter representing a development of Green and Bell's gated beam converter is described. The converter is compatible with 2 input pulses in the stop channel and exhibits excellent linearity and time resolution properties. High stability and large output pulses are obtained by using a large time constant in the converting network.

  16. An investigation of cloud base height in Chiang Mai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peengam, S.; Tohsing, K.

    2017-09-01

    Clouds play very important role in the variation of surface solar radiation and rain formation. To understand this role, it is necessary to know the physical and geometrical of properties of cloud. However, clouds vary with location and time, which lead to a difficulty to obtain their properties. In this work, a ceilometer was installed at a station of the Royal Rainmaking and Agricultural Aviation Department in Chiang Mai (17.80° N, 98.43° E) in order to measure cloud base height. The cloud base height data from this instrument were compared with those obtained from LiDAR, a more sophisticated instrument installed at the same site. It was found that the cloud base height from both instruments was in reasonable agreement, with root mean square difference (RMSD) and mean bias difference (MBD) of 19.21% and 1.58%, respectively. Afterward, a six-month period (August, 2016-January, 2017) of data from the ceilometer was analyzed. The results show that mean cloud base height during this period is 1.5 km, meaning that most clouds are in the category of low-level cloud.

  17. The mount Cameroon height determined from ground gravity data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract This paper deals with the accurate determination of mount Cameroon orthometric height, by combining ground gravity data, global navigation satellite system (GNSS) observations and global geopotential models. The elevation of the highest point (Fako) is computed above the WGS84 reference ellipsoid.

  18. Association between height and coronary heart disease mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Zdravkovic, Slobodan; Skytthe, Axel

    2006-01-01

    An inverse association between height and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is well demonstrated, but it is not known whether this association is because of genetic factors, socioeconomic background, or other environmental factors. Four population-based twin cohorts with register-based follow...

  19. Exploring RSSI Dependency on Height in UHF for throughput optimisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maliwatu, R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available in the area. When raised beyond 8.5 m further signal strength gain stifles, possibly due to effects of multi-path fading. The contribution of this paper is firstly, the implication of Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) dependency on height and secondly...

  20. Comparative analysis of extracted heights from topographic maps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topographic maps represent the three-dimensional landscape by providing relief information in the form of contours in addition to plan information on which natural and man-made landmarks are quite accurately represented. Height information, extractible from topographic maps, comes in handy for most land use planning.